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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING LAB MATERIAL

REPORT
Subject Code Code & Experiment Title Course Code Date Section / Group Name Members of Group BFC 21201 BUCKLING OF STRUTS 2 BFF/1 03/10/2011 2 MUHAMAD ASYRAF BIN AB MALIK 1.MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN 2.AHMAD FARHAN BIN RAKAWI 3.IDAMAZLIZA BINTI ISA 4.AINUN NAZHIRIN BINTI ABD JALIL EN MOHAMAD HAIRI BIN OSMAN 17 OCTOBER 2011

(DF100108) (DF100018) (DF100142) (DF100128) (DF100076)

Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor Received Date

Comment by examiner

Received

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UTHM

We, hereby confess that we have prepared this report on our effort. We also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.
___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMAD ASYRAF AB MALIK Name ___________________________ Student Signature : IDAMAZLIZA ISA

Matric No. : DF100108 Date : 17/10/2011

Matric No. : DF100128 Date : 17/10/2011

___________________________ Student Signature Name : AHMAD FARHAN RAKAWI Name

___________________________ Student Signature : AINUN NAZHIRIN ABD JALIL

Matric No. : DF100142 Date : 17/10/2011

Matric No. : DF100076 Date : 17/10/2011

_______________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD IKHWAN ZAINUDDIN

Matric No. : DF100018 Date : 17/10/2011

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OBJECTIVE 1.1 To examine how shear force varies with an increasing point load. 1.2 To examine how shear force varies at the cut position of the beam for various loading condition.

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LEARNING OUTCOME 2.1 The application the engineering knowledge in practical application. 2.2 To enhance technical competency in structural engineering through laboratory application. 2.3 To communicate effectively in group. 2.4 To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through laboratory application.

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INTRODUCTION A compressive member can fail in two ways. The first is via rupture due to the direct stress and the second is by an elastic mode of failure called buckling. Short wide compressive member tends to fail by material crushing. When buckling occurs the strut will no longer carry any more load and it will simply continue to buckle i.e its stiffness then becomes zero and it is useless as a structural member.

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THEORY To predict the buckling load Euler buckling formula is used. The crictical value in Euler Formula is the slenderness ratio, which is the ratio of the length of the strut to its radius of gyration (L/K). The Euler formula become inaccurate for struts with L/K ratio of less than 1.125 and this should be taken into account in any design work.

Euler buckling formula for pin struts: Pe=2EI/L2 Where; Pe = Euler buckling load (N) E = Youngs Modulus (Nm-2) I = Second moment of area ( m4 ) L = length of strut ( m )

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APPARATUS

Buckling of Strut Digital Display Force

Buckling of Strut Equipment

Steel Strut

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PROCEDURES

Part 1 1. Fit the bottom chuck to the machine and remove the top chuck (to give two pinned ends). Select the shortest strut, number 1, and measured the cross section using the vernier provided and calculated the second moment of area, I,for the strut. ( bd3/12) 2. Adjust the position of the sliding crosshead to accept the strut using the thumbnut to lock off the slider. Ensure that there is the maximum amount of travel available on the hand wheel threat to compress the strut. Finally tighten the locking screw . 3. Carefully back- off the handwheel so that the strut is resting in the notch but not transmitting any load. Rezero the forcemeter using the front panel control. 4. Carefully start to load the strut. If the strut begin to buckle to the left, flick the strut to the right and vice versa (this reduces any error associated wih the straightness of strut). Turn the hand wheel until there is no further increase in load (the load may peak and then drop as it settles in the notches). 5. Record the final load in Table 1. Repeat with strut numbers 2, 3, 4 and 5 adjusting the crosshead as required to fit the strut.

Part 2 1. To study the effect of end conditions, follow the same basic procedure as in part 1, but this time remove the bottom chuck and clamp the specimen using the cap head screw and plate to make a pinned-fixed end condition. 2. Record your result in Table 2 and calculate the values of 1/ L2 for the struts. 3. Fit the top chuck with the two cap head screws and clamp both ends of the specimen to make a pinned pinned end condition. Calculate the new values of 1/L2. 4. Enter the result into Table 3

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RESULTS

Strut Number 1 2 3 4 5

Length (m) 0.32 0.37 0.42 0.47 0.52

Buckling Load (N) Experiment -92 -56 -24 -13 -16 Table 1

Buckling Load (N) Theory 88.65 66.31 51.46 41.09 33.57

Strut Number 1 2 3 4 5

Length (m) 0.32 0.37 0.42 0.47 0.52

Buckling Load (N) -196 -106 -105 -101 -48 Table2

Buckling Load (N) Theory 177.30 132.62 102.92 82.19 67.14

1/L2 ( m-2) 9.77 7.30 5.67 4.53 3.70

Strut Number 1 2 3 4 5

Length (m) 0.32 0.37 0.42 0.47 0.52

Buckling Load (N) -397 -284 -252 -174 -155 Table 3

Buckling Load (N) Theory 354.60 265.24 205.85 164.38 134.29

1/L2 ( m-2)

