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POCKET
GUIDE
for

Air Conditioning
Heating
Ventilation
Refrigeration
(lnch-Pound Edition)
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, GA 30329

wl 93 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and

TABLE OF CONTENTS

r-Conditionng Engineers, !ne. Ali rghts reserved.

ISBN ()..

883413

--0l-X

IAir Handling and Ductwork


Page
Air Friction Charts ...................................... 1-3
Velocity versus Velocity Pressure ............................. 4
Circular F.quivalcnts of Rectangular Ducts ................... 5-6
\1)esign Vclocitics: Louver Sizing ........................... 7-8
tan Laws ............................................. 9-10
sychromclric Chart ............................. 11
Moist Air Data .......................................... 12

of lhis manual may be reproduccd without pennission in writinE,tmperature ~ Altitude Correction ............ 13
.
h
b . f
,cnthalpy of Air ....................................... 14-15
f rom ASHRAE , except by a rev1~r w o may ~uote r.1c passages 'steam Thblc ............................................. 16
roduce illustrations in a rcview w1th appropnate credit; nor may anf
of this book be reproduced, stored in a r~rieval systc~, or uans~r Con~mlnants and Control
ed in any fonn or by any means-electromc, photocopymg, record r Qua?tY ~tandards .................................... 17
ing, or Other-without permission in writing from ASHRAE.
!~me Air Cleaners ................................... 18
1 ter Performance ....................................... 19

. RAE

n~~~!~~~ ~b:~~.;

;~

has compilcd this publication with carr., but ASHRAE h


:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
. invcstigated, and A~HRAE expressly disclain:is any duty_ to inv~ ood Capture Velocities ....................... . .......... 22
tigatr., any product, scrv1ce, process, proccdure, dcs1gn, or the likc whic xbaust Velocity Contours ................................ 23
be described hcrein . Thc appcarancc of any technical data, editori ontaminant 1l'ansport Velocities .................. ......... 24
erial, or advcrtiscmcnt in this publication does not constitu tflood Ent ry Loss ........................................ 25
orsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, servGtchen Rangc Hoods .................................. 26-27
1cr., process, procedure, design, orthe like. ASHRAE does not warranf..aboratory H oods .. .. . ..................... 28

that the information in this publication is free of errors, and ASHRAfwater a nd Steam
s not nccessarily agrec wth any statement or opinion in this publipump Turms and Formulas ................................ 29
on. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publicatiofump Affinity Laws ................................... 30-31
1s assumed by the user.
fypical Pump Curves .................................. 32-34
Stearn Pipe Capacitics ................................. 35-37
~~m Pipe Capacities-Rcturn Mains ....................... 38
t:t:ncral lnformation on Water ............................. 39
ass Flow and Spccific Heat of Water ...................... 40
freezing Points of Glycols ................................. 40
Jizing Formulas for Hcating/Cooling ...................... .41
Vertical Cylindrical Thnk Capacity ......................... .42
Horizontal Cylindrical Thnk Capacity ....................... 43
V'olume of Water in Pipe and Tube .......................... 44
!fot Water Demand per Fixture ............................ 45
ntcd in thc United States of America
rlot Water Demand for Buildings ........................... 46
~riction Chart-Steel Pipe ................................ 47

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11

l. ~~~o~n~:~~~~;;:~"j. ............................. ::~~~~r~:o;:~I~~ ~~~~.e~,~~~~


l
iction Chart- Plastic Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stccl Pipe Data ............................ .. ....... .. 50Copper Tube Data .................................. ... 52operties of Plastic Pipe Materials .......... . ........... 54pe, Fitting, and Val ve Applications ............ . .. . .... . 561ermal Expansion of Metal Pipe ................... . .
H anger Spacing and Rod Sizcs ............................ .
lar CoUector Data ......................

. .. . .. . .... ... . ..... . . 117


Heat Gain from Restaurant and Office Equipment .. . ... . . 118-120
Hcat Gain from Hospital Equipment ............ . ... . ...... Ul
Hcat Gain from Motors ................. . ......... . .. ... . 122
Ventilation Rate Data (ASHRAE Std. 62-1989) ... . ....... 123-126
Information on Wcather Data ............................. U7
Cooling Load Check Values ........................... 128-129

E ectrical
AUowable Ampacitics of lnsulatcd Conductors .......... . 130-131
rigcratloo
Charactcristics of AC and OC Motors ................... 132-133
rrcssurc-Enthalpy Chart- R-11 . olor Full-Load Amperes .......................... . ..... 134
Pressurc-Enthalpy Chart- R-12 .. .. .... .. .. Uscful Electrical Formulas ...................... . ..... . .. 135
sure-Enthalpy Chan- R-22 ........................... .
'
rigeration Property Thbles- R-22 ......... 65- cls aod Combustion
rcssurc-Enthalpy Chart- R-123 ...................... ... ..
Pressurc-Enthalpy Chart- R-134a .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . ngine Sizing Thbles .. .. .. .. .. .. ............ 136
Refrigeration Propcrty Thbles- R-134a ........... . .. .. . . . . 70- as Pipe Sizing Thble .. . ........ 137
ressurc-Enthalpy Chart- R-502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cating Valucs of Fuels ............................. . .. .. 138
ressure-Enthalpy Chart- R-717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uel Oil Pipe Sizing Table .. ... . .. . .... . .. . .. .. 139
efrigeration Properly Thbles-R-717 . . ............ . . .. . .. 75Refrigeranl Line Capacities-R-22 ... .. .. . ... ... .. . . ..... 78 wning and Operatlng
ction Line Capacities- R-22 ...... . .. .. .. .. ........ ... 82- wning and Operating Cost Data .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. ....... 140-141
ction Riser Capacies- R-22 .. . .......... ... . ..... . ... 84-~re Cycle Cosls and Present Worth Factors .... . .. . .. .. . . . .. 142
frigcrant Line Capacities- Ammonia (R-717) .......... . . 86- uipment Service Life ......... .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... 143
frigerant Line Sizing- R-134a ... . .... .. . ..... .. . ... .. . . . . aintenance Costs .. . ... ................... .. . .. . . ... ... 144

E
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IVAC Load lnormatlo n


E und and Vlbrallon
urfacc Conductance and Emittance Valucs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ceptable HVAC Noise Levels ............. . ..... . . .. .. ... 145
'herma! Resistances of Air Spaces ......... C Curves . .......... . ............................ . ... . 146
Heat 'Ilansmission for Fencstration ....... .f!ypcaJ Fan Sound Power Levels .................... . .. . . . . 147
Thermal Properti~s .r Materials : .... .. .. 94-f.PcaJ Equipmeot Noise Levels ........................... 148
hermal Conducuv1ty ~or. lndustnal lnsul 100-l~vc Duct Sound Attenuators ........................... 149
J-Factors for ~e~ Bu1ld111~ . 102-lfvibration lsolator Sclcction ....................... . ... 150-151
Underground P1p111g lnsulauon ........................... JI
Max. and Min. Earth lemperaturcs ............. . ....... . . Ir:
! 1
11 Co ntrols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152-157
r So'ls
erma1 C on d uct 1.V1'ty 1or
1 and Rocks ................. . u orna e
of C LTD/CLF Equations ....................... . 11
l urnmary
h
LTDs for Aat Roofs ................................ 108-lpcoeral
Approximate CLTDs for Sunlit Walls ................. . . . 110-1,(\ir-Co o.d itioning Formulas ............................... 158
Solar Cooling Load for Sunlil Glass ................... . . l13-lf:onvcrs100 Factors ....................... 159-162
hadiog Cocfficients for Olass .............. . .......... . . . 1
efrigerating Effcct from Display Fixturcs ........ . ...... .. .. tlndex ........................................ . .. . .. 163-164

PREFACE

This Pocket Guide was developed to serve as a ready reference fo


engineers whose mobility keeps them from easy access to thc larg~
ASHRAE Handbooks. Much of the information is taken fro
the four vol u mes of thc ASHRAE Handbook series and abridged
rcduced to fil the smaller page sizc. Other sources includ
the Cooling and Heating Load Calcu/ation Manual published bJ
ASHRAE in 1991; Industria/ Ventlation: A Manual o/ Recommendel
Practice, 21st Edition, published in 1989 by Thc American Conferena
of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; and Numbers published il
1985 by W. Hollday and the late C. Otterholm.

This third edition of the Pocket Guide, which was first published it
1987, was compiled by Frcdcrick W. Kohloss and cditcd by Robcrt A
Parsons with thc guidance of thc Society's Special Publications Com
mittee. Previous major contributors wcre Carl W. MacPhee, Griffitl
C. Burr, Jr., and Harry E. Rountree.

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0.01 _--;;-~--~-:--<'---~-~~J..L....L..L.U:..U
50
100
200
500
1000
AIA QUANTITY, cfm at 0.075 lb/ft3
Frlclio n Cbart

vi

.:::

.:::

oCD::

;
~

.s

.
ui
(j)

gf
o
-'

o-'
z

a:t3

0.5

0.2

0.2

(.)

a:

1.1.

1.1.

2000
5000
10,000
AIR QUANTITY, cfm at 0.0751bflt3
Fricllon Chart

50,000
100,000
AIR OUANTITY, cfm al 0.075 lb/ft3
Friclion Chart

400,000

- ....

----

~I

--

~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~88 8888 1j~~

11

~:.._i'

~~O\NOO

li ~ e:.
19

Q\tJ\iO

\.AN

...

toa.

~t t

to.>-------- - :-:-~

- - --o
o 1
= .;o
...
o
\o"
""
'
n

;...\QOoOo~ ~~~~t ~~~~~ 0""8v-8


ov.'ONV\

cuturar r;u1.aienul R.ectaneuf ar Duct ror Equa1

triction-;;,d &paclty

Lmgll1 of O. Ski of R.Ktangular Oaet (o), in.

Lgth.
Adj.

4.8

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

a.o

9.0

10.0

11.0

u.o

13.0

14.0

lS.O

16.0

J.0
4.0
S.O

J.8
4.4
4.9

4.0

4.2
4.9

4.4
S.I
S.1

4.6
5.J
6.0

4.7
5.5
6.2

4.9
S.1

S.I
5.8
6.7

5_2

s.s

6.1
6.9

6.4
7.3

S.1
6.7
7.6

6.0
7.0
8.0

6.2
7.)
8.3

6.4
7.6

6.6
7.8
S.9

6.8
8.0
9.1

7.0
8.3
9.4

l.gtll.
Adj. 6

6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
28
32
J6
40
44
48

52
56

60
64

6.6
7.6
8.4
9.1
9.8
10.4
11.0
11.S
12.4
13.2

s.s

6.4

Lcagtll ot Oo Slde of lttttutlsr Doct (o), la.

8.2
9.1
9.9
10.8
11.J
11-9
12.6
13.S
14.S

8.7
9.8
10.7
11.4
12.2
12.9
13.S
14.6
15.6

10

11

12

13

14

IS

16

17

18

19

20

22

24

26

28

30

Lg1-.
Adj.
6

14.0 IS.3 16.S


14.7 16.1 17.4
15.3 16.8 18.2
IS.9 17.5 18.9
16.S 18.1 19.6

10.4 10.9
11.3 12.0 12.6 ll.I
12.2 12.9 13.S 14.2
13.0 IJ.7 14.4 IS.I
13.7 14 .S IS.3 16.0
14.4 IS.2 16.0 16.8
IS.6 16.S 17.4 18.)
16.7 17.7 18.7 19.6
17.7 18.8 19.8 20.8
18.6 19.8 20.9 21.9
19.5 20.7 21.8 22.9
20.J 31.S 22.7 23.9
21.0 22.3 23.6 24.8

IS.7
16.7
17.S
19.1
20.S
21.8
22.9
24.0
2S.0
26.0

17.1 18.7
17.6 19.3
18.1 19.8
20.3

21.7
22.4
23.0
23.6

26.9
27 .7
28.6
29.3

20.2
20.9
21.5
22.0

~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~i ~~~8 888 -; ! ~

'-"' ~~~~':' ~~~~~ ~~~~N


~ ~~~::~ ~g~~g ~""""'''"

S.2

"O~

..

e:.- . \"= -~
i5 ?????
-000'\-.N
- - - =?????
~ ~ ~ g ~ ... s s - - 0 j '<:::.

o
?~gv.v-
? PP P P
P PE .., .., .., .., ..,
.,.._ .i:.. ~Q\W O-.lVtt-l

~~

(11

t[

.,.

~~-

--......

23.1
23.8
24.S
25.1

24.4
2S.2
2S.9
26.6

25.7
26.S
27.3
28.0

14.7

10
12
14

IS.l
16.4
17.3
18.2
19.9
21.3

16.9 11.S
17.9 18.S 19.1 19.7
18.9 19.5 20.1 2()_7 21.3 21.9
20.6 21.3 22.0 22.7 2J.J )4.9 25.1 26.2
22.1 22.9 2).7 24.4 25.1 25.8 27. 1 28.3 29.S 30.6

22.7
23.9
25.0
26.1
27.1

23.5
24.8
26.0
27.1
28.2

24.4
25.7
27.0
28.1
29.2

25.2
26.6
27.9
29.1
30.2

26.0
27.4
28.8
30.0
31.2

26.7
28.2
29.6
30.9
32.2

27.S
29.0
30.5
31.8
33.1

28.9 30.2
30.S 32.0
12.1 33.6
33.S 35.1
34.9 36.6

31.S
33 .3
35.1
36.7
38.2

32.7
34.6
36.
38.1
39.7

33.9
JS.9
37.8
39.S
41.2

28.0
28.9
29.8
30.6

29.2
30. 1
JI.O
31.9

30.3
31.2
32.2
33.1

JI.)
32.3
33.l
34.3

32.3
3J-4
J.4.4
35.4

33.3
34.4
3S.S
36.5

34.3
35.4
36.S
37.6

36.2 37.9 39.6


37.4 39.2 41.0
38.S 40.4 42.3
39.6 41.6 43.5

41.2
42 .7
44.0
4S.3

42.8
44.3
45 .7
47. 1

16
18

20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52

56
60

64

l)'plcal Deslgn Velocitles for HVAC Compo nents

~~

;;.1,

V)~

~-'!

f1

'

...

~...
<:!

...

.!

.2

""~
$

.!

~ga~; :g ~

.....""

.. ....
e

'O

;:

1a
$

"

;2 ~

.!I

"1"!

NN-OllO

"'""
~.,,.;

~:!sg:

;!~~&;;

~=

....

"
~~
...:,.;.,,.;,..:~ :
~2i ,...,...,._,._,....
t- .. f"I'\-

M ......

~~~~

';j\

~~ C?C?~

51

..

,.....,_,._._

""'.,...""" " '

... ---

f"?~r-:~~

":

~-:'":'1'"':

'

',... ... o

-o--.oo ...
e"""

O'\..-.'

~~~~~

i~a;i

~~;;;

'1Y'J~ ~"'!

0-00\ttO

..

~~~!;\~

-o---

::::~~s1~ ;;2;~ ;;~::~~

::,._,..::;

500
See figure, page 8

_..,

,f

":~
-..:.e
:s: "',..:
+ ..,
~
:i"'"":S ~.u
~
_..., a
~~
~-

.,;; !;! g- 'O.g


"':

u ::;

..,..,

g:;$ ~-~

o ~

~~

Duct Velocity
Up to 750
250
500
200

ISO to 350

Refer to mfg. data


Refer to mfg. data

fDEHUMIDIFY INO COILSd

SOO to 600

AI R WASHERSt
Spray'JYpe
Cell:Jype
High-Velocity, Spray:Jype

300 to 600
Refer to mfg. data
1200to 1800

Based on assumptions prcsented in text.


from Chaptcr IO, 1988 Equipment Volumc.
cAbstracted from Chaptcr 9, 1988 Equipmcnt Volumc.
d Abstracted from Chaptcr 6, 1988 Equipment Vol u me.
eAbstracted from Chaptcr 4, 1988 Eq uipmcnt Volume.
b Abstractcd

... 1i

t:;~

200to 800

400 to500
200 min., 1500 max.

Electric:
Open Wire
Finned Tubular

o...;
.......

~~~:?I ~~~;::'& ::!~i:L:S :;t~

400
See figure, page 8

HEATINO COILSt
Steam and Hot Water

;;~;~ r ~ ~~

'"".""!V'!'""! -oo-.f'O\

a..--"'
_...,...,...,,. ~~$!~~

.....,
,d_.

~~::::~~

"":'1~ ""! ~
!;1;~ ~~~~~

~r.:i

;.:O
_,
<

r:~.,~""!

~""';~

..,

... ...
-'-"
:;::a: ~$
ai;~~ :i

~-: ~~~~~ ~~~~:

Nf""l~O

.......
"''

:: :;: !'!;: id~

~~~-~ ~~'1'"':~
~~~~~ :6:'d~~~

r:~~
..,..,,..
.........

~'"'!

~~~r-;~

;;; ci~~g:~ f:i:a~:

lil

::~

:S~~-=~

...

o;~

~~~~:&
""' ..... 0 \ - -

..,

~~~~

o-

""!~~""?~

Face Veloclty, fpm

FILTERSb
Panel Filters:
Viscous lmpingement
Dry-'JYpe, Extended-Surface:
Flat (Jow efficiency)
Pleated media (intermediate efficiency)
HEPA
Renewable Media Filters:
Moving-Curtain Viscous lmpingement
Moving-Curtain Dry-Media
Electronic Air Cleaners:
Ionizing 'JYpe

~~

~ ...

~~

_...,
~~2~ "''

..
~.. 1il...

.......

...,..

t;l

r:

f"1"i

"e g

ii

:o t;;.

1i

Duct Element
LOUVERS
Intake:
7000 cfm and greater
Less than 7000 cfm
Exhaust:
5000 cfm and greatcr
Less than 5000 c fm

.o"'

J!.;'e

'llli

-.'
7

Fan Laws,b
For Ali Fan Laws: 'hl ; 'hl 1nd (PI. of Rt&.) 1 (PI. of Rt.)1

No. Ikpendent

lndependent Vulabiu

Variables

...a:>
~ 3011----1-----f-----71:'---;T~----i

"'=
.e
~

Q ... Qi

lb

Press. 1
Press. 2 e

le

';)

...a:...

la

W 1 = W2

20

(EL
)
Di

"IR F t. OW X

10 3. c lm

PEA t.OUVER

g_
'12

X~

'12

Press.2

) "2

'1 1

'11

D2

N2

...<

~) 2

x(EL
}5 x (~
)
Di
N
x(EL ) 2 x( Press.
D2

0 l_-L-_JL..__.J1----!9:----},o;:---f,~
2 -71;---,~e---,~e--;,20

X (

x( Q2 ) " 2
x (D 2 ) x ( Press. 1)"2 x ( Q2)"2
D
Press.
x(EL )i x ( Press. )312x( Q )'12

2a

...u<

x(EL
) x~
D2
N2

Press. 2

'11

Press. 1
Press. 2

Oc
Thc 1ubscrip1 1 denotes that the variable is for thc fa n under consideration.
bThe subK ript 2 denotes that the variable is for thc tcstcd fan .
<pi/ or P.

.
p
rs Used In Establishinl! Fhture
. .
..
Pertment arame 1e

Unless otherw1se 1denuf1ed, fan performance data are


Parameter
lntake Louver Exhaust Louv ~ased on dry air at standard conditions 14.696 psi and 70
----~~~:!,____ _ __!:=:::...:::::.:.~=-'----1~ (0.075 Jbm/ft3 ). In actual applications, the fan may be reMinimum Free Arca (48-in. Squarc
ui red to handle air or gas at sorne olher density. The change
45
45
Test Sccton), 07o

N A I' bln density may be because of temperature, composition of
Water Pcnctration, oz/ (ft2 0.25 h)
Ncg~gtbbc ) 01 PP ica he gas, or altitude. As indicated by the Fan Laws, the fan
( css 1 an
~rformance is affected by gas density. With constant size
Maximum S1atic Prcssurc Drop,
nd spced, the horsepower and pressure varies directly as the
.25
0
~i~
n .~o~r~wa~tc~r:__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _o:::.:.:15:__----- 41liltio of gas density to the standard air density.
1

The application of the Fan Laws for a change in fan speed,


N, for a specific sizc fan is shown. The computed P, curve
is derived from the base curve. For example, point
E(N = 650) is computed from point D(N2 = 600) as
1
follows:
Al D,
Q2 = 6 and Pl/1 = 450
Using Fan Law la al point E
Q1 = 6 X 650/ 600 = 6.5
Using Fan Law lb
2
p tfi "' 450 X (650/600) = 530
The completed P , N = 650 curve thus may be generated
11
by computing addihonal points from data on the base curve,
such as point O from point F.
If equivalcnt points of rating are joined, as shown by thc
dotted lines, thesc points will all lic on parabolas wbich are
defined by thc rclationship expressed in Eq l.
600

1001--~~-1--,-<'~.......~~~---~~-1--~~-+-~~~ 1

/
..........

VOWME FLOW RATE.

10

10

clm " 1000

(U. "

IOOOI

Psychrometric Chut
11

Tumperalure and Allilude Correction

MOISTUAE ANO AIR

Temperah1re-Denslty*

RELATIONSHIPS
ASHRAE hes dopted pounds of molsture per pound of
drv a lr as standard nomenclatur. Relations of other unlu
ar .,1pressed below et vrious dewpoint temperatures.
Par cent
Grains I
Equiv.
Lb H20 I Paru per
Molsture %b
lb drv a ir
mi
Ilion
lb
drv

Ir
F
Oew Pt.

1
1

I:

1
1
1
1
1

- 100
90
80
70
60
50
- 40
30
- 20
10

o
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
a

0.000001
0 .000002
0 .000005
o 00001
0 .00002
0 .00004
0 .00008
0.00015
0.00026
0 .00046
0.0008
0.0013
0.0022
0.0032
0 .0052
0 .0077
0.011 1
0.01 58
0 .0223
0 .0312
0.0432

1
2
5
10
21
42
79
146
263
461
787
1 315
2 152
3 154
5 213
7 658
11 080
15 820
22 330
31 180
43 190

0.0007
0 .0016
0.0035
0 .073
0.1 48
0.291
0.555
1.02
1.84
3.22
5.51
9.20
15. 1
24.2
36.5
53.6
77.6
110.7
156.3
218.3
302.3

0 .06
0.13
0 .26
0 .5
0 .9
1.7
2.9
5.0
8.3
13.6
21.8
33.0
48.4
70.2
100.0

Temp.

o
70
100
150
200
2SO
300

3SO
400
450

soo
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1,000

Den sil y
factor

Wt. per

1.IS2
1.000
0.946
0.869
0.803
0.747
0.697
0.654
0.616
0.582
O.S52
0.525
0.500
0.477
0.457
0.438
0.421
0.404
0.390
0.376
0.363

0.0864
0.0749
0.0709
0.0651
0.0602

Allltude-Oensily**
Ele\'lltlon Air denslty Density
(l.
lb./cu. {l.
faclor

cu. r1.

soo

1,000
1,500
2,000
2,SOO
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
S,000
5,500
6,000
6,SOO
7,000
7,500
8,000
8,500
9,000
9,500
10,000

O.OS60
O.OS22
0.0490
0.0462
0.0436
0.0414
0.0393

0.0315
0.0358
0.0342
0.0328
0.0315
0.0303
0.0292
0.0282
0.0272

Table bascd on 29.92 in. Hq.


Dry air at 70F

7000 grlns 1 lb
Compared to 70 F saturatea .

Normallv th sensible ht lctor determines the Cfm


requored 10 accept a load. In sorne Indust rial applications
the latent heat factor mv control th air circulation rate.
Latent hHt. Btu/h
Thu!i Cfm
IW1 - W2) " 4840
NUMBERS. 1985, Altadena, CA. by 8111 HoCladY and Cy Otterholm.

12

13

0.o7S
0.0736
0.0723
0.0710
0.0697
0.0684
0.0672
0.0659
0.0647
0.0635
0.0623
0.0612
0.0600
0.0589
0.0578
0.0567
0.0557
0.0546
0.0536
0.0525
0 .051 5

1.0
0.982
0.964
0.947
0.930
0 .913
0.896
0.880
0.864
0.848
0.832
0.817
0.801
0.786
0.772
0.757
0.743
0.729
0.715
0.701
0.688

-----

Enthalpy of A.ir at Various Wd Bulb Teroperatures


Par1 l

Condt nscd Table.


40WB - 90WB

Par11-

lnte,.,,olat~ to TtnthJ of 0qrttS, 40 WB -19.9 WB


Wet
Btu
Wtt
\\et Btu
Btu
Wt t
Bulb
Wet Btu
Bulb Ptr
Btu
Wt t
Bulb Per
Btu
Wt t
Bulb Pt r
Tt
mp.
Per
Bulb
Ttmp. Pound Ttmi>- Pound
Bulb Ptr
Bulb Pt r
TtmP. Pound Ttmp. Pound
"nmp. Pound Tcmp. Pound
70.0
30.06
65.0
SS .O 23.22 60.0 26.46
.1
. 1 30.14
17.65 so.o 20.30
26.53

Bl
Wt l
Bulb Per
Pound Temp. Pound
Btu

Pcr

34.09 75.0 38.61


. 1 38.71
34. 18
.2 38.80
.2 34.26
.3 38.90
.3 34.35
.4 38.99
.4 34.43
39.09
70.5 34.S2 75.5
.6 39.19
.6 34.61
.7 39.28
.7 34.69
.8 39.38
.8 34.78
.9 39.47
.9 34.86
71 .0 34.95 76.0 39.S7
.1 39.67
. 1 35.04
.2 39.77
.2 35 . 13
.3 39.87
.3 3S.21
.4 39.97
.4 35.30
40.07
71 .5 35.39 76.5
.6 40.17
.6 35.48
.7 40.27
.7 35.57
37
.8 40.
.8 3S.65
.......,
.9
.9 ,~ _74

45.0
.1
40.0 15.23
. 1 23.28
,1 20.36
.2 30.21
.2 26 .60
. 1 17.70
. 1 lS.28
.2 23.34
20.41
.2
.3 30.29
17.75
.2
.3 26.67
23.41
.2 lS .32
.3
20.47
.3
.4 30.37
.4 26.74
.3 11.80
.3 lS.37
.4 23.47
20.S2
.4
.4 17.85
.4 15.42
60.5 26.81 65.5 30.4S
23
.S3
ss.s
so.s 20.S8
.6 30.S2
.6 26.87
_. 40.S lS.47 4S .5 17.91
.6 23.S9
.6 20.64
.7 30.60
.6 17.96
.7 26.94
~ 1 .6 lS .51
.7 23.65
20.69
.7
.8 30.68
.7 18.01
.8 27.01
.7 IS. S6
.8 23.72
20.75
.8
.9 30.1S
.8 18.06
.9 27.08
.8 IS.61
.9 23.78
20.80
.9
18.11
.9
30.83
66.0
.9 IS .65
27.17
23.84 61.0
. 1 30.91
18.16 SI.O 20.86 56.0
. 1 27 .22
41.0 15.70 46.0
. 1 23.90
20.92
.
1
.2 30.99
. 1 18.21
.2 27.29
. 1 15.7S
.2 23.97
.2 20.97
.3 31.07
.2 18.26
27.36
.3
.2 tS.80
24.03
.3
.3 21.03
.4 31.15
.3 18.32
.4 27 .43
.3 IS .84
24.10
.4
.4 21.09
.4 18.37
66.S 31.23
,4 15.89
27.SO
61.S
S6.S 24.16
.6 31.30
46.5 18 .42 St.S 2i.IS
.6 27.57
41.S 15.94
.6 24.22
.6 21.20
,7 31.38
.6 18.47
.7 27.64
24.29
.6 IS.99
.7
.7 21.26
.8 31.46
.7 18.52
.8 27.71
.7 16.04
24.35
.8
.8 21.32
.9 31.S4
.8 18.58
.9 27.78
.8 16.08
.
.9 24.42
.9 21.38
.9 18.63
.9 16.13
.1
:1 .J> ..Y.l
.
t 'JL1~
.
1
17.92
. 1 24.S4
'Zl ~4'Y
v-
' "
.2
.2 36.01
.2 31.78
.2 27.99
.2 24.61
.2 21.SS
.2 18.79
.2 16.27
.3
36.10
.3
.3 31 .86
.3 28.07
. 3 24.67
.3 21 .61
.3 18.84
.3 16.32
.4
.4 36.19
.4 31 .94
.4 28.14
.4 24.74
.4 21 .67
.4 18.89
.4 16.37
72.5 36.29 77.5
67.S 32.02
28.21
62.S
24.80
21
.7)
57.S
52.5
42.S 16.42 47.5 18.95
.6
.6 36.38
.6 32 . 10
.6 28.28
.6 24.86
.6 21.78
.6 19.00
.6 16.46
.7
.7 36.47
.1 32. 18
.7 28.35
.1 24.93
.1 21.84
.1 19.05
.7 16.51
.8
.8 36.56
.8 32.26
.8 28.43
.8 24.99
.8 21.90
.8 19.10
.8 16.56
.9
.9 36.6S
.9 32.34
.9 28.50
.9 2S.06
.9 21.96
.9 19.16
.9 16.61
78.0
73.0 36.74
53.0 22.02 SS.O 25.12 63 .0 28.S7 68.0 32.42
48.0 19.21
43.0 16.66
.1
. 1 36.83
.1 32.SO
. 1 28 .64
. 1 25 . 19
. 1 22 .08
. 1 19.26
. 1 16.71
.2
.2 36.92
.2 32.59
.2 28.72
.2 2S.25
.2 22.14
.2 19.32
.2 16.76
.3
.3 37.02
.3 32.67
.3 28.79
.3 2S.32
.3 22.20
.3 19.37
.3 16.81
.4
37.
11
.4
.4 32.75
.4 28.87
.4 2S.38
.4 22.26
.4 19.43
.4 16 .86
25.45 63.5 28.94 68.S 32.84 73.S 37.20 78.5
<:n 1 43 .5 16.91 48.5 19.48 53 .5 22.32 58.S
.6
.6 37.29
.6 32.92
.6 29.01
.6 25.52
.6 22.38
.6 19.53
.6 16.9S
.7
.7 37.39
.7 33.00
.7 29.09
.7 25.S8
.1 22.44
.7 19.59
.7 17.00
.8
37.48
.8
.8 33 .08
29.16
.8
25
.65
22
.SO
.8
.8
.8
19.64
.8 17.0S
.9
.9 37.57
.9 33. 17
.9 29.24
.9 2S.71
.9 22.56
.9 19.70
.9 17. 10
74.0 37.66 79.0
33.25
29.31
69.0
64.0
25
.78
S9.0
44 .0 17. IS 49.0 19.75 54.0 22.62
.1
. 1 37.76
. 1 33 .33
. 1 29.39
1 25.85
. 1 22.68
.1 19.81
. 1 17.20
.2
.2 37.85
.2 33 42
29.46
.2
25.92
22.74
.
2
19.86
.2
.2
.2 17.25
.3
.3 37 .95
.3 33.SO
.3 29.54
.3 2S.98
.3 22.80
.3 19.92
.3 17.30
.4
.4 38.04
.4 33.S9
.4 29.61
.4 26.05
.4 22.86
.4 19.97
.4 17.35
S9.S 26.12 64.5 29.69 69.5 33 .67 74.S 38.14 79.S
44. 5 17.40 49.5 20.03 54.5 22.92
.6
.6. 38.23
.6 33 .7S
.6 29.76
.6 26. 19
.6 22 .98
.6 20.08
.6 17.45
.7
.7 38.33
.7 33 .84
.7 29.84
.7 26.26
.7 23 .04
.1 20. 14
.7 17.50
.8
.8 38.42
.8 33.92
.8 29.9 1
.8 26.32
.8 23. 10
.8 20. 19
.8 17.55
.9
.9 38.52
.9 34.0 1
.9 29.99
.9 26.39
.9 23.16
.9 20.25
.9 17.60

~-'

40.77
40.87
40.97
41.08
41.18
41.28
41.38
41.48
41.58
41.68
41.79
4 1.89
42.00
42.10
42.20
42.31
42.41
42.S2
42.62
42.73
42.83
42.94
43.0S
43 . 16
43.26
43.37
43.48
43.S8

Wtt Btu
Bulb Pt r
Tcmp. Pound
40
41
42
43
44
4S
46
47
48
49
so
Sl
S2
53
S4
SS
56

51
58
59

IS.23
15.10
16.17
16.66
17. lS
17.6S
18.16
18.68
19.21
19.7S
20.30
20.86
21.44
22.02
22.62
23.22
23.84
24.48
2s.12
25.78

27.8S
28.S7
29.31
30.06
30.83
31 .62
32.42
33 .25
34.09
34.9S
35.83
36.74
37.66
38.61
39.57
40.S7
41.S8
42.62
80 43 .69
44.78
81
45.90
82
47.f>'
83
48.22
84
49.43
as
86 S0.66
87 51 .93
Sl .23
88
89 54.56
90 S5.93

62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79

1
1
1
1
1
1

PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM*


Temp,
Pressure

Spec vol,
cu ft/lb
Vg

U.S. Ambient Air Quality Standards

Enthatpy, Btu/lb
Satwater vaporatlon
hf
hfg
Sulfur oxides

8.28
26.86
47.05
69.10

, 071.1
1060.6
1049.2
1036.6

173.7.
118.7
90.63
73.52
61.98
53.64
47.34
42.40
38.42

93.99
109.37
120.86
130.13
137.94
144.76
150. 79
156.22
161. 17

1022.2
1013.2
1006.4
1001 .0
996.2
992.1
988.5
985.2
982.1

201.96
209.56
212.00
227.96

32.40
28.04
26.80
20.09

169.96
177.61
180.07
196.16

976.6
971.9
970.3
960.1

30
40
50
60

250.33
267.25
281.01
292.71

13.75
10.50
8.515
7.175

218.82
236.03
250.09
262.09

945.3
933.7
924.0
915.5

1164.
1169.
1174.I
1177.

70
80
90
100

302.92
312.03
320.27
327.81

6.206
5.472
4 .896
4.432

272.61
282.02
290.56
298.40

907.9
901.1
894.7
888.8

1180.
1183.
1185.
1187.

120
140
160
180
200

341.25
353.02
363.53
373.06
381 . 79

3.728
3.220
2.834
2.532
2.228

312.44
324.82
335.93
346.03
355.36

877.9
868.2
859.2
850.8
843.0

, 190.
1193.
1195.
1196.
1198.

0.25 in. Hg
0 .50
1.00
2 .00

40.34
56.80
79.03
101 .14

2 psia
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

126.08
141.48
152.97
162.24
170.06
176.85
182.86
188. 28
193.21

12
14
14.696
20

2423.7
1256.4
652.3
339.2

80g/m 3

Annual
(arithmetic mean)
24 h t

(0.03 ppm
36Sglm

IJOOg/m 3
(O.S ppm)
10mg/m 3

10mg/m3
(9ppm)
40 mg/m 3t
(35 ppm)
Annual
IOOg/m 3
(arithmetic mean)
(O.OS ppm)
1 ht
240 g/ml
(0.12 ppm)
3h
160 /gml
(nonmethanc)
(6 to 9 A.M.)
(0.24 ppm)
l..ead
1.5 g/ml
3 mos.
*A nonhealthrelatcd standards used as a guide for oz.one control
fNot to be exceeded more than once ayear
fEPA has proposed a reduction of the standard 10 29 mg/m 3

1127.3
1131.1
1134.2
Nitrogen dioxide
1136.
1139.
Oione
1141.
1143. Hydrocarbons

..

16

Secondary
Standard
l.evels
60 g/m 3
150g/m 3

Time
l..e'lels
Annual (geomctric mean) 75 g/m 3
24ht
260g/m 3

(0.14ppm)

Abr;dye<l frorn "Thermodynamic Properties of Stearn


by Keenan and Keyes. John Wlley & Sons. lnc .. N. Y.

* NUMBERS, 1985, Altadena, CA, by 8111 Holladay and Cy Otterholm.

Primary
Standard

Averaglng

tt.t

tt.Oo

9'.0o

to.oo

?o.oo

~'\

o-

;...j7

.~
./

./

),00

./
./

/
/
'

./

./

.~#'

./

./

./

'

./

10.00

O.O!

160/gm3
(0.24 ppm)
l.S g/ml

30.00

o'

/
/

to.oo

....

1 00

(0.12ppm)

"' o

30.00
4000

(9 ppm)

40mg/mJ
(3S ppm)
IOOg/m 3
(O.OS ppm)
240glm 3

"

Pa1H1C1.'

01aM[f(*, M1COMtHt[

'

Particle Si:ie Distribulion of Atmospheric Dust


17

10

Electronlc A ir C leaners

Eleclronic air cleaners use electroslatic prccipitalion 10 remove and collecl par
ticulatc conlaminants such as dust, smoke. and pollcn. Wires with a positiw
dirccl currenl potcnlial of bclwcen 6 and 25 kV DC are suspended equidistan!
belween grounded plalcs, creatin an ionizing field for charging patticles.
Thc colleclina plate section consists of parallcl platcs with a positivc vollagt
of 4 lo 10 kV (de) applicd to altcrnatc platcs. Platcs that are nol charged are at
ground po1ential. As parlicles passinlo this section, they are forced lo thc platel
by lhc clectrc flcld on thc chargcs lhey carry, and thus are removed from the air
strcam and collcctcd by thc pla1cs.
Elcctronic air clcancrs typically operatc from a l:ZO.. or 240-V AC singlc-phasc
electrical service. Power consump1ion rangcs from 20 lo 40 walls pcr 1000 cfm

"'

of capacity.
This type of air filler can removc and collect airbornc contaminants with aves
age cfficiencics of up lo 98G7o at low airlow velocitics (ISO to 350 fpm) whe
lcstcd per thc ASHRAE Standard 52.1. Efficicncy dccreascs (1) as the collecling pi ates t>ecome loaded wilh particulalcs, (2) wilh highcr vclocities, or (3) wit
t

~I

o
.....
V

nonuniform vclocity.
As with most air filtration dcvices, the duct approaches to and from lhe aiI
clcancr housina should be arraned so that thc airflow is distributed uniforml
ovcr the facc arca. Panel prefillersshould also be uscd to helpdistribute thc air
now and lo trap largc particles thal mlght short out or cause cxcessivc arci

00

withn thc hl&h -voitage section.

r-

...

111/11'l/111///1 ! I !1111 1 ! l

/!

1 11 i 1 11 / li -

ALTIANATE

AlflflOW

e::::o

trtl

11,,,, 1 , , 1 1 , 11111111"u1 u

\\

":,O~!ll!li/
WIAUAT

I 1 11 1 11

'/

\\ l

,ATH~/,

l/

~~:::;;"
\\

