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Industrial visit to Highland Factory

Digana

Group 01

Group 01
E.M.S.Udayakumara-GS/MSc/Food/3622/08

T.L.V.Peiris – GS/MSc/Food/3630/08

K.S.L. Perera - GS/MSc/Food/3630/08

B.A.R. Perera- GS/MSc/Food/3627/08

B.K.K.K. Jinadasa-GS/MSc/Food/3608/08

 
 
 
 

        . Today it has evolved in to 4 factories which are situated in Colombo. Ambewela Spray Dried Milk Powder Factory Started in 17th January 1974 with 5600 liters of fresh milk collected at Kotagala Chilling Centre. Colombo Milk Factory Colombo Milk Factory is a donation under the “Colombo Plan” by the government of New Zealand to Sri Lanka with the establishment of “National Milk Board” in 1956 and the factory was known as” Colombo Central Dairy ” Initially pasteurized milk in bottles were produced. Today Ambewela spray Dried Milk Powder Factory produces 10-13 Metric Tons from 110. Digana. Subsequent introduction of a modern yoghurt machine helped to increase the supply to the market. Pollonaruwa and posses a wide network of milk collection. Welimada. Furthermore in 1989 Butter production too started at this factory and today it produce about 33. Bandarawela. Haputhale and the surrounding areas. It commenced operations with a single Factory in Colombo donated under the Colombo Plan. Bibile. production and sales centers administrated through out the island and continue to contribute towards the enhancement of the rural economy while providing the much needed nutrition to the entire nation.About Milco Milco (Pvt) Ltd was established in 1956 as “The National Milk Board” under the Ministry of Agriculture. Ambewala. producing only 100 to 150 Lbs of Milk Powder per day.000 kilos of Butter. Next step was the addition of Ice cream and yoghurt to the product range. Later on production was expanded to manufacture of sterilized milk and butter with more donations and investment by other agencies.000 Liters of fresh Milk collected from 32 Milk Collecting centers from Passara.

” took over the administration of “Milk Industries of Lanka Company Limited”. acidophilus helps prevent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Yoghurt also has medical uses. Yoghurt has nutritional benefits beyond those of milk: people who are moderately lactose- intolerant can enjoy yoghurt without ill effects.         . The reduction of lactose bypasses the affected individuals' need to process the milk sugar themselves. There is wide range of yoghurt varieties all over the world. though the evidence is not conclusive. Pasteurized milk etc.000 liters per day Pasteurized milk etc. which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. What is yoghurt? Yoghurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.Initially the staff strength was 55 and processed 4000 – 5000 liters per day. possibly because of the probiotic effect of lactic acids present in yoghurt. in particular for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. which now stands as a 100 % government owned company. By now the staff strength is increased to 230 and processes around 11. Yoghurt is believed to promote good gum health. “Kiriya” was taken back by the government and in 2001 it was named as “Milco (Pvt) Ltd. because the lactose in the milk precursor is converted to lactic acid by the bacterial culture. Sterilized milk. cheese. By now the staff strength is increased to 230 and processes around 11.Digana Milk Factory The Digana Milk Factory was established in 1987 and as at present.Initially the staff strength was 55 and processed 4000 – 5000 liters per day. The most popular type of yoghurt in Sri Lanka is the “Set Yoghurt”. The earliest yoghurts were probably spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus.”. and in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.000 liters per day In 1986. After that in 1998 “Kiriya Milk Industries of Lanka (Pvt) Ltd. Fermentation of the milk sugar (lactose) produces lactic acid. There is evidence of cultured milk products being produced as food for at least 4. Later in 2000. Curd.500 years. manufactures many a number of Highland product range such as yoghurt. Ice cream. One study suggests that eating yoghurt containing L. the “National Milk Board” was converted into “Milk Industries of Lanka Company Limited” as a government owned company. The Yoghurt produce in Digana factory is a set yoghurt which consist of below nutritional values.

