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..

-
-

2006 .


CODEXALIMENTARIUS
E l 0 0 -182: (
).
200 -299: ( ,
, , , ,
).
-300 - -399: ( , ,
).
-400 - -499: {
, ).
-500 -599: ( , - , ).
-600 - -699:
-700 - -899:
-900 - -999: () -
).

-
.
-,
.
.

|
| - ,
[1];
( );
I
I - ,
(
);
|
| - ,
[3]; (
).

(-100 - -199)


( )

-100

(Curcumin)

-101

-; ()--
-5 -
l(i)-Riboflavin;
(ii)-Riboflavin-5 'Phosphate Sodium/

102

(Tartrazine)

-103

, (Alkanet)

-104


(Quinoline Yellow)


-
,

-107

2 G (Yellow 2 G)

-110

" " FCF,


- S
(Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange
Yellow S)

-120

; ;
(Cochineal, Carminic Acid,
Carmines)

i 2
sRed2)

-122

, (Azorubine,
Carmoisine)


-
,

(Amaranth)

-124

4R (411),

(Ponceau 4R, Cochineal Red A)

-125

, SX
(Ponceau SX)

-127

-128

2G (Red 2G)

-129

(
RedAC)

131

V
(Patent Blue V)

-132

, (Indigotine, Indigo Carmine)

-133

FCF
(Brilliant Blue FCF)

-140

(i) (ii) /Chlorophylls and Chlorophylllns:


(I) Chlorophylls (ii) Chlorophyllinsl

-141

(i)-MenHbie
()- /Copper Com
plexes of Chlorophylls and Chlorophyl
llns (I) Copper Complexes of Chloro
phylls (ii) Copper Complexes of
Chlorophyllinsl

(Erythrosine)

http://a!1-ebooks.com

,

E-142

S (Greens S)

E-143

FCF
(Fast Green FCF)

E-150a

I (
) /Plain Caramel/

E-150b

II,
"-"
(Caustic Sulphite Caramel)

E-150c

III,
"" (Ammonia
Caramel)

E-150d

IV,
"-- "

(Sulphite Ammonia Caramel)

E-151

BN, PN
(Brilliant Black BN, Black PN)


-
, ,

E-152

/Carbon Black (hydrocarbon)/


,
-

E-153

(Vegetable
Carbon)


,
-

E-154

FK (Brown FK)


,

,

E-155

(Brown HT)

-160

: (1)- -
, ()-
/Carotenes: (^-BetaCarotene (Synthetic), Natural Extracts(ii)l
, , (Annatto,

-160b Bixin, Norbixin)

, , -

-160 (Paprika extract, Capsanthin,


Capsorubin)

E-160d .1 iik'oiniii (Lycopene)


--8- ( 30)

-160 IBeta-apo-8 '-carotenal


( 30)1

E-160f

--8 ( 30)
1Ethyl ester ofbeta-apo-8'-carotenic
Acid ( 30)1

-161

(Flavoxanthin)

-161 (Lutein)

-161

(Cryptoxanthin)

-16

(Rubixanthin)

-161 (Violoxanthin)

E-161f

(Rhodoxanthin)

E-161g (Canthaxanthin)

-162

,
(Beetroot Red, Betanin)

-163

(Anthocyanins)

-164

(Saffron)

-166

{Sandalwood)

-170


(Calcium Carbonates)

-171


(Titanium Dioxide)

-172

(Iron
Oxides and Hydroxides)

-173

(Aluminium)

-174

(Silver)

-175

(Gold)

-180


(Lithol Rubine BK)

-181


(Tannins, Food Grade)

-182

, (Orchil)


-
,

(-200 - -299)
-200


(Sorbic Acid)


,
12

-201


(Sodium Sorbate)

-202


(Potassium Sorbate)

-203


(Calcium sorbate)

-209

-

(Heptyl
p-hydroxybenzoate)

-210


(Benzoic Acid)

-211


(Sodium Benzoate)

-212


(Potassium Benzoate)

-213


(Calcium Benzoate)

-214

-

(Ethyl
p-hydroxybenzoate)

-215

-

(Sodium
Ethyl
p-hydroxybenzoate)

, 1 -

(Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate,
-

(Sodium Propyl
p-hydroxybenzoate)

