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FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING


ENGINEERING GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY REPORT
SUBJECT CODE TEST CODE & TITLE COURSE CODE TESTING DATE STUDENT NAME SECTION/GROUP GROUP MEMBER NAMES BFC 21303 SITE VISIT MINYAK BEKU AYER HITAM BFF 17 APRIL 2011 MUHAMMAD RIDHWAN BIN KAMARUDIN (DF100038) SECTION 1 1. MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN (DF100018) 2.MUHAMMAD ZAMIR BIN SAMEON (DF100065) 3.MUKHLIS BIN ADAM (DF100080) 4. MUHAMMAD NUH BIN AHMAD ZAIRI (DF100093) 5. HANISAH BINTI HAMZAH (DF100052) LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR NAME REPORT RECEIVED DATE MARKS 21 APRIL 2011 ATTENDANCE, DISCIPLINE & INVOLVEMENT DATA ANALYSES RESULT DISCUSSION CONCLUSION TOTAL EXAMINER COMMENT /20% /20% /25% /20% /100% RECEIVED STAMP /15% IR. AGUS BIN SULAEMAN

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD ZAMIR BIN SAMEON

Matric No. : DF100065 Date : 21/04/2011

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN

Matric No. : DF100018 Date : 21/04/2011

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD NUH BIN AHMAD ZAIRI

Matric No. : DF100093 Date : 21/04/2011

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD RIDHWAN BIN KAMARUDIN

Matric No. : DF100038 Date : 21/04/2011

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUKHLIS BIN ADAM

Matric No. : DF100080 Date : 21/04/2011

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF GEOTECHNICAL & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

UTHM
I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

___________________________ Student Signature Name : HANISAH BINTI HAMZAH

Matric No. : DF100052 Date : 21/04/2011

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

1.0

TRIP INTRODUCTION The trip to Minyak Beku Beach, Batu Pahat is a programmer that oriented by

the academic under Engineering Geology Subject, BFC 3103. This programmer focused more in career exposure in engineering field especially geology field. Geology plays an important role in determine the stabilization for cut slope of rock at the highway. Other than that, this trip also give the exposure to the students about the building material and raw material that oriented by the geology material. This programmer will giving the big and effectively impact in increasing academic and career quality in a long term. We choose the place because it will give exposure to the students or participants in determine cut slope stability and recovering method. 1.1 Objective This Geology trip is for: Introduce student about the real rock and the classification of the rock at site. Explain more detail about the formed of the rock with the occurrence along time ago in geology engineering. Study about the rock that we found and the certain place at Johor. Learn how to collect the data in the real situation. Expose the participant about the geology rock investigation in engineering field. Understand the work environment for geology engineer. Achieve the national leadership vision for the social-economy development. See clearly about the geology problem at the Minyak Beku, Batu Pahat, Johor area. Investigate about the rock structure at the slope in Minyak Beku, Batu Pahat, Johor area.

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

2.0

DIARY 17 APRIL 2011, SUNDAY (GROUP MORNING) 8.30 am Students gathered at Dataran Anggerik. Registration and went to Pantai Minyak Beku

9.50 am We arrive at Pantai Minyak Beku Get a safety helmet for each person Move to our location

10.00 am Briefing by Lecturer Ir. Agus Sulaeman about the types of the rock and history of this place. We were instructed by lecturer to identify the type of rock, joint, slope, fold, fracture and etc.

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

10.15 am We were given information by lecturer about the step to do a fieldwork. In this location, we were distributing to several team base on session respectively. We were provided with equipment (a compass, hammer and Schmidt Hammer). We must do some research about the failure mode and do some calculations about the dip direction and dip angle. Once over, we were instructed to go back to the bus.

11.10 am Move to Ayer Hitam Briefing by Lecturer Ir. Agus Sulaeman about the types of the rock and history of this place. 12.45 pm We arrive UTHM