~~~~;1f

?-"~
INTERM!DIATE

l i i

l! l i l l / / / / / / / / l ! l ! l l /

'':::J!/ ''' \('' '111

11~. ~;.:r~

~~:

~-

- ez 11, 11'Pn1u 11 111wu1u 1m m

+ PAATICLES

11111 11 1111 -

POSITill(LY

CHARGlD ,..ATICL.E

C ross Secllon or l onlzing EJectronlc Air Cleaner

18

5
:i
a
o ..

~ .[
.

o00

o00

Soul'(:es, Possible Concentrations, and lndoor-to-Outdoor Concentration Ratios of Some lndoor Pollutants
Pollutant
Carbon monoxidc
Respirable particlcs
Organic vapors
Nitrogen dioxide
1\)

Possible lndoor 1/ 0 Conc~nConcentration tralion Ratio

Sourcesof
lndoor Pollution

Sulfur dioxide
Tutal suspended particles
without smoking
Sulfate
Formaldchyde

Combuslion cquipment, engincs,


JOOppm
fauhy
heating systcms
Stovcs, fi~laces, ci&arcttcs, coodcn100 to SOO glm 3
satioo of volatilcs, aerosol sprays,
resuspcnsion, cooking.
Combustioo, solvents, resin products,
NA
pcsticides, aerosol sprays
Combustion, gas stovcs, water bcaters, 200 to 1000 glm 3
dricrs, cigarettcs, engincs
Hcating systcm
20glm 3
Combustion, resuspcnsion, hcating
100 glm 3
systcm
Matches, gas stoves
Sg/ m3
lnsu.l atioo, product bindcrs,
O.OS to 1.0 ppm
particleboard
3
Building materials, groundwaier, soil 0.1 to
nCitT
Freproofing
< 10 fibcr/m
NA
Products, cloth, rugs, wallboard

>>I

Combustion, humans, pcts


Hurnans, pcts, rodents, insects, plants,
fungi, hurnidificrs, air condilioners
Elect.ric arcing
UV light sources

Ozone

~g

s:[~

....
!f a a ~~
a s
- g - ....
9~

&l

<l
>I

gg

~~:

=... =

:;;~

.,,g~.

.. .

n- 'O
,,.
~

g. 2.

~Q
()

ID ::J

~.;-

+::o

I 0

ae..=
Q.;j.....

-::o
o e:. o3

"'O)

n
::r'

'2~ ~.

o 3 e
? ~ ~
~

..

;:;--

;r;.-~ ~o d' ~ 3: !!! ~ > il':'


l:UL. IC" a ~~g-1=.:.f

;;-

...~

ii

~~e ! :;g, .. ~~e{


B..2.2. ;; -g=sq_;:;a_no= cr - ~Q.n~

e:~cs 3
"...
or:rr:r
o -3

:s :s :s
"

- ---:

~<

""'

b'

..

.,;.,
3

~~e:r
... -CI'
"' e o;.
3:::

::

..

JD

'Z

i"::s :i ::J :s ::> ..


. : - 0 0 0 0 o :i::

_::s :s :s ::> ::o ()


onnn

...,

wO

~...,-;..::

3::
'=->::o

.... o

-(,,.

:>

ee~ S-cr [ ~ i
a:gggg~ ~~g a
~ 5. ~

::o

:>

"

..
2.
o

e :s

= :s

:i

=
:s :s ::> :::i

n n n n n

g!i"

~~~~ ~
c; e ......

~. ~.

e. ~. ~
n

e;'&

E..

e:..,~

..Q.
~

It

::o

ci

~
;;

e:

~
;:

;i

~o~-~~

O! n n )"
- "'o o o
&. 9 3 N

-"'8'8 g
g&ccp
3 =::o ..
o.
oe
"O.
..,

'O

::o

..a.

e- e-

..

a"'

..a.

.il

(")

="
3

'

~ ~ ~

o
iii!

~~~~c.:

..,3
J=

~ ~!!~

.... ~::2::a::a:snnn..,oo
< .. -oo~o
---o.
<<::o
~
-.
n""'

'< i;' C. (:La.a.:s <n c.'< n

'8

=
>
~

Homes, schools, offices


Homes, hospitals, schools,
officcs, public
Airplancs
Officcs

<J
>I

r:r~

~.P

~ c. e: ~: D. S
::rJl.1 CT3 n Q.~

r;

>>l
>l

.....
>g
..-=.,,.;- 5: ~+ .....
+
:z
-.
-
- ..
~ ::::.

.:z
:z :z ;
~Cl.l~ Q.
~ <'?. .9.f
'": ~
;.:;:ic;r:r
g ~ .,0.9wOg
Q.

Homes, buildings
Homes, schools, offices
Homes, schools. offices

20ppb
200ppb

... !:!.

>>J

3000 p pm
NA

Removal insidc
Homes. officcs. transpor
tation, restaurants
Removal inside
Homes, officcs

<I
1

o o=..

~24~

!l

Homes, restaurams, public


facilities, officcs. hospitals
Homes, slcating rinlcs

>l

=.. . 5..,-
Oi. :e~ : ~ :r,...09;' -:: ~

(') :r ..

Skaling rinks, officcs,


homes, cars, sbops
Homes, officcs. can, public
facilities, bars. restaurants

>>l

loo

R.adoo and progeoy


Asbestos
Mineral and synthetic
fibers
Carbon dioxidc
Viable organisms

Location

a.

~~ ~

.. ..
=
o
;

t: g~~

Q.

~~
e ;:

a.~

Q = V(IOx2 + A)

H ood Capture Velocitles


Tu select an adequate volumetric flow ratc to withdraw air througl!

a hood, designers use the concept of capture velocities, which are air
velocities al the point of cont.aminanl generation. The contaminan!
enters the moving airstream at the point of gcneration and is conducted
along with the air into the hood. The table shows capture vclocilics for
severa! industrial operations, based on successful cxperience under
ideal conditions.

Q flow rate, cfm


V capture velocily, fl/min
X distancc from hood face, fl
A hood face arca, ft 2

Range of Capture Velocitles


Condltlo n of
Contamlnant Dispcrslon

Examplcs

Relcased with essentially Evaporation from tanks,


degreasing, plating
no velocity into still air
Relcased at low velocity Container filling, lowspccd convcyor transfers,
into moderately stiU air
welding

Capture
(Control)
Veloclty, fp11
50 to 100

IOOto 200

Barre) filling, chute load- 200to 500


ing of convcyors, crushing,
cool shakcout
500 to2000
Released at high velocity Grindin, abrasive
blasting, tumbling, hot
into zone of very ra pid
shakeout
air motion

Active generalion into


zone of rapid air motion

In each category above, a range of capture velocities is shown.


proper choice of values depends on severa) factors.
1.Jpper End of Rangc
Lower E nd of Range
1. Distributing room air curren
l. Room air currents are favorable to capture.
2. Conlaminants of low toxicity 2. Contaminants of hih toxici
or of nuisance value only.
3. lotermittent, low production. 3. H igh production, heavy us
4. Small hood; local control o
4. Large hood; large air mass
in moton.

o
ri
llJ

ti

:l

~llJ

11.

~ ~~~~~~ ~

8~2~2~i

1oor-,,-.--,.--,,...-...---.--.-.....---.-~~--l

90 t--+-+--t--l-1-+-1--1--......_l--L_.l

~801-t\--t--+--+--lr--+-+--1---1--l-_.lf.-.i
>
~ 70t-+-'d--t--+--l~l--+-+--l--+--ll--I
~ sor-t-~-t--+--+--1'--+--l--1---1---l.--l
~50t-+-+-..ot--+-+~i--+--l-_..._,._J__,J

ffi 40t--t--t-r...+--+--+--+--+--+-~-l.---I
>
< 30t--t-+--t--+:...+.....,f--+-+-+--I-~~
t--

~... :~i-r-11rrt-rttti:L
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

OUlWAAD OISTANCE FAOM PIPE MOUTH, PEACENT OF O

Veloclly Conto urs fo r a Plaln Rouod Openlng

22

23

Hood Eotry Loss

Contaminant Tnlnsport Velocities


Adaptcd rom Industrial Ventilation- A Manual of Rttommended Practkts
(ACGIH 1988)

Min1m1111

Nature

or

Contaminan!
Vapors,
gases,
smoke
Fumes

Examples
Ali vapors, gases, smokes

Traosport
Veloclty,
fpm
Usually
1000 to

2000
200010
2500
2500to
3000
3000
to

Welding

Very fine Cotton lint, wood flour, litho powder


light dust
Ory
Fine rubber dust, Bakclite molding powder
dusts and dusL, jutc lint, cotton dust, shavings (light),
4000
powders soap dust, leather shavings
Average Grindiog dust, buffing lint (dry), wool jute dust 3500
to
industrial (shaker waste), coffee beans, shoe dust, granite
dust
dust, silica flour, general material handling, brick 4000
cutting, clay dust, foundry (general), limestonc
dust, packaging and weighing asbestos dust in
textilc industries
Sawdust (heavy and wet), metal tumings, foundry 4000
Hcavy
to
tumbling barreis and shakeout, sandblast dust,
dusts
4500
wood blocks, hog waste, brass turnings, castiron boring dust, lead dust
4SOO
Heavy
L.ead dust with small chips, moist cement dust,
and
or moist asbestos chunks from transite pipe cutting
up
dusts
machines, buffing lint (sticky), quicklirnc dust

Whcn air cnters a hood, a loss of total prcssurc occurs; thc hood
mtry /oss is:
h, = CofJ,

where
h, hood entry loss, in. or water
C0 loss acior, dimension tcss
p, appropriate velocity pressure, in. o water

Tutal prcssure is difficult to measure, since it varies across a d uct,


depending on local velocity. On thc other hand, static pressure remains
constant across a straight duct. Therefore, a single measurement of
1tatic pressure in a straight duct downstream of the hood can monitor thc volumctric flow rate. The valuc of this static pressure, hood
suction, is givcn by:

Phs = Pv + h,
whcrep.u = hood suction, in. of water

b. FLANGED OUCT ENO

L PlAIN DUCT ENO

c. 0.60

c. 1.0

c.

ORIFICE AT OUCT E.NO

e, -1.1e

(USEP. OFORIFICE)

..

.J ..

FACEAREAAT
LEASTZTIMES

DUCTAREA

......
~
....
~

FAC!
...REAAT
l.!MT2TIME8

DUCTAREA

. ,.

t;
<

ffi

......
....,.
o 10

RECT'"NOULAR l SQU E

- -- --

,I'. l.-

,
ROUNO

I040HMNIOltol.ottOIM

.. INClUOEO ANGlE IN OEGREES


d. TAPEREOHOOOS
FLANGEDOR UNFLANGEO: AOUNO, IOUAAE OA RECTANGULAR
flSTI1E MAJOAANOlEON RECTANOUlARHOODS.

1
1

En try Losses for lYp ical H oods

24

25

Duets 6' on c enter moxlmum

Oucts 6 on cente,. (mox.)


for lo,.ge hoods

roce or ends can


opentd for fllter
rtmovot - - - -- 6' mln.

ovtr'hong on
three 1fdu

r1111r mounllng holgh l


See note 4 below,

Coo)(1ng equipmenl
,
HOOO ACAINST WALL
O 80 cfm/11 of hood oreo (80 WI.)
Hol tou thon 50 cfm/fl' of foco oreo (50 PH)
p per-lmeter or hood ; 2W + l
Ouct v etoclty :: 1000 - .COOO fpm. to 1ult conditfons
h , {ffllor tHlslonce + 0.1") + 0 .50 VP, (alro19hl toko-off)
i.. (flllor rulslonce + 0.1") + 0.25 VP, ( toporod toko -oll)

l - - -- - -"
Cookin9 tquipment

Cloaed t nds
dtalrobl

LOW SIOC WALL HOOO


200 clm/lineol 11 of cooklng 1urloc {200l)
Mlnimum duct velocity = 1000
4000 tpm, to 1uit CO!"lditions
h : {filler res;stonee + 0.1") 0 .50 VP, ( alrolghl 1oke-ofl)
h: (filler reslstonce + 0. t") + 0 . 25VP, (lopered loke-off)

6' moximum

Kitchen Range lloods

E::3:::t::f::1:::t::1::3:::t::3
6" m1n.
overhong

H='' mox.

oll 1ldu

tslond cooklng Ot"eo

P = perimeler of hood
ISLANO IYPC HOOO
2W + 2l
2
125 clm/11 of hood oreo ( 125 WL)
Nol IHs 1hon 50 cfm/11 1 of foco oroo (50 PH)
Mlnlmum duc l veloclty
1000 - ~000 fpm, to sull condillons
h, (flllor rt1lslonc1 + 0.1") + 0.50 VP, (alrolghl toke -off)
h, (flllor reolalonce + O. t") + 0.25 VP, (topored tokeoff)
O

Kitchen Range Hoods


R~prin~ w~th pcrmission oflhc American ConfCTCncc of 00\ICTrunental Jndus
lrlal Hwenuts for Industrial Ventilation-A Manual ofRecommended Pmctice, 21st Edtion (1992).

26

t::3:::t::1::3:::t::t::3:::t::3
H4' max.

~-

Notes for Kltchen Hood


Fllters
1. Select praetical filler size.
2. Determine number of filters requlred lro manufac:turer's data.
(Usually, 2 cfm maximum exhaust for each square inch ol filler area.)
3. lnstall at 45 - 60 to horizontal. Never horizontal.
4. Alter mounling height
a. No exposed oooking flame- 18" mlnimum to lowest edge <_>f filler.
b. Charcoal and similar fires-4' mlnlmum to lowest edge ol ftlter.
5. Shleld lilters from dlrect radlant heat.
6. Provlde removable g1ease drlp pan.
7. Clean pan and lilters regularly.
Fana
1. Use upblasl discharge tan.
2. Select fan lor design Q and SP resistance ol filters and duct.
3. Adjust tan specificaton lor expected exhaust alr temperatura.
Reprinled with pennission oflhcAmerican ConfCTCnceofGovernmental Industrial H)'licnists for Industrial Venllation-A Manual ofRecommended Pmctlct, 21st Editfon (1992).

Common Pump Terms, Symbols, a nd Formulas


(xhousl duct
Optlonol room otr

by-pou dou not

Adjustobl top 1101

apen unlil 1osh IJ


cloHd 25""-30"4

So1h clo1u by - pou


when rolaed

Term

Sym bol

Unils

Velocity

t/s

Volume

ft 3
gpm

Flow rate

Q.

hced center stot

Pressure

psi

Aeor bofffe

1Hdln9 ponefs

Density

lb/ft 3

Receued bottom

Acceleralion of gravity

g 32.17 ft/s 2

A1rtoll omb
tr.4ovoble sosh --...,...::;..;

con "'ove horlzontol

A1rto1I sill

Specific gravity

VERTICAL SASH AIR FOIL HOOO

ror 1otety sh1eld, ot leost


one sosh 16.. mow. w1dlh

= 80-100

t:fm/t 1' fulf open oreo


dtpendlng on quollly of 1upply

oir dislrtbution ond uniformlty


of foce veloclty

h," 0.5 VPd


Ouct velocity

1000- 2000 fpm to

sult condltion1
Alrfoil

1111

rpm

Head

ft

Net positive suction


head (NPSH)

ft

Utilization
Qo e design flow
QA "' actual flow
H D = design head
HA = actual head

Output pawer (pump)

l)'plcal Laboratory Hood

'Y/p
1/m
r,
r.

= 1'/p'Y/m/100

r, "' 10- 1/p'Y/m1/v

r.
'Y/ 11

1111

= 100 QoHo
QAHA

SEi "' 10- T/;'Y/ 11

Po
Ps

hp

Q,HSG/3960

Shaft power

hp

100 P 0 1T/p

Input powcr

kW

74.6P/T/m

~rinte<! w!th pmnission ofthc Americ:an Confcrencc ofGo-erorncntal lndus


lnal Hyg1cn~s~s for Industria/ Ventila/Ion-A Manual ofRecommended Practlcr, 21st Ediuon (1992).

28

2.31p/SG

r,

System Efficiency lndex


(decimal)

HORIZONTAL SASH
AIRFOIL HOOO

Mass of liquid
Mass of water at 39F

SG

Speed

Efficiency (percent)
Pump
Electric motor
Variable spced drive
Equipment (constan!
speed pumps)
Equipment (variable
speed pumps)

Formula

29

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

Application of Affinity Laws

Affinlty Laws for P u m ps


Jmpeller
DI ameter

Specific
Gravity
Speed

(SG)

To
Correcl for

Constant Variable Constan!

MuJUply by

Flow

( NewSpeed)
Old Speed

Head

( New Speed ) 2
Old Speed

Power

( New Speed ) 3
Old Speed

...~
%

Variable

Constant Constant

Flow

( New Diameler )
Old Speed

~
o

Head

( New Diameter ) 2
Old Speed

Power

( New Diameter )
Old Speed

Power

( NewSG)
OldSG

SVSTEM OUtGN

Fl.OW

Constant Constan! Variable

--- ---- --r


IYlt(M r UWr

lf the hydronic system has a system head curve as shown in curve


A, thepumpat ll50rpm willoperateat point 1, notatpoint2, aswould
be predicted by the affinily laws alo ne. lf the hydronic system has a system head curve like curve B of this figure, the pump at 1150 rpm will
run at shutoff head and delivcr no water. This demonstrates that the
affinity laws should be used to dcvelop new pump head/capacity
curves, but not to predict performance with a particular hydronic system unless its system head curve is known.
30

31

'fypical Pump C urves

'fyplcal Pump C urves

(Curves vary with manufacturer. Courtesy of Aurora Pump Co.)

(Curves vary with manufacturer. Courtesy of Aurora Pump Co.)

32

33

1750 RPM SPLIT ~ASE

.,.
~

~-

~ ~

e 'O

~~

a-

~ :
Q~

e (")

~ e

'<

2, il

'J

.,,3

,;...

Low Pressure System Pipe Capacities-Pounds Per Hour


Coodensate Flowing with tbe Steam Flow
Nom.
Pipe
Size
(in.)

Pressure Drop per 100 ft


~ psi

Y.. psi
11

3.5

3.5

1
114
1V,
2

17
36
56
108

11
21
45
70
134

2 \li
3
3 Vt
4
5

174
318
462
726
1,200

215
380
5SO
800
1,430

6
8
10
12

12

3.5

14
26
S3

16
31

84

100
194

162
258

46S
670
950
1,680

~
Yi psi
Saturated Pressure (psig)
3.5
12
3.5
12.

~ psi

66

310
550
800
1,160
2,100

36
68
140
218
420

20
37
78
120
234

24
46
96
147
28S

29

35

S4
111
174
336

66

ns

460

540

660

680

660

810
1,218
1,690
3,000

960

1,160
1,700
2,400
4,250

1,190
1,740
2,450
4,380

990
1,410
2,440

1,410
1,980
3,570

138
210
410

1 psi

1 psi

psi

12

3.5

170
260
510

42
81
162
246
480

820
1,430
2,100
3,000
5,250

780
1,380
2,000
2,880
S,100

43

82

12

3.5

so
95
200
304

590
950
1,670
2,420
3,460
6,100

7,200 8,600 8,400 10,000


1,920 2,300 2,820 3,350 3,960 4,850 S,700 7,000
14,500 17,700 16,500 20,SOO
3,900 4,800 S,510 7,000 8,100 10.000 11,400 14,300
32,000 30,000 37,000
7,200 8,800 10,200 12,600 15,000 18,200 21,000 26,000 26,200
49.SOO 48,000 57,500
11,400 13,700 16,500 19,500 23,400 28,400 33,000 40,000 41,000

12
73
137

60
114
232
360
710

280

1,150
1,950
2,950
4,200
7,500

1,370
2,400
3,450
4,900
8,600

11,900
24 ,000
42,700
67,800

14,200
29,500
52,000
81,000

430
850

Thcwcight-low ra1esa13.5 psi can besued to cover sat. press. from 1 to &psig, and thcrates at 12 psi can be used tocover sat.
prcss. from 8 to 16 psig with an error not cxcccdin 8 pcrcent.

=r-;&.~~ ~ --

--------Wl'j'"w~~V~l~

-=~~--T..:...

......

-- - - - - - - - - - Medium Pmsore System Pipe Capmcttla (30 psll}-Pooads Pu Hour

'"1

p.._,..'' ptr 100 h

PiDe~

1'pJi

(iL)

\4 psi

V, psi

Suopl:

~
IS
31

22
46

69

100

107
217
358
MI
979
1,38'
2,5'()
4,210
8,750
16;2..so
25.640

1,.
313
516
940
l,414
2,000
3,642
6.030
12,640
23.4.SO
36.930

l4
1

IY<
111
2
211
3
HI
4

5
6
8
10
12

14

IU

2JO

31

38

44.s
790

2."000
1,590
17,860
33,200
51.320

1,575
2,MO
4,,a.so
7,zOo
10,200
19,000
]1,000

l
311
4

Siul

Pipe
(in.)

2.35'

S,600
10,250
15,250
21,600
40.250
M,.SOO

~ psi

V. psi

29

41

51

82

130
203
'12
683
l,2J7
1.8'5
2.62S
4,858

185
287
583
959
1,7SO
2,626
3.718

7.%0

8
10
12

16,$90
30.820
48.600

U<?n'
23,475

Yi psi

14 psi

6 ,875

43,430

68.750

'

117
262
401
82$

t/.

