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Dreapt` perpendicular` pe plan.

Distan\e [n spa\iu.

Probleme

Problema 1
Fie cubul ABCDABCD de latur` a.
Afla\i:
a) d(A; D);
b) d(A;BB);d(A;CC);d(C;AC);d(A;BD);
c) d(D; (ABC)); d(A; (ABD));
d) d(AD;AD); d(AD;BC); d(AD; BC);
e) d(AB; (DCC));
f) d((AAD); (BCC)).

1.a)

d(A; D) = ?

1.a)

d(A; D) = AD =

a a 2a a 2
2

1.b1)

d(A; BB) = ?

1.b1)

AB BB => d(A; BB) = AB = a

1.b2)

d(A; CC) = ?

1.b2)

CC (ABC), AC (ABC) => CC AC

d(A; CC) = AC

1.b2)

DABC, (m<(B) = 90o) => AC = a

d(A; CC) = AC = a

1.b3)

d(C; AC) = ?

1.b3)

CE AC => d(C; AC) = CE

1.b3)

CE = hDACC; DACC = dreptunghic

d(C; AC) = CE = (AC

. CC)/AC

a 6
3

1.b4)

d(A; BD) = ?

1.b4)

AO DB => d(A; DB) = AO

1.b4)

DB=AD=AB=

a 2 => DABD = echilateral

d(A;BD) = AO = hDABD =

a 6
2

1.c1)

d(D; (ABC)) = ?

1.c1)

DD (ABC) => d(D; (ABC)) = DD = a

1.c2)

d(A; (ABD)) = ?

1.c2)

AH (ABD) => d(A; (ABD)) = AH

1.c2)

AH = hDAAO; DAAO = D dreptunghic

d(A; (ABD)) = AH = (AO

. AA)/OA

a 3
3

1.d1)

d(AD; AD) = ?

1.d1)

AD | | AD; AA AD; AA AD

d(AD; AD) = AA = a

1.d2)

d(AD; BC) = ?

1.d2)

AD | | BC; AB BC; AB AD

d(AD; BC) = AB =

a 2

1.d3)

d(AD; BC) = ?

1.d3)

AD | | BC; AB AD; AB BC

d(AD; BC) = AB = a

1.e)

d(AB; (DCC)) = ?

1.e)

AB | | (DCC); BC AB; BC (DCC)

d(AB; (DCC) = BC = a

1.f)

d((AAD); (BCC)) = ?

1.f)

(AAD) | | (BCC); AB (AAD); AB (BCC)

d(AAD); (BCC)) = AB = a

Problema 2
{n paralelipipedul dreptunghic
ABCDABCD cu AD = 9 cm,
AB = 5 cm, AA = 12 cm, s` se afle:
a) d(A; BD);
b) d(B; DC);
c) d(C; BD);

2.a)

d(A; BD) = ?

2.a)

AA (ABC); AE BD; BD (ABC)


AE BD => d(A; BD) = AE

2.a)

DBAD, m(<A) = 90o => BD =

106 ; AE =

DAAE,m(<A)=90o=>AE=d(A,BD)

45
106

17289
106

2.b)

d(B; DC) = ?

2.b)

BC (DCC); CE DC; DC (DCC)


BE DC => d(B; DC) = BE

2.b)

DDCC, m(<C) =

90o

=> CE = 13;

DBCE,m(<C)=90o=>BE=d(B,DC))

AE =
=

60
13
17289
13

2.c)

d(C; BD) = ?

2.c)

CE BD => d(C; BD) = CE

2.c)

DDCC, m(<C) = 90o => CE = 13;


DBCD, m(<C) = 90o => DB =

5 10
117
o
DBCD,m(<C)=90 =>CE=d(C,BD) =
5 10

Problema 3
{n tetraedrul regulat VABC de latur` a, s` se
afle:
a) d(V; (ABC));
b) d(B; (VAC));
c) d(M; VC), unde M este mijlocul lui AB

3.a)

d(V, (ABC)) = ?

