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BY : SIRNATEC IT CENTRE

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre


1
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All rights reserved.


reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or buy any means,
electronic or mechanical.
mechanical. Any unauthorized use, sharing,
reproduction or distribution is strictly prohibited.
prohibited.

Legal Notice

While attempts have been made to verify information provided


in this publication, neither the author nor the publisher assumes
any responsibilities for errors, omissions or contradictory
information contained in this manual.
manual.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 2


Table Of Contents
Chapter 1 Computer Introduction
Chapter 2 Functional of Computer Hardware

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Chapter 1
Computer Introduction

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Chapter 1 - Computer Introduction
1.1) What is Computer?
◦ Machine response to Instruction & Executed
◦ Design by Charles Babbage on 1823
1.2) Type of Computers

Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC) Tablet PC Laptop/Notebook Desktop PC

Server PC Workstation Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

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1.3) What inside the Computer?

◦ CPU (Processor)
◦ Memory (RAM)
◦ Motherboard
◦ Power Supply
◦ Chassis/Based Unit
◦ Storage Devices (HDD/FDD/ODD)
◦ Output Devices (Video Display, Printer, Speakers,
Modem, USB Ports)
◦ Input Devices (Keyboard/Mouse, Scanner, Joystick)

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1.3) What inside the Computer (continue)

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Chapter 2
Functional of Computer
Hardware

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Chapter 2 - Functional of Computer
System
2.1 Chassis (Casing)
2.1.1) What is Chassis?
- “Home” for Computer Components
2.1.2) What inside Chassis?

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2.1 Chassis
2.1.3) Type of Chassis (Form Factor)
• BTX (Balance Technology Extended) Family
- BTX
- Micro BTX
- Pico BTX
• ATX (Advance Technology Extended) Family
- ATX
- Micro ATX
- Flex ATX

Micro ATX/BTX ATX/BTX Flex ATX/Pico BTX


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2.1 Chassis
2.1.4) Dimension & Supported Motherboard

Form Factor Max. Width Max. Depth Supported


Allowance Allowance Motherboard
BTX 311mm (12.8”) 243mm (10”) 1) BTX
2) Micro BTX
3) Pico BTX
Micro BTX 253mm (10.4”) 255mm (10.5”) 1) Micro BTX
2) Pico BTX
Pico BTX 219mm (9”) 255mm (10.5”) 1) Pico BTX
Micro ATX 244mm (9.6”) 244mm (9.6”) 1) Micro ATX
2) Flex ATX
Flex ATX 229mm (9”) 191mm (7.5”) Flex ATX

ATX 305mm (12”) 244mm (9.6”) 1) ATX


2) Micro ATX
3) Flex ATX

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2.1 Chassis
2.1.5) Main different Between ATX & BTX
• Motherboard Layout
-Components Placement
-Back Panel Layout
-Two Cooling Fans

PSU
Card M CPU
Slots E
M
O
R
Y

STORAGE STORAGE DRIVES


DRIVES

BTX ATX

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2.1 Chassis
2.1.6) Advantage of BTX
• Thermal Environment
- In-line, high-velocity, low temp airflow
- Above and below mainboard airflow

• Acoustic Performance
- Two-fan design
- Lower impedance allows lower fan speed

• Mainboard
- Balanced memory and I/O routing
- 4-layer mainboard design

• Structural Integrity
- 100% increase in heatsink mass (up to
1kg)

• Cost Structure
- Steel case, standard components BTX Chassis sample
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2.2 Motherboard

2.2.1) What is Motherboard?


• Center Circuit Board or “Body” of Computer.

Body

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2.2 Motherboard

2.2.2) What inside Motherboard?


• Host CPU, RAM, HDD, ODD, FDD, Peripheral Cards,
Power Supply (Internal Connectors)
SATA (Hard Disk/Optical Drive)

IDE (Hard Disk/ ATX (Power Supply)


Optical Drive)
F_Panel
PCI (Peripheral Cards)
DIMM
(RAM)

FDD (Floppy Drive)


CPU
ATX_12V
(Power
Supply)
CPU_Fan
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2.2 Motherboard

2.2.2) What inside Motherboard? (continue)


• Host External Ports (Back Panel Connectors)

a) PS/2 Keyboard & PS/2 Mouse


Port
b) Parallel Port
c) Serial Port
d) D-Sub Port
e) USB Port
f) RJ-45 LAN Port
g) Line In Jack (Blue)
h) Line Out Jack (Green)
i) Mic In Jack (Pink)
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2.2 Motherboard
2.2.2) What inside Motherboard? (continue)
• Host BIOS (Basic Input Output System)

CMOS Battery

POST Screen
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2.2 Motherboard
2.2.3) Motherboard Form Factor
Form Factors PCB
Size(mm)
a)ATX 305x244
b) Micro-ATX 244x244
c) Flex-ATX 229x191
d) BTX 325x266
e) Mini-ITX 170x170
f) Nano-ITX 120x120
g) Pico-ITX 100x72

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2.2 Motherboard

2.2.4) Block Diagram of Motherboard


DDR/DDR2 RAM
Center Processing (400/533/667/800)
Unit
(CPU)

Graphics 2D/3D Graphics


- PCI Express X16
Memory
- AGP 4X/8X
- Graphics
Control Hub
Accelerator

ATA Interface
- ODD/FDD ATA IO Control USB 2.0/1.0 Ports
133/100/66 Hub - USB Devices
(Mouse, Keyboard)

Serial ATA PCI Express x 1


Interface - PCI Express
- HDD SATA Devices

High Definition
<etwork Interface Audio
- 10/100Mb LA<
- Gb LA<

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2.2 Motherboard

2.2.5) Function of Motherboard


• Through Chipset (Integrated Circuit)

• Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH)


Memory (DDR2 RAM) (already move to CPU)
Graphics/Video/Display Card (PCI Express x16 or AGP 8x/4x,
Graphic controller)

• Input Output Controller Hub (ICH)


ATA (Optical Drive/Floppy Drive/ZIP Drive)
SATA (Hard Drive/Optical Drive)
Network (10/100Mb LAN, Gb LAN, Wireless LAN)
USB Ports (Keyboard/Mouse/External Optical/Hard Drive/Pen
Drive & others USB devices)
IEEE Ports (Video camera & other IEEE devices)
PCI Express x1 peripheral cards
Audio (Audio codec/Speakers)

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2.2 Motherboard
2.2.6) Type of GMCH & ICH
 Intel
1) Desktop – X58,P45, P35,G33,G31,G965

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2.2 Motherboard
2.2.6) Type of GMCH & ICH (continue)
 Intel
2) Mobile –PM965, 945GM/PM, 915GM/GMS/PM,

Example – PM965 GMCH & ICH Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 22


2.2 Motherboard
2.2.6) Type of GMCH & ICH (continue)
◦ VIA
 VIA North Bridge (GMCH)
 AMD – K8T900/K8T890/ K8N890/
 Intel – PT890/ PT880 ULTRA

 VIA South Bridge (ICH)


 VT8251/VT8237R/VT8237A

Example – PT890 North & South Bridge


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2.2 Motherboard
2.2.6) Type of GMCH & ICH (continue)
◦ SIS
 SIS (GMCH)
 AMD – 755
 Intel – 672FX/662/656FX/649FX/656/655TX/655FX/648FX
 SIS (ICH)
 Intel & AMD - 968

Example – SIS672FX & SIS968 Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 24


2.2 Motherboard
2.2.7) Chipset Identification on Motherboard
Brand Model Chipset
Intel DX58SO X58
Intel DP45SG P45
Intel DP35DP P35
Gigabyte GA-G33M-S2L G33
Gigabyte GA-G31M-S2L G31
MSI P965 Neo-F V2 P965

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.1) What is CPU?
• CPU stands for “Central Processing Unit”
• “Brain” of the computer which process the data
• Speed measured in Mhz (megahertz). 1 MHz=one million
cycles per second

26

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.2) What is “Bus”?


- “Road” which connect 2 or more devices in a computer

2.3.3) Type of “Bus”


a) System bus or Front Side Bus
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7jdjEuyljs)
- The physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal
information between the central processing unit (CPU), RAM,
Graphics
and the Motherboard northbridge.

b) I/O bus
- Connect between CPU to other components except RAM

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.3) Type of “Bus” (continue)


c) Data bus
- The bus (connections between and within the {CPU}, memory, and
peripherals) used to carry {data}

d) Address bus
- The connections between the {CPU} and memory which carry the
{address/receiver} from/to which the CPU wishes to read or write.

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.4) Bus Size/Bus Bandwidth

- Total amount of data that can theoretically be transferred on the bus in


a given unit of time (also call number of lanes).

- Express in bit/second (bps) or bytes/second for digital devices.

- Express in cycle/second or herts (Hz) for analog devices.

- Power of 2, 8, 16, 32 & 64

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.5) PC “Bus” Block Diagram

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.6) System Clock


- Also call Bus Speed.

- A faster clock speed will enable a processor to execute an instruction


more quickly (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wjqe1eQx8vc)

- The system clock is a circuit that emits a continuous stream of precise high
and low pulses that are all exactly the same length.