1,359
l.476
3,715
S,260
9,725
IS.9SO
33,200
61.700
97,2$0

l4

156

232

360

1
114
111
2

)ll

462

6SO
1.070
2,160
3,600
6,SOO
9.600
13,700
2.l,600
42,000

960
l.SllO
3,300
S,3SO
9,600
14,400
20.SOO
38,100

690
l,SOO
l,460
4,950

2!/z

4
l

.s.o.so
1.400
15.JOO
n,7SO
n.250
60,000
H.000

62,$00

a,200
IS,000
22.300
31,600

sa.soo
96,000

1 psi

1 psi

S psi

6 psi

130 180 pslg - Mas Error 8 '70

82
16'
370
S75
' 1,167.
1,920
3,SOO
-5.2'0
7,430
13,750.
22.SSO
46,9SO
n.2so
123.000

116
233
$23

113
l,6SI,2,430
.Z!o
6,021>
8,400
IS,000

zs.200
S0,000
90,000
ISS,000

184

369
827
1.llO
2,000
3.300
6,000
8.SOO
12,300
21.200
36,SOO
70.200
130,000
200.000

JOO

sso

1,230
1,730
),410
S,200
9,400
1),100
19,200
33.100
56,500
120,000
210,000
320.000

420
790
1.720
2.600

uzo

7,600

ll.SOO
20.000
28,000
47,SOO
80,000
170.000
300.000
470,000

1 20 psis - Mu RtlllrD PrHSte

Retm MaiM aad Risers

3
3Yi

no

z.soo

Pressure Drop ptt 100 fl

l4

36$

l.SJO

Hi&h Pressure System Pipe Capadtles (150 psig)-Po1tnds Per Hour

1
114
ll'I
211
3
311

z.ru

lOI

Supply Mains and Ri~rs

116

4,,000
1,190
12,140
2.l,2SO
46.900
74,000

615
1.215
2.100
4,300
7,100
12,UO
19,1.SO
27,000
55,.SOO
13,000

l.CW

3,900
7,100
10.s.so
1$,000
27,7$0
4$,500

l,460
2.660
4,000
5,660
10,460
17,llO
35,100
66,l.SO
104,.SOO

O 4 psla - Mu Rebin1 P.-n

2'5
4911

1,670
l,400

1,033
1,SIO

9U-..

1,621
2."7
l,464
6,402<
10,240
21,8'5
40,62.s
64,0.SO

2.IJO
.S,22.l

2 psi

63
12.l
211
437

167
.so

~1~

4$
119
199
309

172

l,l

170
340
710
1,155

1 psi

MuErTorl"

63

141
219
444

Re1un1 Mal., and RiKn


1
114
111
2
211

\4 psi

-- r-.

910
l.~

J.160
6.400
10,700
19,SOO
28,700
40,SOO
76,000
125,000

S60
1,120
2.330
3,800
7,700
12,800
23,300
34,SOO
49,200
91,SOO
l.S0,000

890
1,780
3,700
6.100
12,300
20.400
37,200

ss.ooo

78.lOO
146.000
231,000

Relurn Main and Riser Ca1


- --.-- ---- .. ..... _ .....
lld s"' Y, 01
JS. psior jl 02
" psl ort 02

P ipe

Orop per 100 f1

Sit:e

ladln

Wrt

"""'"

" -

1
1!4
11;1

125

21-1
l

Ory

V.e.

21)

338

206

700

470
160
1,460

)J-1

).llO

-" -----'
j

62
1)0

1,180
1,880
2,7l0

Ory

-14l

241
39J
110
J,lli)
2,1)0
3.JOO
4..180

1.970
2.910

48

11)

241
37l
7.50

---

---

--

--

71

42
JO

17l

)00

41l
1,000
1,680

48

J4.J

11)

2~

-~

Ory

2~

381
m
lll
7l0 1,360
2,180
3.2l0
.480
7,ll80
12,600

--

W.o

388
l l.l
1.)60
2,180
3.2.lO
4,lOO
7,8$0
12,600

248

~~un:~y~nem s-. rounas

v.c.

2.680
4,000
l.lOO

-------

47$
1,00
1.680
2,680
4,000
l..SOO
9,680
ll..SOO

--

48

l7l

llJ

)00

248
J7l
7.50

7l
1,000
1.680
2,680

--

--

-250 103

)00

4.000
l..SOO
9,680
ll..SOO

42l
67.l
1.400
2,3l0
l,7l0
l.lOO
7,7l0

340
740
1.2)0
2,llO
J,2)0

""
--

--

48
llJ
248
l7l
7l0

Ory

2,)80

3.800
l,680
7,810
13,700
22,000
249
426
674

l,420
2,330
3.800
l.680
7,110
13,700
22,000

--

142
249
426
674
1,420

217

--

14 psi or4 oz
Drop pa 100 ft

v.c.

Ory

100
l7S

80
168
265
'1l
tlO
1,7.lO
2,lOO
3,7l0

Per Hour

- - " psl orlo1


Drop 11a toe r 1

Drop per too f1

V.e.

149
236
1ll
lt6I
1,l60
2,200
3Jl0

--- - -

Ris~rs

1
114
JI;\
.2
21-1
J
Ji.\

Drop per 100 r1

-m

3l0
600
tlO

241
)71

2.00

)J.50
l.)lO
1.000
11.000

l.J60

Vi psi or 101
Drop per 100 fl

v.c.

- --- -- --- ---- ---- ---

200
3l0
600
tlO

2.000

--

48
113
248

7l0

----

3l0
600
tlO
2,000
3Jl0

lJlO
8,000
11.000
19,400
31.000

.,.
2B)

lJ.50
uoo lJlO
3,llO 8,000
l.)80 11,000
19,400
31.000

--------

v...

Ory

'41
1.340
UlO
4,730
7..S60
11.JOO
1$..SOO
27.JOO
43.800
494

848

1.)40
2,8)0
4,7)0
7.l60
11.J(IQ
ll.lOO
27.J(IQ
O,IOO

Genual lnformatlon on Water


ity of W11ter Is usuallJ giftn as 1.0 at 601: H~. for some pOIJ'lH)SeS lt Is gien as 1.0 at 39.l F, tlle poinl or axlu111 dcnsi11.
~ oa Wllltt a139.lFas1 .0, "111tt a1 ISO I' loas a sp<dflc cravity of 0-"9. 'ncftfo..., wlaido Is aclKted maka ao pDClka1 cliflnace.
spec;r~ grn

l?f

SO F

60 F

7t F

IO F

IOO F

l :ZOF

140 F

HOF

llO F

212F

Absolu1 viscosi1y. centipoise.

1.70

1.31

1.12

.98

.86

.68

..56

.47

.40

.35

.28

Kincmatic viscosi1y, cnuistokcs

1.79

1.31

1.U

.98

.86

.69

.57

.45

.41

.36

.29

WriJ-1 aad l'oi . - Eqloaltnts


Coewrl 1o

Coa>Trt from

us
Gallo

"'

.8327

U.S. Gallo

l.

Imperial CaUo a

1.201
.004329

Cbic ladl

CabkFool

7.4805

Poand

.1198

C..1 (U.S.) '

11.98

Ton (U.S.)".

239.6

Litro

.2642

Cubic llttrt

Imperial
Gallo

264.2

l.

.003607
6.229

.0998
9.98
199.6
.22

220.

Cable
hldt

Cubk
FOOI

.13368

231.
12.741

.000579

l.

1n8.
27.68

.08l45

.00418

'J.7U

.00)78

.1002

.oom

4.546

.00455

8.l45

62.42.S
l.

.01602

.03121

.01

.ooos

l.

)2.04

2000.

20.0

35.31 4

2.205

2204.5

100.

.0353

Toa (US.)

.6243

1.602

61.023

Cabk
Mttrt

.036124

l.

2765.

Ulrt

Cwt (U.S.)

10.02

.1605

Poud

.022

22.045

.05

l.
.0011
1.102

.0164
28.317

.0283

.454

45.)6
906.9
l.

1000.

.045
.907
.001
l.

Volume-wbah1 relation.ship takcn for walcr 1u na.test density(39.2F).

_,.. ,._ _.... --... - r - 1 -- r--~


~_.....

..--.i- ~.'~---~..,-:.~.....;o-y;o,o-, """"''"'..,..""'""'~ ..-......... ....._. wu..1.Utuu..~ ~ .....,.,_.,. vr

--~ - - m .,,.,....,, M

larflc boiler plant.

52o

1.090

SIZING FORMULAS:

CONVERllON fACTORS:
e (F - 32)/U
ti ot 1 IJ lb/h ot 1 - X O.OOI
kJ/kt ' C llU/lbFX4.19

1.0 10

00o

for htat1n1 or coolina water.

1.070

81...

lllu Added or Removed

1.oeo

MASI'LC~

1Pm

300 X (water tcmp. rtSC or drop. 'fl

Waler
In

Steamor
Water In

For ht'a.dna v.ater wilh stu m:

lb stetm/h OJi l,PID (wam ccrnp. rtsc. F)

sntlflCHUT

440

1.010

4:!10

1.000

Waler
In

Oullt l

Rw ttadna 1h 1th s;1.ea1n coiJt.:

Slumor
4 20

100

200
Tl!Ml't:RATURE, F

100

llOO

Wa18f In

0 .990

lbstton>/ll.

(~)(attmip.nw.'f

400

I~.

For hcttlna air whh wa1er coab:

Mass Flow and Specific Heat of Water

gpm

( CFM) ( air t<mp.rbc, 'F1 )


116

115ilQ
wattrtcmp. drop. F

Freeziog Points for Solutions of Ethylene Glycol


and Propylene Glycol
Glycol,
bl mass

fr/a

Ethylene Gllcol

Prol!ylene Glycol

10
15
20
25
30

26
22
18
13

40

50

- 8
- 29

60

- 55

-3
-6
-8
-11
- 14
-22
-34
- 48
40

For ndi.11lon:

26
22
18
12
6

-9
-34
<- 60

- 3
-6
-8
-11
- 14
- 23

lb 11cam/h 0.25 (Ml

Radlallon

- 37

< - 51
41

n EOR)

l
_

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Volume or Cylindrical Tanks in Gallons per Foot of Depth


Dlamctcrin
u.s. Diametcr in u.s. Dlamttcrln u.s.
In
Callo ns
Ft
In
Gallo ns
f1
In
Callo ns
f1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3

S.81S

1
2
3
4

6.895
7.997
9.180
10.44
11.79
13.22
14.73
16.32
17.99
19.?S
21.58
23.50

8
9
10
11

o
1
2
3
4

6
7
8

9
10
11

o
1
2
3
4

25.50
27.58
29.74
31.99
34.31
36.'72
39.21
41.78
44.43
47.16
49.98
52.88

55.86
58.92
62.06
65.28
68.58

3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

5
5

5
5
5
5
5

5
5
5

6
7
8
9
10
11

o
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8

9
10
11

o
1
2
3
4

6
7
8
9
10
11

42

71.97
7S.44
78.99
82.62
86.33
90. 13
94.00
97.96
102.0
106.1
110.3
114.6
119.0
123.4
127.9
132.6
137.3
142.0
146.9
151.8
156.8
161.9
167.1
172.4
177.7
183.2
188.7
194.2
199.9
205.7

6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7

o
3
6
9

o
3
6

8
8
8
9

3
6
9

9
9
9
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12

211.S
229.S
248.2
267.7
287.9
308.8

330.5
352.9

3
6

376.0
399.9
424.S
449.8
475.9
502.7
530.2
558.5
587.5
6 17.3
647.7
679.0
710.9
743.6
777.0
811.1
846.0
881.6
918.0

955.1

o
3
6

o
3
6
9

o
3
6

Quantities ror Various Depths of Cylindrical Tanks in


Horizontal Posilion

'

l>epth

' '

med
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

OJo

OJo

O/o
Deplh 071 of Oepth 'lo of
Depth
or
or
Capacity Filled Capacily
Capacil)' Filled CapacUy ' llltd
81.50
76
51.27
51
20.73
26 .
. 20
82.60
77
52.S5
52
21.86
27
.50
83.68
78
53.81
53
23.00
28
.90
84.74
79
5S.08
S4
24.07
29
1.34
85.77
80
56.34
SS
2S.31
30
1.87
86.77
81
57.60
56
26.48
31
2.45
87.76
82
58.86
57
27.66
32
3.07
88.73
83
60.11
58
28.84
33
3.74
89.68
84
61.36
59
30.03
34
4.45
90.60
85
62.61
60
31.19
35
5.20
91.50
86
63.86
61
32.44
36
5.98
92.36
87
65.10
62
33
.66
37
6.80
93.20
88
66.34
63
34.90
38
7.64
94.02
89
67.56
64
36.14
39
8.50
94.80
90
68.81
6S
37.36
40
9.40
95.SO
91
69.97
66
38.64
41
10.32
96.26
92
71.16
67
39.89
42
11.27
96.93
93
72.34
68
41.14
43
12.24
91.55
94
73.S2
69
42.40
44
13.23
98.13
95
74.69
70
43.66
45
14.23
98.66
96
7S.93
71
44.92
46
15.26
99.10
97
77.00
72
46.19
47
16.32
99.50
98
78.14
73
47.45
48
17.40
99.80
99
79.27
74
48.73
49
18.50
100.0
100
80.39
15
50.00
19.61

'

'

so

43

"'
Volume of Water lo Stan4anl Pipe an~ Tulle
Nominal Pi!!! Slu
(mm)

in.
3/8
112
S/ 8
3/ 4

1
1
1
2
2
3
3
4

Schedule No.

(10)
(IS)
(16)
(20)
(2S)
(32)
(40)
(SO)
(6S)
(80)
(90)
(JOO)
(12S)
(ISO)
(200)
(2SO)
(300)

1/ 4
112
112
1/2

6
8
10 .
12

40
-

Standard Slee! Pi(!!


lnside Diameter
Volume
in.
(mm)
gal/fl
(Llm)

0.622
-

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
30
30
30

0.824
1.049
1.380
1.6}0
2.067
2.469
3.068
3.S48
4.026

5.041
6.065
8.071
10.136
12.090

(l.S8)
(2.09)
(2.66)
(3.50)
(4.09)
(S.25)
(6.27)
(7.79)
(9.01)
(J0.23)
(12.82)
(15.41)
(20.SO)
(25.75)
(30.71)

0.0157

(0.19)

0.0277
0.0449
0.0779
0.106
0.174
0.249
0.384
0.514
0.661
1.04

1.50
2 .66
4.19

S.96

(0.34)
(0.S6)
(0.97)
(1.32)
(2.16)
(3.09)
(4.77)
(6.38)
(8.21)
(12.92)
(18.63)
(33.03)
(S2.04)
(74.02)

T2:1!! L Col!!!!' Tulle


Joside Dla meltr
Volume
in .

(mm)

ca1m

0.430

(1.09)
(1.38)
(1.69)
(1.99)
(2.60)
(3.21)
(3.82)
(S.04)
(6.26)
(7.48)
(8. 70)
(9.92)
(12.38)
(14.85)
(19.62)
(24.45)
(29.38)

0.001S

0.S4S
0.666
0.78S
l.02S
l.26S

l.SOS
l.98S
2.46S
2.94S
3.425
3.90S
4. 875

S.845
7.72S
9.62S
l 1.56S

(L/m)

(0.09)
0.0121
(O.IS)
0.0181
(0.22)
(0.31)
0 .02Sl
0.0429
(0.S3)
0.06S3
(0.81)
0.0924
(1.1 S)
0.161
(2.00)
0.248
(3.08)
0.3S4
(4.40)
0.479
(S.95)
0.622
(7.73)
0.970
' (12.0S)
1.39
(17.26)
2.43
(30. 18)
(46.9S)
3.78
S.46
(67.81)

Hot Water Demaod per Fixtore for Various Types of Buildiogs


(Galloos of water per hour per fixture, calcula1ed ata final temperature of 140 F]
Apartmenl
H OUllf
Oub
t.
2.
3.
~ 4.

Ba.sios, prvate lavatory


Ba.sins, public lavatory
Bathtubs
Disbwashers'

( s. roo. Basins

01

"

2.
15-

2
6
20
SO.ISO

3
3~
6. Kitcbcn sin k
JO .
20
7. lauodry, stalionary 1ubs
20
38
8. Pantry sink
s
10
9. Showcrs
30
ISO .
10. Service sink
20
20
11. H)'drotberapeutic showers
12. Hubbard baths
13. Leg balhs
14. Arm baths
IS. Sitz baths
16. Continuous-now ba1hs
Ir. Circular wash sinks
18. SemiciICufar wash sinks
~
19. DEMANO FACTOR
0.30
O.JO
20. STORAGE CAPACITY FACTORij
f.2.S
' '0.90

GflflIndustrial om~
PriYale
nasium Hospital H otd
Plant Buldlng Raldence School YMCA
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
8
I~
6
IS
8
30
20
20
30
so. S0..200 20-100
IS
20-tOO 20-100
3 :
u
3
12
3
3
12
20
30_,
20
20
10
20
20
28
28
20
28
to
10
s
10
10
225
15
30
30.
22S
22S
-20
20
30
20
IS
20
20
400

~8

d)>

fil)

600
100
3S
30
165
20

20

to

to

30
IS
0.40

20
to

30
IS
0.30
o.~.
0.40 0.40
0.60
J.00
2.00
0.70
1.00
1.00
Dishwashcr requiremcnts should be raken from rhis table or from manufacturers'. data for the model to be u$td, it this is known.
bRatio of storage 1ank capacity 10 probable maximum dcmand/b. Storagecapacity may be rcduccd whcre an unlimiled supply of
stcam is availablc from a central strecr s1eam sysrem or large boiler plant.

- - - - -r-

0.40
J.00

o.is

0.25

o:so

'__J'

H ot Water Demands and Use for Various 'fypes of Buildings


Type of Buildin&
Men's dormitories
Women's dormitores
Motels: Number of units
20 or less
60
IOOormore
Nursing homes
Office buildings
~

O>

Food servce establishments:


Type A-full meal
restaurants and cafeteras
'JYpe B-drivc-ns, grilles,
luncheonettes, sandwich
and snack shops

Maxlmum Hour
3.8 gal/student
S.O gal/student

MaximumDay
22.0 gal/student
26.5 gal/student

Aven1eDay
13.1 gal/student
12.3 al/student

6.0 gal/unit
S.0 gal/unit
4.0 gal/unit
4.S gal/bed
0.4 gal/person

35.0/unit
25.0 gal/unit
IS.O gal/unit
30.0/bed
2.0 gal/person

20.0 gal/unit
14.0 gal/unit
10.0 gal/ unit
18.4 al/bed
1.0 al/person

1.5 gal/max
meals/h
0.7gal/max
meals/h

11.0 gal/mait
meals/h
6.0gal{max
meals/h

Apartment houses: Number of apartmcnts


20 or less
50
75
100
200 or more
Elementary schools
Junior and senior high schools
Tnterpolate or intermediate va.lucs.

12.0 gal/apartment
10.0 gal/apartment
8.5 gal/apartment
7.0 gal/apartment
5.0gal
0.6 gal/student
1.0 gal/student
bPcr day of operation.

2.4 gal/a\fttage
meals/dayb
0.7 gal/average
meals/dayb

80.0 gal/apartmcnt
73.0 gal/apartmcnt
66.0 gal/apartmcnt
60.0 gal/apartmcnt
50.0 gal/apartmcnt
l.S gal/student
3.6 gal/student

42.0 gal/apartmcnt
40.0 gal/apartment
38.0 gal/apartment
37.0 gal/apartment
35.0 gal/apartment
0.6 gal/studentb
1.8 gal/student6

l
.,.,
[

,.,,
I

20

"6"

IO

30

-,,... . 1

r 1.Nll7.:

Y"l: 1 111""1 111 7 1

t 1 'W 1 TT ~-----vrflT

l>

o
r

Vl
Vl

-..

TI
-i

'

8
6
~

....

, s

:l

F
~

111 NI

'lA. VI f ')(..

IJ

/ 1 """

......

IJ

ltA

1111'..

~
3

.:31'

!'.

6o """ 1

"'

TI
-i

;0.5
0.5

!!.
2

34

6810

20 30 40 W 80 llO

200 JOO 400 IOO IXI lXll

GPM, U.S. GALLONS PER -MINUTE

2000 lOOO

'

40000 100000

3!

"i

7
n

:r

g_

e
ii"

.s

\
~

30
I
rri
l>

(/)

~ , .....,.,1 1 ...... ~ '',


"-+-+--1-,.-,-,~nfes ,. ~,. . . , '
~."J_, ,,. . ~
10 l""' f"', ~
,

,.

20

8
6 ..._v,
""" 1

(/)

et

,,

4.

l '""'

, ...

3 .._t--t--,~ V
:... l ,c- \
2

///

~ /,-

,.

,,Onf~~~'~ s~
? ""
7.
,~
-~~~~~~ ~...y,_ . . _,,(.

--l

........

o
o

.'J

".,/f

i /,.'

--l

I'

I
1

/.1

<

0.5
0.2

11 1

F
~ , JF;

3 4

... '

l_
1

11

.,.

6 810

.,.

')'

.,. ,

'r-..
~

11

'

f'p,_
- :::

b
~

~ - ,_. Cf'.,o ... ..___ - '""

!
s

1 '"""'

'tJ

.J'L

~ ',./,oj"l..;___,~f-tl l
I

'

JI

<!
r:r

ca

~
-

r"'lll

200 300 400 600 IX) llOO

20 3040 60 llOIX>

~ TYPEDtM1N
M~~~ti~{~ZES:
G

-..

'... /

~ '."~
-o;. ;y ~ {,~
!".

/f'o

l'i(

!l

o::>

....

1/

ii(.

!'.
f"-

'LJ .

IJ

IJ

"

