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1. What was the condition of our country during Rizals time in terms of: a. Socio-cultural b. Political a.

In the time of Rizal, the entire Philippines was under the Spanish colonization. where in, the government is more likely controlled by priest rather than officials. rebellion was still in rampage, there was still a large resistance against the Spaniards. Filipinos or "Indios", as we are been called, were put into slavery and the exploitation of resources was at large. b. The political situation in Rizal's time was a great government but they do abuse the Filipinos that are their attendant, the entire Philippines was under the Spanish colonization. Where in, the government is more likely controlled by priest rather than officials. Rebellion was still in rampage, there was still a large resistance against the Spaniards. Filipinos or "Indios", as we are been called, were put into slavery and the exploitation of resources was at large. The sinister shadows of Spain's decadence darkened Philippine skies. The Filipino people agonized beneath the yoke of Spanish misrule, for they were unfortunate victims of the evils of an unjust, bigoted, and deteriorating colonial administrating colonial power. 11 Evils during the time of Rizal 1. Instability of Colonial Administration - instability of spanish politics since the turbulent reign of King Ferdinand VII - proof: 1 magistrate was assigned to the Philippines but use the route through the cape of Good hope. Thus after arriving in the country another JURIST was there claiming that he was assigned after him and is now occupying his position. 2. Corrupt Colonial Officials (or Corrupt Officialdom)

- spaniards who were sent to the Philippines were not the likes of the spaniards during the Siglo de Oro.Men of the likes of Miguel Cervantes, Lope de Vega, etc. - such that men of the likes of Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo, a boastful ruthless general.Commanded the execution of the Gomburza - Gen. Primo de Rivera. became rich by accepting bribes from the casinos in manila which he scandalously allowed to operate. 3. Philippine Representation in Spanish Cortes - spanish cortes(spanish parliament) - representatives were sent to the mother country as a democratic act of spain thus allowing the colonies to air out their problems and needs. - first representative: Ventura de los Reyes (he was successful because he was zealous towards his work). - Only the first period of the delegation was successful because it is only de los reyes who was devoted and energetic in parliamentary works. 4. Human Rights Denied to Filipinos - connected to Racial Discrimination, filipinos were deprived of their freedom of speech, press, association, and other human rights except the freedom of religion. 5. No Equality before the Law - we are seen only equal in the eyes of God. but in the eyes of the spaniards filipinos are of lower clas compared to the spaniards. 6. Maladministration of Justice - Justice was costly, partial and slow. - It takes too much money to hire a lawyer who would protect you as a FIlipino

- The decision is partial specially when it is a spaniard who committed the crime. NOnetheless if you are of the locals you will be treated as if you are a convict. 7. Racial Discrimination - Filipinos were called indios (indians). - despite the teachings of christ about equality, filipino men and women were treated no less than an animal. THus emphasizing the idea that filipinos are of the lower class compared to the spaniards. 8. Frailocracy - a government owned by the friars - controlled the religious and educational life of the Philippines and later in the 19th century they came to acquire political power, influence and riches. 9. Forced Labor - also known as Polo, Polistas are the people who perform polo - compulsory labor imposed to adult males. - Originally, males from 16 - 60 years old were obliged to work for 40 days a year. - by Royal Decree, it was changed to 16 - 18 years old and reduced numbers to 15. - the provision included the spanish males but it was never implemented for it is the filipinos who did the dirty work. - the well-to-do were able to escape the maual labor by paying the falla - the sum of money paid to the gov't. in order to be exempted. - polistas are supposed to recieve 50 cents or 2 pesetas, but was recieving only half of it, worst nothing.

10. Haciendas owned by Friars - Different religious orders were the richest landlords. - Friars were recognized as legal owners of the said lands because they obtained royal titles of ownership from the spanish crown. 11. The Guardia Civil - purpose of maintaining internal peace and order in the Philippines. - patterned after the famous and well disciplined Guardia Civil in Spain