- One clock cycle is the time that passes from the start of one high pulse,
until the start of the next cycle.

- Measure in Mhz (megahertz – million of cycles per second )

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.7) CPU Speed = CPU Multiplier x System Clock

Note: System Clock = FSB/4 for Intel CPU & FSB/2 for AMD CPU

Example:
Intel 3.2Ghz = 16 x 200Mhz

AMD Athlon XP2700+ (2.17Mhz) = 13 x 166Mhz

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.8) What is Cache Memory?
- CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a
computer to reduce the average time to access memory.

- The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the


data
from the most frequently used main memory locations (backpack
story)

L2 Cache Video clips

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.9) What inside CPU?

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.10) Function of CPU

L2 Memory Cache
- High speed Static RAM (SRAM) does not need to refresh
- Larger then L1 Memory Cache
- Provide data to CPU at speed 10x faster then DRAM

L1 Memory Cache
- consists of Instruction & Data
- input cache (smaller then L2 cache)
- Instruction Cache is used for caching data from memory

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.10) Function of CPU (continue)
Fetch Unit
- Loading instruction from memory
- look for L1 instruction cache first, if not it will go to
L2 memory cache. If the instruction is not there, then it will
directly load from the slow system RAM memory

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.10) Function of CPU (continue)

Decoder Unit
- Figure out what particular instruction are by consulting
the ROM memory that exist inside the CPU call microcode.

- The microcode will teach CPU what to do.

- Add a+b, the microcode will tell decoder that it need 2 parameter
a & b.

- The decoder then require fetch unit to grab the data present in the
next 2 memory position.

- Decoder unit will pass all data & step by step process on how to
execute that instruction to the execute unit

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.10) Function of CPU (continue)
Execute Unit
- To execute the instruction given.

L1 Data Cache
- In charge of sending the result back to RAM memory
or another place, such as video card

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.11) Block Diagram of CPU

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.11) Block Diagram of CPU (continue)

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.12) CPU Socket


- Connector on motherboard that accepts CPU
&
forms an electrical interface with it.

2.3.13) Type of CPU Socket


a) Intel
- Socket 1366 (Desktop)
- Socket 775/LGA 775 (Desktop) Socket 775 Socket M

- Socket M (Mobile-Intel Core 2 Duo)

b) AMD
- AM3+ (Desktop)
- AM2+ (Desktop)
- Socket S1 (Mobile) Socket AM2+ Socket S1
- Socket 563 (Mobile) Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 41
2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.14) Intel CPU Architecture

• Intel Core micro architecture


- base on Pentium M arc/P6 such as core solo (65nm),
core duo (yonah, dual core 65nm)

• Intel Pentium 4 Architecture


-7th generation x86 architecture

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)

2.3.15) Duo Core Technology

In a single core processor, this “performance engine? In a dual-core computer chip, there are two “performance
takes in raw data and turns it into either video, movies, engines? that can take more data and simultaneously
Music, digital-photos, games, email, or other rich multimedia process the data into rich multimedia content at a faster
content rate.

Video Clips
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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.15) Duo Core Technology (continue)

Core i7 Circuitry

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.16) Type of CPU

• Intel® Core TM i7 processor


- Quad-core,8MB L3 cache,2.93 GHz, 4.8GT/s QPI

• Intel® Core TM 2 Quad processor


- Quad-core, 8MB L2 cache, 2.40 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB

• Intel® CoreTM 2 Extreme processor


- Quad-core/Dual-core, 8MB L2 cache, 2.93 GHz, 1066 MHz
FSB

• Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor


- Dual-core, 4MB L2 cache, 2.66 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB

• Intel® Pentium D processor with dual core technology


- Dual-core, 2x2MB L2 cache, 3.60 GHz, 800 MHz FSB
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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.16) Type of CPU (continue)

• Intel® Pentium® 4 processor supporting Hyper-


Threading Technology† or greater
- 2MB L2 cache, 3.80 GHz, 800 MHz FSB

• Intel® Celeron® D processor


- 512KB L2 cache, 3.60 GHz, 533 MHz FSB

• Intel® Celeron® M processor


- 1MB L2 cache, 2.00 GHz, 533 MHz FSB

• Intel® Pentium® processor Extreme Edition


- Dual-core, 2x2MB L2 cache, 3.73 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.1.16) Type of CPU (continue)
• AMD Phenom TM II X3
- 512MB L2 cache, 2.80 GHz, 64 bits technology

• AMD Athlon TM 64 processor


- 1MB L2 cache, 2.60 GHz, 64 bits technology

• AMD Athlon TM 64 FX processor


- Dual-core, 2MB L2 cache, 2.80 GHz, 64 bits technology

• AMD Athlon TM 64 X2 Dual-Core processor


- Dual-core, 2MB L2 cache, 3.00 GHz, 64 bits technology

• AMD Athlon Sempron processor

• AMD Turion™ 64 X2 Dual-Core Mobile Technology


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• AMD Turion 64 Mobile Technology
2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.17) CPU Model Identification

Video Clips

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2.3 CPU (Center Processor Unit)
2.3.17) CPU Model Identification (continue)

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2.4 Memory

2.4.1) What is Memory?


• Act as a “Foot Solder” for the CPU which are use to
stores information from the OS, applications & data (like
Memory in our brain).
• Quickly accessible to be used for decision making by CPU
• Size measured in MBs (megabyte). 1 MBs=one million
bytes of information

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2.4 Memory
2.4.2) Type of Memory
◦ RAM (Random Access Memory)
- Read & write memory
- Need power to stored data

◦ ROM (Read Only Memory)


- Read only memory
- To stored that boot the computers & perform diagnostics
- Holds data even when it is not powered

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2.4 Memory

Type of RAM
◦ SRAM (Static RAM)
- Used for high speed memory call L2 cache memory
- Faster & more expensive then DRAM
- Speed between 8 & 12ns
- Synchronous & asynchronous
- Does not require refresh operation

◦ DRAM (Dynamic RAM)


- Use in computer main memory
- Must refresh every 2ms

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2.4 Memory
Type of DRAM
◦ SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)
- Transfer its commands, address & data on the rising edge of the clock
- Transfer one data words per clock cycle
- Consume more power 3.3v
- 168 pins

◦ DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate RAM)


- Transfer the commands, address & data on both rising & falling edge
of
the clock.
- Consume less power 2.5v
- 184 pins

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2.4 Memory

Type of ROM
◦ PROM (Programmable ROM)
- Only programmable once

◦ EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM)


- Able to program multiples times
- Can be erased but need to remove from devices

◦ EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM)


- Able to program multiples times
- Can be erased & do not need to remove from devices

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2.4 Memory

Type of ROM (continue)


◦ Flash Memory
- Type of EEPROM
- Use in-circuit writing to erase by applying an electrical field to the
entire chip or blocks
- Faster then EEPROM because it writes data in chunks, usually 512
bytes in size, instead of a byte at a time

◦ CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor)


- Store system setup information

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2.4 Memory
2.4.3) Memory Block diagram & Function
- CPU request data from RAM, it place the address of the location on the data
bus
& wait the request data bus to show up.
- The CPU grab the data in 32 / 64 bits chunks depend on the width of data bus.
- The CPU grabs 8 bytes of data at a time.

<http://www.howstuffworks.com/ram.htm>
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2.4 Memory
2.4.3) Memory Block diagram & Function (continue)

Memory is made up of bits arranged in a two-dimensional


The capacitor in a dynamic RAM memoy cell is like a leaky bucket. Grid. In this figure, red cells represent 1s and white cells
It needs to be refreshed periodically or it will discharge to 0 Represent 0s. In the animation, a column is selected and then
Rows are charged to write data into the specific column

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2.4 Memory
2.4.4) Memory Pyramid

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2.4 Memory
2.4.5) RAM Module

◦ DIMM (Dual In-Line Memory Module)


- Soldered onto a modular PCB
- 168 pins (SDRAM),184 pins (DDR RAM), 240 pins (DDR2 RAM)
- 5.4 x 1”
- Capacity up to 2GB/module
- 64 bits data bus

168 pins DIMM

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2.4 Memory
2.4.5) RAM Module (continue)

◦ SIMM (Single In-Line Memory Module)


- Soldered onto a modular PCB
- 30 & 72 pin connector
- 3.5 x 7.5 “ (30 pin)
- 4.25 x 1” (72 pin)
- Capacity up to 256MB/module
- 32 bits data bus

72 pins SIMM 30 pins SIMM

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2.4 Memory

2.4.5) RAM Module (continue)

◦ SODIMM (Small Outline Dual-In Memory Module)


- Soldered onto a modular PCB
- 72, 144 & 200 pins
- 2.1 x 1”
- Capacity up to 16 to 2GB/module
- 32 bits (72 pins), 64 bits (144 pins) data bus

72 pins SODIMM 144 pins SODIMM

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2.4 Memory
2.4.5) RAM Module (continue)

◦ RIMM (Rambus In-Line Memory Module)