~\\<

, ,

..;

~~~-~.~oi!

J -...C.f

,,

~ ~

'

Lf

!""' ,/

'

,,~.'.....,

r,

,j

,,

"c:s.;

,.
~

'""

1 ....... 'f.!
I'

2000 3000

?'

r
.!

GPM, U.S. GALLONS PER MINUTE

----- -

~ _:-...J

30

:r: 20
rri

)>

.,,

--l
........

o
o

,,
--l

,....

{_ I "'

;.

1-t-+tttt~r.... '""
~f'J' ;
10 f"'.
8
6

(/)
(/)

_....,,

3
2

,,..

~h

11

....

~V . . H,

'111

....

--"'

'

I"

1 /

IJ

~ r-(..o r ,,.._,',;yrn~1,
~-H~tt-1
1 ~

...,..,

'

,.

.L

/~~

IJ'...

-...'.1- t

IL

3 4

~~
n :-....1 1

lLJ

l..A

'11 "\

l"'1

'

-....,_

1/ r.....

6 810

~ , ....

~{'. ~j_
~

I'

, .... (

J.

r-

1...,

r.....ji"(

r..

ll

f"""lill

20 3040 60 80!00

!l

.... ''""'

"'!
.

I'

rA

Di

<o

r...

200 300 ~00 600 llO IOOO

GPM, U.S. GALLONS PER MINUTE.

101111. m SJl[S

.--- SOlllU _,
fUSJ[ fl'(

ll.

o::>
~

!'-

,.....
'
J..fl'~qjit--t~~~71
<O
p
IA!EllillOCC.f

1_ ,.....
f'p
J1 J

....
lL

J;

_J_

1'

l Ir
hl L

r "

,.. .
J

....

'>-J.

Dio

0.5
0.3

i.l .1

'

i'

,..

+-+-HT'
__:-.

""'

I
. , ....

!
s

"V

il

!!

"V

ii
n

-::r

.....

20003000 5000 ~
_g

__,/

- - - - - --- - - - -

~-=-

~\

Steel Pipe O.ta


No .
Sdltdule
Si
and
Namber
Pipe O.O.,
D., la.
Wtlcbt'

'

U1

1/4
DO.S40
318
D0.67S
112
D 0.840
314
Oa 1.0SO
1
D 1.315
1 1/ 4
o- 1.6(,()
1 112
D 1.900
2
0 2.375
2 1/2
D 2.87S

40
80
40
80
40
80
40
80
40
80
40
80
40
80
40
80
40
80

ST
XS
ST

xs
ST

xs
ST
XS
ST

xs
ST

xs
ST
XS
ST

xs
ST

xs

Wall
nkk

lnskk
Dlamettt

ness, h1.

In.

o.ou

0.364
0.302
0.493
0.423
0.622
O.S46
0.824
0.742
1.049
0.951
1.380
1.278
1.610
l.SOO
2.067
1.939
2.469
2.323

0.119
0.091
0.126
0.109
0.1<47
0.113
0.IS4
0.133
0.179
0.140
0.191
0.14S
0.200
0.154
0.218
0.203
0.276

Surface Arca
Ouislcle
lmkle
1
rtl!ft
r1 /ft
0. 141
0.141
0.177
0.177
0.220
0.220
0.27S
0.27S
0.344
0.344

o.os

0.435
0.497
0.497
0.622
0.622
0.153
0.7$3

O.Cl9S
0.079
0.129
0.111
0.163
0.143
0.216
0.194
0.27$
0.251
0.361
0.335
0.421
0.393
0.541
0.508
0.646
0.608

Cro...&loul
flow
Art11
Artll

Metal

"'l

iDJ

0.12S
O.IS7
0.167
0.217
0.2SO
0.320
0.333
0.433
0.494
0.639
0.669
0.831
0.799
1.068
1.07
1.48
1.70
2.25

0.104
0.072
0.191
0.141
0.304
0.234
O.S33
0.432
0.864
0.119
1.SO
1.28
2.04
1.77
3.36
2.9S
4.79
4.24

Wtlght of
Pipe
Water
lb/fl
lb/ft
0.<424
O.SlS
0.561
0.738.

o.aso
1.087
1.13
1.47
1.68
2.17
2.27
2.99
2.72
3.63
3.65
5.02
S.79
7.66

.
3
0 3.SOO
4
0 4.SOO
6
0 6.62S
8
D8.62S

10
D 10.7S

40 ST

80

xs

40
80
40
80
30
40
80
30
40

ST

xs

ST

xs

ST
XS
ST

xs

80
30

12
D 12.7S

ST
40
XS

80

0.216
0.300
0.237
0.337
0.280
O..f32
0.277
0.322

o.soo
0.307
0.365

o.soo

0.593
0.330
0.375
0.406

o.soo
0.687

3.068
2.900
4.026
3.826
6.06.S
5.761
8.071
7.981
7.62S
10.136
10.020
9.750
9.S64
12.090
12.000

11.938
11.150
11.376

0.916
0.916
1.178
1.178
1.734
1.734
2.258
2.2S8
2.258
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338

0.803
0.159
1.054
1.002
1.SSI
1.508
2.113
2.089
1.996
2.654
2.623
2.5'2
2.504
3.165
3.141
3.12S
3.076
2.978

Numb> are Khcdul< aumbers pcr ASTM 83'. IO; ST =Standazd w.;sht;
XS Elltra Strona.
b

Workincpreuureshavebeencalcula1ed per ASME/ANSI 831.9u11nafumM:>c

bu1t wcld (concinuO\lJ weld. CW) ptpe through 4 in. and eltccric rdistance weld

(ERW) 1hereaf1er. The allowance, A, has been lalccn u:


(a) 12.5.,. of / for miU toleraoc:c 00 pipe wall llcknas, plus

'--..

2.23
3.02
3.17
4.41
S.58
8.40
7.26
8.40
12.76
10.07
11.91
16.10
18.92
12.88
14.58
IS.74
19.24
26.03

7.39
6.60
12.73
IUO
28.89
26.07
Sl.l6
50.03
45 .66
80.69
78.SS
74.66
71.84
114.8
113.1
111.9
108.4
101.6

0.04S
0.031
0.083
0.061
0.131
0.101
0.131
0.187
0.374
0.311
0.647
O.SS5
0.881
0.76S
l .4S
1.28
2.07
1.83

Wortli.g Prossare'
ASTM ASJ B to .tOO F
Mfr.
ProJolnt

cea

~ pe

Mil

cw
cw

Tbrd
Thrd
Thrd
Thrd
Thrd
Thrd
Thrd
Thrd

183
871
203
820
214
7S3
117
681
226
642
229
S94
231

cw
cw
cw
CW

cw

CW

cw
cw
cw
cw
CW

cw
cw
cw

CW
CW

Thrd
Tbrd
Tbrd
Tbrd
Thrd
Thrd
Thrd
Thrd
Wcld
Weld

576
230
SSI

.533
83S

___ ____
_

7.S7
10.2S
10.78
l.f.97
18.96
28.S5
24.68
28.53
43.3S
34.21
40.4S
54.69
64.28
43.74
49...12
S3.48
65.31
88.44

...

3.20
2.86
S.SI
.98
12.SO
11.28
22.14
21.65
19.76
34.92
34.12
32.31
31.09
49.68
48.94
48.44
46.92
43.98

CW

cw
cw
CW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW
ERW

Weld
Weld
Wcld
Weid
Wdd
Weld
Weld
Weld
Weld
Weld
Weld
Wcld
Wcld
Weld
Wdd
Weld
Weld
. Weld

482
767
430
69S
696
1209
526
643
1106
485
606
887
1081
449

528
583
743
1076

(b) An arbiuary conooion anowa- or 0.025 i11. ror pipe siz.a thtoup NPS
2 and o.oo iD. rrom NPS 2~ tM>ush 20. p1us
(e) A 1hread cuuina allowance ror s1ut throush NPS 2.
Beeause 1he pipe wall 1hlckness ofthrodtd siandard we1Jh1 pipe is' small artcr
deductinc 1he allowancc, A. tbe mechanical suength or 1he pipe is impaired. 11 is
eood practice10 lint11 standard wtih1 thteod<d pipe preuurcs 10 90 psic for stnm
&Del 12.5 P<$ ror-...

,\

(
Copper Tu~ Data
W.11
Nominal
DiamtlU

Type

0 .30S
0 .31S

0.098
0.098

0.080
0.082

0.037
0.033

0 .073
0.078

0. 14S
0.126

0 .402
0 .430
0 .450

0.131
0.131
0 . 131

O.IOS
0.113
0.008

0.069
O.OSI
0.037

0.127
0.14S
0.IS9

0.269
0.198
0.14S

0.089
0.074
O.OS3

0.218
0.233
0.254

0.344
0.28S
0.203

0.063
0 .069
0.094
0 . 101
0 . 110

K
L

O.OlS
0 .030

3/ 8

K
L

0 .049
0 .03S
0 .02S

112

en
1\)

K
L
M

S/ 8

L
3/ 4

1 1/4

K
L
M
K
L
M
K
L
M

0 .37S

o.ns
o.soo
o.soo
o.soo

Tu be
lb/ rt

wattt

Wo rklna Pl'HSutt...,.
ASTM 1138 10 l50F
Aan ..ltd lhwwn

lb/ fl

P5ia

psi&

0.032
0 .034

8SI
730

o.oss

894
638
4$6

1596
1368
1676

71S
S84

1197
8SS
1341
1094
766

0 .049
0 .040
0 .028

0 .62S
0 .62S
0.62S

O.S27
O.S4S
O.S69

0 . 164
0.164
0.164

0.138
0.143
0.149

0 .049
0 .042

0.150
0.150

0 .652
0 .666

0.196
0 . 196

0.171
0.174

0.108
0.093

0.334
0.348

0.418
0.362

0. 144
O. IS!

Sil

1117
9S8

0.06S
0 .04S
0 .032

0 .87S
0 .87S
0 .87S

0.74S
0.78S
0 .811

0.229
0.229
0.229

0.19S
0.206
0.212

0.16S
0.117

o.oss

0.436
0.484
O.S l 7

0.641
0 .4SS
0 .323

0 . 189
0 .209
0.224

6TI
469
334

1270
879
62S

0.06S

1.12S
l.12S
1.12S

0.99S
l .02S
t.OSS

0.29S
0 .29S
0.29S

0.260
0.268
0.276

0.216
0.169
0.120

0 .778
0.82S
0.874

0.336
0 .3S7
0 .378

S27
40S
284

988
760
S32

l .37S
1.37S
1.37S

. l.24S
l.26S
1.291
1.295

0.360
0.360
0.360
0.360

0.326
0.33 1
0.338
0.339

0 .268
0.228
0 . 176
0 .1 68

J.217
t.2S7
1.309
1.317

0 .839
0.6S4
0 .464
1.037
0.884
0.682
0.650

O.S27
O.S44
O.S66
0.570

431
36S
279
265

808
684
S22
497

o.oso
0 .03S
0.06S

o.oss

DWV

Wtlaln o r

Oia meu r
lnsld t,
Oa1sld t,
d, In.
O, la.

1/ 4

Cro.,..Stt!Jonal
Metal
Flow
Atta
Ara
1nl
it11

SurfaaAtta
IJl.sldt
OulSldt
n11r1
r111ri

Tlllck
W.
1,ln.

0 .042
0.040

1.315

409
S96

- - -112

K
L
M

DWV
K
L

DWV
2 112

L
M
K
L
M

DWV

U>

c.>

3 1/2

L
M

L
M

OWV
6

L
M

DWV

356
300

668
S13

1.065

1.304
1.339
1.372
1.416

249
180

467
338

4.6$7
4.TI2
4 .889

2.926
2.479
2.026

2.0IS
2.06S
2. 116

330
278
226

619
521
423

1.033
0.858
0.691
0.43S

6 .637
6.812
6.979
7.234

4.002
3.32S
2 .676
1.687

2.rn
2 .947
l .020
3. l30

318
263
210
131

492
394
246

1.321
1.107
0.924

8.999
9.213
9.397

S. 120
4.291
l .S79

3.894
3 .987
4.066

302
252

1.680
J.387
1.203
0.741

11.684
11.m
12.161
12.623
25.886
26.832
27.164
27.889

6 .510
S.377
4.661
2.872

S.OS6

209
296

S.182
S.262
S.462

243
210
123

13.867
10.200
8 .916
6 . IOS

11.201
11.610
11.754
12.068

1.723
1.779
1.831
1.865

1.361
l.143
0.940
0.809

0.74S
0 .770
0 .792
0.807

O.S56

O.SS6

O.SIJ
O.S20

O.SS6

O.S26
0.534

3.014
3.09S
3.170
3.272

2.063
1.7SI
1.459

O.SS6

O.S32
0.4S2
0.377
0.27S

0.637
0.645
0.6S3

0.75S
0.640
0.523

0.761

1.481
l.SOS
l.S27
1.S41

0 .083
0 .070
O.OS8
0 .042

2 . 125
2. m
2 . 12S
2. 125

1.959
1.98.S
2.009
2.041

0.09S
0 .06S

2.62S
2.625
2 .62.S

2.43S
2.46.S
2 .49.S

0.687
0.687
0 .687

0 . 109
0 .090
0.072
0.04S

J . 125
3. 12$
3. 125
3. 125

2.907
2.94S
2.981
3.03S

0.818
0.818
0.818
0.818

0 . 120
0 . 100
0.083

3 .62S
3.625
3.625

3.38S
3.42$
3.4S9

0.949
0.949
0.949

0.891

0 . 134
0 . 110
0 .09S
O.OS8
0 . 192
0.140
0.122
0 .083

4. 125
4. 12$
4 . 125
4 . 12S
6 . 12S
6 . 12S
6.12S
6. 12S

3.8S7
3.90S
3.935
4 .009
5.741
S.84S
S.881
S.9S9

J.080
J.080
1.080
1.080
1.603
1.603
1.603
1.603

1.010
1.022
1.030
!.OSO
1.503
J.S30
1.540
1.560

63 1
Sl6
442

0.3Sl
0.295
0.243
0.209

t.62S
1.625
l .62S
1.62$

Wl)c.n using soklertd or brazcd nwnas. the joln1 determines the limmna prC$$Ure.

158

0.388
0.394
0.400
0 .403

0 .072
0 .060
0 .049
0.042

o.oso

404
337
27S
236

0.42S
0.42S
0.42S
0.425

""'',..A

Workina pr<Ssur<S cakulat<d usin ASME 8) 1.9 allowoble


S~o mili
tolcrance has be:cn u.sed on the waUthickness. Hiaher tubc ratines can be cak:ulated
u.sin thc itllow1blc sttt:u for lowcr ccmpcraturts.

o.ni
0.780
0.79S
0.886
0.906

3.S79
2.632
2.301

l.S1S

286

208
182
124

S96

566
472
392
555
456
394
240
S36
391
341
232

e lf sotdcrcd vr braz.cd fiuin.s are used on hard drawn tub1na. uac the annealcd
ra1ings. Fulltube aHowable prcssurc.s can be used wilh suhabl)' rated lare or
compression-type tittins.

-~

Properties of Plastic Pipe Materials


Material

1YPe
Designatioa
Tbermoplastlcs
PVC 1120
PVCl200
PVC2120
CPVC4120
PB 2110
PE2306
~ PE3306
PE3406
HDPE3408
pp
ABS
ABS 1210
ABS 1316
ABS 2112
PVDF
T hermo#lting
Epoxy-Glass
Pol~estcr-Gl3S$

Far Comparlson
Steel AS3
Cop~r

and
Grade

Cdl

Tl,Gl
Tl,02
Tll,GI
TIV,GI
Tll,GI
Gr. P23
Gr. P34
Gr. P33
Gr. P34

124S-B
12454-C
14333-D
23447-B

3SS434-C

Duraplus
TJ,02
Tl,03 .
Tll,GI

6-3-3
S-2-2
3-S-5
4-4-S

No.

RTRP-llAF
RTRP- 12EF
Grade B
TypeL

ERW
Drawn

Tensile
Streagtll,
psi al
73F

liydrostatk Desl&a
Slttss,
psi at 73"F

Upper
Tempera ture
Umll, F

ASME
Mfr.

831

psi

140

ISO

ASME
Mir.

831

2,000

2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000
1,000
630
630
630
800

1,SOO
8,000
4,800

2,000
1,000

S,000
5,000
5,500

1,600
70S

440

ISO
ISO
210
180
140
160
180
180
210

210
180

140
212
176

1,000
1,600
1,250

7,000

1,275

280

44,000
44,000

8,000
9,000

210
200

60,000
36,000

nos
Upptt
Umit

180
180
180
275

320

soo

800

640
1,000
800
306
7,000
5.000

12,800
9,000

800

400

9,200
8,200

---

8:

De$ignatloa
Thmnoplastlcs
PVC 1120
PVCl200
PVC2120
CPVC4120
PB 2110
PE2306
PE3306
PE3406
HDPE3408
pp
ABS
ABS 1210
ABS 1316
ABS2112
PVDF
Thermosdting
Epoxy-Glass
Polycster-Glass
For Comparlson
Steel
Copper

Propertles of Plastic Pipe Materials (Concluded)


lmpact Strengtll, Modalusof Hu.enCodfk:lent of Therm1I Condudlvity, Rdative
Spectr~
fl lb/in
Elastidcy,
W'illillJDS ~OD
Btuin/
Cravity
Pipe
at 73 F
psi at 73F C-Factor per Filo'
b. ft1 "F
Cost'
1.40

0.8

l.SS
0.93

l.S

0.96
0.91
1.06

12
1.3
8.5

1.78

3.8

7.80
8.90

30.0

420,000
410,000

ISO

423,000
38,000
90.000
130,000
150,000
110,000
120,000
240,000
250,000
340,000

15-0
150

ISO
ISO

125,000

150

1,000,000
1,000,000

150
150

JO.O
3S.O
30.0
3S.O
72.0
80.0
70.0
60.0
120.0
60.0
S6.0
SS.O
40.0
40.0
79.0
910 13
910 ll

1.1

1.0

0.9S
0.13

2.9
2.9

2.7
1.3
1.7

1.1
2.9
3.4

0.8

28.0

2.9
1.3

27,500,000
100
6.31
26.2
l.3
17,000,000
140
9.S
3.S
The propcnies listod are for the specilic material.$ lisred as each plas- :-ne h)'drostatic design str= (HDS) is cquivalcnt to thc allowable design stress.
tic has other
formulations.
Consuh
the manufacrurer
chosen.
These
valuq are for
comparative
pupases. of thc system Bascd on the cost of pipe only, without factorina in fiuinas, oints, hanaers.
and labor.

,.,-- -

---- --=-""O,.O. ::.-.--:..-

~ -""'

Application of Pipe, Fillngs, and Valvcs for Ht1lting aod Air-Conditlonng

Pipe
Mattrial

O)

2.S 10 12 1n.
(6S 10 300 mm)

psJs
125

Class

125

casi lron

"F
2SO

S1andanl
Typc L

Thread

Wroughl Copptr

2SO

ISO

95-S Soldcr

pvc

Sch 80

lSO

Solvent

1S

Sch80

PVC

Sol~nl

Sch80

CPVC

ISO

CPVC

Sch80

PB

160

ISO
llS

Metal

160

115

Wrought S1ccl

250

400
250

S1ccl(CW)
CopP'f. Hard

SDR-11

Heat fusion

lnscrt Crimp

ASl B ERW Stccl

Std

Wcld

Std

Flange

ISO

Wroughl S1ccl

250

125

2SO

175

flange

Cast lron

2SO

Cast lron
M 1 or Ductilc lron

400

Flange

2SO
230

300

PB

160

llS

Groovc

Pll
St<2m nd C:undcnsal
2 in. (SO mm)
and smallcr

Maidrnum
Prusart at
Tt111ptrt1ll1tt

Typt

PB

Cll

Material

S1ste111
Temptntutt

Wtllht

Applktltion
Re<in:.1laU111 Wattr
2 in. (SO mm)
and smallcr

Fillio&

J oiAI

Sl'<:i(CW)
AS3 ll llRW Stccl
i\S111 hRW Stccl

SDR-11

Hcat Fusion

Stdb

Thrtad

xs

12s

Casi lron

150

Mallcablc !ron

Thread

12S

Thread

150

Ca<t lron
Mallcablc lron

Thread
Std

Thread

2SO

Thread

300

90
90
100
125
200

Casi lron
Malleablc !ron

2SO

---2.51012m.
(6S lo 300 mm)

~lwl

l\S3 11 EkW S1cd

Wcld

Std

Wrought Stccl

250

Flange

ISO

Wroughl S1ccl

200

Flange

125

Cast lron

100

Wdd

xs

Wrought Stccl

700

Flange

300

Wrouht Stccl

soo

Aangc

2SO

Cut lron

200

Typc Lor K

Brazc

Std

Wcld
95-S Solder

Std

XS

RtrilCl'llAl
Copptt. lfard
ASJBSMLStccl
Undtt1tround W11<r
Cll
-..

Through 12 in.
()()()mm)

Coppcr, Hard

lypcK

Through 6 in.
(ISO mm)

l)uc11lc lron

Class SO

MJ

SOR9&11

Hcal Fusion

S DR 7 & 11.S

lnscrt Crimp

iypc l

9S-S Solder

PU

Potable Wttr, ln>idt Buildin~


Coppcr. Hard
S1ocl Galvnni1cd

l'IJ

Std
SDR-11

Wrought Copptf
Wrouht S1ccl

lSO

Wrouht Coppcr

MJ

Cast lron

7S

250

PB

2S0 / 160

Metal

15
15

JSO

2S0/ 160

Wrouht Coppcr

7S

125

Gal v. Cast 1ron

7S

llS

150

Galv. Mali: lron

7S

12S

Heat Fusion

PB

7S

200

1nscrl Crimp

Metal

7S

200

Thread

"M;iumunt allowabk- wortuna prc,,:urcc have Mtfl ck-r.tfed 1n 1h1$ t::1b&c. Hightr
~ysmn rr\'\.Jurc'.'I c-.an be' u'4'C.l lur IOW\:r ttmpttaturts and smatlc:T' pipt si.zcs. Pipe. fil''"'" jouu,. ~nd voalvt:<t mu'I 1111 b.: \.'On,dcrtd

b Extra suon.g pipe 11 tteomrmndcd ror all thre-6ed con4ens1att piping to a.Uow ror

conostn.
Con'tfmon Faccon:

<"F - 32111 a

PA 6.19 >< t><l

,;p-

Sugges ted Han ger S p acin g and R o d S ize for Straigb t


H orizon tal R u n s
(Adapted from MSS Standard SP-69)

Thermal Expa nsio n of Metal P ipe


Satun1ted
Steam
Prusure, Tt mpt1'111Urt
psi&
F
- 20
- 20

..e
~

>

- 14.6
-14.6
- 14.4
- 14.2
- 13.0

- JO.O
-3.2

o
2.5
20.7
S2.3
103.3
181.1
294. 1
4S2.2
666. 1
947.8
1

131 1
1772
23SI
3079

Unear T htrmal Expanslon, in./100 fl


Typt304
Carbon
Copper
Steel
Stalnless Sleel
- 0.12
- 0.06

- 0.20
-0.10

-0.21
-0. 11

10
20
32
40

0.08
O.IS
0.24
0.30

0.11
0.22
0.36
0.4S

0. 12
0.24
0.37
0.4S

60
80
120
160
200

0.46
0.61
0.91
1.22
1.S2

0.67
0.90
l.3 S
1.79
2.24

0.68
0.90
1.37
1.80
2.30

2 12
220
260
300
340

1.62
1.69
2.02
2.35
2.70

2.38
2.48
2.94
3.40
3.88

2.43
2.S2
2.99
3.46
3.94

380
420

4.3S
4.83
S.32

S40

3.0S
3.41
3.78
4. I S
4.S4

4.42
4.91
S.41
S.91
6.4 1

580
620

4.93
5.34

460
500

660

S.1S

700
800

6. 16
7.23

900
1000

8.34
9.42

58

S.80
6.29
6.78
7.28
7.79
8.29
9.S9

6.92
7.43
7.9S
8.47
9.79

10.91
12.27

11.16
12.S4

ftel
Standard Steel P ipe"

l oches

Water

Steam

1/2

7
7
7
9
10
11
12
14
17
19
20
23
25
27
28
30

8
9
9
12
13
14
15
17
21
24
26
30

314
1
1-112
2
2-112
3
4

6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Copper Tube Rod Slz.e


Water
Inches

5
5
6

1/4
1/ 4
114
3/ 8
3/8

8
8
9
10
12
14
16
18
19

318
3/ 8
112
112

518
3/4
7/8
1
1
1-114
1-114

32
35
37
39

Spacing does not apply whcrc span calculations are made or where conccntrated loads are placed bctwccn supponssuch as langes, valves, specialties, etc.
Cap acl tJes of ASTM
Rod
Ola meter ,

In.
114

318
1/2

A36 Steel T hreaded R o d s

Root A rea o f

Coarse Thread,
ln1
0.027
0.068
0. 126
0.202
0.302
0.4 19
0.552
0.889

Maximum Load" ,
lb
240

610

1130
1810
3/ 4
27 10
7/ 8
3770
4960
1- 1/ 4
8000
Based on an allowablcstress of 12,000psi reduced by 2S'1 using the roo1 arca
in accordancc with ASME 831.1 and MSSSP-S8.

S/ 8

59

\
Solar Colleclor lnlercepl and Slo~ by T~ (Huggins and Block 1983)
Slo~~Uv

en

lnterttpt, FRTa

~
g

Glulllaand
Material

=
Q

Co~r

Single glass
Single glass
3: Slngle glass
Single glass
Single glass
o
SingleFRP
es:
- Single FRP

..

.....e.
a>

"o...

..

Double glass

..iil

Bta / b ft F

Std.
AbsorMr Material and 1Y~
Coppcr tubes and fins
Coppcr tubes and finJ
Coppcr tubes and fins
Coppcr tubes and aluminum fins
Coppcr sheet intearal tubes
Copper tubes and fins
Coppcr tubes and aluminum fins

Absorber Coatlna
Flat black paint
Moderately sclective
Selective surface
Flat black paint
Selective surface
Flat black paint
Flat black paint

coppcr tubes and fins

Flat black paint

"O

Mean
67.2
73.0
71.7
69.1
10.S
61.9
S7. I

Std.

Dev.

Mua

Dev.

s.o

- llS
-112

- 117
- 114

14
11
11
12
17
IS
10

- 84

3.6
3.3
6.0

- 83
-116

5.1

- 89

s.s

6.2
6.7

S9.1

OVTlET

!:
:!]

3::
o

INLET

a.

E.
~

INLET
(a) EXTERNAL MANIFOLDING

(1>) INTERNAl MANIFOLDING


END CONNECTIONS

(e) INTERNA!. MANIFOLDING

BACl<SIDE CONNECTIONS

COLl..ECTOR EJTlCleCf. P9lCENT

o..--..---..~~-.-~~...-~~.--~--.~~-,.~~-,.-....,..--,.--~--,,,,-~-,

::i

a.

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/,'

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en

io
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/:

o
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o-

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1.
~

m
p

o
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/ :i ,/

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1
z

o
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/ /

e:
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~,

,,''f:

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,
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,
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~ d :~~~~ 1;
e!

IW

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3t;llSS31:ld

(1110)

(~)

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.,
l><S:

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re-'

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11

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63

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(11)

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R- l\:=
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e.

J:

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~ N

,J

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e(

.\ "'

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:-..-...:~

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11r-

r... ~- o

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.......

n- ,\ 1:
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... , \ \ "I'~\

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s= =

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\~~~

\--

t'..

~ ......~~~~

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,.,

~
o

" .... ~

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t-..1 11

Ott

ru~

'\'.

hr-::

q,

~~ Cl

1.

o :: ~ ~

-;

"l

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.itl:l'

\ ,\'\
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&!>.~~

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l:'l

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l
o

31:llSS31:ld

""'' "f.
1

1 1
1 T

'" ~

SI::": ~

r-- -..;::
o

-
N

(11)

1
1

H-~

&f.: ....

~._1

~.

8
1

31:1nSS3l:ld

::.

~ ~: I'.'.:

"'

...J

-o

1/

"..

oti

t~.

'.

'

-...
11

-,"

.,,

""

b
~

...

=~

,~.,

:1.0l:t.l

9t

"

'
~

' .,.
.....,
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-=

11

(11)

UJ

,_
z

-'""

" ".., ---'

::~ 1 1 ~

1 ,.._..::1

""'
'
~~
1
1

\~

"'

'

>o..
..J
<
:e

\
"I

I'

.,"'a:

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~

09.:i;,,, *=

...

' t"

' o \'
o

!ii

e t
o

1--L

r.

"'

..

... J:::t.
li

L\ "-

,_p,

....... -,

1 -'

,...

'
;-

l<:;1""i5z

,_

L1

.....

~u

1
~ 08

q,

"

OIH

i>

l
'I~

.i !:::. U-"~',

'

- 130.00
-120.00
-1 10.00
-100.00
-90.00
- 80.00
- 70.00
-60.00

~.

;,

~
~-

!I--

.._,V

nmp.
F

'-

11

"

!<:

./

"'

'-

;;~

-l

., .,,,

Refrigerant 22

Pi !

'-:O
1

11111

""'"'~

-:'

Preu.
p$la

Propertles of Saturated Liquld and Saturated Vapor


Enlhalpy,
Oenslly, Volume,
Btu/lb
1b/fl3 rt3 /lb
Uquld Vapor Uquld Vapor

0.696
1.080
1.626

96.46
95.53
94.60

2.384
3.413
4.778
6.555
8.830
11.696
13.383
14.696
15-.255
17.329
19.617

93.66
92.71
91.15
90.79
89.81

-50.00
- 45.00
- 41.44b
- 40.00
- 35.00
- 30.00
- 25.00 22.136
- 20.00 24.899
-15.00 27.924
- 10.00 31.226
- 5.00 34.821
o.oo 38.726
5.00 42.960
10.00 47 .538
15.00 52.480
20.00 57.803
25.00 63.526
30.00 69.667
35.00 76.245
40.00 83.280
45.00 90.791

88.83
88.33
87.97
87.82
87.32
86.81

-23.150
-20.594
-18.038
18.540 - 15.481
13.275 - 12.921
9.7044 -10.355
7.2285 - 7.783
5.4766 -5.201
4.2138 -2.608
3.7160 - 1.306
3.4048 - 0.377
0.000
3.2880
1.310
2.9185
2.5984
2.624

58.S44
38.833
26.494

86.29
85.11
85.25
84.72
84.18

2.3202
2.0774
1.8650
1.6784
1.5142

83.64
83.09
82.54
81.98
81.41

1.3691
1.2406
1.1265
1.0250
0.9343

80.84
80.26
79.67
79.07
78.46

0.8532
0.7804
Q.7150
0.6561
0.6029

3.944
5.268
6.598
7.934
9.276
10.624
11.979
13.342
14.712
16.090
17.476
18.871
20.275
21.688
23.111

3t:IOSS3l:ld

64

65

Entropy,
Btu/lb F
Liquid
Vapor

89.864 -0.06198 0.28082


91.040 -0.05435 0.27430
92.218 -0.04694 0.26838
93.397
94.512
95.741
96.901
98.049
99.182
99.742
100.138
100.296
100.847
101.391

-0.03973
-0.03271
-0.02587
-0.01919
-0.01266
-0.00627
-0.00312
-0.00090
0.00000
0.00309
0.00616

0.26298
0.25807
0.25357
0.24945
0.24567
0.24220
0.24056
0.23944
0.23899
0.23748
0.23602

101.928
102.461
102.986
103.503
104.013
104.515
105.009
105.493
105.968
106.434

0.00920
0.01222
0.01521
0.01818
0.02113
0.02406
0.02697
0.02987
0.03275
0.03561

0.23462
0.23327
0.23197
0.23071
0.22949
0.22832
0.22718
0.22607
0.22500
0.22395

106.891
107.336
107.769
108.191
108.600

0.03846
0.04129
0.04411
0.04692
0.04972

0.22294
0.22195
0.22098
0.22004
0.21912

1
1

1
1
1
1

Tbermodynamic Propertles of R22

Refrlge111nt 22 Propertles of Satu111ted Liquid and Satu111ted Vapor


Entropy,
Blu/ lb F
Vapor
Liquid

Press.
psia

lb/ ft
Uquid

rt3 / lb

Vapor

Enlhalpy,
Blu/ lb
Uquld Vapor

50.00
5S.00
60.00
6S .00
70.00

98.799
107 .32
116.38
126.00
136.19

77.84
77.22
76.58
75.93
7S.27

0.5548
O.Sil 1
0.471S
0.43S5
0.4026

24.544
25.988
27.443
28.909
30.387

108.997
109.379
109.748
110.103
110.441

0.05251
0.05S29
0.05806
0.06082
0.06358

0.21821
0.21732
0.21644
0.21557
0.21472

75.00
80.00
8S.OO
90.00
95.00
100.00
105.00
110.00
115.00
120.00

146.98
158.40
170.45
183.17
196.57
21Q.69
225.53
241.14
257 .52
274.71

74.60
73.92
73.22
72.51
71.79

0.3726
0.3451
0.3199
0.2968
0.2756

31.877
33.381
34.898
36.430
37.977

0.2560
0.2379
0.2212
0.2058
0.1914

39.538
41.119
42.717
44.334
45 .972

0.06633
0.06907
0.07182
0.07456
0.07730
0.08003
0.08277
0.08552
0.08827
0.09103

0.21387
0.21302
0.21218
0.21134
0.21050

71.05
70.29
69.51
68.71
67.89

110.761
111.066
111.350
111.616
111.859
112.081
112.278
112.448
112.591
112.704
112.783
112.825
112.826
112.784
112.692
112.541
112.035
111.165
109.753
107.398

0.09379 0.20522
0.09657 0.20427
0.09937 0.20329
0.10220 0.20227
0.10504 0.20119
0.10793 0.20006
0.11383 0.19757
0.12001 0.19464
0.12668 0.19102
0.13432 0.18613

Densi~" Volum~

Temp.

0.20965
0.20879
0.20793
0.20705
0.20615

61 .05 0.1781 47.633


66.17 0.1657 49.319
65.27 0.1542 51.032
64.33 0.1434 52.775
63.35 0.1332 54.553
150.00 396.32 62.33 0.1237 56.370
160.00 #1.65 60.12 0.1063 60.145
170.00 497 .35 57.59 0.0907 64. 175
54.57 0.0763 68.s97
180.00 554.82
50.62 0.0625 73.742
190.00 617.53
44.44 0.0478 80.558 102.809 0.14432 0.17805
200.00 686.11
32.70 0.0306 91.052 91.052 0.15989 0.15989
205.06<:723.74
e critical point
b boilin point
Tcmpcratures are on thc ITS-90 scalc.
125.00
130.00
135.00
140.00
145.00

292.73
311.61
331.38
352.07
373.71

Temp.,
F

- JO
30
60
100
ISO

Temp.,
F
30
60
100
ISO

Ttmp.,
F
100
150
200
250
300

'nmp.,
F
100
ISO
200
250
300

Pressurt 30 psia
Sat. lemp. - 11.85 F
y
h
s
1.760
1.943
2.078
2.255
2.473

103.92
109.92
114.SS
120.92
129.17

0.232S
0.2453
0.254S
0.2663
0.2804

Pressure 75 psla
Sal. lemp. 34.06 F
V
h
s
0.7851
0.7847
0.8639
0.9591

107.81
112.45
119.13
127.69

0.2229
0.2306
0.2429
0.2576

Pressure 135 psla


Sal. lemp. 69.39 F
y
h
0.4492
0.5092

0.5655
0.6193
0.6713

116.50
125.59
134.79
144.20
153.84

0.2260
0.2416
0.2561
0.2698
0.2829

P ressure 200 psla


Sal. lemp. e 96.17 f
V
h
s
0.2776
0.325 1
0.3674
0.4067
0.4441

113.22
123.11
132.83
142.60
152.52

0.2126
0.2295
0.2448
0.2591
0.2726

Pressure .. 60 psia
Sal. temp... lt.94F
y
h
0.9271
1.001
1.096
1.212

108.3S
. 113.17
119.74
128.19

0.2271
0.2367
0.2488
0.2633

Pressure = 90 psia
Sal. ltmp. 2 44.47 F
V
h
s
0.6401
0.7088
0.7906

111.69
118.50
127.18

0.2253
0.2379
0.2528

Pressure 180 psla


Sal. temp... 88.72 F
V
h
s
0.3177
0.3678
0.4132
0.4558
0.4965

114.29
123.90
133.45
143. 10
152.93

0.2164
0.2329
0.2479
0.2620
0.2754

Pressure = 220 psla


Sal. temp. .. J03.09 F
V
h
s
0.2900
0.3299
0.3666
0.4012

122.30
132.20
142.09
152.10

0.2263
0.2419
0.2S64
0.2700

Pressure ~ 260 psla


Pressure 240 11sla
Sal. lernp. 115.66 F
Sal. temp. 109.57F
Tump.,
V
V
h
s
h
s
F
lll .4S 0.2232
0.23S6
120.58 0.2203
ISO
0.2606
0.2720
130.90 0.2366
200
0.2985
131.56 0.2392
141.06 0.2514
0.3330
141.58 0.2538
0.3046
250
151.27 0.2653
151.69 0.2676
0.3351
0.3654
300
s e cntropy, Btu/lb F
V .,. vapor volu~ ft' / lb
h 2 cnthalpy, 81u/lb

66

07

2000.

2000.

1000.

1000.

500.

500.

200.

200.

ro

100.

~ 100.
Q)
..._
(/)
(/)

Q)
..._

a..

50.

'

20.

o.so
0.40

20.

'
0.20

::J

50.

10.

'
o.060

5.

5.

10.

'
o.040

2.

2.
60
40
20
pr_..it>y: ~=-

80

100

120

140

160

180

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)

------- - ~~~~~-

i><: ,

,~

11 r-H~A~ 11~ 1 Rl k-_L~~-e.I)~, ~d; r ~-~ -.-.1000.

2000.

1,

,"

,\

\t)/1\3

12000.
1000.
500.

500.

-ro

1.i
~

20~

~.

~1~

Q)
..._

50.

50.

::J

(/)
(/)

Q)
..._

a..

20.

20.

.- - 110.
~-060 5.

10.
5.

o.040

~~ 0.020 1 2.

2.
. 1l
1

-20

AI 1 ,

20

/1

,JI -1 i; ,

1 11

1 , ,

60

160

180

200

40

_.ii.,:~=-

111 1.11 1--u 1 11 r


80 100 120 140

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)

1.

220

Refrigeran! 134a
Ttmp,

Properties of Saturated Llquld a nd Satun1ted Vapor

Pttn utt
psi

Entbalpy,
Dtn.sity, Volumt,
Btu/ lb
1b1t13 rt3 /lb
Vapor
Liquid Vapor Llquld

IS3.94a
150.00
140.00
130.00

0.057
0.072
0.130
0.222

99.34
98.95
97.98
97.01

- 120.00
-110.00
-100.00
-90.00
-80.00

0.367
0.586
0.906
1.363
1.997

96.05
95.09
94.13
93.17
92.21

2.396
2.859
3.393
4.006
4.707

91.73
91.25
90.77
90.28
89.80

5.50S
6.409
7.429
8.m
9.862

89.31
88.82
88.32
87.83
87.33

11.297
l2.89S
14.667
14.696.
16.626
18.781
21.162
23.767
26.617
29.726
33.J 10

86.82
86.32
85.81
85.80
85.29

-15.00
-70.00
65.00
-60.00
-55.00
- 50.00
45.00
- 40.00
- 3S.00
- 30.00
- 2S.00
-20.00
- IS.00
- 14.92
-10.00
-s.oo
0.00
5.00
10.00
lS.00
20.00
2S.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
4S.00

36.785
40.768
4S.015
49.724
54.732

- 32.989
- 31.902
-29.093
-26.238

80.235
80.783
82.190
83.618

- 23.359
- 20.467
- 17.569
- 14.66S
-11.m
16.680 -10.297
14.138 -8.837
12.045 -7.374
10.310 -5.907
8.8656 - 4.431

8S.066
86.531
88.011
89.504
91.005

S64.85
449.29
1S9.IS
15S.69
97 .027
62.509
41.496
28.l03
19.783

84.77
84.2S
83.72
83.18
82.64
82.10
SI.SS
80.99
80.42
79.85
79.26

7.6569 - 2.963
6.640S - 1.484
5.7819 0.000
s.om 1.489
4.4325 2.984
3.9014 4.484
3.4452 S.991
3.0519 7.SOS
3.0462 7.529
2.7116 9.026
2.4161 IO.SS4
2.IS87 12.090
1.9337 13.634
l.736S IS. 187
1.5630 16.748
1.4101 18.318
1.2749 19.897
l. i5SO 21.486
1.0484 23.08S
0.9534 24:694
0.868S 26.314

