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Nutritio

n in
Chapter 6
Humans
Learning
Objectives

Questions to answer!
2. What is nutrition?
3. Which parts of the body are involved in
digestion?
4. What is digestion?
5. What happens to the food after
digestion?
What is Nutrition?

Objective 1:

State the definition of


nutrition.
What is Definition of
Nutrition?
Nutrition

Nutrition is the process of


taking in food and converting it
into living matter.

Animals feed by taking in


complex organic matter –
HOLOZOIC NUTRITION
What is 5 Processes of
Nutrition?
Nutrition
• Feeding or ingestion: food is taken into the
body.
2. Digestion: large food molecules are broken
down into smaller soluble molecules that
can be absorbed into the body cells.
3. Absorption: digested food substances are
absorbed into body cells.
4. Assimilation: some of the absorbed food
substances are converted into new
protoplasm or used to provide energy.
5. Egestion: undigested food is being passed
out of the body via the anus.
Which parts of the body are
involved in digestion?

Objective 2:

Describe the functions


of the main regions of
the alimentary canal.
Which parts of the
body are involved The Digestive
in digestion?
System

• Consists of the
alimentary canal and the
glands and organs
associated with it.
• The alimentary canal is
like a tube that extends
from the mouth to the
anus.
• Most of its length is
coiled in the abdominal
cavity.
Which parts of the
body are involved The Digestive
in digestion?
System
mouth salivary gland
teeth pharynx

oesophagus

liver stomach

Gall bladder pancreas


duodenum pyloric sphincter

ileum descending colon


ascending colon
caecum
appendix rectum
anus
The Digestive System -
Mouth
• Food enters the body
through the mouth.
• The mouth leads to
the buccal cavity.
The Digestive System -
Mouth
What do you find in the
mouth?:
• Teeth: chewing action
(mastication) breaks down mout
large pieces of food into h
smaller pieces. This
increases surface area to
volume ratio of the food
for enzyme action. teeth
• Salivary glands: secrete
saliva into the mouth via
ducts. salivary
• Tongue: helps to mix food gland
with saliva. Taste buds
Process of to identify and
help one
The Digestive System -
Pharynx
• Connects the buccal
cavity to the
oesophagus and
larynx (voice box). pharynx
• Leads to the air
trachea.
larynx
• Both food and air (voice-
must pass through box)
oesophagus
glottis
the pharynx then
they enter the body. trachea
(windpipe)
• Air will pass to the
trachea, while food
will go into the
The Digestive System -
Pharynx
• The epiglottis is
above the larynx, and
it prevents food from
going the wrong way.
• During swallowing, pharynx
the larynx moves up food
and the epiglottis particles

moves downwards so epiglottis


that the epiglottis glottis oesophagus

covers the larynx. larynx


(voice-box)
• If food or water enters trachea
the trachea, it induces (windpipe)

coughing to force the


food/water particles
out and prevent
The Digestive System -
Oesophagus

• Also known as the


gullet.
• A narrow, muscular
tube.
• Passes through the
thorax (chest) and the
diaphragm to join the
stomach.
The Digestive System -
Oesophagus
• Made up of 2 layers of
muscles, present from
the oesophagus to the
rectum:
– Longitudinal muscles
(outer layer) circular
muscles
– Circular muscles
(inner layer)
• These muscles are
antagonistic muscles –
when one contracts,
longitudin Part of the gut wa
the other relaxes al muscles
The Digestive System -
Oesophagus
• The muscles cause
peristalsis – rhythmic,
wave-like contractions
of the gut walls.
• It helps to move food
circular
along the gut while muscles
mixing the food with
digestive juices.

longitudin Part of the gut wa


al muscles
Which parts of the
body are involved The Digestive
in digestion?
System

mouth salivary gland


teeth

oesophagus
The Digestive System -
Oesophagus
PERISTALSIS
• When circular muscles contract, longitudinal
muscles relax. The gut wall constricts (becomes
narrower and longer). Food is squeezed or
pushed forward.
• When longitudinal muscles contract, circular
muscles relax. The gut wallwall
dilates (becomes
dilates to
wider and shorter). This widens
allowthe
foodlumen
to for
food to enter. enter circular muscle
longitudinal
muscles
food mass

wall constricts to push food


The Digestive System -
Oesophagus
PERISTALSIS
• When circular muscles contract, longitudinal
muscles relax. The gut wall constricts (becomes
narrower and longer). Food is squeezed or
pushed forward.
• When longitudinal muscles contract, circular
muscles relax. The gut wall dilates (becomes
wider and shorter). This widens the lumen for
food to enter.