3.a)

VO (ABC) => d(V; (ABC)) = VO

3.a)

a 3
2
a
3
OC = (2/3).MC => DB =
3
a 6
o
DVOC,m(<O)=90 =>VO=d(V,(ABC)) =
3

DABC = echilateral => MC =

3.b)

d(B, (VAC)) = ?

3.b)

BB (VAC) => d(B; (VAC)) = BB

3.b)

VO ]i BB = [n`l\imi [n DVBN, unde VN = BN


=> BB = VO
VO = d(V,(ABC)) =

a 6
3

3.c)

d(M, VC) = ?

3.c)

MN VC => d(M; VC) = MN

3.c)

VM ]i CM = [n`l\imi [n DVAB, respectiv ABC


=> VM = CM = a 3 ;MN = [n`l\imea DVMC
2

=>MN2=MC2-CN2 =>

MN = d(M,VC) =

a 2
2

Problema 4
Fie piramida triunghiular` regulat` VABC cu
AB = 8 cm, ]i VB = 5 cm. Calcula\i:
a) d(V; (ABC));
b) d(C; VB);
c) d(M; VB), unde M este mijlocul lui AC
d) d(B; VM).

4.a)

d(V, (ABC)) = ?

4.a)

VO (ABC) => d(V; (ABC)) = VO

4.a)

VN ]i CN = [n`l\imi [n DVAB, respectiv ABC


8 3
4 3 ; CO = (2/3).CN = 8 3
=>CN=
2

3 8 6
=>VO2=VC2-CO2 =>VO=d(V,(ABC)) =
3

4.b)

d(C, VB) = ?

4.b)

CD VB => d(C; VB) = CD

4.b)

VE ]i CD=[n`l\imi [n DVBC=>VE.BC=CD.VB
=>VE2=VC2-EC2 => VE = 3
=>3.8 = CD.5 => CD = d(C, VB) = 24/5 = 4,8

4.c)

d(M, VB) = ?

4.c)

MN VB => d(M; VB) = MN

4.c)

Am constatat c` DVBM
are m(<BVM) > 180o.

MN = [n`l\ime [n DVBM => MN2 = BM2 - BN2


]i

MN2=VM2-VN2

=>

4 x 4 3
2

=> x = 7/10 => MN = d(M, VB) =

(5 x ) 2

1551
10

4.d)

d(B, VM) = ?

4.d)

BP VM => d(B; VM) = BP

4.d)

DVBM are
m(<BVM) > 180o.

MN ]i BP=[n`l\imi [n DVBM=>MN.VB=BP.VM
1551

5 BP 4
10
1551
=> BP = d(B, VM) =
8

Problema 5
{n piramida patrulater` regulat` VABCD cu
AB = 5 cm, ]i VA= 13
2 cm. Calcula\i:
a) d(V; (ABC));
b) d(A; VC);
c) d(B; VC);
d) O furnic` pleac` din D ]i merge p@n` [n B pe
fe\ele laterale ale piramidei. Afla\i lungimea
drumului cel mai scurt.

5.a)

d(V, (ABC)) = ?

5.a)

VO (ABC) => VO = d(V,(ABC))

5.a)

VAO are m(<O) = 90, VA = 13, AO = 5


T.P. => VO = 12. => d(V, (ABC)) = 12 cm

5.b)

d(A, VC) = ?

5.b)

AE VC => AE = d(A,VC)

5.b)

VAC are VA=VC = 13, AC = 10, VO = 12 ]i cum


AEVC = VOAC => AE = d(A,VC) = 120/13 cm

5.c)

d(B, VC) = ?

5.c)

BF VC => BF = d(B,VC)

5.c)

VBC are VA=VC = 13, BC = 5

2
=>VM
=

626
2

5 313
BFVC = VMBC => BF = d(B,VC) =
cm
13

5.d)

min(DF + FB) = ?

5.d)

VDBC = fe\ele VDB ]i VBC desf`]urate

5.d)

DF + FB = min => D,F,B = coliniare => DBVC => BF


5 313
=
cm
=> BF + FD = BD =
cm 10 313
13

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