- Soldered onto a modular PCB
- Similar size & pin configuration as DIMM
- High speed data bus call Rambus Channel (16 bits chunks)
- Generate lot of heats
- Heat Spreader to prevent overheating
- Capacity up to 256MB
- 32 bits data bus

184 pins RIMM

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2.4 Memory
2.4.6) DDR SDRAM Technology

◦ DDR3 SDRAM (DOUBLE DATA RATE three SYNCHRONOUS DRAM)


 Higher bandwidth (up to 1600 MHz)
 Performance increase at low power
 Longer battery life in laptops
 Enhanced low power features and thermal design

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2.4 Memory
2.4.6) DDR SDRAM Technology (continue)

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2.4 Memory
2.4.7) DDR SDRAM Module
◦ DDR3 SDRAM

Peak transfer rate = number of bits x clock/8

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2.4 Memory
2.4.7) DDR SDRAM Module (continue)
◦ DDR2 SDRAM

Peak transfer rate = number of bits x clock/8


http://www.simmtester.com/page/news/showpubnews.asp?num=150

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
a) What is Flash Memory?
- Type of EEPROM chip
- Storage devices for digital camera, mobile phone & video games consoles
- Solid stage storage devices (electronics)

b) Type of Flash Memory


- Removable Flash Memory (Memory Stick, CompactFlash, SmartMedia, SD card,
PCMCIA type I & II), USB Flash Drive (integrated with USB connector)
- Non Removable Flash Memory (BIOS chip-CMOS).

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
c) How Flash Memory Works?
- Grid of columns & rows with a cell that has two transistors at each
intersection.

- Two transistors (floating gate & control gate) are separated by a thin
oxide
layer.

- Floating gate only link to the row/wordline.

- The cell has a value on 1 as long as the link is in place.

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
c) How Flash Memory Works? (continue)

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
c) How Flash Memory Works – Tunneling (continue)
- Tunneling is used to alter the placement of electrons in the floating gate.
- 10 to 13 volts electrical charge (come from the coloum/bitline) is applied
to
the floating gate.
- This charge causes the floating-gate transistor act line an electron gun.
- The electrons are pushed through & trapped on other side of thin oxide
layer
to become negative charges.
- This negative charge electrons acts as a barrier between the control gate
&
floating gate.
- Cell sensor monitors the level of charge passing through the floating
gate.
- If the flow through the gate > 50% of the charge, it has a value of 1.
- If the charge passing through drop below 50% threshold, the value
changes Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 70
to 0.
2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
c) How Flash Memory Works – Erasing (continue)
- Electric field or high-voltage charge is applied for erasing process.
- Flash memory uses in-circuit wiring to apply the electric field either
entire
chip or predetermined sections known as blocks.

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
d) Removable Flash Memory Cards

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
d) Removable Flash Memory Cards (continue)

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
d) Removable Flash Memory Cards (continue)

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
e) Removable USB Flash Memory Drive (Pen Drive)
- USB data storage devices
- Removable & rewritable
- 1-4 inches length
- less than 56g weight
- Storage capacity up to 16GB
- Transfer speed about 3MB/s

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
e) Removable USB Flash Memory Drive (Pen Drive)

What is Universal Serial Bus (USB)?


- Serial Bus standard to interface devices.
- Replaced Serial & Parallel ports.
- Connect mouse, keyboard, PDAs, joysticks, scanners, printers, digital
camera &
flash drive (Pen drive).

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
e) Removable USB Flash Memory Drive (Pen Drive)
I) What Inside USB Flash Memory Drive
1) USB Connector – provides an interface to host computer
2) USB mass storage controller device – implements the USB host controller
3) Test points – for testing/loading code into microprocessor
4) Flash memory chip – stored data
5) Crystal oscillator – produces main 12MHz clock signal & control data output.
6) LED – indicate data transfer/reads and writes
7) Write-protect switch – “write-protection” mode indication
8) Space for 2nd flash memory chip

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2.4 Memory
2.4.8) Flash Memory Technology
e) Removable USB Flash Memory Drive (Pen Drive)
II) Common Application
- Personal data transport
- System administration
- Computer repair
- To boot operating system
- Window Vista ReadyBoost
- Audio players
- Music storage
- Backup

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2.4 Memory
2.4.9) How much memory do I need?

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2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.1) What is HDD?
◦ Permanent Storage component which use to stores information for
the operating system, application & data.
◦ Like an on hand book.
◦ Write/Stored information to be read again at any time.
◦ Size measured in GBs (Gigabyte).1 GBs=one thousand million bytes
of information.

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2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.2) HDD Block Diagram
 Head Disk Assembly
 Aluminum Platters to store data
 Read/Write Head read & write information
 Actuator Arm which holds the Read/Write Head
 Actuator which holds the actuator arm
 Spindle Motor which control the spinning of platters
 IDE/SATA/SCSI Interface which connect with
motherboard
 Power Connector which connect with motherboard
 Steel Casing which protect the platters

 PCB Assembly
 Control the movement of head disk assembly

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 81


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.2) HDD Block Diagram (continue)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 82


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.3) How HDD Works
 Data is stored on the surface of a platter in sectors and tracks
 Tracks are concentric circles, and sectors are pie-shaped wedges
on a track
 Sectors contain fixed number bytes, eg 256 or 512bytes which
often group together into clusters

Video Clips
Sectors

Tracks

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 83


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)

2.5.4) Capacity & Performance of hard disk

 Maximum Transfer Rate


- The data rate is the number of bytes per second that the drive can
deliver to the CPU. Rates between 5 and 40 megabytes per second
are common.

 Spindle Rotation Speed


- Hard disk spindle rotation speed
- Faster the rotation speed, more data can be written per second

 Seek/Access Time
- Amount of time between when the CPU requests a file and when
the first byte of the file is sent to the CPU. Times between 10 and 20
milliseconds are common.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 84


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.4) Capacity & Performance of hard disk
◦ Capacity
- Number of Bytes the hard disk can hold
- Capacity = sectors * capacity of sectors * cylinder * Nb Heads.

◦ Revolution Speed
- Number of revolutions of the engine of drive of the plates
- Express in Turn per Minutes or Revolution Per Minutes (R.P.M)
- Common hard disk turn per minutes is 5400, 7200 & 10000 R.P.M

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 85


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)

2.5.5) File System – way of data is stored

 NSTC (NT file system)


- 512MB cluster size (reduce the waste spaces)
- 18.5 x 10¹º bytes

 FAT 32 (File Allocation Table)


- 4KB cluster size
- Up to 2TB sizes

 FAT 16
- 32KB cluster size
- Up to 2GB sizes

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 86


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.6) HDD Interface

a) IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) /ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment)


- Used in Personal Computers [PCs] as a hard-drive or peripheral bus
to interconnect the PC mother board and a hard drive

b) Parallel Bus (PATA)


- Maximum 133MB/s data transmission speed
- 40 signal (40 pins) using single-ended signaling on an 18” cable
- Extra 40 ground signal added to reduce noise & filter out outside noise for UDMA

c) Serial ATA (SATA)


- 2 pair of signal (7 pins) for sending & receiving
- Low voltage differential signaling <http://www.directron.com/patasata.html>

- 150MB/s data transmission speed


- Better immunity to outside noise

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 87


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.6) HDD Interface (Summary of IDE modes)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 88


2.5 Hard Disk (HDD)
2.5.7) eSATA compare with other bus

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SATA>
<http://www.seagate.com/docs/pdf/datasheet/disc/ds_internal_sata.pdf>
<http://www.seagate.com/docs/pdf/datasheet/disc/ds_internal_pata.pdf>

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 89


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.1) What is Optical Drive?
• Like a book on a local library
• Huge information to used/read or write in their book
• Use a media to read/write in their book
• Size of media from MB (megabyte) to GB (gigabyte)
• Refer to lasers which can see, read & write data on
optical disk

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 90


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)

2.6.2) Optical Drive basic design

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 91


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)

2.6.2) Optical Drive basic design (continue)

a) Laser Diode produce optical lights


b) Optical lights passing through a grating, the light diffracts into 3 beams
c) Three beams pass through a polarized beam splitter, quarter wave plate &
collimator lens to transform laser beams into a collimated beam
d) Collimated laser beam then passed through a holographic Fresnel lens.
e) The collimated beam then separated into 2 parts & focus to dual focal points,
one for reading dvd data & the other for writing cd data.
f) the beams then reflect back to the same collimator lens, beam splitter &
cylindrical lens & project onto four-quadrant photodiode which output focus
error signals (FES)
g) FES then to drive the voice coil motor (VCM) to shift the objective lens until
focal point is set on the disk surface.
h) The pick-up head then transforming the FES into digital signals

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 92


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)

2.6.3) How CD Discs Works


a) Understanding of CD: Area of the Disc

PCA – Power Calibration Area (Stores temporary Table Of Content)


PMA – Power Memory Area (Test Mark)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 93


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)

2.6.3) How CD Discs Works (continue)


b) Understanding of CD: Material
- Stored up to 74 min of data
- Maximum amount of data stored in cd is
44,100 samples/channel/second x 2 bytes/sample x 2 channels x 74 minutes x 60
seconds/minute = 783,216,000 bytes