Process of
Which parts of the body are
involved in digestion?

Objective 2:

Describe the functions


of the main regions of
the alimentary canal.
The Digestive System -
Stomach
• The stomach is a
distensible (muscular)
bag.
• The muscles of the
stomach wall are thick
and well-developed.
• When fully stretched,
it sends signals to the
brain to indicate that
it is full.
The Digestive System -
Stomach
• The stomach wall has
many pits which lead
to gastric glands.
• They secrete gastric
juices into the
What
stomach.
is
one
enzyme
found in
gastric
juice? pits
The
WhereDigestive
else System -
can we findStomach
• Thecircular
stomach stores
food for a few hours. It
muscles?
digests food to become
chyme.
• Food stays in the
stomach because of
the pyloric sphincter –
a ring of circular
muscle located
between the stomach
and duodenum.
– Contracts: stomach exit
closes
Process of
– Relaxes: stomach exit
The Digestive System – Small
Intestine

• Consists of 3 parts:
– Duodenumprogres
– Jejunum sively
– Ileum more
coiled
The Digestive System – Small
Intestine
• Wall of small
intestine has 2
functions:
– Contains glands
which secrete
intestinal juice. It
contains digestive
enzymes.
– Wall is adapted to
absorb digested
food products and
water.
Process of
The Digestive System – Large
Intestine
large
• The large intestine intestine

is about 1.5 m long


– Shorter and wider
than the small
intestine
• Consists of 2 parts:
– Colon
– Rectum
colon
rectum
small
intestine
The Digestive System – Large
Intestine
• Only undigested
food enters the
colon.
• It absorbs water
and mineral salts
from the food.
• No digestion occurs
in the colon. colon
The Digestive System – Large
Intestine
• The rectum
temporarily stores
faeces.
• When it contracts,
faeces is expelled
through the anus.

rectum
The Digestive System – Large
Intestine
• Between the small
and large intestines lie
the caecum and
appendix.
• The caecum has no
function in humans.
• The appendix contains
bacteria that are
useful to the body.

caecum
appendix
Process of
Which parts of the
body are involved The Digestive
in digestion?
System
Which parts of the body are
involved in digestion?

Objective 3:

Describe the functions


of the organs
associated with
digestion.
Which parts of the
body are involved The Digestive
in digestion?
System
mouth salivary gland
teeth pharynx

oesophagus

liver stomach

Gall bladder pancreas


duodenum pyloric sphincter

ileum descending colon


ascending colon
caecum
appendix rectum
anus
The Digestive System -
Liver
• The largest internal
organ in the body
• There are 3 important
blood vessels
attached to the liver:
– Hepatic vein
– Hepatic artery
– Hepatic portal vein
The Digestive System -
Liver
liver
• It is also the Why
largest
gland in thealkaline
body.
?
– Secretes bile into the
duodenum
• Properties of bile:
– Alkaline
– Greenish-yellow
– Contains bile salts and
bile pigments
– Produced in the liver, gall bile duct
stored in the gall bladder
bladder
The Digestive System -
Liver
liver
• Functions of bile:
– Neutralize acid in
chyme
– Activate intestinal
enzymes
– Speed up fat digestion
– Gives faeces its colour
• When the gall bladder
contracts, bile is
secreted into the gall bile duct
bladder
duodenum via the bile
duct.
Process of
The Digestive System -
Pancreas
• Connected to the
duodenum via the
pancreatic duct
• Secretes pancreatic
juice which contains
digestive enzymes.
• Also secretes
hormones which
control blood glucose
level.

Process of
What is Digestion?

Objective 4:

State the definition of


digestion.
What is Definition of
Digestion?
Digestion
Digestion is the process by which the
body breaks down carbohydrates, fats
and proteins into simpler substances
that cells can absorb and use.

Physical digestion Chemical digestion


The mechanical break up of The breaking down of large
food into small particles. molecules in food into small,
soluble molecules which can
be absorbed.
Chemical digestion involves hydrolysis catalyzed by digestive enzymes.
What is Digestion?