-218

-

(Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate)

-219

-

(Sodium
Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate)

-220


(Sulphur Dioxide)


- ,

-221


(Sodium Sulphite)


- ,

-222


(Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite)


- ,

-223


(Sodium Metabisulphite)

-224


(Potassium Metabisulphite)

-225


(Potassium Sulphite)


- ,

-226


(Calcium Sulphite)

-227


(Calcium Hydrogen Sulphite)

-228


( )
(Potassium Hydrogen Sulphite)

-230

,
(Biphenyl, Diphenyl)

,
,

-231


(Orthophenyl Phenol)

-232


(Sodium Orthophenyl Phenol)

-233

(Thiabendazole)

-234

(Nisin)

-235

()
INatamycin (Pimaricin)l

-236


(Formic Acid)

-237


(Sodium Formate)

-238


(Calcium Formate)

-239

(Hexamethylene Tetramine)

,
,

(Formaldehyde)

-241


(Gum Guaicum)

-242

(Dimethyl Dicarbonate)

240

10

-249


(Potassium Nitrite)


(: -249
)

-250


(Sodium Nitrite)



(: -250
)

-251


(Sodium Nitrate)

(

/: -251
)

-252


(Potassium Nitrate)


: -252
)

-260


(Acetic Acid)

-261


(Potassium Acetate)

-262

:
, ( )
1Sodium Acetates (i) Sodium
Acetate (ii) Sodium Hydrogen
Acetate (Sodium Diacetate)/

-263


(Calcium Acetate)

-264


(Ammonium Acetate)

-265


(Dehydroacetic Acid)

-266


(Sodium Dehydroacetate)

11

-270


(Lactic Acid)

-280


(Propionic A cid)

-281


(Sodium Propionate)

-282


(Calcium Propionate)

-283


(Potassium Propionate)

-284#

(Boric Acid)

-285#

()
/Sodium Tetraborate (Borax)/

-290


(Carbon Dioxide)

-296

()
(Malic Acid)

-297


(Fumaric Acid)

(-300 - -399)
-300


(Ascorbic Acid)

-301


( )
(Sodium Ascorbate)

-302


( -

12

) 1 Calcium Ascorbatel

-303


(Potassium Ascorbate)

-304

(Ascorbyl Palmitate)

-305

(Ascorbyl Stearate)

-306


(Mixed Tocopherols Concentrate)

-307

- (Alpha-tocopherol)

-308

-
(Synthetic Gamma-tocopherol)

-309

5-
(Synthetic Delta-tocopherol)

-310

(Propyl Gallate)

-311

(Octyl Gallate)


, , ,

-312


- ,
(Dodecyl Gallate) ( ),

-313

(Ethyl Gallate)

-314

(Guaiac Resin)

-315

(-)

13


lErythorbic (Lsoascorbic) Acidl

-316


(Sodium Erythorbate)

-317

- (Potas
sium Isoascorbate)

-318

- (Cal
cium Isoascorbate)

-319

-
(Tertiary
Butylhydroquinone)

-320

IButylated Hydroxyanisole

(BHA)I

-321

IButylated Hydroxytoluene

-322

(Lecithins)

-323

(Anoxomer)

-324

(Ethoxyquin)

-325

(Sodium

Lactate)

-326

(Potassium

Lactate)

-327

(Calcium

Lactate)

(BHT)I


- , ,

/:

./

- , ,

/:

./

-

14

-328


(Ammonium Lactate)

-329 /Magnesium Lactate (D,L-)I


-330

(Citric Acid)

-331

: -
, ()- ,
(iii)- /Sodium Citrates:
(i)-Monosodium Citrate,
(ii)-Disodium Citrate,
(iii)-Trisodium Citrate/

-332

: -
, ()-
, ()-
/Potassium Citrates:
(i)-Monopotassium Citrate,
(ii)-Dipotassium Citrate,
(iii)-Tripotassium Citrate/

-333

: -
, ()- ,
()-
/Calcium Citrates:
(i)-Monocalcium Citrate,
(ii)-Dicalcium Citrate,
(iii)-Tricalcium Citrate/