9.77 7.30 5.67 4.53 3.70

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DATA ANALYSIS Part 1 To calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory ( pinned-pinned end condition) Pe = 2 EI/L2 = 2 ( 69 x 10 9 ) ( 13.33 x 10 -12 ) 0.322 = 88.65 N I = bd3 12 = ( 0.02 ) ( 2 x 10 -3 ) 12 = 13.33 x 10 -12 m

Part 2 To calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory ( pinned-fixed end condition) Pe = 22 EI/L2 = 22 ( 69 x 109 ) ( 13.33 x 10 -12 ) 0.322 = 177.30 N I = bd3 12 = ( 0.02 ) ( 2 x 10 -3 ) 12 = 13.33 x 10 -12 m Part 3 To calculate Buckling Load (N) Theory ( fixed-fixed end condition) Pe = 42 EI/L2 = 42 ( 69 x 109 ) ( 13.33 x 10 -12 ) 0.322 = 354.60 N I = bd3 12 = ( 0.02 ) ( 2 x 10 -3 ) 12 = 13.33 x 10 -12 m

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DISCUSSION Part 1: 1) Examine the Euler buckling equation and select an appropriate parameter to establish a linear relationship between the buckling load and the length of the strut. Write the relationship below.

Based Eular formula and Table 1, 2 and 3, Pe = Euler buckling load (N), L = length

We can consider that when L is bigger, Pe will be small, relation between buckling load and the length of the strut is inversely proportional in linear condition.

2) Calculate the value and enter them in Table 1 with an appropriate title. Show on Table 1 using formula: ( )

3) Plot a graph to prove the relationship is linear. Compare your experimental value to those calculated from Euler formula by entering a theoretical line onto the graph. Comment on the result. Graph plotted = In the graph paper.

Base on the graft that we plotted, the difference to the end of the pins for the results of gradient experiments is 1.46 and the slope of the theoretical calculation results of 1.28. Difference to the fixed -pin end of the gradient experiment results were 1.33 and gradient theory results of the calculation is 1.29. In addition, the differences for fixedfixed end conditions are for the gradient experiment results are 1.25 and theoretical calculations are the result of the slope is 1.25. This experiment result shows that the slope is greater than the slope of the calculation results. In practice, the buckling of the experiment is higher than theoretical.

4) Explain that the Euler Formula can predict the buckling load or not. Euler Formula can predict the buckling load, because the ratio between the Buckling Load (N) and the 1/L (m) is consistence within the graft, and show accurately that inversely proportional as approve at point 0,0 when the length is 0, then the buckling Load should be 0.

Part 2: 1. Plot separate graphs of buckling load versus 1/ L2 and calculate the gradient of each line. Graph Plotted = In Graph Paper. Gradient in the graph plotted.

2. Fill the table below showing the comparison between experimental and theoretical ratio by end condition Pinned-Pinned Experimental Gradient Experimental Ratio Theoretical Ratio 1.28/1.28=1 1.29/1.28 = 1.008 1.25/1.28 = 0.98 1.46/1.46 = 1 1.33/1.46 = 0.911 1.25/1.46 = 0.86 1.46 Pinned-Fixed 1.33 Fixed-Fixed 1.25

Notes: 1. *Use the experimental gradient fom Part 1 2. Experimental ratio = Exp. Gradient / gradient of pinned-pinned. 3. Theoretical ratio can be obtained from Euler Formula for pinnedfixed and fixed-fixed.

3. Comment on the experimental and theoretical ratio. From the table, experimental ratio is not consistence with the usage of end of connection, we basically we know that the fixed end is much stronger than the pins end as per theoretical ratio value. This shows the more force should be imposed on the members of the joint fixed-fixed end compared to the pin-pin connection. When one of the end is changed from pin end to fix end, the ratio is two times larger than the pinned-pinned, it the same case happed when both of the end changed to Fixed-fixed end. The experimental ratio is not consistence with theoretical ratio because there was several errors when conduct the experiment, such as the screw is not tightens carefully, the sliding crosshead are not tighten to the experiment apparatus.

4.

What conclusion can you made from the experiments. Based from the experiment of Buckling of Strut, we can conclude that Fixed end is much stronger than the Pinned end and more force should be imposed on the member of the joint fixed-fixed end connection, but in other criteria the usage in fixed end connection usually apply for concrete beam or column connection, The Pinned end is used for Steel connection because, usually fixed end connection is for permanent connection, steel always use bolt and nut rather than weld fabricating connection.

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CONCLUSION Based from the experiment of Buckling of Strut, we can conclude that Fixed end were

much stronger than the Pinned end and more force should be imposed on the member of the joint fixed-fixed end connection, but in other criteria the usage in fixed end connection usually apply for concrete beam or column connection. The Pinned end is used for Steel connection because,it is usually fixed end connection is for permanent connection..