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 94


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.3) How CD Discs Works (continue)
c) Understanding of CD: The Spiral
- Single spiral of data circling from inner to outer side of the
disk

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 95


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.3) How CD Discs Works (continue)
d) Understanding of CD: Bumps/Pits
- Single spiral of data circling from inner to outer side of the
disk

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 96


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.4) How DVD Discs Works
a) Understanding of DVD: Material
- Stored up to 133 min of data
- Maximum amount of data stored in dvd is 8.5GB (DVD+/-R DL)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 97


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.4) How DVD Discs Works (continue)
b) Understanding of DVD: The Spiral
- Single spiral of data circling from inner to outer side of the
disk

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 98


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)

2.6.4) How DVD Discs Works (continue)


c) Understanding of DVD: Bumps/Pits
- Single spiral of data circling from inner to outer side of the
disk

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 99


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.5) How CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Drives Works
a) CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Components
- Finding & reading the data that stored as bumps on CD
- Fundamental components
- Drive motor – spin the disc
- Laser & Lens System focus in on & read the bumps
- Tracking mechanism moves the laser assembly

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 100


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.5) How CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Drives Works (continue)
b) What the CD-ROM/DVD-ROM does – Laser Focus
- Technology which involved in forming the data into
understandable
& sending to DAC or computer
- Fundamental jobs is to focus the laser on the track of bumps

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 101


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.5) How CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Drives Works (continue)
c) What the CD-ROM/DVD-ROM does – Tracking System
- To keep the laser beam centered on the data track

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 102


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)

2.6.6) DVD Disc Capacity

CD & DVD Manufacturing

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 103


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.7) DVD Disc Type

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 104


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.8) DVD Disc Format
a) Non-recordable format
- DVD-ROM
- Similar to CD
- Reflective surface is gold or silver
- Single sided/single layered, double sided/double layer, double
sided/single layered & double sided/double layered

- DVD-D
- Self-destructing disposable DVD format

- DVD-Plus
- Combine DVD & CD technology

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 105


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.8) DVD Disc Format (continue)
b) Recordable format (DVD Forum)
- DVD-R
- Record up to 4.7GB
- Similar fashion to a CD-R disc
- Can be played by most DVD player

- DVD-RW
- Record up to 4.7GB
- Similar fashion to a CD-RW disc

- DVD-R DL
- Derivate of DVD-R
- Record up to 8.5GB

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 106


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.8) DVD Discs Format (continue)
b) Recordable format (continue)
- DVD-RAM
- House in a cartridge
- Record up to 4.7GB or 9.4GB

c) Recordable format (DVD+RW Alliance)


- DVD+R
- Record up to 8.5GB (DL)
- Similar fashion to a CD-R disc
- Can be played by most DVD player

- DVD+RW
- Record up to 4.7GB
- Similar fashion to a CD-RW disc
- Data can be added & removed without erasing the whole disc
- Treat as large Floppy disk
Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 107
2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.8) DVD Discs Format (continue)
c) Recordable format (DVD+RW Alliance)

• DVD+R DL
• Derivate of DVD+R
• Record up to 17.1GB (DS)

• DVD+RW DL
• Record up to 8.5GB
• Data can be added & removed without erasing the whole disc
• Treat as large Floppy disk

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 108


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.9) How CD-Burner Works
a) Writing CDs

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 109


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.9) How CD-Burner Works (continue)
b) Burning CDs : Laser Assembly

The laser assembly inside a CD burner

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 110


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.9) How CD-Burner Works (continue)
c) Burning CDs : Write Laser

The machinery in a CD burner looks pretty much the same as the machinery in any CD player.
There is a mechanism that spins the disc and another mechanism that slides the laser assembly.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 111


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.9) How CD-Burner Works (continue)
d) Erasing CDs

In a CD-RW disc, the reflecting lands and non-reflecting bumps of a conventional CD are represented by phase shifts
in a special compound. When the compound is in a crystalline state, it is translucent, so light can shine through to the
metal layer above and reflect back to the laser assembly. When the compound is melted into an amorphous state, it becomes
opaque, making the area non-reflective.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 112


2.6 Optical Drive (ODD)
2.6.10) Blue-ray Disc Technology
a) Media Type - High-density optical disc
b) Encoding - MPEG-2,MPEG-4 AVC
c) Capacity – 25GB (single layer) & 50GB (dual layer)
d) Read mechanism
- 405 nm wavelength blue laser
- 1x at 36 Mbit/s
- 2x at 72 Mbit/s
- 4x at 144 Mbit/s
- 6x at 216 Mbit/s
- 12x at 432 Mbit/s

e) Usage - data storage, high-definition video & PlayStation 3 games

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 113


2.7 Monitor
2.7.1) What is Monitor?
- Talking & Writing Devices/Tools (Output Devices)
- Send inputs to PC, CPU & produces useful output (Text/Graphics).

Example of LCD Monitor

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 114


2.7 Monitor

2.7.2) Type of Display Technology

a) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)


- Used in Digital watches, calculators & etc.
- Made out of two layers of very fine glass material called
substrate that form a “sandwich” around a thin layer of shaped
molecules (liquid crystals) that flow like liquid.

b) CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)


- Oldest form of display for PC computer systems.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 115


2.7 Monitor

2.7.3) What Inside CRT monitor?

(<egative terminal)

(Positive terminal) (Aperture Grill)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 116


2.7 Monitor

2.7.3) What Inside CRT monitor? (continue)


a) Cathode (Electron gun)
- Heated Element
- Electron gun fires electrons towards front through vacuum which exits in the glass
‘tube’ of the monitor
- The “ray” is the stream of electrons that pour off a heat cathode into the vacuum.
- The “ray” also correspond to the red, green and blue channel of the display.

b) Anode
- Positive terminal which attract the electrons that pouring off from the cathode.
- Magnetized according to instructions from the display controller

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 117


2.7 Monitor

2.7.3) What Inside CRT monitor? (continue)


c) Shadow Mask/Aperture Grill
- Shadow Mask
- Shadow mask is a piece of metal with billion of holes which allow different of
cathode ray through to hit the phosphor.
- Suitable for CAD/CAM drawing application

- Aperture Grill
- Define the gap through which electrons pass using a mesh of wire.
- Use for Flat screen model which produce a clear, undisturbed images & reduce
glare
from ambient light.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 118


2.7 Monitor

2.7.4) How CRT Monitor Works

Electricity supplied Cathode/Heat filament "Ray" of electrons pour off


START (A) heats up from the cathode into
vacuum

Anode (C) attracts The beams strike the Phosphors emit red,
the electrons & focus Phosphor-coated green & blue light
the particles into screen (D) & Shadow used in a color END
three narrow beams Mask/Apertube grill (F) monitor
(E)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 119


2.7 Monitor

2.7.5) How LCD Monitor works?

a) Basic principles of LCD panel:


1) Alignment of liquid crystal molecules can be controlled by
- fine grooves etched into a glass plate
- electric current/voltage
2) Light follows liquid crystal molecules
3) Polarizing filters block light

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 120


2.7 Monitor

2.7.5) How LCD Monitor works? (continue)

b) What is a Liquid Crystal?


- Physical properties of solid & liquid.
- As a liquid they are able to flow over & around small grooves &
can change their position depending on applied voltage.

c) Aligning Liquid Crystal Molecules & Rotating Light


- Molecules are basically a rectangular shape which align in
random
tilt with their long axes parallel.
- When contact with grooved surfaces, the liquid crystal
molecules
easily orient to be parallel to the grooves.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 121


2.7 Monitor
2.7.5) How LCD Monitor works? (continue)

c) Aligning Liquid Crystal Molecules & Rotating Light


(continue)
- To make a basic “twisted” LC panel, liquid crystal is
sandwiched
between two transparent plates.
- Each plate contains very fine grooves, with grooves in each
panel
placed exactly perpendicular.
- Follow the direction of the molecules as the light passed
through
the liquid crystals.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 122


2.7 Monitor
2.7.5) How LCD Monitor works? (continue)

c) Aligning Liquid Crystal Molecules & Rotating Light


(continue)
- Liquid Crystal Molecules can be rearranged by applying an
external
voltage.
- The liquid crystal molecules begin to rearrange themselves with
the
electric field as the voltage applied.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 123


2.7 Monitor
2.7.5) How LCD Monitor works? (continue)

d) Blocking Light with Polarizing Filters (continue)

- Polarizing filter is a set of extremely closely spaced parallel


lines.

- This lines only allow the light waves that are parallel to them to
pass through. Light from other direction are blocked.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 124


2.7 Monitor
2.7.5) How LCD Monitor works? (continue)

e) Controlling Light with an LCD Panel


- Light can be rotated by using the properties of liquid crystal.

- Figure below illustrations the polarizing filter are oriented


perpendicular,
thus prevent incoming light from getting through.

- Figure left illustrated : Light waves with “A” orientation pass through
the
1st(top) filter. These light waves are then rotated 90o by liquid crystal in
the
twisted structure arrangement.