70

91.759
92.Sl4
93.270
94.026
94.783

9S.539
96.295
97.0SO
97 .804
98.S56
99.306
100.054
100.799
100.811
101.542
102.280
103.0IS
103.74S
104.471
105.192
IOS.907
106.617
107.320
108.016
108.705
109.386

Entropy,
Btu/lb F
Vapor
Liquid
-0.09154 0.27880
- 0.08801 0.27588
- 0.07908 0.26903
- 0.07029 0.26294
- 0.06169 0.25752
-o.amo 0.2S270
-0.04513 0.24842
-0.03711 0.24462
-0.02940 0.24125
-0.02559 0.23972
-0.02182 0.23827
-0.01809 0.23691
-0.01440 0.23563
- 0.01075 0.23443
- 0.00713 0.23331
- 0.0035S 0.23225
0.00000 0.2312S
0.003S2 0.23032
0.00701 0.22945
0.01048
0.01392
O.Ol733
0.01139
0.02073
0.02409

0.22863
0.12786
0.22714
0.22713
0.22647
0.22584

0.02744 0.22S2S
O.Q3077 0.22470
0.03408 0.22418
0.03737 0.22370
0.04065 0.22325
0.0439! 0.22283
0.0471S 0.22244
0.05038 0.22207
O.OS359 0.22172
0.05679 0.22140

Refrigerant 134a
Ttmp,

Pmsutt
psi

Properties of Satunited Uquid and Saturated Vapor


Dtn.!ity, Volumt,
Entbalpy,
lb/ ft3 ft3 / lb
Btu/lb
~por
Liquid Vapor Llquld

Entropy,
Btu/lb F
Uquld
Vapor

0.192S
27.944 110.0S8
O.OS998
0.7243
0.06316
29.586 110.722
0.6630
3J.239 l 11.376
0.06633
0.06949
0.6077
32.905 112.019
34.583 l 12.652
0.07264
o.sm
75.57 o.m5
36.274 113.272
0.07578
75.00
93.333
101.37
74.91 0.4715
37 .978 l IJ.880
0.07892
80.00
109.92
74.25 0.4343
39.697 114.475
0.08205
85.00
41 .430 llS.055
0.08518
90.00
119.00
73.57 0.4004
43.179 115.619
0.08830
95.00
128.63
72.87 0.3694
72.16 0.3411
44.943 116.166
0.09142
100.00
138.83
0.09454
105.00
149.63
71.43 0.3153
46.725 116.694
70.68 0.2915
48.524 117.203
0.09766
110.00
161.0S
llS.00
173.11
69.91 0.2697
S0.343 117.690
0.10078
0.10391
120.00
185.84
69.12 0.2497
52.181 118.153
0.10704
125.00
199.1S
68.31 0.2312
54.040 ll8 .S91
67.47 0.2141
0.11018
130.00 213.38
S5.923 119.000
66.60 0.1983
57.830 119.371
0.11333
135.00 228.25
0.11650
140.00
243.88
6S.10 0.1836
S9.764 119.720
14S.00
64.77 0.1700
61.727 120.024
0.11968
260.31
277.S7
63.722 120.284
0.12288
IS0.00
63.80 O.IS14
295.69
62.78 0.14SS
65.752 120.495
0.12611
ISS .00
0.12938
160.00
314.69
61.72 0.1345
67.823 120.6SO
69.939 120.739
0.13268
165.00
334.62
60.60 0.1241
170.00
3SS.SI
59.42 0.1144
72.106 120.m
0.13603
74.335 120.677
115.00
377.40
58.16 0.1052
0.1394S
76.636 120.493
0.14295
180.00 400.34
56.80 0.0965
185.00 424.37
79.027 120.175
0.14655
55.33 0.0881
190.00 449.S5
53.70 0.0801
81.534 119.684
0.15029
0.15423
195.00
415.9S
51.86 0.0723
84.196 118.963
49.70 0.0646
87.088 1!7.906
0.15841
200.00
503.64
47 .00 0.0566
0.16326
20S.00
532.72
90.368 1!6.289
563.34
43.03 0.0474
94.548 113.411
0.16933
210.00
213.85c S88.27
32.04 0.0312 103.77S 103.775
0.18128
Tcmperaturcs are on thc ITS-90 scalc.
e triple poinl
b = boiling point
e crilical poinl
50.00
S5.00
60.00
65.00
70.00

60.116
65.895
72.087
78.712
8S.787

78.67
78.07
77.46
76.84
76.21

71

0.2200
0.22081
0.220H
0.22028
0.22003
0.21979
0.219S7
0.21934
0.21912
0.21890
0.21868
0.21845
0.21822
0.21797
0.21772
0.21744
0.21715
0.21683
0.21648
0.21609
0.21566
0.21Sl7
0.21463
0.21400
0.21329
0.21247
0.21151
0.21037
0.20901
0.20733
0.20519
0.20226
0.191SO
0.18128

Tbermodynamic Propertles of R-134a

Temp.,
f

103.35
107.07
110.88
l 14.79
118.79
122.87
127.0S
131.31

3.118
3.268
3.417

o
20
40

3.S6S

60

3.7 12
3.858
4.004
4.149

80
100
120
140

Temp.,
f
40

60
80
100
120
140

Temp.,
f
125

ISO
175
200
225
250

Temp.,
f

ISO
11S
200
225
250
27.S

300

0.2324
0.2403
0.2481
0.2SS8
0.2633
0.2708
0.2781
0.2853

1.077
1.132
1.187
1.240
1.293
1.345

109.20
113.24
117.36
121.SS
125.82
130.17

0.2243
0.2323
0.2400
0.2477
0.2SS2
0.2625

Pressure 150 psla


Sat. lemp. 105.l4F

0.3433
0.3692
0.3937
0.4171
0.4397
0.4616

122.06
128.08
134.13
140.23
146.41
152.66

0.2274
0 .2375
0.2472
0.2566
0.2658
0.2748

y
0.1920
0.2118
0.2295
0.2460
0.2614
0.2761
0.2902

V vapor volumc. n> / lb

0.8269
0.8699
0.9120
0.9533
o.9940

f'

h
125.69
132.07
138.42
144.80
151.23

0.2596
0.2807
0.3003
0.3189
0.3366

0.2289
0.2391
0.2489
0.2584
0.2676

Prusure .. 300 psia


Sal. cemp. t56.07 f

122.93 0.2210
0.1646
129.79 0.2320
0.1817
0 .2423
136.47
0.1969
143.10 0.2522
0.2110
0.2617
149.73
0.2242
0.2709
156.37
0.2367
0.2798
163.07
s
h s enthalpy. Btu/lb

72

"

'."'

:;_:

....

l.\

11'

ft

~i

-
I'

'-1

'
1

"'

oi

..;

1\

,,

t.ff=

..._

"

t'- '"\r.,
~

,,

"\

[\"'

"

"\!\:'- \'-'

..

't-C~'(~

r-_

~\

", .....

.
o

o
o

o~.....

r~

1 1
1 1

"

"~

~~
\ 1

" re

..

......,

il>

-1.. .

~ o

......
". :-:,.,,;: ::;:_i

..

::::::::: o

"''

(otd)

31:1nSS31:1d

73

>
~

<

X
....
z

'~o

~~

1\

~IN

N-

"""" r- .___,

~
t\.~

,_ No

..

M-' o

~,

"' ...

,_ '?
~ 'f

,.._

l't

1-....

..;

,_

..

...

...

Jl.'I. ~N
~
k\. I~

.
.. .,..__,'
~.J .....

1\..._\

...,,....

,.

::::

..._N.._

r--.l.

127.20 0.2252
134.35 0.2362
141.29 0.2466
148.15 0.2564
154.99 0.2659
161.84 0.2750
entropy. Btu/lb .Of

1'-

11'

' :>.

..

'--

:!
~

az

!!

....__ L -

.. ._

.,o

; -l-

;--.. 1

Pressure 200 psla


Sal. teml! .. 125.19 f

~-J ~1~1 L:,_

:!

~1

o.22s5
0.2334
0.2412
0.2488
0.2562

...

Pressure ~ l50 psla


Sal. lemp. 141.79 f

I'

112.41
116.60
120.86
125.18
129.58

-L..

,1 . .
-';'el

1.663
1.741
1.818
1.89.S
1.971
2.046

0.22SS
0.2335
0.2413
0.2489
0.2S64
0.2638
0.2711

Pressure 60 psla
Sal. 1eml! 49.94 F

Pressure 45 psla
Sa1.1eml! J4.94 F

106.18
110.06
114.03
118.08
122.22
126.44
130.75

1.584

..
o

31:lOSS3tld

(e11o)

Pressu re 30 psia
Sal. 1em2. 15.39 F

Pressure 15 psla
Sat. 1eml! - t4.25 F

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

(19d)

Temp.,

___:!._

20
40
60

80
100
120
140

g
o

..

8~

...

8o
2

o
o

Refrigerant 717 (Ammonla)


Propertles of Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor

3t:lnsS3t:ld
o
o

...

o...

..

-o
o

..
o
o

-.so.oo

5.539
1.656

-45.00
-40.00
- 3S.OO
,_ 30.00
- 27.99b

8.941
10.396
12.040
13.890
14.696

~
o
o

"'
o
o

40
6(J

se

8..,
8

IOC
12(
14(

__.,

1:
I!
J'

21
2
2

o
o
N

>o..

..J

2
1

o
o

':

N
1

o
o

'?

..

..

o
o...

o
o

Teo
o
o
o
o

...

J'

2 <
:e

Tem
f

psi a

J07.78a
100.00
-90.00
-80.00
-70.00
60.00

..
Temp.
F

Prus.

'nmp.
F

..&

o
o

(t1d)

...o

...
o

o
o

0.876
1.230

1.856
2.733
3.931

- 2S.OO
-20.00
'- 15.00
-J0.00

Enlbalpy,
Denslty, Volume,
Btu/lb
lb/tt1
ft3/ lb
Uquld Vapor U quid Vapor
45.81 252.01
45.51 183.31
45.13 124.64
44 .73 86. 784
44. 32 61.753
43 .91 44.818

- 71.827 569.276
-63.032 572.742
- 52.230 511.125
- 41.713 581.419
- 31.305 585.612
-20.912 589.693

43.49
43 .28
43.07
42.85
42.64

- 10.484 593.653 - 0.02526 1.44953


- 5.250 59S.584 -0.01257 1.43646
0.000 591 .482 0.00000 1.42376
5 .267 599.344
0.01246 1.41144
10.551 601.171
0.02481 l.39946
12.682 601.896
0.02975 1.39473

42.55

33.121
28 .652
24.885
21.694
18.981
18.006

IS.964
18.281
20.861
23.727
- 5.00 26.900

41.77
41.55

0.00
5.00
10.00
IS.00
20.00

30.402
34.258
38.492
43.131
48.199

41.33
41.l I
40.88
40.65
40.43

6.5585
S.9059

25.00 53.724
30.00 59.734
35 .00 66.258
40.00 73 .324
45.00 80.962

40.20
39.96
39.73
39.49

5.3303
4 .8211
4.3695
3.9682

39.2S

S0.00 89.204
55 .00 98.081

39.01
38.76
38. 51
38.26
38.00

60.00 107.62

6S.OO 117.87
70.00 128.84

42.42
42.21

41.99

16.665
14.680
12.973
11.500
10.223

- 0.18678 1.63586
-0.16206 1.60621
- 0.13244 1.57049
- 0. 10437 1.53719
- 0.07732 l.S0607
-0.05100 1.47691

15.854 602.962
21.174 604.714
26.511 606.428
31.867 608.102
37.242 609.736

0.03706 1.38781
0.04921 1.37648
0.06125 l.36545
0.07320 l.35471
0.08506 1.34424

42.635 611.327
48.046 612.876
53.477 614.382
58.928 615.842
64.398 611.256

0.09682 l. 33403
0.10849 1.32408
0.12008 1.31437
0.13158 1.30488
0.14299 1.29561

69.888 618.623

3.6105

80.933 621.208
86.488 622.424
92.066 623.585

0.15432 1.28654
0.16558 1.27767
0.17676 1.26898
0.18787 1.26047
0 . 19891 1.25213

3.2910
3.0050
2.7484
2.5177
2.3098

97.666 624.692
103.291 625 .741
108.941 626.731
114.615 627.659
120. 315 628.523

0.20987 1.24394
0.22077 1.23590
0.23161 1.22800
0 .24238 l.22022
0.25309 l.21257

9.1135
8.1464
7 .3005

15.400 619.941

- '?

3t:llSS3t:ld

74

Entropy,
lhu/lb F
Liqoid
V.por

75

Refrigeran! 717 (Ammonia)


Propertles of Saturated Liquld and Saturated Vapor
Temp.,
F

-o

20
40
60
80
100
120
140

Temp
F
41

6'
8
JO
12
14

Ten!

Tt

Temp.
F

75.00
80.00
85.00
90.00
95.00
100.00
105.00
110.00
115.00
120.00
125.00
130.00
135.00
140.00
145.00

Enlhalpy,
Dens17. Volume,
Blo/lb
Ptt55.
lbt r1
rt311b
Llquld Vapor Uquld Vapor
psi a
140.58
153.12
166.50
180.74
195.90

37.75
37.49
37.22
36.95
36.68

2. 1222

211.99
229.07
247 .17
266.32
286.57
307.96
330.52
354.30
379.34
405.67

36.40
36.12
35.84

1.4165
l.3109
1.2144
1.1261
1.0,451

35.55
35.26
34.96
34.66
34.35
34.03
33.71

1.9525
1.7987
1.6591
1.5321

0.9708
0.9024
0.8394
0.7813
0.7277

126.041
131.795
137.577
143.389
149.232

629.321
630.051
630.709
631.292
631.799

Entropy,
Btullb F
Llquld
Va
0.26374
0.27434
0.28488
0.29537
0.30581

155. 106 632.224 0.31621


161.013 632.567 0.32656
166.955 632.821 0.33687
172.933 632.985 0.34715
178.950 633.053 0.35739
185.007 633.023 0.36760
191.107 632.888 0.37778
197.253 632.646 0.38795
203.447 632.289 0.39809
209.694 631.813 0.40823

0.6781 215.997 631.213 0.41836


0.6322 222.361 630.480 0.42849
0.5896 228.792 629.609 0.43863
o.ssoo 235.294 628.590 0.44878
0.5133 241 .874 627.416 0.45897
180.00
630.22 31.26 0.4471 255.298 624.558 0.47946
708.73 30.47 0.3894 269.133 620.938 0.50018
190.00
794.38 29.63 0.3387 283.469 616.428 0.52127
200.00
887.64 21!.71 0.2940 298.429 610.846 0.54289
210.00
220.00
989.03 27 .71 0.254 1 314.m 603.934 0.56525
1099.I 26.59 0.2182 330.998 595.287 0.58871
230.00
240.00
1218.6 25.31 0.1854 349.296 584.228 0.61382
1348.3 23.76 0.1545 369. 899 569 .465 0.64166
250.00
1489.4 21.73 0.1239 394.854 547.928 0.67496
260.00
269.99c
1643.7 14.67 0.0682 467.152 467. 152 0.77240
Tempcratures are convttted from the IPTS-68 sale of the orl1in1I formulati
to thc l'J'S.90 scalc.
e, ; critial point
b boling point
a triple point
150.00
155.00
160.00
165.00
170.00

433.35
462.42
492.92
524.91
558.42

33.39
33.05
32.71
32.36
32.01

76

ThermodynamJc Propertles of Arnmonla (R-717)


Pressure ~ 14.7 psl1
SaL lemp. -l9.9l F
h
s
200.41 2.5959
210.99 2.6195
226.70 2.6526
242.29 2.6835
263.04 2.7220
283.89 2.7579
Prusure = 40 psi
Sal. temp. - ll .80 F
h
s
0.13552 219.88 2.5250
0.12638 236.95 2.5588
0.11628 259.03 2.5998
0. 10788 280.76 2.6372
P ressure 160 psi
Sal. iemp. = 82. 78 F
h
s
0.508 13
0.45986
0.40690
0.36707
0.33531

237.51

264.56
301.68
337.23
372.53

2.4085
2.4552
2.5143
2.5658
2.6129

Pressure - 240 psfa


S11. 1emp. = 108.24 F
h
s

0.12516
0.62958
0.56240
0.51070
0.46897
vapor volume. n> /lb

Pressure 25 psla
SL temp. = - 7.83F
h
s
42.209
0.08947
0.08324
0.07795
0.07199
0.06694

- 384.56
207.48
223 .98
240.15
261.43
282.63

Pressure 70 psi
S11. lemp. ~ 37.84 F
h
s
39.966
0.2275
0.2076
0.1953

-330.34
230.20
254.06
271.27

Pressure
S1t. lemp.

~
e

1.3569
2.4835
2.5278
2.5577

200 psi
102.56F

h
0.65839
0.58884
0.51642
0.46366
0.42232

229 .13
258.60
297.59
334.14
370.07

s
2.3707
2.4216
2.4836
2.5366
2.5846

Pressure = 300 psla


S11. lemp. ~ 123.37F
h
s

252.28
293.38
33 1.00
367.58
404.14

0.94634
2.3921
2.4575
0.80690
2.5121
0.71477
2.5610
0.64594
2.6061
0.59131
h enthalpy, Btu/lb
s

77

1.2406
2.5515
2.5863
2.6184
2.6578
2.6944

242.01 2.3527
286.80 2.4240
326.18 2.4811
363.79 2.5313
401.06 2.5774
entropy, Btu/lb F

-- ---'

.,

;;!

0:1

l-- -

...... ,ooo~~

3
1-.,"!5

1~~8~~~!50\~J

Suction, Discharge,
l l (Single
- and Llquid Line Capacities for Refrigerant
- or High-Stage
- Applicatlons)
Suction Unes (.6.1

= 2 F)

Discharce Unes

Uquld Liaes

(.6./ 1 F; Ap 1.9 psi)

UneSia
'fype L
Copper,

00
~

-20

Ap=0.79 Ap=-1.15

112
S/8
718
1 1/ 8
1 3/8
1 5/8
2 1/8
2S/8
3 1/ 8
3 518
4 1/8

IPS
112
3/4
1
1-1/ 4
1-112
2
2-1/2
3
4

Sataratecl Suctlom Tempenlre, F

-40

o.si
1.1
1.9

0.32
0.86
1.7

20

40

40

40
40

40

Ap-1.6 Ap2.22 Ap=2.91

O.SI
1.3
2.7

0.40
0.76
2.0
4.0

0.6
1.1

2.9
5.8

0.15
1.4
3.7
1.5

O.SS
1.6
4.2
8.5

Vel. lOOfpm

Al a lF
Ap =

3.05 psi

1/2
S/8
118
1 1/8

2.3
3.7
7.8
13.2

3.6
6.7
18.2
37.0

6.2
10.9

3.1
4.8
10.0
17.8

4.7
1.5
IS.6
27.5

7.0
11.1
23.1
40.8

J0.1
16.0
33.1
58.3

13.1
20.7
42.8
75.4

14.8
23.4
48.S
85.4

13/8
1 S/8
2118
2S/8

20.2
28.5
49.6
16.5

64.7
102.5
213.0
376.9

17.5
26.0
36.8

28.4
42.3
59.6

44.0
65.4
92.2

6S.O
96.6
136.3

92.9
137.8
194.3

120.2
178.4
251.1

136.2
202.1
284.4

3 1/8

. 3 5/8

109.2
147.8
192.J

601.5
895.7
1263.2

0.38
0.8
l.S
3.2
4.7
9.1
14.6
25.7
52.5

0.58
1.2
2.3
4.8
7.2
13.9
22.1
39.0
79.5

1.2
2.S
4.8
9.9
14.8
28.S
45.4
80.1
163.2

1.5

1.7
3.7
6.9
14.3
21.5
41.4
6S.9
116.4
237.3

3.8
6.9
11.S
20.6
28.3
53.8
76.7
118.5
204.2

5.1
12.8
25.2
S4.1
82.6
192.0
305.8
540.3
1101.2

1.0

o.so
0.9~

2.0
3.0
S.7
9.2
16.2
33.J

0.85

1.8
"3.4
7.0
10.S
20.2
32.2

56.8
115.9

Notes:

~ t. 'Jkble capaci1ies are in tons of rcfrigcration.

l:i.p "' pressure drop dueto line friction, psi per 100 ft of equiva-

lent line length


l:i.t = corresponding cbange in saturation temperature per 100
ft, F
2. Llnc capacity for other saturaiion tcmperatures t.t and equivalent lengths L
,
( 1\blc L,
Aclual Al ) O.SS
Line capacity lkble capacity - -x
Aclual L,
Tublc Al
3. Saturation tcrnpcrature A/ for other capacities and equivalcru lcnghs

L,

- 40

SCB

40
40
40
40
40
40

Uc!iia
'fypeL
Copper,

S.tlll'Sted Suctio Temp., F

Actual L, ( Aaual capacity ) 1.8

Al lkble A 1 - - -

lkble L,

3.3
6.1
12.6
19.0
36.6
58.I

102.8
209.5

41/8

IPS
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/ 4
1- 1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4

SCB

80
80
80
80
80
40
40

40
40

4. Values in 1hc table are based on IOS F condcosing tcmperature. Mu!Liply 1able capaci1ies by lhe following faciors for olher condensing
temperatures.
Condenslac
Ttmpa11111re, F

Suetlon
Une

Dlsc.ltue

80
90
100
110
120
130
140

1.11
1.07

0.79
0.88

1.03

0.95

0.91

1.04
1.10

0.90
0.86
0.80

Tublc capacity

"See section tilled, "Pressure Drop Considcrations: Chapter 3, 1990 ASHRAE Hondbook- Refrigerotion.

u.e

1.18

1.26

'

- - - - 1

- - - -1 :;!

~ ~

:;I

l '=" ::..~- .~ 1~--

\ ~g~~~~o \~J

Refrigerant Suction, Oischarge and Liquid Line Capacities for lntermediate or


L-Ow Stage Outy (Tons) for Refrigeraot 22
Rcfrlgerant
and t.J
Equlvalent of
.frlction Drop

Line
Slze
l)'peL
Copper

00

Suctlon Lines
Saturated Suction Temperature, "F

- 90 - 80 - 70 -60

-SO

-40

- 30

Olscharge
Unes1 <2>

1/2

518

g:

Refrigeran! 22

718
1-118
1-3/ 8
1-S/ 8
2-1/8

2 F Al ptr 100 ft
equivalen! length

2-518
3-118
3-S/ 8
4-1/8

S-1 18
6-118

0 . 18
0 .36
0 .6
1.0
2.1
3.8
6.1
9.1
12.9
23.2
37 .s

0 .25

O.S I
0 .9
1.4
3.0

S.3
8.S
12.7
18.0
32.3
52.1

0.34
0.70
1.2
1.9
4.1
7.2
11.6
17.3
24.S
4f-9
7

.o

0 .46
0.94
1.6
2.6

s.s
9.7

15.S
23.1
32.7
58.7
94.6

0.61
1.2
2.2
3.4
7.2
12.7
2-0.4
30.4
43.0
77.1
124.2

0.79
1.6
2 .8
4.S
9.3
16.5
26.4
39.4

SS.6
99.8

160.S

'oJes:

(1) Value:S in this ~le are tons of refrige:ration resulting


in a line friction drop pcr 100 rt of equivaleot pipe length
corrc:sponding io thc change in saturation temperature
indicated under the refrigerant desgnation.
(2) Values based on OF condensing temperature. For
capacities at other condensing temperatures, multiply table
value by values from the table below. Ton mass flow rates
for discbarge lines based on - 50 evap.

Condensing
Temp.., F

Su~on

Discharge

- 30

1.12

0.55
0.70
O.SS
1.00
1.25

Refrigeran! 12

-20

1.07

-10

1.03
1.00
0.96
0.93
0.90

10
20
30

t.SO
l.SO

Refrigerant 22

S.1

0.7
1.9
3.8
6.6
10.S

11.9
21.1
33.8
S0.2
70.9
126.9
204.2

21.7
38.4
61.4
91.2
128.6
229.S
369.4

1.0
2. 1
3.6

Line
Slze
1)'pe L
Copper

U quid

00

Unes

1/2
S/ 8
7/8
1-118
1-3/ 8

1-S/ 8
2- 118
2-S/8
3- 1/8
3-S/ 8
4-118

Scc
Table,
pp. 78-79

S-118
6-118

(3) For olher Al's and Equivaleot Leogths, L,,


Line capacity (tons) =
Table L,
Actual t loss desired)
Table tons ( Actual L, x
Table t loss

"

(4) For other Tons and Equivalent Lengths in a given


pipe size,

At = Table .t (Actual L,)


Table L,

(Actual Tons) 1.a


Table Tons

Suction Discharge

1.09
1.06
1.03
1.00
0.97
0.94
0.90

0.58
0.71
O.SS
1.00
1.20
1.45
1.SO

(5) For pressurc drop {ps!)corresponding to .t, refer to


Rcfrigerant thcrmodynamic property tables.

Sce section litled Prcssure Orop Considcrations, Chaptcr 3, 1990 ASHRAE Handbook.

.1n ~

-!

1-:- -.. -

--...~~

1~~&~$~~0 l~J

Suction Line Capacities in Tons for Refrige.r ant 22 (Single or Higb-Stage Applications)
Saluraltd Sucllon Temperalore, F
Line Si:re
-40
-20
o
20
40
'JYpeL
Copper, ti/= lF ti/= O.SF lll=tF t.l = O.SF ti/= lF t.l = O.SF lll= lF ti/= O.SF ti/=lF ti/= O.SF
OD Ap = 0.393 Ap = 0.197 Ap = 0.577 Ap = 0.289 Ap = 0.813 Ap = 0.406 Ap = t.104 Ap = 0.552 Ap = t.4SS Ap = 0.727
0,07
112
o.os
0.12
0.08
0.18
0.12
0.27
0.19
0.40
0.27
S/8
0.13
0.09
0.22
O.IS
0.34
0.23
0.S2
0.3S
0.1S
O.SI
3/ 4
0.22
O.IS
0.37
0.58
0.39
0.86
O.S9
0.25
1.24
0.85
7/8
0.35
0.24
0.58
0.40
0.91
0.62
1.37
0.93
1.97
1.35
1-118
0.72
0-49
1.19
0.81
1.86
1.27
1.90
3.99
2.74
2.77
1-3/ 8
1.27
0.86
1.42
3.2S
2.22
4.84
2.09
3.32
6.96
4.78
1-5/8
2.02
1.38
3.31
2.26
S.16
3.S3
7.67
5.26
11.00
1.S1
4.21
2-1/8
2.88
6.90
4.73
10.71
1.3S
15.92
10.96
22.81
15.73
2-5/8
7.48
S.13
12.23
8.39
18.97
13.04
28.19
19.40
40.38
27.84
11.99
3-1/8
19.55
8.22
13.43
30.31
20.85
44.93
31.00
44.44
64.30
3-518
17.89
12.26
20.00
45.09
29.13
31.03
66.81
46.11
95.68
66.09
4-1/8
25.2917.36
41.17
28.26
63.71
43.85
94.2S
65.12
134.81
93.22

(D
1\)

Steel
IPS ~
3/ 8
1/2
3/ 4
1
11/4
1-1/2
~ 2
2:112
3
4

10

80
80
80
80
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

12

ID

6
8

0.06
0.12
0.27
0.52
1.38
2.~

4.03
6.43
11.38
23.24
42.04
68.04
139.48
252.38
403.63

0.04
0.08
0.18
0.36
0.96
1.45
2.81
4.49
7.97
16.30
29.50
47.86
98.06
177.75
284.69

0.10
0.19
0.43
0.84
2.21
3.32
6.41
10.23
18.11
36.98
66.73
108.14
221.17
400.53
639.74

0.07
0.13
0.30
0.59
!.SS
2.33
4.51
7.19
12.74
26.02
47.05
76.15
15S.78
282.05
451.09

O.IS
0.29
0.6S
1.28
3.37
5.0S
9.74
15.56
27.47
56.12
101.16
163.77
334.94
606.74
969.02

0.10
0.20
0.46
0.89
2.36
3.55
6.85
10.93
19.34
39.49
71.27
115.21
236.21
427.75
683.22

0.21
0.42
0.9S
1.87
4.91
7.38
14.22
22.65
40.10
81.73
147.36
238.29
488.05
881.59
1410.30

O.IS
0.30
0.67
1.31
3.45
S.19
10.01
J5.9S
28.23
S1.S3
103.82
168.07
344.19
622.51
995.80

0.30
0.60
1.35
2.64
6.93
10.42
20.07
31.99
56.52
115.24
207.59
335.71
686.71
1243.64
1987.29

0.21
0.42
0.95
1.86
4.88
7.33
14.14
22.53
39.79
81.21
146.38
236.70
484.74
876.79
1402.63

,.

J_ - ~ --~1.:i

1. ~

1-i!: -!::!S<~lj
1 ~3
~ ~o "'?

---- -

Minimum To nnage_(Refrigeraot !~-f~! Oil E'cltrainment up Suctio n Risers Type L Copper Tubing
PipeOD, In.
0.500

S11t tloa

0.750

0.875

1.123

1.375

Gas

Ttmp, f

Temp, f

0.146

0.233

0.341

0.434

0.125

1.256

- 40.0

-30.0
-10.0
10.0
-10.0
10.0
30.0
10.0
30.0

0.067

0.119
0. 117
0.118
0.156
O. IS3
O.IS4
0. 199
0.194
0.19S
0.244
0.242
0.242
0.300
0.296
0.296

0.197
O.l!M
0.19S
0.2S8
0.2S3
0.2S4
0.328
0.320
0.322
0.403
0.399
0.400
0.49S
0.483
0.488

0.298
0.292

O.S80
O.S70
O.S7S
0.758
0.744
0.747
0.986
0.942
0.946

0.981
0.963

o.o

20.0
40.0

2. 125

2.625

3. 125

3.625

4. 125

1.780

3.094

4.770

6.812

9.213

11.970

1.52
1.49
l.SO
1.98

3.03
2.97
3.00
3.96
3. 88
3.90
5.04
4.92
4.94
6.1 8
6. 13
6.IS
7.60
7.49
1.50

S.20
S.11
S.IS
6.80
6.67
6.69
8.66
8.4S
8.48
10.6
10.S
10.6
13. t
12.9
12.9

8.12
7.97
8.04
10.6
10.4
10.4
ll.S
ll.2

11.8
11.6
11.7
IS.S
IS.2
15.2
19.7
19.2
19.3
24.2
24.0
24.0
29.7
29.J
29.3

16.4
16.1
16.3
21.S
21.1
21.I
27.4
26.7
26.8
33.S
33.3
33.3
41.3
40.7
40.7

1.625

Ata, in.'

S.t.

-20.0

CD

0.625

0.06S
0.066
0.087
0.08S
0.086
0.111
0.108
0.109
0. 136
O.IJS
0.13S
0.167
0.165
O.t6S

so.o
so.o
70.0
so.o

30.0

70.0
90.0

0.295
0.389
0.362
0.383
0.496
0.434
0.486
0.608
0.603
0.60S
0.743
0.737
0.738

0.912
1.28
1.26
1.26
1.63

1.95
l.9S
2.S3
2.46
2.47
3. 10
3.07
3.08
3.81
3.7S
3.76

1.59
1.60
2.00
1.99
1.99
2.46
2.43
2.43

t.18
1.17
1.18
1.46
1.44
1.44

13.2
16.6
16.4
16.S
20.4
20.I
20.1

NO'rl!: lc iunnasc b ~~ on 90 F' liquid icmrittaturc and &u~rhcal u indic:atc:d by 1hc f1cd tc:mrxra1urc. For othcr liqu J line u1urx.,.:uun.-~ u~ ~orrl"-'.:li,~u al.'.1llfS b;
1h< oahlc bdow.

Uquid Temperature, f

so

MI

70

IO

100

110

120

1.17

1. 14

1. 10

1.116

O.YR

0.94

<U9

130
j),~,

Minimnm To nnage (Rtfrlgerant 22) for 011 Entralnment up Hot-Gas Risen Type L Copper Tublng
P ipeOD, In.

S.t.

Disch1.rce
Gas

Temp, F Ttmp, f
80.0
90.0
CD

U'I

100.0
110.0
120.0

110.0
140.0
170.0
120.0
ISO.O
180.0
130.0
160.0
190.0
140.0
170.0
200.0
ISO.O
180.0
210.0

o.soo

0.625

0.750

o.175

1.12.3

1.375

1.625

2.125

1.625

3.125

~. 625

4. 125

Ara. la.'
. 0. 146
0.23S
0.223
0.215
0.242
0.226
0.216
0.247
0.231
0.220
0.2St
0.23S
0.222
0.257
0_239
0.22.S

0.233
0.421
0.399
0.385
0.433
0.406
0.387
0.442
0.414
0.394
0.451
0.421
0.399
0.460
0.428
0.404

0.34ll

0.434

0.825

1.256

1.780

3.094

4.770

6.812

9.213

U.970

0.69S

!.OS
0 .996
0.960
1.06
1.01
0.9S6
1. 10
1.03
0.987,
1.12
LOS
0.994
LIS

2.03
1.94
1.87
2.11
1.97
1.88
2.IS
2.01
1.91
2.19
2.05
1.94
2.24
2.08
1.96

3.4
3.28
3.16
3.S6
3.34
3.18
3.83
3.40
3.24
3.70
3.46
3.23
3.78
3.SI
3.31

5.3S
S.o7
4.89

10.7
10.1
9.76
11.0
10.3
9.82
11.2
10.S
9.96
11.4
10.7
10.1
11.7
10.8
10.2

18.3
17.4
16.8
18.9
17.7
16.9
19.3
18-0
17.2
19.6
18.3
17.4
20.0
18.6
17.6

28.6
27 . 1
26.2
29.S
27.6
26.3
30.1
28.2
26.8
30.6
28.6
27 . 1
31.3
29. 1
27.4

41.8
39.6
JS.2
43.0
40.3
38.4
43.9
41.1
39.1
44.7
41.8
39.S
4S.7
42.4
40.0

S1.9
S4.9

0.6S9
0.635
0.716
0.671

0.540
0.730
0.884

0.650
0.744
0.693

0.6S8
0.760
0.7(17
0.666

1.(11

1.01

s.so

S.16
4.92
S.62
S.26
3.00
S.73
3.35
S.06
5.8S
S.44
S.12

52.9
S9.6
SS.9
S3.3
60.8

S1.0
S4.2
62.0
S7.9
S4.8
63.3
S8.9

ss.s

NOTE: The tonnaae 11 based on 1111urated suaion tcrnpcrature or 20 F with IS dea F s:upcrhcal ac che indicated satur.ucd condt:nsing 1cmpcrature witb IS des F iubcoolin.
for oc her s:aturaltd suction tcmptraturcs wilh 1S dq. F supcrhc111, UJc: che Collowins corrcc:tion fact0f1! Saturation s-i;clion tcmpcratutt.., F .-40
- 20 o
40
Corrcction flc1or
0.88
o.9$ 0.96 1.04

-- -- ~

_,

_;l

____

:;l

1..23

:;l

o
1~ -0 9!? ~ *: ~""" 1
.,.,.g
N

Practica! Refrigeran! Suction Une Capacities for Ammonla for Te.m perature Cbanges of 0.25 and 0 .50 deg F
[Tons of Refrigeration Resulting in a Une Friction Drop (AP in psi) per 100 ft Equivalen!
Pipe Le.n gth as Shown, with Correspondlng Cbange (AT) in Saturalion Te.m perature)
Saturated Suction Temperature, F

Steel
LlneSlze

IPS

SCH

)/8

80
80

112
(X)

O>

80
80
40
40
40
40

314

1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2112
3
4.
5
6
8
10
12

40

40
40
40
40
40
ID

AT = O.lSF
AP e 0.046

AT a O.SOF
AP s 0.092

0.03
0.06
0.15
0.30
0.82
l.2S
2.43
3.94
7.10
14.77
26.66
43.48
90.07
164.26
264.07

O.JO
0.22
0.45
1.21
1.83
3.57
S.18
10.30
21.21
38.65
62.83
129.79
236.39
379.88

SCH

)/8

80

1/2

80
80

2
2112

80
40
40
40
40

40

40
40
40

112

6
8
10
12

AT=O.SOF
AP = 0.155

0.06
0.12
0.28
O.S1
1.53
2.32
4.S4
7.23
13.00
26.81
48.68
79.18
163.48
297.51
4n.55

0.09
0.18
0.42
0.84
2.24
3.38
6.59
10.56
18.81
38.62
70.07
114.26
235.38
427.71
686.10

lPS

o.os

-20

AT O.lSF
AP = 0.011

AT = O.lSF
AP 0.123

AT = O.SOF
AP = 0.245

0.11
0.22

0.16
0.32
0.73
1.44
3.84
S.80
11.26
18.03
32.09
65.81
119.06
193.44
397.SS
721.08
1157.59

o.so

0.99
2.65
4.00
7.79
12.50
22.23
45.66
82.70
134.37
277.80
504.98
808.93

Saturattd Suctioa Tempenture, F

Sttd
LineSize

)/ 4
1
l 1/4

-40

-60

40

40
ID

AT = O.lSF
AP 0.184

0.18
0.36
0.82
1.62
4.30

6.49
12.57
20.19
3S.87
73.56
133.12
216.0S
444.S6
806.47
1290.92

20
AT=O.SOF
AP = 0.363

4TO.lSF
AP 0.265

0.26
0.52
1.18
2.34
6.21
9.34
18.12
28.94
51.35
105.17
190.SS
308.62
633.82
1148.72
1839.28

0.28
O.SS
1.26
2.50
6.63
9.98
19.3S
30.98
54.98
112.34
203.S3
329.59
676.99
1226.96
1964.S6

40
AT s O.SOF
AP.= O.S30

0.40
0.80
1.83
3.60
9.S2
14.34
27.74
44.30

78.SO
160.S7
289.97
469.07
962.47
1744.84
2790.37

AT = O.lSF
AP = 0.366

AT=O.SOF
AP = 0.582

0.41
0.82
1.87
3.68
9.76
14.68
28.45
45.37
80.40
164.44
296.88
480.96
98S.SS
1786.55
2862.23

O.S3
LOS
2.38
4.69
12.42
18.64
36.08
57.SI
101.93
208.34
376.18
609.57
1250.34
2263.99
3613.23

NOTES:
(1) Basis ofTable: 90 F Condensirig Tempcraturc; 1 dq F AT
per 100 ft Equivalen! Lenglh. Dischacge and Llquid Unes
~ on 20 F suction.
(2) For other AT 's and Equivalen! Lengths, L,,
Linc Capaciry (Tons)

Q)

<D

Table L,
Actual AT Loss Desircd
TableTons (
- - -- - - - - 1\crual L,
Table AT Loss

)'"

(3) For other Tons and Equivalen! Lenglhs in a given ppe sizc:
Aetual L,
AT =TabkAT
Table L,

Actual Tons

Table Tons

)'.a

(4) Values bascd on 90 F condensin temperature. For capacities ar


othcr condensing remperarures, multiply rabie tons by lhe following
factors:
Condensin& Temperature, F
70

100

LOS

80
1.02

90

Suction Lines

1.00

0.98

Discharge
Lines

0.78

0.89

1.0

1.11

(S) Bascd on O F evaporaior tcmperarure. The capaciry is affectcd


less !han 3.. when applied from -40 F to 40 F extremes.

- - -

-:;!

J _ _ __

-==-

:..::.-

-~._

_l

..:_-:-: 7

;I
~

-1-- -- -

....... noo0\N_

;I

3
"l1.,.

S uctio n , Discba~e, a nd Liguid Line Capac ltles In T o ns for Refrigerant 134a (Single- o r High-Stage Aeplications)

1/2

1-518

co
o

10

20

30

40

.6.p-1.19

.6.p = l.41

.6.p-1.66

.6.p=t.93

0.18
0.34
0.91
1.84
3.22
S.10
10.60
18.80
30.00
44.60
62.90
113.00
181.00

0.23
0.43
1.14
2.32
4.04
6.39
13.30
23.SO
37.SO
55.80
78.70
141.00
226.00

0.14
0.27
0.71
1.45
2.53
4.02
8.34
14.80
23.70
3S.10
49.60
88.90
143.00

518
718
1-1/8
1-3/ 8
. 2-118
2-5/ 8
3-1/ 8

3-518
4-118

S-118
6-1/ 8

Discharic Unes
(.6.t l "F, .6.p 2.2 psi)
Satu rated S uclion Temp., "F

Sucllon Lines (.6.t = 2 "F)


Satu111ted S uclion Tempe111ture, F

LlncSlze
'JYpe L
Cop.p er,
..p s J,00
OD

0.29

0.35
0.66
1.75

O.S4
1.42
2.88

S.02
7.94
16.SO
29. 10
46.40
69.IO
97 .40
174.00
280.00

20

0.S4

0.57

3.S4

S.40
9.42
14.90
30.80
54.40
86.70
129.00
181.00
323.00
518.00

40

llt l "F
Llp 2.2 psi

Ve!
100 fpm

0.59
1.12
2.94
5.95
10.40
16.40
34.00
59.90

1.07

1.01
2.67

6.17
9.77
20.20
35.80
57. 10
84.80
119.43
213.00
342.00

Liquld Unes
Stt notes 3 aad 4.

2.81
5.68
9.91
IS.70
32.40
57.20
91.20
135.00
191.00
340.00
545.00

95.SO
142.00
200.00
356.00
571.00

2.79
5.27
14.00
28.40
S0.00
78.60
163.00
290.00
462.00
688.00
971.00

2.13
3.42
7.09
12.10
18.40
26.10
45.30
69.90
100.00
llS.00

115.00

Notes:

l. lllblc capacities are in tons of refricn.tion.


Ap
pressure drop duc to Une fction. psi pcr 100 fi of cquivalent Une lcngth.
Al = correspondina changc in sa1uraton tempcratur< pcr 100 ft, F
2. Scc Cbaptcr 2, 1994 ASHRAE Hondbook-Refrigrrotion Cor stccl linc c.a pacit ics and for modifjca1ions 11 othcr s aturation and
&

condcnsina tcmperatures_
3. Thcsizing shown is rccommcndcd wherc any gas gcneratcd in the receivcr must rcturn up thc condcnsatc linc to the condcnser without rcstricting
condcnsatc
Water-(:()()lcd condcnscts, wbcrc tbe r=vcr ambient temperature may be bia)\cr than the refrierant condcnsing 1empcratutt, fall
in this catqory.
4. ThcUncpres.suredropApisconservative; if subcoolin1

now.

:g

-o ::r- o oo o g!:J. :;~o.a~~F~?F ~

.,..

:2.

alf"'b"
5- &. l.. ..;,c
-...::.. ,
'itec: =-~
j:l,.ll<'"
- ._. C3 n
c-x--o
~~ttfiF;_
9:; O> :z c
~:. ~;

~ 3 ~

E_ ;;E!, .:-;:161' 6i0


~
!!!:

e:

:; "'~ s
;; e: s a 5
E = .:<cnEE

o "c

a e ~ s a ~- e v s s
"Ir:=--
-<
ie.
!>?..:i ,.

~
....

o...
o

i::

'O "

;- ~

- ~

:::
n
'el ..

::::'.!..

!=>!=>??!='
~~~a