Objective 5:

Describe the process of


digestion in the
alimentary canal and
the functions of
digestive enzymes.
What is Physical
Digestion?
Digestion
• Physical digestion breaks down food into
smaller particles.
• Purpose: to increase surface area to volume
ratio of the food to aid enzyme action.
• Food substances are not chemically changed
during physical digestion.
chewing
• Where does physical / mastication
digestion occur?
– In the mouth peristalsis
– Along the alimentary canal
emulsification
– Physical digestion of fats in the small intestine
What is Physical
Digestion?
Digestion
EMULSIFICATION
• Fats do not dissolve in water
– they tend to clump
together.
• This reduces the surface
area for enzymes to work,
slowing down fat digestion.
• Bile molecules place
themselves in between the
fat and water – half the
molecule is hydrophilic, half
is hydrophobic.
• This prevents the fat from
Picture taken from
clumping together. http://www.colorado.edu/eeb/web_resources/carto
ons/bile.html
• Surface area of fat molecules
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
• Breaking down of large molecules in food
(starch, protein, fats) into small soluble
molecules which can be absorbed.
• Hydrolytic reactions – catalysed by ENZYMES

• Three groups of enzymes:


Carbohydrases Lipases Proteases
• Chemical digestion occurs mainly in 3 parts of
the alimentary canal:
– Mouth, stomach, small intestine
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the mouth...
• Food in the mouth stimulates the salivary
glands to secrete saliva.
• Saliva is mixed with food. Mucin in saliva
softens the food.
• Salivary amylase is found in saliva:
– Digests starch to maltose
• The optimum pH of salivary amylase is pH 7.
– The pH of saliva is neutral.
• The tongue rolls the food into small, slippery,
round masses called boli (singular: bolus).
• The boli are swallowed and passed down into
the oesophagus.
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the stomach...
 The presence of food in the stomach
stimulates the gastric glands to secrete gastric
juice into the stomach.
 Gastric juice contains 3 substances:
– Hydrochloric acid
– Pepsinogen
– Prorennin
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the stomach... Action of Pepsin
 Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by
hydrochloric acid.
 Pepsin then digests protein to polypeptides.

hydrochloric
pepsinog acid
pepsi
en n

pepsin
protein polypeptid
s es
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the stomach... Action of Rennin
 Prorennin is activated to rennin by
hydrochloric acid.
 Rennin curdles milk proteins by converting
soluble protein caseinogen into insoluble
casein.
– Soluble caseinogen would pass through the
stomach as easily as water and not be
hydrochloric
prorenni
digested.
acid
renni
n
– Insoluble n remain in the stomach to
casein can
rennin
be digested.
caseinog casei
en n
pepsin
casein polypeptid
es
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the stomach... Purpose of Hydrochloric
Acid
denaturing
 Stops the activity of salivary amylase by
pepsin
it
rennin
 Activates pepsinogen and prorennin to form
and respectively
 Provides acidic medium for the action of
pepsin and rennin
 Kills harmful microorganisms in food
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the small intestine...
 When chyme enters the small intestine, it
stimulates 3 glands:
– Intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice,
which contains enzymes sucrase, maltase,
intestinal lipase, lactase, enterokinase,
SMILEE!
and erepsin.
– Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, which
ALT
contains pancreatic amylase, pancreatic
lipase, and trypsinogen.
– Gall bladder releases bile. It does not
contain enzyme
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the small intestine...
 All 3 fluids are alkaline:
– Neutralize acidic chyme
– Provide suitable pH for the action of
pancreatic and intestinal enzymes
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the small intestine... Carbohydrate
digestion
pancreatic
amylase maltase
starc maltos gluco
h e se
lactase
lactose glucose +
galactose
sucrase
sucros glucose +
e fructose
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the small intestine... Protein digestion

enterokinas
trypsinog e
trypsi
en n
trypsin
proteins polypeptid
es
erepsin
polypeptid amino
es acids
What is Chemical
Digestion?
Digestion
In the small intestine... Fat digestion

lipase
f fatty acids +
ats glycerol
Recall: What
process
speeds up fat
digestion in
the small
intestine?
What is Digestive
Digestion?
Enzymes
Carbohydrate digestion
mouth

salivary
star amylase maltose
ch

pancreatic
small intestine

starc amylase maltose maltase glucos


h e

lactose lactase glucose +


galactose

sucros sucrase glucose +


e fructose
What is Digestive
Digestion?
Enzymes
Protein digestion
hydrochloric
prorenni acid
renni
stomac

n rennin
n
caseinog casei
h

en n
pepsin
casein polypeptid
es
enterokinas
trypsinog trypsi
intestine

e
small

en trypsin n
proteins polypeptid
es
erepsin
polypeptid amino
es acids
What happens to the food
after digestion?