- Figure right illustrated: A voltage is applied to the liquid crystal, causing


the
molecules to re-align themselves vertically causing no light passes
through
the liquid crystal panel.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 125


2.7 Monitor
2.7.6) Performance Measurements

a) Monitor Size & Viewable Area: measured diagonally from one corner
of
the glass to the opposite.
CRT – actual size & viewable screen size
LCD – actual size/viewable screen size

b) Resolution: number of horizontal & vertical pixels that the monitor


contain (without scaling the screen contents up or down).
Here are some of the common resolutions found in LCD monitor,
14-15": 1024x768 (XGA)
17-19": 1280x1024 (SXGA)
20"+: 1600x1200 (UXGA)
19” (Widescreen): 1440x900 (WXGA+)
20” (Widescreen): 1680x1050 (WSXGA+)
24” (Widescreen): 1920x1200 (WUXGA)
30” (Widescreen): 2560x1600

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 126


2.7 Monitor

2.7.6) Performance Measurements (continue)

Here are some of the common resolutions found in CRT monitor,


SVGA : 800x600
XGA : 1024x768
SXGA : 1280x1024
UXGA : 1600x1200

c) Aspect Ratio: ratio between the horizontal dimension & the vertical
dimension. Common aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.333) & 5:4(1.25).
Resolutions with a 4:3 aspect ratio:
800 x 600
1024 x 768
1152 x 864
1600 x 1200
Resolutions with a 5:4 aspect ratio:
1280 x 1024
1600 x 1280

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 127


2.7 Monitor
2.7.6) Performance Measurements (continue)

d) Dot pitch: measure of the amount of space between each pixel.


(Note: the smaller the dot pitch, the sharper the image)

e) Brightness: determined by the intensity & quality of the backlighting.


Usually measured in luminance (candelas per square meter).

f) Color depth: the number of colors that can represented on a display


without dithering (full color depth for CRT able to provide 16,770,000
colors while for LCD only able to provide 2,600,000 colors)

g) Contrast: measure of the range between the lightest tones & the darkest
tones. A higher contrast ratio makes the information more readable.

h) Viewing angle: determines how far above,below,or either side of the


display a person can view.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 128


2.7 Monitor

2.7.6) Performance Measurements (continue)

i) Pixel response rate/Response Time: the time it takes for a pixel to


response to voltage (to be turned “on”) & then back to its normal state.
It measured in milliseconds or microseconds (the minimum response
time should be at least 25ms & 17ms is recommended).

j) Vertical Refresh Rate: The number of times a screen can be completely


redrawn/re-painted in a second. The refresh rate of 75Hz is sufficient for
LCD monitor

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 129


2.7 Monitor
2.7.7) Comparison of LCD & CRT Monitor

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 130


2.7 Monitor
2.7.8) Pros & Cons of CRT & LCD Monitors

a) CRT Monitors

Pros:
 Multisync Capable
 High Refresh Rates
 Color Clarity & Depth

Cons:
 Very Heavy & large
 Use Large Amount of Energy
 Generate Excess Heat

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 131


2.7 Monitor
2.7.8) Pros & Cons of CRT & LCD Monitors (continue)

b) LCD Monitors

Pros:
 Smaller and Lighter
 Energy Efficient
 Causes Less Eye Fatigue

Cons:
 Blurry images outside Native Resolution
 Motion Blur on Fast Moving Images
 Come Models Have Reduced Color Clarity

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 132


2.8 Modem
2.8.1) What is Modem?

- Peripheral devices which allows 2 computers to communicate over


standard phone lines (Communication Platform)

- The word “modem” stand for “modulator-demodulator”

- The sending modem modulated the digital data into analog signal &
the receiving modem demodulates back the analog signal into digital
data.

- Download speed up to 3Mbps

- Upload speed up to 1Mbps

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 133


2.8 Modem
2.8.2) What Inside Modem?
a) Tuner
- receives the modulated digital signals from cable outlet & passes to
the demodulator
- Splitter to separate the internet data from normal TV programming
- Diplexer allow to make use of one set frequency for downstream &
another for upstream data
b) Demodulator
- Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) demodulator takes a radio-
frequency signal that had information encoded in it by varying both
amplitude & phase of the wave & turn into simple signal that can be
processed by A/D converter.
- A/D converter turn into series of digital 1s & 0s.
- Error correction module then check the received information against a
known standard

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 134


2.8 Modem
2.8.3) Modem Technology
a) Smart Modem
- V.90 bits standard operating at 56kbps, upload speed up to 33.6kbps
- V.92 bits standard operating at 56kbps, upload speed up to 48kbps
- able to put dial-up internet connection on-hold when answering a call
- ability to “quick connect” to one’s ISP

b) DSL modem (broadband)


- Stand for “Digital Subscriber Line” which allow high speed internet
access to home & small internet business over existing telephone
wires.
- Download speed up to 8Mbps, upload speed up to 1Mbps
- Capable of modulating/demodulating hundreds of channel
simultaneously
- Include function of Routers

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 135


2.8 Modem
2.8.4) DSL Technology
- Stand for “Digital Subscriber Line”
- Convert s existing copper telephone lines into high speed
data
communication.
- Transmit through downstream & upstream bandwidth.
- Operate over a single twisted copper pair of wires.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 136


2.8 Modem
2.8.5) Advantage & Disadvantage of DSL
• Advantage of DSL
• You can leave your Internet connection open and still use the
phone line for voice calls.
• The speed is much higher than a regular modem
• DSL doesn't necessarily require new wiring; it can use the
phone line you already have.
• The company that offers DSL will usually provide the modem as
part of the installation.

• Disadvantage of DSL
• A DSL connection works better when you are closer to the
provider's central office. The farther away you get from the
central office, the weaker the signal becomes.
• The connection is faster for receiving data than it is for sending
data over the Internet.
• The service is not available everywhere.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 137


2.8 Modem
2.8.6) DSL Equipment

• Transceiver - At the customer's location, there is a DSL


transceiver, which may also provide other services.

• DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM) - The DSL service provider


has a DSLAM to receive customer connections.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 138


2.8 Modem
2.8.7) DSL Type
• Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) - It is called "asymmetric" because the download speed is
greater than the upload speed. ADSL works this way because most Internet users
look at, or download, much more information than they send, or upload.

• High bit-rate DSL (HDSL) - Providing transfer rates comparable to a T1 line (about
1.5 Mbps), HDSL receives and sends data at the same speed, but it requires two
lines that are separate from your normal phone line.

• ISDN DSL (ISDL) - Geared primarily toward existing users of Integrated Services
Digital Network (ISDN), ISDL is slower than most other forms of DSL, operating
at fixed rate of 144 Kbps in both directions. The advantage for ISDN customers is
that they can use their existing equipment, but the actual speed gain is typically
only 16 Kbps (ISDN runs at 128 Kbps).

• Very high bit-rate DSL (VDSL) - An extremely fast connection, VDSL is asymmetric,
but only works over a short distance using standard copper phone wiring.

• Multirate Symmetric DSL (MSDSL) - This is Symmetric DSL that is capable of more
than one transfer rate. The transfer rate is set by the service provider, typically
based on the service (price) level.

• Rate Adaptive DSL (RADSL) - This is a popular variation of ADSL that allows
the modem to adjust the speed of the connection depending on the length
and quality of the line.
Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 139
2.8 Modem
2.8.7) DSL Type (continue)
• Symmetric DSL (SDSL) - Like HDSL, this version receives and sends data at the
same speed. While SDSL also requires a separate line from your phone, it uses only
a single line instead of the two used by HDSL.

• Voice-over DSL (VoDSL) - A type of IP telephony, VoDSL allows multiple phone


lines to be combined into a single phone line that also includes data-transmission
capabilities.
Max. Max.
DSL Max. Lines Phone
Send Receive
Type Distance Required Support
Speed Speed
18,000 ft
ADSL 800 Kbps 8 Mbps 1 Yes
(5,500 m)

12,000 ft
HDSL 1.54 Mbps 1.54 Mbps 2 No
(3,650 m)

35,000 ft
IDSL 144 Kbps 144 Kbps 1 No
(10,700 m)

29,000 ft
MSDSL 2 Mbps 2 Mbps 1 No
(8,800 m)

18,000 ft
RADSL 1 Mbps 7 Mbps 1 Yes
(5,500 m)

22,000 ft
SDSL 2.3 Mbps 2.3 Mbps 1 No
(6,700 m)

4,000 ft
VDSL 16 Mbps 52 Mbps 1 Yes
(1,200 m)
Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 140
2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.1) Network Overview
• Network - a group of computers connected together in a way that allows
information to be exchanged between the computers.