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

3.0 3.1

CONTENT Introduction

3.1.1 Geological Engineering It is an interdisciplinary field, in which principles of geosciences are used to solve engineering and environmental problems. It connects geology, civil engineering and other fields (e.g. mining, geography, forestry) to provide a versatile set of skills applicable to a wide range of contemporary problems. The UBC program is an accredited engineering program, so our graduates hold full responsibilities as registered engineering professionals. The qualifications of a geological engineer are similar to those of a civil engineer with geotechnical or environmental specialization. However, our graduates have the advantage of better understanding of geological processes. Geological Engineering is the application of the earth sciences to human problems that relate to Earth and earth systems. It is a broad, interdisciplinary field with many specialty areas such as: Geotechnical site investigation for a variety of projects, rock and soil slope stability, Environmental site characterization and planning, Hydrogeology, groundwater studies and engineering. Natural and man made hazard investigations. Exploration and development of fossil fuel and mineral deposits. Engineering geologic studies are performed by a geologist or engineering geologist educated, professionally trained and skilled at the recognition and analysis of geologic hazards and adverse geologic conditions. Their overall objective is the protection of life and property against damage and the solution of geologic problems. Engineering geologic studies may be performed: For residential, commercial and industrial developments; For governmental and military installations; For mine and quarry excavations, mine tailing dam, mine reclamation and mine tunneling; For wetland and habitat restoration programs;
SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

For coastal engineering, sand replenishment, bluff or sea cliff stability, harbor, pier and waterfront development; For offshore outfall, drilling platform and sub-sea pipeline, sub-sea cable; and For other types of facilities.

3.1.2 Pantai Minyak Beku History has it that Minyak Beku was founded by Daeng Ahmad, a distant descendant of Bugis royalty, in 1811, under the rule of Dato' Temenggung Abdul Rahman Sri Maharaja Johor who wished for a settlement to be created in the west coast of Johor. It is said that in the area that was opened up for this settlement, there stood a tall keruing tree which eked out a yellow sap that coagulates easily, thus the name Minyak Beku Minyak Beku Beach is located about 8km from Batu Pahat town. From the North South Expressway (NSE), take the Yong Peng exit (Interchange 241), passing through Tongkang Pecah to Batu Pahat town (about 28km). From Batu Pahat, you can catch a taxi to Minyak Beku beach. Although Minyak Beku Beach is not suitable for swimming, is a nice ground for fishing and to enjoy the cool air. There is an old fishing village nearby, as well as a disused quarry that offers an interesting glimpse of stone or sand processing. It is also said that Minyak Beku is a good place to go if you fancy doing some relaxing fishing. Kampung Minyak Beku is a seaside village lying on the west coast of Johor, Malaysia. Kampung Minyak Beku is where the famous chiseled rock is located, a big rock about ten feet in size (beside the police station). The big rock was chiselled by the Siamese (Ayudhya) to contain fresh water. It was said the Siamese soldiers came here by boat to attack Malacca but was defeated by Tun Perak back in the 15th century. The chiselled rock became famous where it later replaced the name of Bandar Penggaram to Batu Pahat.

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

Figure 1: Micro granite Type of rock that we found at Minyak Beku Beach is microgranite (small crystal < 100 km2) that is from igneous rock. Igneous rock formed on the surface of the Earth by volcanic activity (as opposed to intrusive, or plutonic, rocks that solidify below the Earth's surface). Magma (molten rock) erupted from volcanoes cools and solidifies quickly on the surface. The crystals that form do not have time to grow very large, so most extrusive rocks are finely grained. The term includes fine-grained crystalline or glassy rocks formed from hot lava quenched at or near Earth's surface, and those made of welded fragments of ash and glass ejected into the air during a volcanic eruption. The formation of extrusive igneous rock is part of the rock cycle. Alluvium is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. Alluvium often contains valuable ores such as gold and platinum and a wide variety of gemstones. Such concentrations of valuable ores are termed a placer deposit. Colluviums is the name for loose bodies of sediment that have been deposited or built up at the bottom of a low grade slope or against a barrier on that slope, transported by gravity. The deposits that collect at the foot of a steep slope or cliff are also known by the same name. Colluviums often interfingers with alluvium (deposits transported down slope by water). Coarse deposits due to rock fall at a cliff base are called talus (scree) and if lithified are talus breccias. Avalanches, mudslides

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and landslides are processes that deposit colluviums. This build-up process is called colluviation. Colluviums normally forms humps at the base of mountains or fan-shaped deposits similar in shape to alluvial fans that cover former ground surfaces. This process is an important phenomenon in the fields of archaeology and soil science. Many colluvial soils tend to have a frangipane associated with them that are a brittle subsoil layer typically high in clay. One theory of frangipane formation is the smearing of soil during the colluvial process causing the clays to seal the surface between the moving portion of soil and the stationary soil on which it slides.