Objective 6:

Describe how digested


food is absorbed.
What happens to
food after
digestion?
Absorption

• Where does absorption occur?


 In the small intestine and large intestine

• What nutrients are being absorbed?


 Simple sugars
 Amino acids
 Fatty acids and glycerols
 Water and mineral salts
What happens to
food after
digestion?
Absorption
How does absorption take place in the
small intestine?
• Glucose and amino
diffusioacids:
– Absorbed by nactive into blood
capillaries of transport
the villi.
– Absorbed by when there is
lower concentration of digested food
substancesdiffusio
in the small intestine than in the
blood capillaries.
n
• Fatty acids and glycerol:
– Absorbed by
small into the epithelium
colon
– Combine to form fat globules which enter the
intestine
lacteals
What happens to
food after
Absorption: Small
digestion? Intestine
Adaptations of the Small Intestine for
Absorption
• The rate of absorption of digested food
substances depends on 3 factors:
• Surface area
• The thickness of
cell membranes
4. Concentration
gradient
What happens to
food after
Absorption: Small
digestion? Intestine
1. Surface Area
• The surface area of the small intestine is
increased for absorption in 4 ways:
• Inner walls have folds
• The surface of the folds are lined with
numerous villi (singular: villus), which are
minute finger-like projections.
• The epithelial cells of the villi have
numerous microvilli.
• The small intestine is long, providing
large surface area and ample time for
absorption.
What happens to
food after
Absorption: Small
digestion? Intestine
What happens to
food after
Absorption: Small
digestion? Intestine
What happens to
food after
Absorption: Small
digestion? Intestine
2. Thickness of Cell Membranes
• The villi have very thin membranes: the
epithelium is only one-cell thick.

3. Concentration Gradient
• In each villus is a lacteal (lymphatic
capillary) surrounded by blood capillaries.
• The lacteal continually transports
fats away
from the villus, while the blood capillaries
sugars
transports
amino and away.
acids
• This maintains the concentration gradient
needed for the absorption of food
substances.
What happens to
food after Egestion
digestion?

• Some food substances cannot be digested


and remain unabsorbed in the large
intestine.
• These are stored temporarily in the rectum.
• When the anus
rectum is full, they are discharged
as faeces through the .
• This process is known as egestion or
defecation.
What happens to the food
after digestion?

Objective 7:

Describe how digested


food is assimilated.
What happens to
food after
Transport and
digestion? Assimilation
Transport of Simple Sugars
• After absorption, the blood in the villi is rich
in sugars.
• Blood capillaries unite to form the hepatic
portal vein.
• The hepatic portal vein transports sugars to
the liver.
What happens to
food after
Transport and
digestion? Assimilation
Assimilation of Simple Sugars
• In the liver, most sugars are converted to
glycogen and stored.
• Glucose leaves the liver and is distributed
around the body by the bloodstream.
– Used during respiration to provide energy for
cells.
• Excess glucose is returned to the liver
– Hormone insulin (produced by Islets of
Langerhan in the pancreas) stimulates the
liver to convert glucose to glycogen for
storage.
– When more glucose is required, the liver will
What happens to
food after
Transport and
digestion? Assimilation
Transport and Assimilation of Amino
Acids
• Amino acids pass through the liver before
they are transported to the rest of the body.
• How are amino acids used?
– Converted to protoplasm by cells, used for
growth and repair of body parts
– Used to form enzymes and hormones
• Excess amino acids are deaminated.
What happens to the food
after digestion?