!l

i2

?!='
..... QQ

........

? I .......
~~

00000

~~i5;:;e:

P?PP
...., -

U.VI-O\

Q.

b.

...o I ir>
=
~
~
o

'A

1;1}

..

.. ..~

~!

...co -:;"

c..

=-~

a.~

.,ir

o.

Oq:s

'8

:'

;,, o
n ~no

""'O
:::"
-.!"'

~~

=10
~ ~ ;g

'to

;:; ;::.

a" 'O

e.-g

3
Ol

s.-~~'tl~a-n
V :;;
:l. "
:l.
N :2'"
...,:r ~

1'1 - .

;"

.,., .... , "'


_

n ., ., ...,

':

I,..=-'
" ~;;"'
. . !l1:1
~-~
:=. ""'
~

~..?"

=]~

~ ca

.,,<;2,
~ ~:;.

&.~~
~n;

:J

n ':"

"' "'

;;-~

:::J"~

e:[
a-::a-go

;~

:J.91

t;?

::38.

:.
;;
~
=

g;~

~;-

:3 ,.: !l
'i'"'""

_.,

:n

;::; ~

;[~t

2:~

a(;:;

:1
g_ ('!i ~O s.e~
...,,,. .. .. >
:'1'1 ::i n
l en ~it .,~ ~~~
0)2=

~: ~

Io -,.,;;..."' =~:;,.... ..:::;


w

~:>

o'g~

!.~

~ ~[ ~2.

~~

""

g ~

,,

..

~tT:J
~e

a~

oo :i:: c:c:

~ ~ 8. ~ ~

....
s e: ..
~~=a.a
a

...

'

8 8 ..""
e

,,
..,,

:.

:ii,

ae.

- ---ii1~~g~

ied:~~~

,,. PPP!='P

___ _

....,
!::;S~:~

2;'!1

:ii, ~~~~~

<

n-.

~
o.=.

Ul

~~
:!.'<

()}

7 ~

~ ;

~.,.

=
.
s

~~

.CD
-~
~ n

fil

;t~

:.-1E~e~e
NVlo\OWO\
N--:ii:tl V. ,,:_._...
VINO-.JN

=
c.

:i:!i?.

,.,,
=

..,-~ -

o ..

:I!

2.

..?' I~ ..~z
o
e n "

~ 18 i .
.?"' ' ""

e
:ii, ~

en !'l'

.."',.,~ ,.,,.~
~

l"
~ l~ f

~ 1:

c.

~
" >

./:" .,"'

Thennal Reslstances of Plane Air Spaces, F ft1 h/Btu

Ttm
I

1
1

3.5-in. Air S
Positlon Olrttllon Mt11n Ttmp. 0.75-ln. Alr Spacc
or Alr of Ht111 Tcm. Oiff., Elfectlve Emittanc: Elfectlve Emitt
Sp1c:e
Flow
F
0.82
0.2
F 0.2
o.
90
10
1.61
0.75
1.83
30
1.3S
0.77
l.S8
10
1.70
0.87
1.9S
Horiz.
Up
o 20
l.S2
0.93
1.79
o 10
1.78
1.02
2.07
20
l.SS
1.07
J.86
10
1.84
1.20
2.18

so
so

- so
so

90
4S
SIo pe

so
so

Up

o
o

- so
- so

90
Vert.

so
so

Horii.

o
o

- so
- so

90

4S

Slopc

Down

so
so
o
o
- so
- so

1.88
1.52
2.00
1.72
2.08
1.76
2.10

0.81
0.82
0.94
1.00
1.12
1.16
1.30

1.97
1.67
2.10
1.90
2.23
1.97
2.33

10
30
10
20
10
20
10

2.08
2.01

2.15
1.89
2.32
2.17
2.SO
2.30
2.67

0.8!
0.91
1.01

2.32
2.64
2.36
2.87

0.84
0.94
1.01
1.18
1.26
1.39
1.56

10
30
10
20
10
20
10

2.10
2.24
2.40
2.63
2.81
2.90
3.22

0.84
0.99
1.02
1.26
1.30
l.S7
1.66

2.49
2.28
2.73
2.66
3.02
2.90
3.31

0.90

90

- so
- so

92

...

!)

,,"

.!!
&>

CI.

"'
~

...

1.00
1.08
1.21
l.~

l.Sl
1.68

~~
...;

.. i 1
......
'!..

;;
.!!

'dd_,...
.,...,

d
.,..
....
o

...

00 N

cid

_...,
.,...,

....

00

00

~~

5~

e ~ i= e!~

<

:::!'.:!

l 1

... ..

::: 5

00

~~

5~

00

~~

'1

lt ~

.,

e ..

CI

U-O

=
<

fl

1.21
1.37

..

i:

= a=
!:! "

1.U

:'E

10
2.10
O.SS
3.41
30
2.38
1.02
3.86
10
2.41
1.02
4.09
Horiz. Down
o 20 2.83
1.30
4.87
o 10 2.87
1.31
S.08
20
3.36
1.69
6.02
10
3.42
1.71
6.36
1
lntcrpol11ion is pcrmissible for othcr valucs of mean 1emperuurc, lctnpen
diffcrcncc, and cffectivc cmi11ancc fefJ lntcrpolalion and modcratc extrapola
for air spaces rc11cr 1han 3.S in. are also pcrmissible.
.
bEffcctivceminanccf~ff'1~airspaccbaivcnbyl/E<IJ' l/ E1 + llt2 - l,w
ft and Ez are !he cmft anees ofthc surfaccs othc air spacc (scc Table 3).

so
so

10
30
10
20
10
20
10

2.35

1l

.!:

.:. .!I

..

::;

...o

:1

a ...

~
":

$.
ti

=
;
..

ON

-N

i:i :'E

.. _

:;. ~~

....o

"~

00

_.,

...
r-

00 ....

_,.,
dd

.,..

d
r-

'lj

:;
....

{,.)

i!
~
o

...

&>

..e i!.. ....t


cZ
e! en...
o

...o

...o

...o

&

:!;'

e
o

dH

.....,

~-;;-

8 88

~~a~

5 "iiOoi
~ b' ~.S.!! a ~~
6 ~ ~ ii
6 .s .5 ...5 .s e 6 .5
.!:! 00 00 ::0NN ~
... .......... " .......... s iS

e-- 8--

~
~ Vi

93

. . Q.

....
Typical Thermal Properties of Commoo BuildJog and lnsulating Materials-Desl&o Values
Resistance (R)

Conduc1M1y Conductance
Densi~,

Oacriplion

<D
.,,.

BUILDING BOARD
Gypsum or plastcr board ................. 0.5 in .
Plywood (Douglas Fir) .......... .. . .. .........
Plywood or wood panels . .............. . 0 .15 in.
Vcgetable fibcr board
Shcalhin, regular dcnsily . . . . . . .. .. .... 0.5 in.
. .. . ...... 0.78125 in.
Nail-base sheathing ......... . . .. .. .. .. 0.5 in.
Shinglc backer .... ............ .. . . . . 0.37S in.
Sound dcadcning board ........... . .... O.Sin.
Tilc and lay-in pands, plain or acoustic . . ......
.. 0.S in.
. 0.75 in.
Hardboard, medium densi1y ... . . .. ... . . ......
Par1iclcboard, medium dcnsi1y . . . . . ... . .... . . . .
BUILDING MEMBRANE
Vapor- permeable fel1 ............ .... ........
Vapor- sea!, 2 laycrs of moppcd IS-lb fcl1 ...... :
Vapor-scal, plastic film

lb/ft

so
34
34
18
18
25

18
IS
18
18
18

so
so

(k),

(C),

Blu ln
bfl2 F

Btu
bf11 F

0.80
0.40
-

2.22

0.73
0.94

1.07
0.76
0.49
0.94
1.06
0.74

0.80
O.S3

hrlDdl
ForThidcnes1 Spec:IOc
Thlckness (1/k), Llsled (1/C), Hea1,
2
F ft h
F fl2 b
Blu
Btuia
Btu
lb F

0.4S

0.29
0.29
0.31

1.32
2.06
1.06
0.94
1.35

l.2S
1.89

l.2S

2.50
1.37
1.06

0.93

16.70
8.3S

1.47

0.68

0.091

11

0.31
0.31
0.30
0.14
0.31
0.31

-~t"ft!Y1:.ru1

ceramic ............. . . .. ... . ...... . .. , .. .


Wood, hardwood finish ...... ......... . . 0.7' in.

(1)

C11

INSULATlNG MATERIALS
Blankct and &tr
Mineral fibcr, fibrous form from rock, slag, or
glassapprox, 3-4 io . ........ .. : ........ ..... 0.4-2.0
Board and Slabs
CeUular lass ......... ........... ..... ....... 8.0
Glass fibcr, organic booded ..... . . .. .. . ........ 4.G-9.0
Expandcd pcrlite, organic bondcd .. ..... ........ 1.0
Expandcd rubbcr (rigid) ........... ... ........ 4.5
Expandcd polyslyrene, cx1rudcd (smooth skin
surface)(R-142b cxp.) ...... ..... . . ... . .... .. 1.8-3.5
Expandcd polys1yrenc, moldcd bcads ....... ... . . 1.0
1.5
2.0
Cellular polyurethanc/polyisocyanurate
expandcd, (unfaced) ........... . ............ 1.5
CeUular polyi~nuralc
expandcd (gas-impermeable facers) . . ......... 2.0
Mineral fibcr with rcsin binder ... ...... .. . ..... IS.O
Mjncral fibcrboard, wet molded acoustical Lile . . . . 23.0
Cement fiber slabs (shredded wood
with Portland cemcot bindcr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25- 27 .O

0.33
0.2S
0.36
0.22

3.03
4.00
2.78
4.S5

0.20
0.26
0.24
0.23

S.00
3.85
4.17
4.3S

6.2S- S.S6

0.14
0.29
0.42

O.SG-0.53

2.0-1.89

0. 16--0. 18

7.04
3.45
2.38

0.18
0.23
0.30
0.40
0.29

0.38
0.22
0. 17
0.14

'<J.

_._ _ L

l 'I ~

'--- -

T.vuical Thermal Properties of Common Building and lnsulatlng Material.s -Des(&n Values
Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and lnsulating Materials-Design Values (Continued)
Resistance(R)

Oescriptlon

ConductlYity Conductancc
Per lncb
For Tbkkness Specirtc
(k),
(C),
Thickness (l/k), Listed (1/C), ffeat,
Btu in
Btu
F ft1 b
F rt2 b
Bto
Dcnsity,
hfl2 F
h fl2 F
Btu l n
Btu
lbF
lb/ ft3

--- - -

loo~Fill

Cellulosic insulation (milled paper or wood pulp) . 2.3- 3.2


Perlitc, cxpanded ........ . ........... . ....... . 2.G-4.1
4.1 - 7.4
7.4-11.0
Mineral fibcr (rock, sla, or glass

co
CD

approx. 3.75-5 in... .. .... .. ... ... ... . ... ... 0.6- 2.0
approx. 7.5- IOin . ... . ........... .... ....... 0.6- 2.0
Venniculilc, cxoliatcd . . . ........ .. .. .. .. .. ... 7.0- 8.2
4.0- 6 .0
ROOFJNG
Built-up roofing ... .. ......... .. ..... . 0 .375 in.
Slatc ....... ,,.......................... 0.5 in.
Wood shinglcs, plain and plastic film faced ... ....
PLASTERING MATERIALS
Cement plaster, sand aggregatc . . . .. . . .. ... .. .. .
Gypsum plaster:
Lightweight aggregatc . ... . . ....... . ... 0.5 in.
Perlitc agregate ...... .. ..... . ... . ..... . .. .
Sand 3a&J"CPlC .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

MaSofi,Y Unlts

Brick, fired clay ....... . .... .. ... .... ........ .


Clay tile, hoUow 1 cell deep ... .. .. ... .. .. .. 3 in.
2 cclli decp ....... .. .. ..... . . ..... .. ... 6 in.
2cclls deep .... .. ... .. ..... .. ......... IOin.
3 cclls decp . .. ... . ........... . .... . ... 12 in.

!$

Concrete blocks
Mcdium weight agregate (combinations of
normal weight and lightwei~ht aggregate)
8 in., 26-29 lb, 97- 112 lb/ft concrete, 2 or 3 cores
Same with pcrtite fillcd cores .. ... ... .... . . .
Same wlth verm. filled cores .. ... ... ... .. . .
Samc with moldcd EPS (beads) filled cores .. .
Same with molded EPS inserts in cores . . .... .
Lightweight aggregate (expanded sbale, clay,
slate or s\ag, pumicc)
6 in., 16-17 lb 85-87 lb/ft 1 concrete, 2 or 3 cores
Samc with pcrlite filled cores . .. ........... .
Samc with verm. fled cores . .. .. .... . .... .
8 in . 19-22 lb. 72-86 lb/ ft 3 concrete, .. ... . ..
Samc with perlite filled cores . .. .. ... .. ... . .
Same with verm. filled cores . . .... . . . ... . . .
Same with molded EPS (beads) fillcd cores . . .
Same with UF foam filled cores . ... .. .... . . .
Same with molda! EPS inserts in cores ... . .. .

70

0.27- 0.32
0.27-0.31
0.31--0.36
0.36-0.42

2.13
2.27

3.00
20.00
1.06

0.33

0.26

11.0
22.0

45
45
tos

3.70-3.13
3.7-3.3
3.3- 2.8
2.8-2.4

0.47
0.44

116

0.32

0.33
0 .05
0.94

0.20

5.0

1.25
0.66
0.45
0.40

0.58- 0.78
0.27-0.44
0.30
0.32
0 .37

0.52-0.61
0 .24
0.33
0.32-0.54
0.15-0.23
0.19-0.26
0.21
0.22
0 .29

0 .35
0.30
0.31
0.20

0.32

3.12

80

0 .17

0.80
l.S2
2 .22
2.50

J.71- 1.28
3.7- 2.3
3.3
3.2
2 .7

1.93-1.65
4.2
3.0
3.2- 1.90
6 .8-4.4
S.3-3.9
4.8
4.S
3.S

0.21

0.21

- -=====--1 :;!'"

:;l_

Typical Thermal Properlies of Common Building and lnsulating Materials- Design Values (Contnued)
Ralstance (R )
ConducU~lly

Dacription

Densi9"
lb/fl

lighLweight agrega1e (Continued)


12 in., 32- 361b, 80-90 lb/ft concrete, 2 or 3 cores
Sarne with perlite fllled cores .... .. . ....... .
Samc with verrn. fillcd cores . .. .. . ... . .... .
Stone, lime, or sand
Quaruitic and sands1one .... ............. .

>

Q)

Cak:itic, dolomitic, limcstooe, rnarblc. and ranitc

(k),
Blu In

hrt1F

Conductancc
Per lnc.h
For Tblcknas Spttlfk
(C),
Thidmas (l/ k), Usted (VC), Hea1,
Btu
F rt1 b
F ft 1 b
_.!!!.._
hfrF
B1u 1n
Btu
lb F

0.38-0.44
0.11-0. 16
0.17
180
140
180
140
100

Gypsum partition tilc


3 by 12 by 30 in ., solid . . ...... .. .. ........ .
3 by 12 bf30 in., 4 oclls ..... .. .. . ... ...... .
4 by 12 by 30 in., 3 cclls .. . .. . ....... ..... . .