-334

(L(+)-)
/Tartaric Acid (L(+)-)l

-335

: ()-
, (ii)
/Sodium Tartrates: (i)-

15

Monosodium Tartrate (ii)- Disodium Tartrate/

-336

: (!)-
, (ii)
/Potassium Tartrates: (i)Monopotassium Tartrate, (ii)Dipotassium Tartrate/

-337

-
(Sodium potassium tartrate)
(Phos

-338 phoric Acid)

-339

: (i)-
, ()-
, (iii) /Sodium Ortophosphates:
(i)-Monosodium Ortophosphate,
(ii)-Disodium Ortophosphate, (iii)Trisodium Ortophosphate/

-340

: , ,

, /Potassium Ortophos
phates (i) Monopotassium Orto
phosphate (ii) Dipotassium
Ortophosphate (Hi) Tripotassium
Ortophosphate/

-341

:

,
,
/Calcium Phosphates (i)
Monocalcium Ortophosphate (ii)

16

Dicalcium Ortophosphate (iii)


Tricalcium Ortophosphate 1

-342

: , 1 Ammonium Phos
phates (i) Monoammonium
Ortophosphate (ii) Diammonium
Ortophosphate/

-343

: (i)
, (ii)
, (iii)

/Magnesium
Ortophosphates: (i) Monomagnesium Ortophosphate (ii) Dimagnesium Ortophosphate (iii) Trimagnesium Ortophosphate/

-344


(Lecitin Citrate)

-345


(Magnesium Citrate)

-349


(Ammonium Malate)

-350

:
, /Sodium Malates (i)
Sodium Malate (ii) Sodium Hy
drogen Malate/

-351

(Potassium Malate)

-352

:
, /Calcium Malates

17

(i) Calcium Malate (ii) Calcium


Hydrogen Malate/

-353

- (MetatartaricAcid)

-354


(Calcium Tartrate)

-355


(Adipic Acid)

-356


{Sodium Adipate)

-357


(Potassium Adipate)

-359


(Ammonium Adipate)

-363

(Succinic Acid)

-365


(Sodium Fumarates)

-366


(Potassium Fumarates)

-367


(Calcium Fumarates)

-368


(Ammonium Fumarates)

-370

1,4-
(1,4-Heptonolactone)

-375


(Nicotinic Acid)

-380

18

)
/Ammonium Citrates/

-381


(Ferric Ammonium Citrate)

-383


(Calcium Glycerophosphate)

-384


(Isopropil Citrates)

-385


(CaNa2 )
/Calcium Disodium Ethylene Dia
mine Tetra-acetate (Calcium Diso
dium EDTA)I

-386

(Disodium Ethylene Diamine


Tetra-acetate

-387

(Oxystearin)

-388


(Thiodipropionic Acid)

-389

(Dilauryl Thiodipropionate)

-390

(Dustearyl Thiodipropionate)

-391

(Phytic Acid)

-399


(Calcium Lactobionate)

19

, (-400 - -599)
-400


(Alginic Acid)

-401


(Sodium Alginate)

-402


(Potassium Alginate)

-403


(Ammonium Alginate)

-404


(Calcium Alginate)

-405

-1,2-
(Propan-1,2-diol alginate)

-406

(Agar)

-407


(Carrageenan and its Salts)

407 #


(Eucheuma Proc
essed Eucheuma Seaweed)

:

1996 .

408*


(Bakers Yeast Glycan)

409*

(Arabinogalactan)

-410


(Carob Bean Gum)

-411

(Oat Gum)

20

-412

(Guar Gum)

-413

(Tragacanth)

-414

1 Acacia Gum (Gum Arabic)!

-415


(Xanthan Gum)

-416

(Karaya Gum)

-417

( Gum)

418*


(Gellan Gum)

419*

(Gum Ghatty)

-420

,
ISorbitol (i) Sorbitol (ii) Sorbitol
Syrup/

-421

(Mannitol)

-422

(Glycerol)

425#

, /Konjac (i) Konjac


Gum (ii) Konjac Glucomannane/

-429

(Peptones)

-430

(8)
(Polyoxyethylene (8) Stearate)

-431

(40)

21

:



.