• Node - A node is anything that is connected to the network. While a node is


typically a computer, it can also be something like a printer or CD-ROM tower

• Segment - A segment is any portion of a network that is separated, by a switch,


bridge or router, from other parts of the network

• Backbone - The backbone is the main cabling of a network that all of the
segments connect to. Typically, the backbone is capable of carrying more
information than the individual segments. For example, each segment may have a
transfer rate of 10 Mbps (megabits per second), while the backbone may operate
at 100 Mbps

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 141


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.1) Network Overview
• Topology - Topology is the way that each node is physically connected to the
network

• Local Area Network (LAN) - A LAN is a network of computers that are in the
same general physical location, usually within a building or a campus. If the
computers are far apart (such as across town or in different cities), then a Wide
Area Network (WAN) is typically used

• Network Interface Card (NIC) - Every computer (and most other devices) is
connected to a network through an NIC. In most desktop computers, this is an
Ethernet card (normally 10 or 100 Mbps) that is plugged into a slot on the
computer's motherboard

• Media Access Control (MAC) address - This is the physical address of any
device -- such as the NIC in a computer -- on the network. The MAC address,
which is made up of two equal parts, is 6 bytes long. The first 3 bytes identify the
company that made the NIC. The second 3 bytes are the serial number of the NIC
itself

• Unicast - A unicast is a transmission from one node addressed specifically to


another node

• Multicast - In a multicast, a node sends a packet addressed to a special group


address. Devices that are interested in this group register to receive packets
addressed to the group. An example might be a Cisco router sending out an
update to all of the other Cisco routers
Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 142
• Broadcast - In a broadcast, a node sends out a packet that is intended for
transmission to all other nodes on the network
2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.2) LAN Component
• Network Interface Card (NIC)

• Writing Hub

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 143


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.2) LAN Component
• Cables or Transmission Media

• Network Cabling
• Coaxial cable

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 144


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.2) LAN Component
• Cables or Transmission Media

• Network Cabling (continue)


• Twisted-pair (or copper)

• Fiber-optic cable

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 145


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.3) Bandwidth
• A rate of data transfer, or bit rate, measured in bits per second
• Difference between the highest and the lowest
frequencies available for network signals. This quantity is
measured in Megahertz (MHz)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 146


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.3) LAN Topology
• Bus - Each node is daisy-chained (connected one right after the
other) along the same backbone, similar to Christmas lights.
Information sent from a node travels along the backbone until it
reaches its destination node. Each end of a bus network must be
terminated with a resistor to keep the signal that is sent by a node
across the network from bouncing back when it reaches the end of
the cable.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 147


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.3) LAN Topology (continue)
• Ring - Like a bus network, rings have the nodes daisy-chained. The difference is that the
end of the network comes back around to the first node, creating a complete circuit. In
a ring network, each node takes a turn sending and receiving information through the
use of a token. The token, along with any data, is sent from the first node to the second
node, which extracts the data addressed to it and adds any data it wishes to send. Then,
the second node passes the token and data to the third node, and so on until it comes
back around to the first node again. Only the node with the token is allowed to send
data. All other nodes must wait for the token to come to them.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 148


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.3) LAN Topology (continue)
• Star - In a star network, each node is connected to a central device
called a hub. The hub takes a signal that comes from any node and passes
it along to all the other nodes in the network. A hub does not perform
any type of filtering or routing of the data. It is simply a junction that joins
all the different nodes together.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 149


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.3) LAN Topology (continue)
• Star bus - Probably the most common network topology in use today,
star bus combines elements of the star and bus topologies to create a
versatile network environment. Nodes in particular areas are connected
to hubs (creating stars), and the hubs are connected together along the
network backbone (like a bus network). Quite often, stars are nested
within stars

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 150


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.4) LAN Devices
• Hub

• Bridge

• Switches

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 151


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.4) LAN Devices (continue)
• Router
•A device that forwards data packets along networks.
•A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs
or WANs or a LAN and its ISP’s network.
•Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more
networks connect.
•Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path
for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to
communicate with each other and configure the best route between any
two hosts.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 152


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.5) LAN Technology
• Ethernet
• Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology
because it strikes a good balance between speed, cost, and ease of
installation
• Supports virtually all network protocols
• Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802.3 which raises speed from 10
Mbps to 100 Mbps
• Gigabit Ethernet is an extension of IEEE 802.3 which increases
speeds to 1000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps

• Ethernet Protocol Name

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 153


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.5) LAN Technology
• Ethernet Protocol

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 154


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.6) Home Networking
• Residential local area network which used to connect
multiple devices within the home
• Connect 2 or more PCs for sharing files, printers, and a single
connection to the Internet (usually broadband Internet
through a cable or DSL provider)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 155


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.7) Home Networking Devices

• A broadband modem for connection to the internet (either a DSL modem using
the phone line, or cable modem using the cable internet connection)

DSL Modem

Cable Modem

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 156


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.7) Home Networking Devices (continue)

• A residential gateway/router connected between the broadband modem and the


rest of the network. This enables multiple devices to connect to the internet
simultaneously. Residential gateways, hubs/switches, DSL modems, and wireless
access points are often combined.

Wired Router
Wired Router Layout

Wireless Router Layout

Wireless Router

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 157


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.7) Home Networking Devices (continue)

• A wireless access point, usually implemented as a feature rather than


a separate box, for connecting wireless devices

New Wireless Network Setup – Wireless Router Existing Wired Router – Wireless Access Point

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 158


2.9 Local Area Network (LAN)
2.9.7) Home Networking Devices (continue)

• A Physical layout of Streamyx Broadband Services

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 159


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.1) What is Graphic Card?

- Output Devices
- As a “Translator” which convert binary data from CPU into
picture
- Consists of GPU, Memory, Motherboard & Monitor connection

DVI Port S-Video


(TV Out)
VGA Port

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 160


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.2) What inside Graphic Card?

a) Print Circuit Board


i) Motherboard
- Houses GPU & RAM
- BIOS (input/output system) stores the card’s setting & perform
diagnostics.
ii) GPU (Graphics Processor Unit)

- Perform complex mathematical & geometric calculations.


- Usually cover with heat sink due to a lot of heat generated.
- ATI & nVidia cover up majority of GPUs market.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 161


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.2) What inside Graphic Card? (continue)

a) Print Circuit Board (continue)


iii) Video BIOS (Firmware)
- Basic program that governs video card operation.
- Contain information on memory timing, operation speeds & voltages

iv) Video Memory (VRAM)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 162


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.2) What inside Graphic Card? (continue)

a) Print Circuit Board (continue)


iv) Video Memory (VRAM) (continue)
- Act as frame buffer which hold information until suitable time to display.
- Capacity from 32MB to 1024MB
- Base on DDR & GDDR Technology
- Memory Clock in between 400 MHz and 1.6 GHz.
- Operate very high speeds & can read & write at the same time.
- Connect to DAC (digital-to-anolog converter) which translate the image
into anolog signal that monitor can use.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 163


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.2) What inside Graphic Card? (continue)
b) Interface Connector
- VGA (Video Graphic Array) Outputs (D-Sub)

- DVI (Digital Visual Interface) Output

- Composite Video

- S-Video

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 164


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.2) What inside Graphic Card? (continue)

b) Interface Connector (continue)


- Component Video (Y, Pb, Pr)

- HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface)


- Support both Video & Audio information in same cable.
- Created for TV/Movie application

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 165


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.3) Graphic Card Interface
a) PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

Graphic Card Connector

Graphic Card Motherboard’s Connector

- Maximum 65 bit wide bus that run at 66 MHz


- Bandwidth of 133 MB/s

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 166


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.3) Graphic Card Interface (continue)
b) AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port)

- Based on PCI re. 2.1 specification


- Directly read/write capabilities with system memory
- Bandwidth/Data Rate up to 2.1 GB/s / AGP 8x
Operate Signaling
Version Channel Frequrency Data Rate Voltage
AGP 1x 32-bit 66 MHz 266 MB/s 3.3 V
AGP 2x 32-bit 133 MHz 533 MB/s 3.3 V
AGP 4x 32-bit 266 MHz 1066 MB/s 1.5 V
AGP 8x 32-bit 533 MHz 2133 MB/s 0.8 V

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 167


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.3) Graphic Card Interface (continue)
c) PCI-E/PCIe (PCI Express)
- Maximum Bandwidth of 80 Gb/s for x16 lanes.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 168


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.3) Graphic Card Interface (continue)
d) PCIe Lanes

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 169


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.4) Type of Graphic Card
a) NVIDIA (Geforce Series)
i) GeForce 8 Series
ii) Geforce 7 Series
iii) Geforce 6 Series GPUs

b) NVIDIA (Quadro Series)


i) FX 4500 SDI
ii) FX 4000 SDI
iii) FX 4500

c) ATI Radeon (R300 PCIe Series)


i) Radeon Xpress 200 IGP
ii) Radeon Xpress 1100 IGP
iii) Radeon Xpress 1150 IGP
iv) Radeon Xpress 300 SE

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 170


2.10 Graphic Card
2.10.4) Type of Graphic Card (continue)
d) ATI Radeon (R400 PCIe Series)
i) Radeon Xpress 1250 IGP
ii) Radeon Xpress 1270 IGP
iii) Radeon Xpress 1250 IGP

e) ATI Radeon (R500 PCIe Series)


i) Radeon Xpress 1300
ii) Radeon Xpress 1550
iii) Radeon Xpress 1600

f) ATI Radeon (R600 PCIe Series)


i) Radeon 780 IGP
ii) Radeon HD 2350
iii) Radeon HD 2400
iv) Radeon HD 2600
v) Radeon HD 2900