00mg 9. Flow diagram for yoghurt production Production of  Milk collection  Transportation to  Storage of  Pasturization of  milk by  by chilling  factory by  chilled milk  milk  farmers  centers  insulated trucks  at 40C  (72oC for 15sec) Heat  Homogenization  Raw materials  Separation and  Storage of  treatment of  550C‐150  mixing at 450C  Standardization  pasteurized  milk at 80oC  Kg/Cm2  1000L/h  700Lts  of milk  milk  for 30 mins  Cooling to  Culture  Filling  Incubation  Cold Storage  44oC  inoculation  44oC 2.00mcg Iron 0.56cal In addition to the standard set yoghurt they produce several varieties of flavoured yoghurts too such as Banana. Unsweetened yoghurt.09mg Phosphorous 130mg 4117mg Calcium 140mg 126mg Thiamin 10.00mg Riboflavin 150mcg 135mcg Energy 99.1mg 0.70g Protein 3.00g 2.04g 13.51cal 89. Mango and Vanilla.50g 3.Sugar or Colouring are not added 2. Nutrition Information Average Value Per 100g Per one Cup Fat 3. Production Process Digana milk factory produces 2 types of yoghurts 1.sugar and colourings are added.00mcg9.5‐3.53g Vitamin A 10.15g Carbohydrates15.5  4oC‐10 oC for     4500 cups/h  hrs  10 hrs  (2%)/ Flavour    addition      . Sweetened plain yoghurt.

Cooling         . This severe high heat treatment is necessary to produce a relatively sterilize and conductive environment for starter culture. Furthermore this denatures and coagulates whey proteins to enhance the viscosity and texture. Therefore spoilage of milk during transportation is prevented. Separation and Standardization of milk The pasteurized milk is then separated into skim milk and cream by centrifugation. Due to chilling the temperature is reduced and this leads to lowered enzyme activity of spoilage microorganisms. Storage of chilled milk At factory the milk brought in by insulated trucks are temporarily stored at 4oC until taken to used.Milk collection by chilling centers Milk is collected by from milk farmers by chilling centers and chilled. For milk the desired fat content is 3%. This increases stability and enhance the texture and consistency.In addition to thorough mixing Homogenization also prevents creaming and wheying off during incubation and storage. Heat treatment of milk The mixture which underwent the homogenization is then goes to a heat treatment where the milk is kept at 80oC for 30 minutes. Homogenization Mixture is homogenized at 55oC using a pressure of 150 Kg/cm2. After separation standardization is done to achieve the desired fat content for the product. Raw material mixing Milk. This will reduce the microbial load. Pasteurization of milk Stored milk is then pasteurized by HTST (high temperature short time) method by keeping milk at 72 oC for 15 seconds using a plate heat exchanger. Transportation to factory by insulated truck Due to insulation temperature variations do not occur during transportation. gelatin and sugar are added together and blended at 45oC using an agitator in a mixed tank.

The relatively high concentration of acetaldehyde (in the range of 5 to 21 mg/liter) found in yogurt must be due to a low utilization rate of this metabolite since the yogurt bacteria lack the main enzyme for acetaldehyde conversion into ethanol.7) is approached. Filling After the above step the mixture is filled into cups at a rate of 4500 cups per hour. Cold storage Due lactic acid formation the PH value of the mixture goes down. The production of acetaldehyde by LAB seems to be strain dependent. When it comes to iso electric point of casein (PH 4. and a mixture of various carbonyl compounds like acetone. chemical. There will be no agitation and this will facilitate the formation of yoghurt curd or “Coagulum”. This particular culture is an imported culture. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus .5 hrs for incubation. Enzymes with in the bacterial cells catalyze the lactic acid formation reaction. it sent to cold storage where yoghurt is stored at 4oC - 10oC for about 10 hours to hinder the fermentation. In this case the lowered PH coagulate the milk proteins. bulgaricus has been reported by some authors to be a greater acetaldehyde producer than S.5-3. diacetyl. Incubation Filled cups are then kept at 44oC for 2. L.The main roles of this mixed starter in the production of yogurt are (i) acidification through the conversion of lactose into lactic acid. alcohol dehydrogenase . Formation of coagulum is formed due conversion of lactose to lactic acid by starter culture bacteria. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. and acetaldehyde. which imparts an acidic and refreshing taste. (ii) creation of the viscous texture by the production of exopolysaccharides. Then this mixture is thoroughly agitated to ensure a even distribution of the culture throughout the mixture. microbiological and physical degradation. delbrueckii subsp. When mixture achieves this point 2% of freeze dried thermophilic lactic culture and flavours are added to the mix. and (iii) development of the typical yogurt flavor The typical yogurt flavor is caused by lactic acid.         . Lactic acid is a product formed due to partial oxidation of lactose sugar under anaerobic conditions by the organism. Enzyme activity related to the production of yoghurt Yogurt is a product obtained through milk fermentation with a specific yogurt starter culture consisting of a mixture of two species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This is the optimum temperature for bacterial starter culture to survive.6-4.The above mixture is then cooled down to 44oC. the latter of which is considered the major flavor component .

