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Wave Let Intro

Wave Let Intro

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: eeppwk on Jul 30, 2009
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03/17/2012

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In applications like digital image processing, we need a two-dimensionaltransform.
Although much effort has been and is still being devoted to general, non-separable
2D wavelets [83, 53, 52, 93],this discussion limits itself to separable2D transforms,
i.e. consecutive one-dimensional operations on columns and rows of the pixel mat-
rix. We have two constructions of separable transforms:

1. The square wavelet transform
The square wavelet transform first performs one step of the transform on all
rows, yielding a matrix where the left side contains down-sampled lowpass co-
efficients of each row, and the right contains the highpass coefficients, as illus-
trated in Figure 1.11 (a). Next, we apply one step to all columns, this results in
four types of coefficients:
a) coefficients that result from a convolution with

in both directions (HH)

represent diagonal features of the image.
b) coefficients that result from a convolution with

on the columns after a

convolution with

¨

on the rows (HL) correspond to horizontal structures.
c) coefficients fromhighpass filtering on the rows, followedby lowpass filter-
ing of the columns (LH) reflect vertical information.
d) the coefficients from lowpass filtering in both directions are further pro-
cessed in the next step.
At each level, we have three components, orientations, or subbands: vertical,
horizontal and diagonal. If we start with:

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16 1. Wavelets and wavelet thresholding

H

L

LH

HL HH

LL

HH

LH

HL

HH

LH

HL

LL

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 1.11. A two-dimensional wavelet transform. First we apply one step of the one di-
mensional transform to all rows (a). Then, we repeat the same for all columns (b). In the next
step, we proceed with the coeffi cients that result from a convolution with

£

in both directions

(c).

the transform decomposes this into:

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¨

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§

§H

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2. The rectangular wavelet transform
Instead of proceeding with the LL-coefficients of the previous step only, we
could also further transform all rows and all columns in each step. This leads to
the rectangular two-dimensional wavelet transform, illustrated in Figure 1.12.
If¥

§

a

is the matrix representation of a 1D wavelet transform, then the
rectangular transform, applied to an image¦

is:

a

¦

a

§

Thebasiscorrespondingtothisdecompositioncontainsfunctionsthataretensor
products of wavelets at different scales:

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¢¥

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!

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Such functions do not appear in the basis of a square wavelet transform.
This alternative not only requires more computation, it is also less useful in ap-
plications: in the square wavelet transform,the HL andLH componentscontain
more specific information on horizontal or vertical structures.

1.2 Continuous wavelet transform

17

Figure 1.12. Graphical representation of wavelet coeffi cients after three steps of the rectan-
gular wavelet transform: in each step all rows and all columns are completely further trans-
formed.

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