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# LINEAR ALGEBRA

ASSIGNMENT # 8
Q.
c e y y
e dy
y
dx
e
e
dy
y
y
dx e y dy y e
x
x
x
x
x x
+ + = +
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
=
+
+ = +
) 1 ln( ) 1 ln(
) 1 ln(
) 1 (
1
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
. ) 1 ( . ) 1 (
.

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Q.
4
1
0
2
1
2 4
.
) 1 ( . 4
2
1
) 0 ( ;
4
) 1 (
4
2 4
4
3 4
2 3
3
2
=
+ = |
.
|

\
|

+ + =
+ =
+ =
=
+
=
c
c
c
x x
y
dx x x y
dx x x dy y
y
y
x x
dx
dy

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Q.
0
0 ) ( ) )( ( ) ( 0
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
= + +
= + + = + +
t y xyt t x
yt yt xt xt y xy x

Homogenous
Solve: Put
dx
dv
x v
dx
dy
+ =
Rough Work
1
1
1
1

+
+
y
y y
Q.
c x
x
y
x
y
x
y
v
c
a a a
d
c x
v
v
x
dx
v
dv
dv
v
v
x
dx
dv
v
v
x
dx
dv
v
v
v
v
v
v v v
dx
dv
x
v
v v v
dx
dv
x
v
v x
v x
dx
dv
x
vx x
vx x
dx
dv
x v
dx
du
x v
dx
dy
vx y
y x
y x
dx
dy
dx y x dy y x
dy y x dx y x
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ =
+

+ = + +
=
+
+
+

=
+
+

=
+
+
+
+
=
+
/

/
=
+
+
=

=
+

= +
+ = =
+

=
= +
= + +

} } }
} }
} }
ln tan 1 ln
2
1
1
.
1
. tan
ln
1
1
.
1
1
.
1
tan ) 1 ln(
2
1
1 1
2
2
1
1
) 1 (
.
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
1
1
) 1 ( 1
) 1 (
) 1 (
.
) (
) (
,
) (
) (
) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
1
2
1
2 2
1 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
o
o
o
o

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Q.
c x c
x
y
x
y
x
y
v
c x c v v
v
dv
v
dv
v v
dv
A
A
v
B
B
v
Bv v A
v
B
v
A
v v
x
dx
v v
dv
x
dx
v v
dv
v v
dx
dv
x
v v v
dx
dv
x
v v v
dx
dv
x
x
v v x
dx
dv
x v
x
vx x vx
dx
dv
x v
x
xy y
dx
dy
dx xy y dy x
dx
dv
x v
dx
dy
vx y
dy x dx xy y
+ = +
(

+
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
+ = + + =
+
=
+

=
+ =
=
=
=
= +
+ + =
+
+ =
+
=
+

=
+

=
=
+ =
/
+
/
= +
+
= +
+
=
+ =
+ =
=
= + +
} }
}
} }
ln 3 ln
3
1
ln
3
1
ln ) 3 ln(
3
1
) ln(
3
1
3 3
1
3
1
) 3 (
3
1
0 3 1
0
3
1
3 0 1
0 3
) 3 ( 1
3 ) 3 (
1
) 3 (
3
9 3
2
) 2 (
) 2 (
)] ( 2 ) [(
2
) 2 (
) 2 ____( ) 1 (
) 1 ____(
0 ) 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Q.
c x
x
y
c x v
x
dx
vdv
v
x
dx
dv
x
v
v v x v v
dx
dv
x
v
v
x v v
dx
dv
x
v
x v v
dx
dv
x v
v x
x v x v
dx
dy
dx
dv
x v
dx
dy
vx y
x
y
x
x
x
y
y
dx
dy
dx x
x
y
y dy
x
y
x
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
=

=

= +
/

/
=
+ =
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
} }
ln cos
ln cos
sin
sin
sin
sin . sin .
sin
sin .
sin
sin .
sin .
sin .
sin
sin
. sin . sin

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Q.
c x
x
y
c x v
c x
v
x
dx
dv v v
x
dx
dv v v
x
dx
dv v v
v v
dx
dv
x
v v
v v v
dx
dv
x
v
v v
v v
dx
dv
x
v v x
v v x
dx
dv
x v
v vx x x
v x x v x
dx
dv
x v
v x vx x
v x x v x
dx
dv
x v
vx x vx x
vx x vx x
dx
dv
x v
dx
dv
x v
dx
dy
vx y
y x xy
y x y x
dx
dy
dy y x xy dx y x y x
dy y x xy dx y x y x
+ =
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ = +
+ =
+