acetaldehyde can be produced directly from lactose metabolism as a result of pyruvate decarboxylation. acetyl Co-enzyme A. Finally. whereas other authors have reported the contrary. During yogurt fermentation.Although it is presently unclear what the major pathway for acetaldehyde production by LAB is. acetaldehyde can be formed by the activity of deoxyriboaldolase. Furthermore. several metabolic pathways have been shown to lead to its formation and it is possible that more than one metabolic pathway operate simultaneously. the only enzyme with TA activity (interconversion of threonine into acetaldehyde and glycine) seems to be the serine hydroxymethyltransferase         . In the yogurt bacterium S. thermophilus. while several amino acids can be converted into acetaldehyde via pyruvate as a metabolic intermediate. threonine can be directly converted into acetaldehyde and glycine by the activity of threonine aldolase (TA) Overview of different metabolic pathways in LAB that could lead to acetaldehyde formation Acetyl CoA. It can be produced (i) directly via pyruvate decarboxylase or pyruvate oxidase or (ii) indirectly through the formation of the intermediate acetyl coenzyme A by pyruvate dehydrogenase or pyruvate formate lyase.thermophilus. which degrades thymidine into acetaldehyde and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

This is an important enzyme involved not only in the formation of glycine and serine but also in the turnover of folate in all organisms. Quality control methods used at Digana milk factory         . This result indicates the absence of an alternative pathway for acetaldehyde production and thus establishes the importance of SHMT in the production of this key aroma compound. by Sri Lanka Standards Institution. the role of TA in acetaldehyde formation in mixed yogurt cultures is still not fully understood. it is very necessary to ensure that food product is safe for human consumption.1. These findings could be used to control and improve acetaldehyde production in fermented (dairy) products by using S. It was observed that the main pathway for acetaldehyde formation in this microorganism is through the activity of SHMT since the inactivation of the encoding glyA gene led to the almost complete abolition of TA activity. In this connection. These results indicate that. Following benefits were obtained after certification of this award. ISO 22000 is a integrated management system with management system and the Food Safety System named as HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) In this HACCP system it is aimed at preventing hazards at the earliest possible points in the food chain.1). and it has the necessary quality characteristics expected by the customers. thermophilus variants with improved flavor-forming characteristics and the improvement of acetaldehyde formation through the metabolic engineering of SHMT. Overexpression of the glyA gene showed an increase in TA activity and in acetaldehyde and folic acid formation. in S. In this regard.2. They also allow the selection of natural S. important facts are assuring quality and safety of the food while processing and delivering. Quality Assurance Food base industries are engaged in introducing different kind of food products to meet the customer satisfaction.However. thermophilus. The aim of this work was to investigate the role and importance of SHMT in the production of acetaldehyde by S.(SHMT. SHMT with its TA activity constitutes the main pathway for acetaldehyde formation under our experimental conditions. EC 2. thermophilus. the most acceptable recognized management system with regard to the quality and safety of food in the world are identified as ISO 22000: 2005. Therefore. Ambewela spray dried milk factory was awarded with ISO 22000 Food Safety Management System Certificate in the year 2007. thermophilus as starter culture.

Adulterants iii. The milk which is transported to factory from chilling centers are checked for below quality parameter i. 5. Fat iv.1. Standard GMP and GHP methods are in practice to avoid cross contamination.         . In collecting centers the quality of milk is tested by using lactometers 2.Microbial load ii. CIP (clean in place) system is in used to clan the equipments. Total soluble solids 3. 4. Yoghurt cups are randomly collected and checked for microbial quality after incubation.