Figure 2: Minerals

Figure 3 : Syncline and Anticline.


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Metamorphic rocks are one of the three main types of rocks. They are formed by adding heat and pressure to igneous and sedimentary rocks. There are many metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism is the process of changes in texture and mineralogy of pre-existing rock due to changes in temperature and/or pressure. The rock at this area is anticline that is up-arched rocks in which the older rocks are in the center and the younger rocks bare on the flanks. Metamorphic means change of form. The rocks are formed due to the transformation of pre-existing igneous or sedimentary that has been buried deeply within the crust because of the movements of lithosphere plates. These rocks are subjected to changes in the temperature, pressure and chemical environments inside the earths crust and thus become unstable. The minerals undergo recrystallization forming new minerals and new rocks either physically or chemically and the texture, colour, structure and chemical composition are modified. The processes that cause these changes are known as metamorphism (meta-change; morphe form/shape).

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

3.2

Literature Review

3.2.1 Fault Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes. Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along faults. The largest examples are at tectonic plate boundaries but many faults occur far from active plate boundaries. Since faults do not usually consist of a single, clean fracture, the term fault zone is used when referring to the zone of complex deformation that is associated with the fault plane. The creation and behaviors of faults, in both an individual small fault and within the greater fault zones which define the tectonic plates, is controlled by the relative motion of rocks on either side of the fault surface. Because of friction and the rigidity of the rock, the rocks cannot simply glide or flow past each other. Rather, stress builds up in rocks and when it reaches a level that exceeds the strain threshold, the accumulated potential energy is released as strain, which is focused into a plane along which relative motion is accommodated the fault. Strain is both accumulative and instantaneous depending on the archeology of the rock; the ductile lower crust and mantle accumulates deformation gradually via shearing whereas the brittle upper crust reacts by fracture, or instantaneous stress release to cause motion along the fault. A fault in ductile rocks can also release instantaneously when the strain rate is too great. The energy released by instantaneous strain release is the cause of earthquakes, a common phenomenon along transform boundaries.

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Figure 4 : Fault Structures.

Figure 5 : Fault That Occur On Rocks 3.2.2 Fold Folds result from the plastic deformation of rocks at low strain-rates, usually under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. Folds are braodly subdivided into anticlines (upwards convex) and synclines (downwards convex).

Figure 6 : Syncline and Anticline.


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In synclines and anticlines, the axial plane is the plane of symmetry passing through the apex of the fold. The line of intersection of the fold apex and the horizontal plane is called the axis of the fold.

Figure 7 : Fold Axis. If the fold-axis is inclined to the horizontal, the "dip" of the axis is called the plunge. Plunging folds are the rule rather than the exception. Folds with a horizontal axis are a two-dimensional idealization. In nature, folds are symmetric or asymmetric plunging structures.

Figure 8: Symmetric Plunging Anticline and Syncline. Symmetric plunging anticlines and synclines produce characteristic "bullseye" outcrop patterns. In synclinal folds, the beds at the centre of the pattern are the youngest and the beds get older in a radial direction. Such structures are called

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

basins. In anticlinal plunging folds, the beds increase in age towards the centre of the pattern. Such structures are called domes.

Figure 9: Folds That Occur On the Rocks 3.2.3 Joints Joints are discontinuities on which there has been little or no displacement in shear (in contrast to faults). Joints are ubiquitous in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. They are evidence of brittle failure of the rock mass at some stage in the deformation history. Joints have many important properties as planes of weakness in rock masses: Orientation - Strike and dip or dip and dip-direction. Spacing - The frequency or number of discontinuities per unit length. Aperture - The mean distance between wall rock surfaces. Persistence - The continuity of joints or trace length. Surface Roughness - The property controlling friction between surfaces. Infill - The presence or absence of breccia, gouge or surface coatings of minerals. Strength Compressibility Permeability