Objective 8:

State the functions of


the liver.
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
The Liver has 7 Functions
2.Regulation of blood glucose concentration
3.Production of bile
4.Protein synthesis
5.Iron storage
6.Deamination of amino acids
7.Detoxification
8.Heat production
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
1. Regulation of Blood Glucose
Concentration
• Blood normally contains about 70-90 mg of
glucose per 100 cm3 of blood.
• After a meal:
– Amount of glucose in the blood rises
– Stimulates Islets of Langerhans in the
pancreas to secrete insulin into the
bloodstream
– Insulin is transported to the liver.
– Insulin stimulates liver to convert excess
glucose to glycogen for storage.
What about
– Blood leaving the liver contains a constant
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
1. Regulation of Blood Glucose
Concentration
• When body cells need glucose:
– Glucose level in the blood drops.
– Islets of Langerhan are stimulated to secrete
hormone glucagon.
– Glucagon stimulates liver to convert stored
glycogen to glucose.
– Glucose enters the blood; blood glucose level
returns to normal.
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
1. Regulation of Blood Glucose
Concentration
• If we have not eaten for a long time:
– Glucose level in the blood drops below
average.
– Blood that is low in glucose reaches the
hypothalamus in the brain.
– Brain sends signals to the stomach.
– This causes strong contractions and we feel
hunger pangs.
– After eating, the blood glucose level rises.
The hypothalamus signals to the stomach to
stop contracting.
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
1. Regulation of Blood Glucose
Concentration
high blood low blood
glucose pancreas pancreas glucose
secretes insulin secretes
concentratio glucagon concentrati
n on

converts glucose converts glycogen


to glycogen to glucose

normal blood glucose


concentration
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
2. Production of Bile
• The liver produces bile which is stored in the
gall
bladd before use.
• Bileer
is used in the
emulsifica of fats.
tion

3. Protein Synthesis
• Blood plasma contains amino acids from the
diet.
• The liver synthesizes these amino acids to
form proteins, e.g.:
– Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen (for blood
clotting)
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
4. Iron Storage
• Red blood cells contain a iron, which is
involved in the transportation of oxygen
around the body.
• These cells become worn out after some
time.
• They are destroyed in the spleen, a gland
near the liver.
• Haemoglobin from red blood cells is brought
to the liver.
• Haemoglobin is broken down, forming iron
and bile.
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
5. Deamination of Amino Acids
• Excess amino acids are transported to the
liver.
• The amino groups are removed and
converted to urea.
• Urea leaves the body in urine.
• The remains of the amino glycogen
acid are
converted into glucose.
• Excess glucose is converted to
.
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
6. Detoxification
• This is the process of converting harmful
substances into harmless ones.
• Breaks down alcohol to acetaldehyde by the
action of alcohol dehydrogenase
• Acetaldehyde can be broken down to
compounds which can be used in
respiration.
• Excessive alcohol consumption stimulates
acid secretion in the stomach, increasing
the risk of gastric ulcers.
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
6. Detoxification
• Prolonged alcohol use can lead to cirrhosis
of the liver.
– Liver cells are being destroyed and replaced
with fibrous tissue
– Cells are less able to function
– Can lead to liver failure and death
What happens to
food after
Functions of the
digestion? Liver
7. Heat Production
• There are many chemical reactions taking
place in the liver.
• Heat is produced from these reactions.
• The heat is distributed by the blood to other
parts other body.
• Helps to maintain body temperature.
Pure Biology Chapter 6

Nutrition Alimentary Canal


consists of consists of Organs and Glands
In digestion
Ingestion Mouth Teeth
consists of

Tongue
Liver Pancreas
Pharynx
Salivary contains
glands secretes
leads to
Gall bladder
Oesophagus stores
Pancreatic Hormones
Digestion Bile amylase
secreted into
consist
Stomach
of
Duodenum
Insulin

Absorption Small intestine Jejunum Hepatic


portal vein Glucagon

Colon Ileum walls


have
Large intestine unite to form
Folds
Rectum
Assimilation Simple
Villi sugars
Anus
via Blood
capillaries
Amino
Microvilli
acids
Egestion
via
Fats Lacteals
absorbs
Pure Biology Chapter 6

Nutrition Alimentary Canal


consists of consists of Organs and Glands
In digestion
Mouth Teeth
consists of

Tongue

Pharynx
Salivary contains
glands secretes
leads to
Gall bladder

stores
Pancreatic Hormones
amylase
secreted into
consist
of

Hepatic
portal vein Glucagon

Colon walls
have
unite to form
Folds
Rectum
Simple
Anus sugars
via
Amino
Microvilli
acids

via
Fats
absorbs