(Polyoxyethylene (40) Stearate)

-432

( 20,
20)
1Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan
Monolaurate (Polysorbate 20)1

-433

( 80,
80)
1Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan
Monooleate (Polysorbate 80)1

-434

( 40,
40) 1 Polyoxyethylene
Sorbitan Monopalmitate (Poly
sorbate 40)1

-435

( 60,
60)
1Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan
Monostearate (Polysorbate 60)1

-436

( 65)
1Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan
Tristearate (Polysorbate 65)1

-440

: ,
/Pectins (i) Pectin (ii) Amidated
Pectin/

-441



(Superglycerinated Hydrogenated Rapeseed Oil)

-442

22

(Ammonium Phosphatides)

-443

(Brominated Vegetable Oil)

-444

-
(Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate)

-445

(Glycerol Esters of Wood rosins)

-446

(Succistearin)

-450

:
, ,
,

, ,
,
IDiphosphates (I) Disodium Diphosphate (ii) Trisodium Diphosphate(iii) Tetrasodium Diphosphate (iv) Dipotassium Diphosphate (v) Tetrapotassium
Diphosphate (vi) Dicalcium Diphosphate (vii) Calcium Dihydrogen diphosphate/

-451

:
5-,
5-
/Triphosphates (I) Pentasodium
Triphosphate (ii) Pentapotassium
Triphosphatel

-452

:
, ,
-,

23


/Polyphosphates (I) Sodium
Polyphosphates (ii) Potassium
Polyphosphates (in) Sodium Cal
cium Polyphosphate (iv) Calcium
Polyphophatesl
:



.

459#

-
(Beta-cyclodextrine)

-460

:
,
/Cellulose (I) Microcrystalline Cellulose (ii) Pow
dered Cellulose/

-461

(Methyl Cellulose)

-462

(Ethyl Cellulose)

-463

(Hydroxypropyl Cellulose)

-464


(Hydroxypropyl Methyl
Cellulose)

-465

(Ethyl Methyl Cellulose)

-466

,
(Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, So
dium Carboxy Methyl
Cellulose)

24

-467

(Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose)

468#


(Crosslinked Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose)

:



.

469#



(Enzytnically Hydrolysed Carboxymethylcellulose)

:



.

470#

(Sodium, Potassium and Cal


cium Salts of Fatty Acids)

470#


(Magnesium Salts of
Fatty Acids)

-471

-
(Mono- and
Diglycerides of Fatty Acids)

-472

-
(Ace
tic Acid Esters ofMono- and Di
glycerides of Fatty Acids)

-472

-
(Lac
tic Acid Esters ofMono- and Di
glycerides of Fatty Acids)
-

-472 (Cit
ric acid Esters ofMono- and Di-

25

glycerides of Fatty Acids)

E-472d

MOHO-

(Tartaric Acid Esters ofMono- anc
Diglycerides of Fatty Acids)

E-472e

,
(Diacetyltartaric and Fatty Acid
Esters ofGlycerol)

E-472f

,
,

(Mixed Tartaric, Acetic and Fatty


Acids Esters ofGlycerol)
-

E-472g
(Succinylated Monoglycerides)

E-473

(Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids)

E474*

(Sucroglycerides)

E-475


(Polyglycerol
Esters of Fatty Acids)

E476*


(Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate)

E477*

-1,2-
IPropane-1,2diol Esters of Fatty Acids/

26

478*



(Lactylated
Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol
and Propilene Glycol)

479b*



1 Thermally Oxidized Soya
Bean Oil Interacted with Monoand Diglycerides of Fatty Acids/

480*


(Dioctyl Sodium Sulphosuccinate)

-481

-2-
(S Stearoyl-2-lactylate)

482*

-2-

(Calcium Stearoyl-2-lactylate)

483*

(Stearyl Tartrate)

484*

(Stearyl Citrate)

485*


(Sodium Stearoyl Fumarate)

486*


(Calcium Stearoyl Fumarate)

487*


(Sodium Laurylsulfate)

27

488*

(Ethoxylated
Mono- and Di-glycerides)

489*


IMethyl
Glucoside - Coconut Oil Esterl

491*


60 (Sorbitan
Monostearate)

492*


(Sorbitan Tristearate)

493*

,
20 (Sorbitan Monolaurate)

494*

, 80
(Sorbitan Monooleate)

495*

,
40
(Sorbitan Monopalmitate)

-496

, 85
(Sorbitan Trioleat)

-500

:
, ,
/Sodium
Carbonates (I) Sodium Carbon
ate (ii) Sodium Hydrogen Car
bonate (in) Sodium Sesquicarbonate/

-501

:
,
/Potassium Carbonates (I) Potas
sium Carbonate (ii) Potassium
Hydrogen Carbonate/

28

-503

:
,

1 Ammonium Carbonates (I) Am


monium Carbonate (ii) Ammo
nium Hydrogen Carbonate!