= +
= +
= +
+
=
+
+ + +
=

+
+ +
=
+
+ +
= +
+
+ +
= +
+
+ +
= +
+
+ +
= +
+ =
=
+
+ +
=
+ = + +
= + + +
} }
} }
} }
ln 1
3
1
ln ) 1 (
3
1
ln
2
3
) 1 (
2
1
. 2 ) 1 (
2
1
1 2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
1
) 1 1 (
1
) 1 1 (
1 ) ( .
1 .
) 1 ( ) (
) 1 (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2
2 2 2 3
2 2
2 2 2 2 3
2 2
2 2 2 3
2
2 2 2 3
2 2 2 2 2 3
2 2 2 2 2 3

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Q.
dv v dt t
v
dv
dt
t
ate Dif f erenti
v t
v t
x
dx
dv
v v
v
v
v v
dx
dv
x
vx
x v v x x
dx
dv
x
v
vx
v x x
dx
dv
x
vx
v x x
dx
dv
x v
y
x v x x
dx
dv
x v
vx y
y
y x x
dx
dy
y
y x x
dx
dy
y
y x y x y x
y
y x y x y x y x
dx
dy
y
y x y x
dx
dy
y x y x
y x y x
dx
dy
y x y x
y x y x
dx
dy
y x y x
y x y x
y x y x
y x y x
dx
dy
dy y x y x dx y x y x
. 2 . 2
2 0 2
:
1
1
1 ) 1 (
1 1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
) ( ) )( ( 2 ) (
2
) (
)
) ( ) (
) (
0 ) ( ) (
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
=
=
=
=
=
+
=
+
=
+
=

+
=
+
= +
+
= +
=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ + +
=
+ + + +
=
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
+
+ +
=
+ +
+ +

+
+ +
=
= + + +
} }

c x
x
y
c x v
c x t
x
dx
dt
t t
t
x
dx
dt
t t
t
+ =
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ = +
+ = +
=
+ /
/

=
+

}
}
ln 1 1 ln
ln )] 1 ( 1 ln[
ln ) 1 ln(
.
) 1 (
.
2
2
2

xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Q.
1 ln
1
) 1 ln(
1
1
1 ; 1
ln
ln
1 .
) 1 (
1 ) 1 ( ;
+ =
=
+ =
= =
+ =
+ =
=
+ =
+ = +
+
= +
+ =
=
=
+
=
} }
x
x
y
c
c
y x
c x
x
y
c x v
x
dx
dv
v v
dx
dv
x
v
x
x
dx
dv
x v
x
vx x
dx
dv
x v
dx
dv
x v
dx
dy
vx y
y
x
y x
dx
dy

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Homogenous Equations:
Q.
) _________(
1
5 3 3
1 ) (
5 ) ( 3
,
,
1
5 3
A
k Y h X
k Y h X
dX
dY
k Y h X
k Y h X
dX
dY
dY dy dX dx
k Y y h X x
replace
y x
y x
dx
dy
+
+ + +
=
+ +
+ + +
=
= =
+ = + =

+
=

Taking h; k; c only
} }
=
+ +

+ +
=

+
=

+
=

+
=

+
= +
+ = =

+
=

+ +
=
+
+ + +
=
=
= +
= +
=
=
=
= +
X
dX
dv
v v
v
v
v v v
dX
dv
X
v
v v v
dX
dv
X
v
v
v
dX
dv
X
v
v
v
X
X
dX
dv
X
vX X
vX X
dX
dv
X v
dX
dv
X V
dX
dY
vX Y
B
Y X
Y X
dX
dY
Y X
Y X
dX
dY
Y X
Y X
dX
dY
A
h
h
h
k
k
b k h
a k h
1 2
) 1 (
) 1 (
3 1
1
) 1 ( 3 1
1
3 1
1
) 3 1 (
3
;
) ( __________
3
3 3 3
1 1 2
5 ) 1 ( 3 2
) (
2
0 5 3
0 5 ) 1 ( 3
1
0 4 4
) ________( 0 1
) ______( 0 5 3
2
2

| |
c x
x
y
x
y
x
y
x X y Y
But
c X
X
Y
X
Y
X
Y
X
Y
v
c X v
v
v
c X
v v
v
c X dv v dv v v
v u v u
+ =
(

|
.
|

\
|
+

+
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|

= =
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+

=
+ = + +
+

+ =

+

+ = + +
' =
}
} } }
} } }

) 2 ( 1
2
1
ln
1
2
1
1
2
1
2 , 1
ln 1 ln
1
1
ln ) 1 ln(
) 1 (
) 1 (
ln
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
ln ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( ) 1 (
1 1
2 2

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