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 171


2.11 Keyboard
2.11.1) What is Keyboard
- Like an eyes & ears
- Use to control computers
- Series of switches connected to microprocessor to initiates response of
changes
- A typing or input devices
- To type a document, keystroke shortcuts, access menu, play games
- Part of a laptop or attach to the computer

2.11.2) Types of Keyboard


- 101-key Enhanced keyboard
- 104-key Windows keyboard
- 82-key apple standard keyboard
- 108-key Apple Extended keyboard

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 172


2.11 Keyboard
2.11.3) Common Keyboard Keys

i) Typing keys
- letters of an alphabet
- same pattern layout (QWERT) as typewriters
- others layout is Dvorak, ABCDE, XPeRT, QWERTZ & AZERTY

ii) Numeric keypad


- Data entry (0 to 9)
- 17 keys
- Same configuration as adding machines & calculators

iii) Function key


- Arranged in a line across the top of keyboard
- F1 to F12

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 173


2.11 Keyboard
2.11.3) Common Keyboard Keys (continue)
iv) Control key
- Arrow keys
- Home, End
- Insert, Delete
- Page Up, Page Down
- Control (Ctrl), Alternate (Alt)
- Escape (Esc)
- Windows/Start

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 174


2.11 Keyboard
2.11.4) What inside Keyboard?
i) Microprocessor & controller circuitry

ii) Key Matrix


- Grid of circuits underneath the keys
- Press a key, it presses a switch, allowing current to through.
- Mechanical action of the switch causes vibration, called bounce.
- Character map is a comparison chart or lookup table

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 175


2.11 Keyboard
2.11.5) Keyboard Switches
i) Dome-switch
- Also called direct-switch keyboards
- Kind of hybrid of membrane & mechanical keyboard
- Bring two circuit board trances together under a rubber “dome” or
bubble

ii) Scissor-switch
- The keys are attached to the keyboard via two plastic piece interlock like a
scissor.
- Mainly used in laptop/notebook.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 176


2.11 Keyboard
2.11.5) Keyboard Switches (continue)
iii) Capacitive
- Pressing the key changes the capacitance of a pattern printed on a
PC
board
- Resist wear, foreign objects & dirt

iv) Mechanical-switch
- Use real switches, one under each key.
- Mainly used in Apple Extended II.

v) Membrane
- Flat
- Often found on microwave ovens/photocopies
- Consists of 3 layers
1) Top layer has a label printed on front & conductive stripes printed on the
back.
2) Spacer layer, holds the front & back layer apart
3) Back layer has conductive stripes printed perpendicularly to those of the
front
layer
Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 177
vi) Roll-up
2.11 Keyboard
2.11.6) Connection Types
i) PS/2

ii) USB (Universal Serial Bus)

iii) Wireless
- Infrared (IR), radio frequency (RF) or Bluetooth connections.
- Require a receiver to be plug into USB port.
- AC power connection or batteries for power.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 178


2.12 Mouse
2.12.1) What is Mouse?
- Input or Pointing Devices
- To control a cursor to manipulate data without complicated
command

2.12.2) What inside Mouse?

Electrical
Controller Mechanical Portion
(DSP)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 179


2.12 Mouse
2.12.3) Type of Mouse
a) Mechanical Mouse
- Set on flat surface
- Distance & speed of the rollers determine how far the cursor
moves on the screen

b) Optical Mouse
- Light-emitting diode (LED) & photodiodes to detect the
movement relative to underlying surface.

- Benefit of Optical Mouse over Mechanical Mouse


i) No moving parts means less wear and a lower chance of failure.
ii) There's no way for dirt to get inside the mouse and interfere with the
tracking sensors.
iii) Increased tracking resolution means smoother response.
iv) They don't require a special surface, such as a mouse pad.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 180


2.12 Mouse
2.12.3) Type of Mouse (continue)
c) Wireless Mouse
- Radio frequency (RF) technology for communication
- Two main components: a transmitter & receiver
- Benefit of Wireless Mouse
i) RF transmitters require low power and can run on batteries
ii) RF components are inexpensive RF components are light weight

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 181


2.12 Mouse
2.12.4) How a Mechanical Mouse Works
i) Moving the mouse turns the ball.
ii) X and Y rollers grip the ball and transfer movement.
iii) Optical encoding disks include light holes.
iv) Infrared LEDs shine through the disks.
v) Sensors gather light pulses to convert to X & Y velocities

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 182


2.12 Mouse
2.12.5) How an Optical Mouse Works
i) The CMOS sensor sends each image to a digital signal processor (DSP)
for
analysis.

ii) The DSP detects patterns in the images and examines how the patterns
have
moved since the previous image.

iii) Based on the change in patterns over a sequence of images, the DSP
determines how far the mouse has moved and sends the corresponding
coordinates to the computer.

iv) The computer moves the cursor on the screen based on the
coordinates
received from the mouse. This happens hundreds of times each second,
making the cursor appear to move very smoothly

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 183


2.12 Mouse
2.12.6) How an Wireless Mouse Works
i) The transmitter is housed in the mouse. It sends an electromagnetic (radio)
signal that encodes the information about the mouse's movements and the
buttons you click.

ii) The receiver, which is connected to your computer, accepts the signal,
decodes it and passes it on to the mouse driver software and your
computer's
operating system.

iii) The receiver can be a separate device that plugs into your computer, a
special
card that you place in an expansion slot, or a built-in component.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 184


2.12 Mouse
2.12.7) Data Interface
- USB

- PS/2

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 185


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.1) What is Power Supply
• Supplies power to a computer
• Also call “Switching Power Supplier”
• Use switcher technology to convert the alternating current (AC) to
direct current (DC)
• Typical voltages supplied are 3.3 volts, 5 volts & 12 volts
• 3.3 & 5 volts used by digital circuits
• 12 volt used t run motors in disk drives & fans
• Main specification of power supply is watts (voltage x current)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 186


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.2) Basic Component of PSU
• Cover - square metal box. Dimensions of an ATX PSU are usually 150 x 86
x 140mm

• On-off Switch - manual switch on the back to ensure that the computer is
truly off and no power is being sent to the components

• Fan - 80mm or 120mm or even a 140mm fan to cool it’s components and
exhaust the heat out the back

Power Connectors

On-off Switch

Power Cord
Cover Port
Fan

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 187


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.2) Basic Component of PSU (continue)
• Main Power Connectors (also called 20- or 24-pin ATX connector) - the
connector that goes to the motherboard to provide the power.

• ATX12V 4-pin power connector (also called “CPU power connector”) - a


2nd connector that goes to the motherboard that brings extra power to
the CPU socket area

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 188


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.2) Basic Component of PSU (continue)
• 4-pin peripheral power connectors (also known as Molex connectors)
which for various drives e.g. Hard disk, CD/DVD-ROM

• Serial ATA (SATA) power connectors - a 15-pin connector for components


which use SATA power plugs e.g. SATA Hard disks

SATA Power
Connector
Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 189
2.13 Power Supply
2.13.2) Basic Component of PSU (continue)
• 6-pin & 8-pin PCI-E power connector

8-pin PCI-E Power Connector 6-pin PCI-E Power Connector

• Power Rating for PCI-E Graphic Card

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 190


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.3) How Power Supplies Work
• Used Transformers & Capacitors to convert Line Voltage at 120
volts & 60 herts into 5 volts & 12 volts DC

Transformer

Capacitors

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 191


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.4) Power Supply Terms
1) Watt
- The accepted market rating for power supplies
- Watts = Volts(v) x Amps(A)
- This formula is important to calculate the wattage on each rail

2) Rails
- Every power supply has many rails. Each rail is rated for a
specific voltage, and will always carry that voltage no matter
how many devices are connected to it
- However, each rail has an AMPERE RATING (A). The more devices
you connect to each rail, the lower the available amperage to the
rest of your computer system will be on that specific rail.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 192


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.5) Power Supplies Form Factor

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 193


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.6) How to read PSU Specification
• 1st Row - shows your AC input (your wall socket voltage i.e. 240v for Malaysia)
• 2nd Row - shows the DC output to all the rails (i.e. +3.3v, +5v, dual 12v rail
(+12V1 & +12V2), -12v, +5vsb)
• rd
3 Row - shows the Amperage (A) for each rail
• 4th Row - shows the maximum wattage for the rails

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 194


2.12 Power Supply
2.12.6) How to read PSU Specification (continue)
- Output Power Calculation

ATX/NLX, SFX & WTX form factor

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 195


2.13 Power Supply
2.13.7) How much Power do you need?

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 196


2.14 Printer
2.14
14..1 Printer Features
I) What is Printer?
- Devices that print text or graphics on physical print media such as paper

II) Printing Speed


- Speed is measured in ppm (pages per minute)

III) Printing Paper Type


- Continuous-Form Paper (don’t need to load in paper often)
- Single Sheet (can change to special paper easily, like letterhead or envelopes)