72
24
30

2.6-2.3
9.2-6.3
5.8
0 .01
0 .04

16

0.03
0.06

0. 13
0.79
0.74
0.60

1.26
1.35
1.67

0.19

Concretes
Sand and gravel or stonc aggrcgate
Llmestonc concretes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

140
140

120
Gypsum-fibcr c:oncrcrc (87.5"1t gypsum, 12.Sl!'t
wood chips)
Expandcd shalc, clay, or slatc; expandcd slas;
cindcrs; pumice (with density up to 100 bl/fl>;
and scoria (sandcd concretes have conductivi1ics
in thc higher end of thc range) . ...... .......

0.IJ-0.06
0.09

9.0-18.0
11.1
7.9

0 .19-0.24

0 .13

S1

120

100

80
60

Pcrlite, vermiculitc, and polystyrcne bcads ..... .

40
20

Foam c:ooactcs ............. .. ................

100

6.4-9.1
4.7-.2
3.3-4.1
2.1 -2.s
1.4-1.S
0 .8

0.20
0 .20

0.15-0.23

4.1

__ .

SIDING M.ATERI.ALS (on fla t surfaa)

Shingles

l.IS
0.84
0.71

0.87
l.19
1.40

0.31
0.28
0 .31

Siding

6.50

O. IS

1.59

1.46
0.67
0.79
0.81
l.OS
0.59

0.35
0 .35
0.28
0 .28
0 .28
0.28
0 .29

1.61
0.55

0.61
J.82

0.29
0 .32

Wood, 16 in., 1.S exposure ...... .. ... ....... .


Wood, doublc, 16-in., 12-in. exposurc .. . ...... .
Wood, plll$ insul. backer board, 0.3125 in...... .
Asphall roU siding ......................... .
l\sphalt insulang siding (0.S in. bcd.) ......... .
Hardboard siding, 0 .4375 in..... . ............ .
Wood, drop, 1 by 8 in. . . .... . . ............. .
Wood, bcvcl, O.S by 8 in., lapped .... .. ....... .
Wood, bevel, 0.75 by 10 in., lapped ........... .
Wood, plywood, 0 .375 in., lapped .. ....... . .
Aluminum or Stccl, OVl'f sheatbing
Hollow-backcd . .... . .. ... .. ... ...... . ... .
lnsulating-board backcd nom. 0.375 in....... .
foil backed ........... .. ........... . ... . .

0.69
1.49
1.27
1.23

0.95

0.34

2.96

\'

1.g

;l

Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating ~terials-Design Values (Concluded)
Resistance (R)

Coaductivlly Coaductance
Per lacll
For Thickuess Specific
(k),
(C).
Thickness (l/k), Usted (l/C), Heat,
F fl1 11
Btu
Btuia
Btu
Frt211
h ft1 F
h ffl F
Btu in
Btu
lb F

Dem17.
lb/ ft

Oescriptlon

---

--

0.21
Architectural (50dalime float) gla5s ..... ... .. .
158
6.9
0.39
Hardwoods
38-42
1.06-1.22
0.94-0.87
0.39
22-41
0.68-1.12
1.48--0.89
Softwoods
Valucs are for a mean temperarure of 15 F. Represeowivc valucs for dry materia Is are intendI as dcsign (nat specification) values for materials
in normal use. Tbennal valucs or insulai.ing matcrials may differ from dcsign valucs dcpendi111 on lher in-situ propertics (e.g., demity and moiJture
oonrenl, orientation, etc.) and variabilicy eicperienced during manufacture.

l'ypical Thermal Condoctivlty for Industrial lasoJatioos-Design VaJoes


F

lb/ ft

2200

-100

-15

25

75

JOO

200

300

_Conducfity
_ _ __.:.._
k in_
Btu
_ _
ln/b_
ft1
__
F at
_Mean
_ _Temp.,
_ F
TMax. ~~!~ 'JYpical
Material

700

900

0.S9

0.74

BLANJCETS AND FELTS


Aluminosilcate Fiber, 3 .m dia.
Mineral Fiber (rock, slag, or glass)
Blanket ~metal reinforccd
Blanket, flexible, finefiber
organic bonded

Mqo

850/o Calcium Silicate


Cellular Olass
Diatomaceous Silica
Mineral Fiber (Glass)
Oranic bonded, block, and boards
Pipe insulation, slag, or lass
lnorganic bonded block
Pipe insulation, slag, or glass
Rigid Polyscyrcm
Extruded (Rl2 exp.)(smooth slcin surace)
Molde<! beads

0.22

0.29

0.39

1200
350

1800
900
1900

350

3-10
3-4

1000

10-IS

1800

lS-24
10-IS

400

1000

0.24

0.28

0.30

0.33 0.34

0.41

0.49

0.16

0.19

0.22
0.21

0.2S 0.26
0.23 0.24
0.33
0.32
0.33

0.33
0.29
0_38
0.37
0.38

0.40

t.8-3.S 0.16
0.17
1
0.16
1.5
O.IS
2.0

0.16
0.21
0.20
0.19

0.18
0.24
0.22
0.21

0.20
0.26 0.28
0.24 0.26
0.23 0.24

Rigid Polyurethane/Polyisocyanurate
210 1.5-2.S 0.16
Unfaced (R-11 exp)
Rigid Polyisocyanurate
Gas-impermeable facers (R-11 exp.)
250
2.0
Rubber, Rigid foamed
150
4.5
INSULATING CEMENTS Mineral Fiber (Rock, slag, or glass)
Witb colloidal clay bnder
1800
24-30
With hydraulic setting binder
1200
30-40

0.18

0.17

0.16 0.17

0.12
0.20

0.14 O.IS
0.22 0.23

165
16S

0.49
0.7S

LOOSEFILL

Cellulose insulation (milled pulverized


paper or wood pulp)
Mineral fiber, slag, rock, or glass
Perlitc (expanded)

2.S-3
2-S
3-5

0.22

0.21
0.27

0.25
0.30

0.27 0.29
0.28 0.31
0.33 0.3S

O.SS
0.80

0.45
0.42
0.4S

0.61
O.SS

1.01
0.1S

0.80

0.62

0.74

O.SS

' o ..

:;!__

Tested Coefrlcien1s of Transmissioa ( (/) f or Pre-Eninttred Metal Bulldlnss


....,.. tt 2 *&_ F ktW'ttll tM air

lite tw sN&r1

Blaaktl inwlation thkltness, ia.


Coastnaction lklails
Coastrwdoa I
Rool Sllot1
Wlnlcr Condltlo11s, Upward flow
l. lnsidc surace (still air)
2. Structural support (purlin)}
3. Blankct insulation
4 . Corrugaled metal panel
S. Panel astcncr
6. Ou1sidc suracc (1 S mph wind)
Thcrmal rcsstancc (R)
(U llRrl

Tcsted R ( l / C1 {

3.
4.
S.
6.
7.

Spacer bloclt
Blanlt<t nsularion
Pand r astencr clip
Corrugated m<ta! pand
Ouudc surfoux (1 S mph wind)

Tcsted R~ (= l/C} =

Thmnal r~wice (R)


Cons1nc1loa 1
Wall!llioa
WlnlCT Conditions, Oatward Flow
l. Outsidcsurace(IS mph ..;nd)

4. Blankct nsulation
S. Structural support (girt)
6. lnsidc surrace (still air)
Thcrmal rcsistancc (R)
(Ul/.R_tl

0.61

0.61

0.61

4.22

6.37

7.91

0.17

0.17
7.IS
0.14

0. 17
8.69
0.12

0.61

0.61

9.90

11.36

0.20

(U ll R

'3. Corrugatcd
,.,,.um-maal pand

s.oo

Con11ni<donl
RoolSllon
WlnlCT Condllions. Upward flow
l. lnsidesurrace (still ar)

'-""' w""'"'""'

Tcstcd Rb (= l/C)

{'"
7.S2
0.17

0. 17

0. 17

8.30
0. 12

10.68
0.09

12.14
0.08

{'"

0. 17

0. 17

S.08

S.78

7.94

0.68
S.93
0.17

0.68
6.63
O.IS

0.68
8.79
0.11

BU.o.,et lns:lilldoe n0.61bltt> dcnu1y(4 0.)1 e1s F)1thaltltqral vapor~.atdn.


brcsu:d R valye: ltddttll'ljMd by tnc1n1 f0t Cwatutofthcroofor wall ass.cmbl1ill a1uvdcd bol boxin 1Kt0t'danct llhA.STMC1)6 aMC9'16. Tn.uwntconchtcndby 8tiJt\cf Mamtfxnnina
Co., Grandwlotw, MO: Owms: Cornll'I& fibnala Corp., Gn.nvUk. OH; aftd 0,.MI~ Enjndi:n1. Uno t.aku, MN.

ji

anual Maxlmums and Mlnlmums for lntegrated Average


Earth Temperatures

.o

ji oo-"'
~e! ~~i

:e

!~t

..

~
o

:e

lo

rn ~

"
a.

..,

i:I:

e""'
..,E'

~~

!~j

"

.!

.. i3

o
~

j
..,

~...

6
o

Max. Mln. Locallon

. il

~!:.

i!
:>

00

;;

UI

oooo-

.:::

..

"' ,; -g l" ~ 8 = ~ o
:e
~"'o.:!
cfcf z
0

...'9

?:Ji

S1
65
68
66
71
69

~$

.,~

dE
.i}
-

. H
1~i
~b
~~~

.!<

li

~;: g
:2 .!! 5
c:c:.w

76
64

S6
36
69
S1
62
37
39
42
38
38
41
46
42
37
34
SS
43
42
43

80

"'l

"-_e

68

77

z..~
g~c

90

80

11~~~~!~~

71
81
85

:o;~

11!

~
.e

f~

i ee
:_~ti
..
"
]
]
~
~
ij
loo
el"
=;11
"' 1 o
j
~ ~
i:~
i ~:a

1j~ ~!.E.E~~=]]
~"'~~ll~
:JI

~~;~~~

......

(.,)

-~

~~

~!

j1

~~~~28
OOQO.:oo

..
je

$>

- .. ~ ~ :i~~~
i
l~~

.............
~
"''"' 1 ....
,J, ,

~G

"'~

1~
":; ~!!

OO

S6
48
S9
6S

74

>'-

~ ~-~88 ~~~
.... - r~~
~"' 00

o r 1 1 ::;:

~il

'

~,; ~ ~!~~=]
rl
cf

.-"'il.:l

N
....

e e~
8
... "l

"
~

~~....

\j

I~

::;

"' s:

00

ii..

,,,

.....

E1rth Temptratum, F
I

~ ~

~,;~~~~&&]
00
z
....
"'"' <-"' VI
~8

70

70
63
62
79
6S
66
71

Bozeman, MT
Huntley, MT
Lincoln, NB
Norfolk, NB
New Brunswlck, NJ
llhaca, NY
Ralelgh. Ne
eolumbus, OH
eoshocton, OH
Lake Hefner, OK
Pawhuslca, OK
Ottawa, Onl., Canada
eorvallls, OR
Pendleton, OR
Calhoun, se
Union, se
Madison,SD
Jackson, TN
Temple, TX
Salt Lake City, UT
Burllnton, VT
Pullman, WA
Scattle, WA

.s:h

i :

IH

104

56
64
69
66
6S
S9
73
6S
64
71

74
S9

66
67
76
10

61
11

83
63
63
60

61

32
36
39
40

42
39
S2
41
40
SI

so
36
46
39
S2
48
33
49
S9
40
35
36
4S

1emperatures are integtattd averqes irom surfac:c 10 a deplh of 10 fl dcrived


ulate observed phenomena, ea ch for average amplitud e and phase anle wilh
2
thcnnal diffusivlty, a 0.02S ft /h.