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Figure 10: Joints That Occur On Rocks 3.2.4 Strike And Dip Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. The strike of a stratum or planar feature is a line representing the intersection of that feature with the horizontal. On a geologic map this is represented with a short straight line segment oriented parallel to the compass direction of the strike. Strike is usually given as a compass bearing (N25E for example) in terms of east or west of north, or as a single three digit number representing the azimuth, where the lower number is usually given. The dip gives the angle below the horizontal of a tilted stratum or feature. The symbol is a short line attached and at right angles to the strike symbol pointing in the direction of inclination. Typically the angle of dip is included on a geologic map. Strike and dip are determined in the field with a compass and clinometer or combination known as a Brunton compass. Another way of representing strike and dip is by dip and dip direction, where the latter is simply the azimuth of the dip. It can be obtained from strike by simply counting 90 around in the relevant direction. Any planar feature can be described by strike and dip. This includes sedimentary bedding, geologic faults and fractures, cuestas, igneous dikes and sills, metamorphic foliation and any other planar feature in the Earth. Linear features are measured with very similar methods, where "plunge" is the dip angle and "trend" is analogous to the dip direction value
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Figure 11: Strike and Dip 3.3 Methodology Before we take data in the site, we must to know what data that we want first. The data such as dip direction, dip angle, strike, joint, fracture, fault, minerals, physical features, textures and structures of rocks depends on the surveyor wants. The data is taken depends on the types of rock characteristic like fold for sedimentary rock or joint for igneous rock. As we known, the sedimentary rock has fold (anticline or syncline) that we can take the data about the categories of folds. The behavior of a rock mass subjected to a change in stress applied to it is governed by a number of factors. These factors are the mechanical properties and the spatial distribution of the geological and structural discontinuities present in the rock mass. The importance of each of these factors in governing rock mass behavior depends on the size and orientation of the engineering constructions with respect to the location and the orientation of the discontinuities. In the site, the most important data that we takes is dip direction, and dip angle. These two data are very important because it can fortune telling about the failure or stability some area f rock. the geological compass permits to measure the dip direction of an inclined geologic plane and thus to define its position in the space. In the case of a vertical geological plane its strike define this position. horizontal geologic planes neither have dip nor direction of strike. Figure 19 illustrates the

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above definitions. Rock structures seen in a sample are related to those observed in the field. However, the rocks in the field vary from place to place because of differences in their composition, weathering conditions and fracturing. Notice the following features of the rock bedding, orientation of structures, fracturing and jointing. The orientation of these planes controls the resistance of the rock to gravitational forces. 3.3.1 Apparatus 1. Compass (Suunto) To measure dip direction and dip angle 2. Hammer (Estwing) Shape the sample with tap the chisel. 3. Chisel (Estwing) Shape the sample. 4. Camera to take photo To see the real view on the site. 5. Measuring tape To measure the length of joint 6. Scanline Survey Table To fill the data. 3.3.2 Minyak Beku Beach In this site, we found igneous rock, micro granite. Based on the discontinuity survey data sheets below, we see all the data that surveyor must to fill in. Even though the main data are dip direction and dip angle, another data are also important because the data such as content of water in joint, mineral, joint, fracture, fold can be strengthen the theory of possibility of failure of the rock.

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

Figure 13 : Discontinuity Survey Data Sheet

3.3.2.1 1. Type

The Procedure

a. See type such as joint, fault and cleavage at the point that we found to determine. 2. Dip Angle a. Takes the compass and put the down-side compass level with rock slope to find the slope angle or dip angle. b. Make sure the value of the bearing dip angle is in the left side. Read the value that we achieve. The bearing that we achieve is the steepness of the slope. The concept of the dip angle is the radian or bearing from horizontal level to the gradient of the slope rock.

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Figure 14 : Determined dip angle with compass 3. Dip Direction a. The dip direction is the maximum angle of inclination downward that a vein or bed makes with a horizontal plane.

b. To determine the dip direction, take a small rock or materials then lay the materials to the surface or slope rock. See the direction than the material fall based on gravity. So, the direction is the dip direction. (We can use water and see the flow of water) c. Draw the dip direction that we achieve. d. With compass, level compass to the North direction and see the value of the bearing dip direction. Every strike or dip direction, the value must be determine from North. e. The dip direction also can determined by formula; Dip Direction (DD) = Strike + 90 f. That is the procedure to determined or measure the dip direction.

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

4. Strike a. Strike is he bearing of a horizontal line in the plane of a vein, bed, or fault with respect to the cardinal points of the compass. b. With the dip direction value, we can get the value of strike. c. To determined strike, we can use the formula. Value of strike is 90 anticlockwise from the value of dip direction. d. The formula is ; Strike (s) = Dip Direction - 90 e. Same as Dip Direction, strike direction can be drawing on the rock and take the compass to get the value or bearing of strike from North direction. 5. Persistence

a. Measure the length of type. 6. Width

a. Measure the witdh of the type (joint).