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 197


2.14 Printer
2.14
14..1 Printer Features (continue)
iv) Printing Quality
- Measure in print resolution or dot per inch(dpi)
- 1200 to 2400 dpi printers for graphics used while 600 dpi for normal printing

v) Printing Mode (what we saw from paper after printing)


- Typeface
- Styles (Bold, italic, underlined..)
- Size (measured in points, one point = 1/72 inch)
- Font
- Color
- Graphics

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 198


2.14 Printer
2.14.2) Inject Printer
• Introduction to Inject Printer
- Image is created by placing extremely small droplets of ink onto
paper
- Dots are extremely small (between 50 and 60 microns in diameter)
- Resolution up to 1440x720 dots per inch (dpi)
- Different colors combined to create photo-quality images

- Use Serial Printing Process

- Also use Line inject printer printing process

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 199


2.14 Printer
2.14.2) Inject Printer
• Inject Printer Features
- Quiet operation
- Capability to produce color images with photographic quality
- Expensive to maintenance compare with laser printing

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 200


2.14 Printer
2.14.2) Inject Printer
• What inside Inject Printer?

Print Head Assembly


i) Print Head – the core of inject printer which contains a series of nozzles
that
are used to spray drops of ink.
ii) Ink cartridges – come in various combinations (color & black in single &
separated cartridges)

Print Head Assembly

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 201


2.14 Printer
2.14.2) Inject Printer
• What inside Inject Printer?

Print Head Assembly (continue)


iii) Print Head Stepper Motor – moves the print head assembly (print head
&
ink cartridges) back & forth across the paper.

Stepper motors control the movement of most parts of an inject printer

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 202


2.14 Printer
2.14.2) Inject Printer
• What inside Inject Printer?

Print Head Assembly (continue)


iv) Belt – attach the print head assembly to the stepper motor.
v) Stabilizer bar – to ensure that movement is precise & controlled.

Stabilizer bar & Belt

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 203


2.14 Printer
2.14.2) Inject Printer
• What inside Inject Printer?

Paper Feed Assembly


i) Paper Tray/Feeder – to load the paper into.
ii) Rollers – pull the papers in from the tray or feeder.
iii) Paper feed stepper motor – supply powers the rollers to move the paper
in
the exact increment needed.
iv) Power supply – supply power to the printer

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 204


2.14 Printer
2.14.2) Inject Printer
• What inside Inject Printer?

Power Supply
- To supply power to the printer.

Control Circuitry
- To control mechanical aspects of operation.
- To decode information send from computer.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 205


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer

- Produces high quality text & graphics on printing media such as paper
- Images is produced by direct scanning of a laser beam across the
photoreceptor

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 206


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• What inside Laser Printer
- Static electricity
- As temporary “glue”
- Core component is photoreceptor

The path of a piece of paper through a laser printer Basic component of laser printer

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 207


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• How Laser Printer Works
- Roster image processing
- Each horizontal strip of dots across the page is known as
Raster/scan line .
- Raster Image Processor (RIP) is use to create an image to be
printed.
- Source material may encoded in Adobe PostScript(PS)/Printer
Command Language(PCL)/Unformatted text-only data.
- Raster Image Memory generate bit map of final pages by RIP.

Generating the raster image data


Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 208
2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• How Laser Printer Works (continue)
- Charging
- Corona wire projects an electrostatic charge onto
photoreceptor
(photosensitive drum or belt).

Applying a negative charge to the photosensitive drum

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 209


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• How Laser Printer Works (continue)
- Writing
- Laser is reflected onto photoreceptor (discharge certain points).
- The laser “draws” the letters & images to be printed as a pattern
of
electrical charges (electrostatic image)

How the bitmap is written to the photosensitive drum

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 210


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• How Laser Printer Works (continue)
- Developing
- Done by spreading positive charges toner, fine powder over the surface, making
the
latent image visible.

- Transferring
- Photoreceptor is pressed over paper, transferring the images.
- Discharged by the detac corona wire immediately after picking up the toner.

Note: before the paper rolls under the drum, it is given a negative charge by the
transfer
corona wire. This charge is stronger than negative charge of the electrostatic image,
so the paper can pull the toner powder away

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 211


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• How Laser Printer Works (continue)
- Fusing
- Paper passes through rollers in the fuser assembly where heat and
pressure bond the plastic powder to the paper.

- Cleaning
- Electrically neutral soft plastic blade cleans excess toner from the
photoreceptor and deposits into a waste reservoir

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 212


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• Printer Controller: The Conversation
- Receive, process & transfer page data
- Communicate through parallel/serial/USB port

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 213


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• Printer Controller: The Language
- Communicate between printer controller & host computer
- Common language is Printer Command Language (PCL) &
Postscript. Describe the page is vector form.

• Printer Controller: Setting up the Page


- Raster Image Processor (RIP) takes the arranges text/graphics
in
whole piece/piece by piece & break down into an array of
tiny
dots.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 214


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• Printer Controller: Laser Assembly
- A laser
- A movable mirror
- A lens

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 215


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• Scanning Process

Latent Image Creation

LED Scanning Process

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 216


2.14 Printer
2.14.3) Laser Printer
• Printer Features

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 217


2.15 Speaker
2.15.1) What is Speaker
- Output devices that able to produce sound for a given
instruction.

2.15.2) Type of Speaker


a) PC Speaker
- Also known as Multimedia Speakers commonly come with a
low-
power internal amplifier.
- Standard audio connection is a 3.5mm stereo jack plug (green).

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 218


2.15 Speaker
2.15.2) Type of Speaker (continue)
b) Loudspeakers
- Complete speaker system consists of an enclosure.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 219


2.15 Speaker
2.15.2) Type of Speaker (continue)
c) Sound card
- Computer expansion card that facilitates the input & output of
audio
signals to/from a computer.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 220


2.15 Speaker
2.15.2) Type of Speaker
d) Headphone
- Also known as earphones, headsets are a pair of small
loudspeaker
with a way of holding them close to ears.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 221


2.15 Speaker
2.15.2) Type of Speaker
e) Microphone
- Also known as mike or mic is an acoustic-to-electric
transducer
or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.

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2.15 Speaker
2.15.3) Common features of PC Speaker
a) LED power indicator
b) 3.5mm (1/8-inch) headphone jack
c) Controls for volume, bass & treble
d) A remote volume control

(a)

(c)
(b)

2.5mm mono,3.5mm mono and stereo &


6.3mm stereo jack plugs

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2.15 Speaker
2.15.4) Sound Basic
- Object produces sound when it vibrates in the air.
- Example of how to produces a sound (Bell)

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2.15 Speaker
2.15.5) Inside Speaker
- Speaker is the final translation machine which translate
electrical
signal back into physical vibrations to create sound waves.

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2.15 Speaker
2.14.5) Inside Speaker (continue)
I) Cone - made of paper/plastic/metal attached on wide end to
the
suspension.

II) Suspension/surround - allows the cone to move, attached to


the
metal frame, called the basket.

III) Voice coil - connected from the cone.

IV) Spider - hold the coil in position, but allow to move freely
back
& forth.

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2.15 Speaker
2.15.6) How Sound is produced

When the electrical current flowing through the voice coil changes direction,
the coil's polar orientation reverses. This changes the magnetic forces between
the voice coil and the permanent magnet, moving the coil and attached
diaphragm back and forth.

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2.15 Speaker
2.15.7) Type of Driver
I) Woofers - biggest drivers which are use to produce low
frequency
sounds.

II) Tweeters – to produce high frequency sounds

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2.15 Speaker
2.15.7) Type of Driver (continue)
III) Midrange – produce a range of frequency in the middle of
the
sound spectrum

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2.15 Speaker
2.15.8) Sealed Speaker Enclosures
III) Midrange – produce a range of frequency in the middle of
the
sound spectrum

In a sealed speaker setup, the driver diaphragm


A typical sealed speaker enclosure that compresses air in the enclosure when it moves in
holds a tweeter, a woofer and a midrange driver. and rarefies air when it moves out.

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 230


2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.1) Identify PC Switches, Ports & Connectors

Power On-
off Switch

Optical Drive Power


Button Cord
PS2 Port
PS2 Mouse
Keyboard
Connector
Connector
Parallel
VGA
Port
Connector
USB Port
Network
Power Switch Port
Microphone
Port Speaker
Port Headphone
Port
Reset Switch

USB Port
Front Panel
Front Panel Microphone Port
Speaker Port Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 231
2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.2) Plug in Cables on PC Connectors or Ports

Power Cord

VGA/Display
Cable

USB Cable
Network
Speaker Cable Cable

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2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.3) Turn On PC
• Press Power Switch

Press here
(Power
Switch)

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2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.3) Turn On PC
• POST screen on display on monitor

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2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.3) Turn On PC
• Loading Window

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2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.3) Turn On PC
• Window Welcome screen

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2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.3) Turn On PC
• User Selection

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2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.3) Turn On PC
• Window Desktop screen

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2.16 Turn On & Off Computer
2.16.4) Turn Off PC
• Shut Down & Switch off PC

Copyright@2008 Sirnatec IT Centre 239