-504

:
,
,

/Magnesium Carbonates (I)


Magnesium Carbonate (ii) Mag
nesium Hydroxide Carbonate
(syn. Magnesium Hydrogen car
bonate)!

505*


(Ferrous Carbonate)

-507


(Hydrochloric A cid)

-508


(Potassium Chloride)

-509


(Calcium Chloride)

-511


(Magnesium Chloride)

512*


(Stannous Chloride)

-513

(Sulphuric Acid)

-514

:
,
/Sodium Sulphates (i) Sodium
Sulphate (ii) Sodium Hydrogen

29

Sulphate/

-515

:
,
/Potassium Sulphates (i) Potas
sium Sulphate (ii) Potassium
Hydrogen Sulphate/

-516


(Calcium Sulphate)

-517


(Ammonium Sulphate)

519*


(Cupric Sulphate)

520*


(Aluminium Sulphate)

521*

-
( )
/Aluminium Sodium Sulphate/

-522

-
( )
/Aluminium Potassium
Sulphate/

-523

-
( )
/Aluminium Ammonium
Sulphate/

-524


(Sodium Hydroxide)

-525


(Potassium Hydroxide)

-526

30

(Calcium Hydroxide)

-527


(Ammonium Hydroxide)

-528


(Magnesium Hydroxide)

-529

(Calcium Oxide)

-530


(Magnesium Oxide)

-535


(Sodium Ferrocyanide)

-536


(Potassium Ferrocyanide)

-537


(Ferrous Hexacyanomanganate)

-538


(Calcium Ferrocyanide)

-541

: (i)
, (ii)
1Sodium Aluminium Phosphate:
(i) Acidic (ii) Basic/

-542

,
3-
/Bone Phosphate (Essentiale Calcium Phosphate,
Tribasic)/

-550

: (i)
, (ii) -
/Sodium Silicates: (i)
Sodium Silicate (ii) Sodium Metasilicatel

31

-551


(Silicon Dioxide)

-552


(Calcium Silicate)

-553

(i) , (ii) l(i) Magnesium


Silicate (ii) Magnesium Trisilicatel

-553 (Talc)
-554


(Sodium Aluminium Silicate)

-555


(Potassium Aluminium Silicate)

-556


(Calcium Aluminium Silicate)

-557

(Zink Silicate)

-558

(Bentonite)

-559

()
1 Aluminium Silicate (Kaolin)!

-560


(Potassium Silicate)

-570

(Fatty Acids)

-574

(D-)
1 Gluconic Acid (D-)l

-575

-5-
(Glucono-delta-lactone)

-576

32

(Sodium Gluconate)

-577


(Potassium Gluconate)

-578


(Calcium Gluconate)

-579*


(Ferrous Gluconate)

-580*


(Magnesium Gluconate)

-585

(Ferrous Lactate)

(-600 - -699)
-620


(Glutamic Acid)

-621

(Monosoclium Glutamate)

-622


(Monopotassium Glutamate)

-623


(Calcium Glutamate)

-624


(Monoammonium Glutamate)

-625


(Magnesium Glutamate)

-626


(Guanylic Acid)

33

-627

(Disodium Guanylate)

-628

5'-
(Dipotassium 5'-guanylate)

-629

5'-
(Calcium 5'-guanylate)

-630


(Inosinic Acid)

-631

(Disodium Inosinate)

-632

(Dipotassium Inosinate)

-633

5'-
(Calcium 5'-inosinate)

-634

5'-
(Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides)

-635

5-

(Disodium 5 '-ribonucleotides)

-640


(Glycine and its Sodium Salt)

-641

L- (L-leucine)

(-900 - -999)

-900

(Dimethyl Polysiloxane)

34

-901

(Beeswax, White and Yellow)

-902


(Candelilla Wax)

-903


(Carnauba Wax)

-904

(Shellac)