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7. Nature of filling a. Any kind of mineral or water that contains in the joint or fracture. 8. Surface Roughness a. Determine the surface roughness if the surface rough, smooth, polished or slickenside. 9. Water Flow

a. See the point of type that we chosen (joint or fracture) have water flow or not. Fill if water flow (open) or water flow (filled) as description 10. Spacing a. The distance between joint to another join near that point.

SITE VISIT REPORT AT MINYAK BEKU AND AYER HITAM (JOHOR)

3.4

Result And Data Analysis

3.4.1 Discontinuity Data Sheet Discontinuity Data Sheet


No Type Dip direction 1 2 3 4 5 J1 J2 J3 J4 Slope 265o 275o 130o 55o 270o 175o 185o 160o 145o 180o Strike Dip angle 35o 15o 55o 27o 55o Persistence Aperture Infilling Roughness Water (m) 0.43 0.14 0.10 0.37 (mm) (1) (1) (1) (2) (6) (1) (1) (4) (5) (5) (3) (4) (2) (4) (4) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

Type 1) Joint 2)Bedding 3)Foliation 4)Fault 5)Others

Aperture 1)Very narrow(<2mm) 2)Narrow (2-6mm) 3)Moderately narrow (6-20mm) 4)Moderately wide (20-60mm) 5)Wide (60-200mm) 6)Very wide(>200mm)

Infilling Materials 1)Clean 2)Surface staining 3)Cemented 4)Cohesive 5)Noncohesive 6)Chlorite + Talc 7)Calsite 8)Others

Roughness 1)Polish 2)Sliken sisded 3)Smooth 4)Rough 5)Define ridges 6)Very rough

Water 1)Dry 2)Wet 3)Flow

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3.4.2 Result
Mode of failure J1 i) 265 20 = 285, 245 Joint set and data Criteria Stability

(285>270>245)____OK!
ii) Slope angle>Plane angle>Friction angle J1(DD=265,DA=35) Plane J2(DD=275,DA=15)

(55>35>35)____Not OK! J2
i) 275 20 = 295, 255 Stable

(295>270>255)____OK!
ii) Slope angle>Plane angle>Friction angle

(55>15>35)____Not OK!
Wedge J3 i) 310 10 = 320, 300 Toppling J3(DD=310,DA=55) J4(DD=235,DA=27) -

(320>270>300)____Not OK! J4
i) 265 20 = 285, 245

Stable

(285>270>245)____Not OK!

3.5

Conclusion and Recommendation As conclusion, site visit of geology were given a lot useful inputs practicality

for all student. From theory study we have, the site visit of geology are deep more knowledge in identify rock kinds such as igneous rock, sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock practicality it. Therefore, we can know rock type based on the locations visited such as in Pantai Minyak Beku, we see igneous rock. In addition, we know generally about the structure of rock there we visited us. We can identify about joint and folds with a lot more closely. From this site visit, we also learn more experts about strike and dip
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direction. Apart from we can increase knowledge, this visit can show positive attitude as responsibility of equipment such as the compass, the safety helmet and etc. Such attitude cooperation among member of the team is very important. Although our group forced to task in very hot on current pay day frozen oil. From the result that we gain, the stability of mode of joint was safe. 3.6 Comment 1. This trip is quite short time. Therefore, we hope the next site visits of geology are getting lengthening our trip time. 2. Make briefing with any further so students know direction real aim and students can give picture of location directed. With briefing, decide him students get ready with theory study. 3. Division of our grouping must do before go out the site visit. In case, our team members are get ready with visit done. 4. Before distribute equipment, management necessary must to recorded lists of equipment while student borrowed. Otherwise losses of equipment are happened. 5. Shortage of lecturer to control our students quantity. 6. Concentration of our students are decreased for achieves this site visit.

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REFERENCE http//:www.wikipedia.folds.com http//:www.geological_structure.html http//:www.eos.ubc.ca/academic/undergraduate/advise.html http//:www_odp.tamu.edu/publications/186_IR/chap-04/c4_10.html http//:www.geology.articles.on.Malaysia.html http//:www.minerals_uses.html http//:www.rock_uses.html Geologi kejuruteraan - BFC 3013, UTHM Earth dynamics systems, W. Kenneth Hamblin & Eric H. Christiansen, Bringham Young University Provo, Utah Lab 6 Report: Geology Mapping All Geology Lecturers

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APPENDIX

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