-905

"
"
(Mineral Oil, Food Grade)

-905

/Petrolatum (Petroleum Jelly)/

-905

(Petroleum Wax)

-906


(Benzoin Gum)

-908


(Rice bran Wax)

-909


(Spermaceti Wax)

-910


(Wax Esters)

-911


(Methyl Esters
of Fatty Acids)

-912#

(Montanic Acid Esters)

35

-913

(Lanolin)

-914#


(Oxidized Polyethy
ene Wax)

-916


(Calcium Iodate)

-917


(Potassium Iodate)

-918


(Nitrogen Oxides)

-919


(Nitrosyl Chloride)

-920

L- (L-Cysteine)

-922

(Potas
sium Persulphate)

-923


(Ammonium Persulphate)

-924

-924


(Calcium Brornate)

-925

(Chlorine)

-926


(Chlorine Dioxide)

-927

(Carbamide)


:


:

36

-928


(Benzoyl Peroxide)

-929


(Acetone Peroxide)

-930


(Calcium Peroxide)

-938#

(Argon)

-939#

(Helium)

-940

, -12
(Dichlorodifluoromethane)

-941

(Nitrogen)

-942

(Nitrous Oxide)

-943

(Butane)

-943

(Isobutane)

-944

(Propane)

-945

(Ch loropentafluoroeth ane)

-946

(Octafluorocyclobutane)

-948#

(Oxygen)

-950


(Acesulfame Potassium)

-951

(Aspartame)

37

-952


,
(Cyclamic
Acid and its Na and Ca Salts)

-953

(Isomaltitol)

-954

,

(Saccharin and its Na,
and Ca Salts)

-957

(Thaumatin)

-959

(Neohesperidine
Dihydroch alcone)

-958

(Glycyrrhizin)

-965

: ()-, (ii)
IMaltitol: (i)-Maltitol (ii)Maltitol Syrup/

-966

(Lactitol)

-967

(Xylitol)

-999


(Quillaia extract)

-1000


(Cholic Acid)

-1001


(Choline Salts and Esters)

-1101

: (i) (ii)
(iii) (iv)
/Proteases (i) Prote-

38

ase (ii) Papain (iii) lain (iv) Ficinl

-1102

(Glucose Oxidase)

-1103

(Invertases)

-1104

(Lipases)

-1105

(Lysozytne)

-1200

(Polydextrose)

-1201

(Polyvinylpyrrolidone)

-1202

(Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone)

-1404#


(Oxidized Starch)

-1410#

(Monostarch Phosphate)

-1412#

(Distarch Phosphate)

-1413#


(Phosphated Dis
tarch Phosphate)

-1414#


(Acetylated Dis
tarch Phosphate)

-1420#


(Acetylated Starch)

39

-1422#

(A cetylated Distarch
Adipate)

-1440#


{Hydroxy propyl Starch)

-1442#

{Hydroxy pro
pyl Distarch Phosphate)

-1450#

Kp Starch
{Sodium Octenyl Succinate)

-1451#



(Acetylated Oxidised Starch)

-1503


(Castor Oil)

-1505

(Triethyl Citrate)

-1518

() IGlyceryl Triacetate
(triacetin)l

-1520

(Propylene Glycol)

-1521

(Polyetylene Glycol)

40

/:



./

-
:
[1] . "-

" ( 5061-89), - ., , 1994 .
[2]
18.01.2005 .
[3] Food Additives in the European Union, - The Department of Food Science
and Technology The University of Reading, UK Food Law (compiled by Dr
David Jukes).

,
( . .. ):
. ., " ",
- : ". . .", 1982 . - 264 .
2. . 41
/ , , - : "
", 1994 . - 7 2 .
3. . 37
/ , , - : "
", 1974 . - 4 8 .
4. : .
, - : " ", 1989 . - 256 .
5.
, - .: "", 1991 . - 158 .
. .. ., " (
)", - .: "", 1969 . - 95 .
*

7 :
:
121 - ;
123 - ;
:
240 - ;
216 - ;
217 - ;
:
924 - ;
9246 - .

41

, :
- (), Cd - , As - (), Sb - ,
Hg - , Zn - , Fe - , 1 - , - , - ,
- , - , Be - .
. .
, ( )
, .

42