:E
~ ~ 5 ~ .9 .g 8
_ ij
_,"' J!
t
ti
t! ~ n - ~ ::
e -5
"
"
i:i.E-~] :;!.,,.,, ..
.
r
p
1~~~~~~- e~ ~~~~
8 g ~ ~ :;, K .~ 8 ~ : S s s ] .!!
]~~~~ ~ ~e"~t-118~,g
---,,o .
ce:
~
w~~~~o~~!~~s~~ .. - t
.e
~ ll &
es t: ~ M.~ .la :s & ;~ti
~
~u
~w
~~~u
e

M11t. Mift.

105

1)'pical Apparent Thermal Conductivily for Soils*


Recommended Values for D
Sands
Silts
Clays
Loams

Normal Range

to..>

4.210 17.4
610 17.4
610 11.4
610 17.4

S.4
11.4

7.8
6.6

Summary of Load Sources and Equatlons Cor


Calculatlng Space Deslgn Coollng Load

Hi 11
IS.6
.IS.6
10.8
lS.6

Reference, Tibie, ~riptlon

Equatlon

Design hcat transmission coeffi


cients, pp 91-103
Arcas calulated from architectural
plans

q UA(CLTD)

Reasonable values for use when no site- or soiJ.specific data are available.
bModerately conservative valucs for minimum heat loss throuht soil (~f., use
hcat eicchaner orearibcontact cootin calUQhions).
<Moderately conscrvative values for maximum hcar loss rhrough soil (~.g.. use
winrer hea1 loss calculations).

Design beat transmission coeffi


cienu. pp 91103
Arcas calulated from plans

q UA(CLTD)

Glass area calcuated from plans


CLTD for conduction load tbrough
glass.

q UA(CLTD)

T)'plcal Apparent Thermal Conductivily for Rocks*


Pumicc, ruff, obsidian
Basalt
Shale
Granlte
Limesrone, dolomite, marble
Quartzosc sandstone

Net glass arca for plans


Shadin coefficicnt for combinar ion
of glass and interna! shading
Solar Cooling Load factor
Extcrnally shaded glass, use north
orientation
Computcshaded arca from building
projcctions

q A(SC)SCL

'Thermal conductivity units are Bru in/ h ft 1

Dcsign heal 1ransmission coefficicnts, pp 91-103

24r-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ll~!..._~~_jQ~
~U.~~~(~T~D~)'..._~~A~r~ca:..:::ca~lc~u~la~t~ed:.,::fr=o~m~pSl~an~s~:::-:::
lnpu1 ratina from electrical plans or
lighling fixrure dara

q '"' INPUT

Number of people in space

= No. (Sens. H.G.) CLF Sensible heat gain from occupants.

q5

q 1 No. (Lar. H.G.)


q1

p 117
Laten! beat aain from occupants

Recornmcndcd rarc of heat gainHEAT GAIN (CLP) Seasible hcat


Set equal to zcro whcn hood is ovcr
q HEATGAJN
applianccs

q = HEATGAIN(CLF) Manufacturer's data

rn

EXTENDED

AANGE

q1 = 4840 CFM (.6. W)

q 4.S CFM (.6.h)

lnfiltralion air, standard cfm


lnside-outside air temperature
diffcrencc
lnside-ourside air humidity ratio
difference, lbvllb0
lnside-outside air enthalpy di ffer-

o~~............_5...._.~.......-1~0~..............,~5~............_20...._......__.__._25.._......_......_._30,__.,'""'ll~~~~~~--:~--::--~::--:~~c~n~c=e,~B~l:u~/l:b~1=,:ps:yc~hr:o:m~e:t:ri~c~d~at::a
MOIS'Tl.flECONTENT, PeRCENTBYMASS

TION: Approdmarc dara-Usc for prcliminuy compurarions only. See


RAE Cooling and Htaling Load Calr:ulaton Manual.

106

107

Cooling Load Temperatu~ Differences for Hat Roofs


l4N Latllude, July
Roof
Solar lime, h
No
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20
1 - 2 -5 -6
9 44 76 92 86 S8 23
2
o - 4 - 6 1 30 64 86
89 70 36
3
8
2 -2
3 22 47 68 77 68 47
4
11
3 - 2 - 4
s
27 SS 75 80 67
s 16 8 3 1 10 JO 52 68 70 59
8
24 17 11
9 14 27 43
S4
S8 52
9
2S
16
9
4
s 17 36 54 6S 63
10
3 1 22
IS
9
8 16 30 45 56 59
13
31 2S 20 16 16 23 33 43
49 49
14
32 27 23 19 19 24 32 40
45 4S

1
1

Roor
No.
1
2
3
4
5
8
9
10
13
14

Coollng Load Temperature Diferences for Flat Roofs


36N Latitude, JuJy
Solar lime, h
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20
- 2 -s -6 12 4S 1S
90 84 60 26
o - 4 -6 4 32 63 84
87 70 39
8
2 - 2
4 24 47 67 15
68 48
11
3 - 1 - 3
7 29 SS 74 79 67
16
8
3
2 12 31 52 67 70 59
2S 17 12
9 IS 28 42 54 58 53
26 16
9
4
7 19 37 S4 64 63
32 23
IS 10
9 17 30 4S S6 S8
31
2S 20 16 17 24 33 43 49
49
32 28 23 20 20 2S 32 4-0
4S 46

C oollng Load Temperature Dlfferences for Flat Roofs


48 N Lalltude, July
Roof
Solar time, h
No.
2
4
6
8
JO 12
14 16 18 20
1 - 2 -s -s
IS 44 69 83 79 59 29
9
2
o - 4 -s 6 32 60 78
81 68 41
16
3
8
2 - 1
6 24 4S 63 71
6S
48
30
4
12
3 - 1
29 S2 69 74 6S
4S
s 16 8 3 - 32 138 31
49 63 66 58
42
8
24 17 11 10 16 27 40
SI
S5 SI
42
9
26 16
9
s
8 19 3S SI 60 61
SI
10
31 22 IS
10 10 17 29 43 S3 56
SI
13
30 25 20 16 18 24 32
41
47
47
43
14
32 27 23 20 20 24 31
38 43 44
41
CAUTION: Approximatc data-Use for prcUminary comput.ations only.
Also, sec no1cs on nen ~c.

108

CLTD Data for Flal Roofs


applics directly to: (1) dark surface, (2) indoor tcmperature is 78 F, (3)
maximum tcmperaturc of 95 F with mean tcmperaturc of 85 F and
ge of21 F. (4) solar radiation typical of clear day on 21 st day of monrh,
surfad rilm rcsistance of 0.333 (h ft2 F)/Btu, and (6) insidc sur ncc of 0.685 (h ft 2 F)/Btu.
Justmcnts to dcsin tcmpcratures
Corr. CLTD z C LTD + (78 - 1,) + (lm - SS)
, ; insidc tcmperature and tm ; mean outdoor tcmperature, or t m
m outdoor temperaturc - (daily range)/2
justmcnt rccommcndcd for color or for vcntilation of air spacc above

lgn purposes, the data suffices for plus or minus 2 wceks from the 21st
given month.
f ClassifiCJitlons for Use with CLTD Tables for Flat Roofs

Without

With

Otos
Without

R-Fador,
h ft 2 "F/ Btu
Oto JO
l0to20
20to 25
Otos
Sto 10
101020
20to 2S
l
Sto IS
IS to 2S

Alllc
Wood 2 In. (HW) Stttl Ctllln
l ln. Concttte Deck Comb.
2
4

s
2
2
4

8
13
14
l

Otos

With

Without

s to 10
IOto IS
1Sto20
20to2S
Otos
s10 10
10 to 15
IS to 2S

1
l

9
10

2
4
2
3
4
5

Oto 10
3
10 to 15
4
1Sto20
s
es roof 1ha1 is no1 possiblc with thc chosen paramc1crs
With

109

l
1
2

2
2

Approximate Cooling Load Tempera rore Differences (CLTDs) for Sunlil Walls-24 N Latitude, July
Wall
facln
N
NE

SE

sw
w

NW

Solar time, h
s 10 12 14 16
Low Mass, Low R-Valuc Wall
-2 13 18 22 28 32
o 39 53 39 30 30
o 44 63 48 32 30
-2 2S 44 42 32 30
-3
3 u 24 31 30
-3
3 13 22 40 58
-3
3 13 22 42 73
- 3
3 13 22 37 62

1
rs

Solar time, h
10 12 14 16 ta 20
Low Mass, Medio ro RValue Wall
1 o 6 13 18 23 28 30
o 3 20 36 39 3S 32 27
1 3 22 43 46 40 34 28
o 1 13 28 3S 35 32 27
o - 1 1 7 16 24 27 2S
1 -1
1 1 IS 29 43 47
2 o 2
7 15 30 52 61
1 O 2
7 JS 27 45 S4

20

34 17
24 13
24 13
24 13
23 13
52 20
75 27
67 25

High Mass, Low R-Value Wall

N
NE
E
SE

NW

NE
E

SE

SW

w
~
~
~

NW

NE
E

SE

SW

w
NW

7
6 20
6 22
4 14
1 3
3
4

1
6

sw

Wall
Fadnll!

3
3
4
3
3

-6

12
31
36
25
7
8

10
11
12
10
8
13
17
IS

8
9
10
8
6
JO
13
12

8
14
15
11

5
9
11

JO

10 12 IS 18 21
21 2S 26 27 26
24 29 30 30 29
17 21 24 25 2S
6 10 14 17 18
9 11 17 24 30
11 13 18 28 36
10 12 17 2S 32

Solar time, h
10 12 14 16

1a

20

Low Mass, High R-Value Wall


- 2

-2

- 2 JO
- 2
4
- 2 -1
-2 -1
-1 - 1
-1

High Mass, Medium R.Value Wall

16 21
33 32
39 36
30 30
14 20
14 26
IS 28
14 2S

12
36
42
26

SS

40
13

13
13
13

s
s

- 1

18
46

23 28
38 32
44 35
38 33
24 29
24 42
23 46
22 40

32

29

29
30
29

22

28
S4
69
60

23
22
22
44
61
SS

Hlgh Mass, lligh RValue Wall

12
9
13 JO
14 11
13 10
10 8
17 13
21 16
19 14

8
10
11

9
6
IO

12
11

8
15

17
J2

5
8
JO
9

10 13
21 24
24 28
17 21
7 10
9 12
11 13
10 12

16
27
30
24
14
18
20
18

~-

Low Mass, Low RValue WaJI


- 1 12 14 21 28 29
1 41 46 30 29 29
1 49 64 48 31 30
- 1 31 S2 52 36 30
- 3
4 18 39 47 40
- 2
4 .J3 23 so 61
- 2
4 13 21 42 73
-2 4 13 21 29 53
llich Msm, Low R-Value WaJJ
3
3
6 IO 15 20
3
720282929
4
825384037
4
5 17 30 37 36
3
2
4 11 22 31
6
3
4
8 16 31
7
4
s 9 15 28
6
3 4
8 14 22

Low Mass, Medium R-Value Wall

65

17
14
14
14
14
23
31
28

23

25

29
34
33
33
44

26
29
29
29

30
24
24
24
25

S9
78

46

46
54

3S

43

o o

4 21
1 4 26
1 2 16
o -1 2
1 o 2
2
o 2
1

9
10
12
12
10
IS
17
14

Hich Mass,
1
8
9 14
11 17
JO 13
8
7
12 10
14 12
ll 10

10
33
45
34
JI
8
8
8

16 22
33 31
47 40
44 41
2S 36
17 34
15 30
J5 24

26
30
34
35
38
SI

52
39

27
27
29
29
32
S4
63
SI

Medium R-v.Jue \\'ali


9 11 14 17 19
20 23 24 25 2S
2S 30 31 31 30
20 26 29 29 28
9 14 20 24 2S
JO 13 19 28 34
11 13 18 28 37
10 12 15 22 30

CAUTION: Approximatc data-Use for preliminary computations only. See notes on pae 112.
Also see ASH RAE Hearing and Cooling Load Calculation Manual for more complete data.

Low Mass, ffi11h R-Value W.11


- 2
-2
- 2
- 2
-2
- 1
- 1
- 2

12
14

9
36

lS
39

46

56

7
-1
-1
-1

31
6
5

-1

48
21
13
13
13

21
32
4S
47
37
28
23
21

27
30
34
37
44
50
46

33

28
28
30
31
37
62
69
S3

27
23
23
23
25
SI

65
SS

Higb Mass, Higb R-Value Wall


9
7
1
9 11 14 17
13 10 JO IS 19 22 24 2S
15 11 12 18 2S 30 31 31
14 11 JO 14 20 26 29 30
13 10 1
7 10 15 21 24
19 IS 11 10 10 14 21 29
22 17 13 11 11 14 20 30
18 14 11
9 10 12 17 24
11

' ,.,
"'11

Approxlmate Coollog Load Tempera tu re Differences (CLTDs) for SunUt WaJls-43 N Latitude, July

data-U~

CAUTJON: Approximate
for preliminary compuuuions only.
Solar lime, h
Solar
time, h
6
10 12 14 16 11
20
Solar lime, h
6
8 10 12 14 16
18 20
Low MISS, Low R-Value \\1111
6
8 10 12 14 16
18 20
N
3 10 13 21 27 28
low
Mass, Malium R-Value WaU
27 21
1
2
6 10 16 2J
NE
Low Mus, Hlgh R-~'alue Wall
10 42 38 26 28
25 26
29
24
1
IS
1
7
9
14 21 26 27
E
23 3J 30 29 28
10 S4 64 47 31
27
26
29
18 36 34 28
1
8 30 47 48
SE
4 36 S9 61 4S 31 25 IS
28 28 23
40 34 29
25
IS
1
20
49
4
E -2
S1 44 34 29
20 40 SI 49 40
28 S2 62 SI
32
29 IS
-1
1
11 36 SS S6 43 33 23
sw - 1
3 16 34 48 so
12 29 S9 1S
24
40
6S 29
1
2
9
w -1
30
3
8 20 40 S8 61
S1 47 30
13 21 41
80
-1
41
2
6
NW
14
3
33
-2
S8 69 S1
8 lS 29 SI 64
12 21 27 4S 62
-1
37
2
6 13 22 4S 69
2
8 14 22 34 47
69
\)
- 1
13
20
29 46 54
Hlgb Mu:s, Low R-Value Wall
N
3
Rigb Mass, Medlum R-Value W.11
4
6 10 14 19 22
24 9
Hlgb Mas,,, Hlgb R-Value Wall
8
NE
8
4 10 22 26 26 27
9 JI 14 17 19
27 25 JO IO IS
12
9
8
8
E
9 11 14 17
4 11 28 40 40
20 22 23 24 24
37 34 29 12 12
13
10 12 16 19 22
SE
19 27 32 32 32
4
7 20 3S 43 42
23 24
30
IS
38
32 13 12 15 23
12 14 20 27 31
E
3
30 34 34 32
32 32
6 16 31 41 43 37
16 12 12 17 24
13 10
sw
9
12
30
7
4
19
34
27 32 33
34
9 19 36
16 12 10 10 14
S2 18 14 12 12 15
w
21
8
6 9 IS 27 4S SS 19
23 32
22 17 13 11 12 16 28 32
IS 12 12 14 19 28 39
NW
6
4
24
33
8 14 20 31 41
38
23 18 14 12 12
14 JI
JO 10 12 IS 20 28
14 20 30
18 14 11
Note J. Apply data directly 10 (J) dark surface, (2) indoor lemperature
9 10 12 16 22
of 78 F. (3) outdoor maJdmum 1empcraiure of 95 F wi1h mean temperCorr. CLTD a CLTD + (78 - 1,) + Um - 85)
alureof SS F anddail)I ranreof 21F, (4)outside$urface film resistance

WaU

Facin

'

s
s
s
s

o
o
o
o

s
s

o
o

o
o
o
o s

Glass
Fadng

10

11

N
NE

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

19
54
S1
26

3S

36

124
139
74

38
llS
154
106
3S
3S
3S
3S
218

40

ISO

36
144
180
114

e;:;

s
sw
w
NW
Hor

NE

E
SE

s
sw
w
NW
Hor

:E"~~

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

s
s
s
s

10

25
79
86
42
8
8
8
8
20

so

so

E
SE

IS
IS
IS
IS
SS

29
129
IS3

104

23
23
23

23
113

30
30
30
30
170

28

32

17

139
184
125
24

17

24

17
17

24
24
120

120
182
142
36
30
30
30
171

90

66

36
84

ISS
140
S3
35
3S
35
215

78
107
83

40
39
39
39
253

39
S8
107
119
70
38
38
38
246

whcre t~

24 N Latltude, July
Solar time, h
12
13
14

inside temperature and 1.m mean ourdoor ternpe:ratutt_ oc

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

40

43
25
2S
25
24
IOS
184
IS8
llS

32
14
14
14
14
62
118
106

11
6
6
6
6
24
44
39

46

39
32
33
32
32
118
186
ISI
176

44

38
38

S4

24

32

33

32
33
34
38
144
188
129
178

26

36
17
17
17
18
SS
149
127

12
7
7
7
7
32
S3
43
28

42
58

42
49

40

68

S4

59

so

44

38

43
42
41
41
271

43
6J
67

40

37

88
116
83

110
160
122

273
258
36 N Lalilode, J aly

22S

40

SI

39
41
45

36
37
39

48
68

40

80

41
4S
S4
S8
79

S1

90

122

40
40

66

llS

40

263

265

56
2s1

so

67
86

S2
141
IS9
93
221

26

21
29
127
191
148
124

66

3
3
3
3
12
21
19
12

6
3
3
3
3
IS
2S
21
13

1
1

6
11

2l

1
1
3

s
s

3
2

2
2
2
8
12
10
7

4
6

Shading Coefflcients for Glass without or with


Interior Shading by Venetian Blinds
Nominal
Thlckness
Each Pane

3/32 lo 1/4
1/4 lo 112
3/S
1/2
l/S to 9/32

No l nlerior Sh dln& Venetian Bllnds~


ha 4.0 ha 3.0 Mtdium Llghl

1.00
0.94
0.90
0.87
0.83

1.00
0.9S
0.92
O.SS
O.SS

0.64

O.SS

1/8

O.S3

0.8S

3/16101/4

0.69

0.73

3/16 to 1/4
1/8 lO 7132
3/8

0.69
0.69
0.60

0.73
0.73

O.S1

O.S3

0.64

0.54

O.S2

0.2S
0.33
0.42

o.so

0.23
0.29
0.38
0.44

0.30
0.40

o.so
0.60

3/32, 1/8
1/4

O.SS
0.81

O.S8
O.S2

O.S7

O.SI

1/4

O.SS

O.SS

0.39

0.36

0.20
0.30
0.40
1/4

l/S

0.19

0.18

0.27
0.34

0.26
0.33

0.71

o.so

er 10 manuracturer's ltera1urc for values.


wr1ical blinds with opaque white and bce louvus in the lighlly closcd position.
0.2S and 0.29 when used with glaH or0.7110 0.80 Lransminance.
ers 10 gray, bronze. and green tintcd heat-absorblng lass.
en to factory-abrlcated units wi1h 3/16, 1/4, or 112 in . alr space orco prime
s plus storm windows.

115

Refrigerallng Effect Produced by Open Refrigerated Display


B1u/ h fl of Fixture*
1

"fype of Ob pl111 Flx1ure

Low remperaturt
Frozen food
Sinle deck
Sinlc deck, doublc island
2deck
3 deck
4 or S deck
lcccream
Single deck
Single deck, double island

Lalenl

Sensible

Htll

H eal

38

207

10
144

400
S16

322

1288

400

1600

64

366

70

400

52
219

298
876

196

784

36
192

768

Standard temperaturt
Meats
Single deck
Multldeck
Dairy
Multideck
Produce
Single dcck
Multideck

204

'Thcse lurcs are 1mcr1I maniludes for funures adjusted or averagedesired p


1emperatures and apply 10 slorc ambients in front of the display cases of 72 to
with SO 10 SS" rh. Raisin the dry bulb only 3 to S"Fand thc humidity Sto 10'11
incrcase hcat removal 2Stft or more. Equally lowcr lcmperaturcs and humidi1i
in wintcr. have an cqually marked cffcct on lowcring hcat rcmoval from thc s

11

116

117

-- Rttommecnded Raie of Htcal Gain from Sclected Rlstauraaa EquipmtcDI'


lPI Ratl&
8111/lt

f..........>
J.A.

....

cD

Applisntt
Eltric, No Hood Reqaiml
Blendcr, pcr quan of capacity
Cabinet (large hot holding)
C'Offcct>rcwcr
Coffee brewing urn (large),
per quart of capacity
Oishwashcr (hood 1ype chemical sanitizina).
per 100 dishes/h
Dishwuher (conveyor rype water sanitizina).
per IOOdishes/h
Display~ (refrigcnited). pcr ft1 of interior
Food warmer (iofrared bulb), pcr hunp
Food warmer (well type), pcr rt1 of well
~(larse)

Criddlc/grill (lare), pcr fl2 or cookina surface


Hot plate (high spccd doublc burncr)
Ice maker (large)
Microwave oven (heavy duty commcrcial)
Rotinerie
Scrving.'!!!!.(hot), per ft 3 ofwcll
Toasier (largc pop-up)
Elettrlc, Exbaust Hood Required
Charbroiler, per ft2 of cooking surfacc

Siu
1 to4qt
16.210 17.3 ftl
12 cups/2 brnrs

' 40qt

Mu.

Siandb,,.

IS.SO
7100
5660

llttoJlllllndtd Ratt of u ..1Cal, 8na/k

Wi.-oDtHood

Wlt.k Hood

StllS.

Lateat

Total

Stasfble

1000
610

S20
340

1520
960
5660

480
290
1810

Qzs~~

2130

1420

7IO

2230

680

9SO to 2000 dishes/h

1300

170

370

S40

170

.5000 10 9000 dishcs/h


61067 fl1
1106bulbs
0.7 to 2.S fl 1
73 rtl
4.610 IL8rt2

1160
IS4
8.SO
3620
4S70
9200
16720
3720
8970
10920
20SO
18080

l.SO
62

370

S20
62
8.SO
lfii
1840
960
13240
9320
8970
10920
1020
18080

170

23

2201b/day
0.7 ft1
300
1.8 3.2 ft 1
10 slice

'

--

I~

620-

o
610

7810
9320
8970

S430

7200

3720

680
9S90

340
8500

o
8.SO

sao

340
6240

o
o

3480
330
S800

F-~ -lb off~


Oven (lmalleonwctlori), ~
Ransc Cburners). pcr 2 burner section
Gas, No Hood Requlred
Broiler. pcr ft 2 or broiling area
Dbhwasher (hood type chcmical sanitizia),
pcr 100 dishes/h
Dishwashcr (conveyor type water sanitizin),
per 100 dishes/h
Criddlc/grill (large), per fil of cookina surracc:
Oven (piUA), per ft2 of hearth
Gas, t:xhaust Hood Required
Braising pan, per quatl of capacity
Charbroiler {large), per rtl of cooking arca
~ fryer {dcc:p fat), per lb of fat capacity
CD Oen (convection). per fil of oven spacc:
O"en (pizza), per 2 of oven heanh
Ranae {burners). per 2 bumer scction
Ran1e {hOt top/fry top). pcr rtl of cooldn& surfacc:
Srnm
Companment stcamer, per lb of food/h
Dishwashcr (hood typecbemical sanitizi.01).
per 100 disheslh
Oishwashcr (con"eyor water sanitizina).
pcr 100 dishes/h

2.7 ft2

14710

61

S310

2&60

9SO to 2000 dishcs/h

1740

660b

SIO

200

710

230

5000 10 9000 disbes/b


4.610 11.8 ftl
6.4 to 12.9 ft 2

1370
17000
4740

~
330
61b

370
1140
620

80

610
220

4SO
17SO
840

140
460
84

IOS to 140QI
4.6 to 11.8 fil
ll to701b
7.4 lO 19.4 fil
9.3 to 2.S.8 fil
2 to JOburners
3 toSfll

9840
16440
2270
8670
7240
33600
11800

620
S10
3oob
19b
61b
132.S
330

2430
790
160
2.SO
130
6S90
3390

46to450lb

280

22

14

36

11

95010 2000 disbeslb

31.SO

880

380

1260

410

.5000 to 9000 dishes/h

1180

ISO

370

520

170

1n casts whtre heat &ain itgivcn pn- unh of clpacHy thc hcac cin is calculatfd
by muhlplying che capacity by tht rtromrncndtd heat 11in pc"r unil of capacity.

bScandby input ra1ing is for che- e:ndre appliance tt11rdlas o sizc.

Rttommudtd Rut

Ma.x.i_mam lo.pRI

AppliHcr

".....

Sin

6140-15700
3400-34100
340-2050
7500-1.SOOO
JOOO
3400-18000
41()().22200
J00.700

Microcompu1cr~proccssor

1150-12500
5800-22500
1570-5800
1725

390042700
1700-6600
460-1700

500-5000
5800-22500
1570-5800

600-3300

600-6600

2000-11300
2000-22500

IOcup

1150.1920
1500

3900-6600
5120

lft 1

-~

----

16-640 kbytes'

Mmicomput~r

Printer (laser)
Pnn1er (L~ bi,h $JlCCd)
Tapcdma
Terminal

....
o

SOOO.morc pagn/min

Copirn/l)'pewtkn
Bluc prinl
Cop~ (b.rgc)

30-67' cop1cs/min
6-30' copies/mm

Maffproc:csslng
l nscrting machinc 36()().6800 picces/h
Labcling machine IS()().30000 picct$/h
Mlsecllaneous
Cold food/bevcra
Coff<c makcr

ApplJancr Trpe
Au1oclavc (bcnc:h)

Batb, bol or cold circ., small


Blood analyser
Blood analYJCr with CRT scrttn

Ccntrifug< (largc)

....

I~

8 paaa/min

Copien
PhOlotypcscucr

1800-4600
1000-10000

Chromatograph
Cytomcter (Ccll sorter/analYJCr)

Hot pla1c, concentric rina


lncubator, C01
lncubator, forced draft
lncuba1or. cncral appllca1ion
M11gnctic strrer
Microcomputcr
Oven, general purpose, small
Rcfrigcra1or, labora1ory
Rcfcraior, blood. small
Spcctrophotomcter
Stcrilizer, freestandlna
Washcr, glassware
Water stiU

2200-6600
S70
1000-5300
1200-6500
90-200

5900

ltecom.....,..tc1 Ra1r
of lln1 Cale

Sludby lepwl

Blallt

Coapettt OoYia$
Communoc:auon/1ransm1uion
Dist drivatmass SIO<al<

1\)

or Heat C2in from ~locled Offlct Equipmtnl

""'"

81/

"911J

''

1640-UIO
1000-6600
90-HO
l2<J0.6600
180
500-2550
1000-4700
80-180

5600-9600
3400-22AOO
J00.1800
7500-1.SOOO

1640-2810
1000-6600
90-HO
lOO
7J0.)800
1000-4700
80-180

5600-9600
)400.22400
J00.1800
7500-15000
1000
2500-13000
)500-15000
270-600

IU0.12500
3100
1000-3100
1520

)90CM2700
1700-6600
460-1700
5200

390-2150
390-4300

1300.7300
1300-14700

Sin
0.7 rt 1
1.0 10 9.7 galloos, -2210 212F

120 samplcs/hour
l l S samples/hour
8 10 24 places
1000 oells/second
4 boles, 212F
S IO 10 ft 1, up 10 IJO"f
10 ft 1, 80 10 140F
1.4 10 11 ft1 up to 160"F
16 10 256 kbytes<
1.4 10 2.8 rt', 460F

22 to 106 ft 1 , 39F

7 10 20 f1 1, 39F

3.9 ft 3 , 212 to 270F

7 .8 f1 1 load arca
S 10 15 8allons

(j()()

216().904()
3500-15000
270-600
17()().17000
900
3()().9()()

2200-6600

sensible
lttnt

Mulmum I nput

R1tla, BIW.
4270
2560 10 6140

2SIO
Sl20
3150
6820

For h05pi11I cquipment inscatltd under a hood, the hcat gain is as.sumed to be zcro.
bHe:at 111Jn per C\lbic foot of interior space
11ot

Pf'OPortional 10 mtmory sizr

3S80
6820

73230

73230

3150
9660

2970

2~

160 to 220b
2050
341 10 2047
2120"
8()'I
u,ob
1710
71400
IS220
14SOO'

' Input is

480
440 10 1060'
850 IO 201o'
2SIO
Sl20

"Hut a.in pcr 10 rt> or inlttior spa


tHeat gain per 1allon o capacity
'Sensible heat
1
Laten1 Mat

4810
1230

80 10 l IOb
2050

300 10 1800
290b
34d
I02b

1710
8100
10000
320'

1
1

1
1

Outdoor Ar Requlrements for Ventilation*


en:ial Facllllles (ofrlces, scon:s, shops, holels, sports facllltles)

Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors

&llmaled Max** Outdoor Air Requirements


cfm/
Occupancy
cfm/
pcrson
r1 1
P/ 1000 ft 1
Motor

Motor
Motor
Na mejo,
out,
piare or
Fulf Load Driven Drh'fn
Rattd
Motor
Equip- Equlp
HorseNominal Erficiency, ment In, menf in,
power MotorTypc rpm
%
Blu/ h
Btu/ h
0.05 Shaded pole 1500
35
360
130
0.08 Shaded pole 1500
35
580
200
0.125 Shaded polc 1500
35
900
320
0.16 Shadcd polc 1500
35
1160
400
0.25 Splir phase
1750
54
1180
640
0.33 Split phase
1750
56
1500
840
0.50 Split phase
1750
60
2120
1270
0.75
3-Phase
1750
72
2650
1900
1
3-Phasc
1750
75
3390
2550
1.5
3-Phase
1750
77
4960
3820
2
3-Phase
1750
79
6440
5090
J
3-Phase
1750
81
9430
7640
5
3-Phase
1750
82
15,500
12,700
7.5
3-Phase
1750
84
22,700 19,100
IO
3-Phase
1750
85
29,900 24,SOO
15
3-Phase
1750
86
44,400 38,200
20
3-Phase
1750
87
58,500 50,900
25
3 -Pha~c
1750
88
72,300
63,600
JO
3-Phase
1750
89
85,700
76,300
40
3Phase
1750
89
114,000 102,000
so
3-Pha<;e
1750
89
143,000 127,000
60
3-Pha\c
1750
89
172,000 153,000
75
3-Pha~c
1750
90
212,000 191,000
100
3 -Pha~c
1750
90
283,000 255,000
125
3-Pha...:
1750
90
353,000 318,000
ISO
J. Pha,c
1750
91
420,000 382,000
200
3 1'ha...:
1750
91
569,000 509,000
250
J -l'ha~c
1750
91
699,000 636,000

122

ners', Laundries
ercial laundry
ercial dry clcaners
e, pickup
laundries
p dry clcaners

JO

25

30
30
20
20

30
35
15
15

70
100
100

20
20
30
15

20

es, Repalr Service Statlons


d parking garagesd
repair rooms
Motels, Resorts, l>ormilorles
1ory slccping arcas'
20

l.SO
1.50

15

ooms'
g
1

30

50
120
120

cfm/ room
30
30
35

15
20
15
30

7
20
15
60
cleanina processes may rcquire more air.
pplcmentary smokc removal cquipmcnt may be required.
ake-up air for hood exhaust may require more ven11la1ing air. The sum of 1he
rdoor ar and transer air of acceptable quafil y from adjacenl spaces .1hall be
ocicnt 10 provide an c:>lhaust rate or nOl less than l.S cfm/fl:.
'bution among people mu.11 consider workcr loca1ion an concen1ra1ion of
running engines; stands where cnines are run must incorporatc systcms for
po$live cng,ine cxhaust withdrawal. Con1aminan1 sensors may be used 10 conllOI ventla1ion.
$cealso food &bcverage scrviccs, merchandising, barbcr & beau1y shon.11arages.
ladcpendenl of room size.
IDllalled capacity for intermittcnt u.1e.
SuPl*mentary smoke removal equipment may be required.
Sorne ornee equipment may require local exhausl.
123

Outdoor Air Requirements for Venlilation* (Continued)


Commercial Facllilies (ofrices, slores, shops, hotels, sports facili
Applicatlon

Eslfmaled Max Outdoor Air Requirem


dm/
i:rmt
Occupancy
P/ 1000 ft1
person
rt1

Telecommunica1ion ccnters
& data en1ry arcas
60
Conferencc roomsl
so
Public Spaccs
Corridors & Utilities
Public Rcstroomst cfm / wc
or urinal
Lockcr & Dressing Rooms
Smoking Loungc1
70
Elevatorsm
Retan Seores, Sales Floors & Show Room floors
Basement & Street
30
Uppcr loors
20
S1orage rooms
15
Dressing rooms
Malls & Arcadcs
20
Shippng & Receiving
JO
Warehouses
5
Smoking Lounge"
70
Speclalty Shops
Barbcr
25
Beauty
25
Reducing Salons
20
Floris1s
8
Clothicrs, Furni1ure
Hardware, Drugs, Fabric
8

15

150
70

15
25

30 .
100
70

20
25

60

150
70

20
20
15
15

100
100
150

15
15

1.00

20
20

50
60

arcas
Floors (Gymnasium)
ms& Discos
ngAlleys (seatingareas)

0.50
0.50

ISO

60
15
25
15
IS
IS

Th\ _table pr~rbe~ supply ratcs of acccptable outdoor air requred for acce
a ble tndoor atr quahty. These values haYC been choseo to control CO and OI
c~ntammants w1th an adequate marain of safety, and to accounl for b~th
llons amona people, varied activity levels anda moderatc amount of smoki
Raoonalc for C0 1 control is presented in Appendix O of Standard 62-1989.
Nct occup1ablc \pace.
: Supplcmcmary \mokc removal cquipmcnt may be required.
. Mcchanical cxh_au\I wth no ~irculation is rccommcnded
1 Normally \Upphcd by transfcr air, local mcchanical exhaust -.i1h no rttircul
rccommcndcd.
"' Normally \upplicd by tr~nsfcr air.
Normally 'upplicd by tran,fcr air, local mcchanical exhaust with no rttirculat'
rccom mcndcd .
" Vcn1ila1ion lo oricimi1c rila ni growth may dictate requircments.

124

ldoor Alr Requlrcments for Venlilalion* (Continued)


trelal Facllllles (offlces, seores, sbops, hotels, sports facililies)
Eslfmated Max Outdoor Air Requirements
Occupancy
cfm/
cfm/
1
P/ 1000 rt1
person
fl

10
10
10
20
5

2S

IS

15
15
0.50
IS

15

o.so

interna! combustlon cnaincs are operatcd for maintcnancc of playing surincrcascd YCntilation ratcs may be required. Hiahcr valucs may be required
humidily control.
"al ventilation will be ncedcd to climinate special stagc cfrects (e.g. dry ice
mists, etc.)
tilation within YChiclcs may rcquirc special considcrations.
main1aincdatlowtcmperaturcs( - IOF10 +SOF,or - 23Cto +IO Q
notcOYCrcd by thesc rcquircmcnts unlcss the occupancy isconlinuous. Vcntilafrom adjoinina spaccs is permissiblc. Wbcn thc occupancy is iotcrmiucnt,
ilttation will normally excccd thc vcntilation rcquitcment.
llcd cquipmcnt must incorporatc positi'~ cxhaust & control (as required) or
sirablc contaminanu (toxlc or othcrwisc).

125

Outdoor AJr Requlrements for VentiJation (Conclu


lnstitutlonal Facilities
Appllcatlon

Estimated Mu** Outdoor Air Req


Oupancy
dm/
d
P/ 1000 ft 2
person
ft2

Educatlon
Classrooms
so
LaboraLorics
30
Thlining Shops
30
Music Rooms
so
Librarles
20
Lockcr Rooms
Corridors
Auditoriums'
150
Smoking Lounges
70
Hospitals, Nursing &: Con'1llescent Homes"
Patient Rooms
JO
Medcal Procedurc
20
Opcrating Rooms
20
Rccovery & ICU
20
Autopsy rooms
Physical Thcrapy'
20

15
20
20
15
15

15
60

25
15
30

15

IS

Correctlonal facllllles

Celis
Dining Halls
Guard Stations

20
100

40

20
15
15

Thls ~able p~rbe~ supply rates of acceptable outdoor air rcquired for
table m~oor mr ~uahty. These valucs have bttn chosen to control co and
c~ntam1nanu with an adequate margjn of safety, and to account ror h~h
uo~s amona people, varied activty leYels anda moderare amount of sm
Rauonale ~or C0 2 control is prescnted in Appcndix o of Standard 62-1989
Net occuptable spacc.

~pcci8! contaminan! control systcms may be rcquircd for proccsscs or fu

mctudina la~tory animal ocxupancy.


".'onnally supphed by transfer air. Local mechanical exhaust with no red
uon recommended.
" S~e~ial rcqul~m~nts or codes and prcssurc rclatonships may detc
mm!mum vcnul111on ratcs and llter effieiency. Procedurcs oe

'!'1'"ants may rcquirc hiaher rates.


.. neraun
Atr shall not be rccirculated nto othcr spaccs.

126

WEATHER-ORIENTED DESIGN FACIORS


usual approach in air-conditioning system design involves
tation of peak design load ata specific hour of a design day,
of thc frequcncy levcls of design conditions in Chapter 24,
HRAE Handbook-Fundamentals or the ASHRAE HeatCooling Load Calcularions Manual.

um tcmperaturcs usually occur between 6:00 A.M. and 8:00


time on clcar days when t hc daily range is greatest. For
tial applications or othcr applications where theoccupancy is
uous throughout the day, the recommcnded dcsign tcmperatures
With commercial applications or othcr applications where occuisonly during hours near the middle of thc day, design temperabovc tbe recommcnded mnimum may apply.
um temperaturcs usually occur between 2:00 P.M. and 4:00
time with deviations on cloudy days when the daily range is
en calculating building cooling loads, it is advisable to ~eterwhether the structure is most sensitive to dry bulb, i.e. extensive
r exposure, or wet bulb, i.e. outside ventilation. Then theapprodesign is dry bulb with its coincident wet bulb, or the appropriate
wct bulb with its coincident dry bul'b may be used.
For residential or other applications where the occupancy is conus throughout the day, thc recomme nded dcsign temperature
For commcrcial applications or othcr applications where occuisonly during hours ncar the middle of the day, design temperbclow the rccommcnded maximum might apply. In sorne cases,
occupancy load occurs bcforc thc effect of the outdoor maxtcmperature has rcached the space by conduction through the
ng mass.
Eocrgy consumption ofthe proposed system is a design concern
sol ved by intuition, cxperiencc, or simple calculation. Current
programs includc occupancy schedules, operating scbedules,
weather data varying from hourly to seasonal. These programs
include off-peak dcsign valucs. They may evaluate system conon days that are characterized as cloudy, small tem{>CTClture change,
y warm AM and cool PM, fa ir and warm, and far and cool. A
system design should considcr these weather conclitions and
'r cffcct on tcmpcraturc control before a final design s chosen and
'pment sclcction is madc.
127

Cooling Load Check figures


Oupaacy
Lo

Apanmen1, Hish Rite


Audiroriums, Churches, Theaters
Educational Facilities
Schools. Collqes. Universities
Factories

Assel]lbly Artas
UshtManufacturing
:;)

Heavy Manufacturina
CID Hospttals
Patient Rooms
Public Arcas
Hotcls, Motcls, Dorrnirories

1 Av 1 Hi 1

1s/

J2S/
100
IS ll
6
30 2S 20

Mcdium 600 360 200


Largc 17 15 13

Shopping Centers. Ocpartmcnt


Storcs and S~alty Shops
Beauty and Barber ShopS

Lo

Av

1.0
1.0
2.0

2.0
2.0
4.0

tll

45140125
30 25 20
Main Floors 45 25 16
Upper Aoors 1 75 SS 40
50 40 30
3S 23 17
JS 2S IS
50 43 30
so 30 20
100 75 so

Basement

DressShops
DrugStorcs
se and IOC Stores
Hat Shops
Shoc Stores
Malls
Rcfrigeration for Central Hcating
and Coohng Plant
Urban Districts
College CampU5CS
Commercial.Ccnters
Residcntial Cemcrs

1.0
4.0
2.0
5.0t
1.0

l.S

6.0t
S.S
7.Sf
2.0

0.7

1.5

1.7

4.0 4SOl 40013SO f 0.8 l 1.2


J .O 400 2SO 90
6.0 240 l 8S ISO 1 1.0 l 1.6

3.0t
2.0
3.S
2.0

1.0
1.0

S.Ot
3.0
6.0t
2.5
2.0
2.0
3.0
2.0
2.0

1.0

1.5

1.0
1.0
1.5

1.7

o.s r o.8 1 1.3


1.0
0.9 l !.3 l 2.o I0.8

2.013.0
1.2 1 1.9
ISO 90 2.0 J.6 S.S
ISO 100 1.6 2.5 3.8
80 60 - 2.S 4.0 6.S
220 16S 1.0 l.S 2.0 0.8 1.2 1.4 0.7 1.0 1.3
140 110 1.0 1.25 1.45 1.0 l.1 1.2 0.9S 1.0 1.1
300 220 1.0 1.40 1.s 0.9 1.2 1.4
2.2

3.0 340 280 200 1.0 1.6


9.0t 360 280
1
!,.i

U.

2.1

0.9 1.1

8.0 1.2 1.8


10.0t 4.0 600 SOO 380 0.8 1.2

2.4
1.6

0.9 l.J 2.0 0.8


1.1 l.S 1.8 0.8
- 0.9
0.S 0.8 1.3

700 SSO 400 0.7 1.1


135 100 80 1.8 2.4

1.4
3.7

O.S 0.7 1.2 J


1.2 1.6 2.1 0.9 11.1

9.0t 240 160 IOS 1 1.5 l 2.6


4.0 340 285 22S
9 .Ot 350 245 1SO
3.st 400 340 280
4.0 345 280 185 0.9 1.2
3.0 180 135 110 1.8 2.3
5.0 34S 220 120 o. 7 1.4
3.0 315 270 185 1.0 1.3
3.0 300 220 1so 1.2 1.6
2.0 365 230 160

4.2

1.1 11.112.6 10.9


0.7
0.9
0.8
0.7 1.0 1.4 0.6
1.0 1.4 1.8 0.7
0.6 1.2 1.6 o.s
o. 7 1.0 l.S 0.6
1.0 1.4 1.8 0.8

I~ ~

3.0
2.0

=l

lnlmal
1 Lo 1 Av 1 lli 1 Lo 1 Av 1 Hi I Lo 1 Av 1 HJ I Lo I Av 1 HJ

SO 35 2S 3.0t 4.st 6.0t 240


200 ISO 100 9.0t 10.0t 12.0t 200
200 2SO 300 IS.Ot 4S.Ot 60.0t 100
1S SO 2S
1.0
l.S
2.0 21S
100 80 SO 1.0
l.S
2.0 17S
200 ISO 100
1.0
2.0
3.0 350

80 60 40
130 110 80
ISO 12S 100
100 8S 70
Large 600 400 200

Ubrarics and Museums


Ofrtce Bualdings (Ccneral)
PrivateOfficcs
Stenosraphic Dcpartment
Residential

[)epartment stores

WaUs/Sq fl

ClasJllltions

Restaurants

~~~ I.,Ea.n-SouU1-w.,,
... "-~;~.~~11~r1onhe~ fl

Lishu

Sq Fl/~rson

1.6
3.0
2.0
1.9
2.1

1.310.911.0
1.0
1.2
1.3

1.1

1.3
1.0
l.4
1.0
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.8
1.0
1.8

1.1
1.2

1.4
2.0

2.0
1.2
2.0
1.2
1.1
1.3

1.1
1.2
1.2
2.S

475 380 285


400 320 240

330 265 200


625 SOO 37S

Rfnttotion 1nd air qllllnlitin for appli<ations listtd in !hit 11bltor<oohng load <h<ct fisurcs ar< base<1on all...ait syi,ttm and normal oucdoor au qu~ndua ror ,-cm.ala
t"-ct?I a n0<t'd.

1ion

Notts:

t Rdriscration loads au (Of f'Rtitt 11>9lication.


t lncl\Kln Olhct loads aprn~ in Wans/sq f1.

Au quanrnin for hcavy manuraccurina uns arf' bast<l on suppkmc-mary


mc:ans to rnnoo.f' ~"f' hH.1

AIJowable Ampacjties of lnsulated Conductors Rated 0-2000 Volts, 140 to l94 F


No1 More Than Tbrtt Conduc1ors in Raccway or Cable or Earth {Dircctly Buricd), Basc<I on Ambient Tempera1urc of 86F
Temperature Ratlng or Conductor
140F

TW"

ur

(;)

Siu

167F

RH 0, RHW*
THHW*
THW*
THWN*
XHHW*
USE",ZW*

AWG

16
14
12
10
g

140 F

TA, TBS, SA
SIS,fEP*
FEBS*,MI
RHR*, RHW-2
THHN*, THHW*
THW-2, THWN-2
USE-2.XHH
XHRW*
XRlfW-2, ZW-2

1 TW"

ur

Copper

20
2s
30
40

167 F

194F

'fypcs of lnsulakd Conduclors

fEPW*

-18

194 F

20
25

35

RR*, RHW*
THHW*
THW*
THWN*
XHHW*
USE*

TA,TBS
SA, srs
THHN*
THHW*
THW-2, TUWN-2
RHH*, RHW-2
USE-2
XHH, XHHW
XHHW-2, ZW-2

Alumlnum or Copper-Clad Alumlnum

14
18
25
JO

so

175
205

215
240
260
280

320
350

170
190
210

380

22S

320

430

260

290

230
255

280
305
350

Correction Factors
For ambient temperatures othcr than 86F, mulliply thc allowable ampacities shown above by the appropriate factor shown below.

Ambienl Temp, f
10-n
78-86

87-95
96-104
105-112
114-122
123-131

132-140
141-158

159-176

1.08
1.00
.91
.82
.71

.58
.41

1.05

1.00
.94
.88
.82
.75
.67
.58
.33

.82

1.08
1.00
.91
.82
.71
.58

.16

.41

1.04
1.00

.96
.91
.87

.71
.58
.41

1.05

1.00
.94
.88
.82
.15
.67
.58
.33

1.04
1.00
.96
.91

.87
.82
.76
.71
.58

.41

unless permilled in the National Eltttrical Code, ov=urrent protection for conductors marked with shall not excttd IS A for No. 14, 20 A for
No. 12, and 30A for No. IOcopper, or IS A or No. l2 and 2S A for No. IOaluminum and coppcr-dad aluminum after anycorrccllon factors or
amblen! tcmperaturc and numbcr or conduetors have bcen applicd.

Characterisclcs of AC and OC Mocors (Nonhermecic)


Split-Phllle

Pol) phase,

Pumaiwal
Splll..Cpacitor

60-lh.

Shadcd-Pole

Conncclion
diagram

3 Y

Spced lorque
curves

Non e

Motor
Controllcr

0.01 to0.2.S

O.S and up

3100to ISSO

350010 1750

25'1
12S'lt

150 10 3500/o
2S-O to 3S-Oflt

Constan! or

Constan!

Startin&
mcthod

Cenuifusal
Switch

Non e

Ratina.s, hp

O.OS to O.S

O.OS to 5

Fu U-load
spced at 60-Hz

3S-O to 172.S

~SOio

125 10 ISO"l't
250 10 3004!'\t

2S ..
250 to 300'70

Constan!

Constanl

Constant

Full-load po"'-c
factor

(i()~

95'1t

65..

9S~

(i()tft

Efficicncy

Mcdium

High

Mcdium

High

l.oW

1725

lbrque
('1t ralcd horse-

powcr 1orquc)
Loclccd rotor
Breakdown
Spced
classi ficalion
adjustablc

132

2S-Ot;'t

2S0'7o

80'1
High-Mcdium

133

Hone
power
116

230 V

1/4
1/2
3/4

i
l.S
2
3

7.5

ISO

()()

()()

00
00

00
00
00

1
1
2
2

200

()()

()()

50
100
12S

460 V

IO
15
20
25
30
40

60
1S

Molor Fun-Load Amperes

Rttommcnded
Starttt Size
Tbree Pbase

3
3
3

s
s
5
6
6
6

200 V

2.3
3.2
4.J
6.0
7.8
11.0
17.5
2S.3
32.2
48.3
62.1
78.2
92
119.6

o
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4

149.S
177.1
220.8
285.2
358.8
414

.s

Three-Pbase AC
Rttomm.
Squirrd-Cace and Wo u:nd-Rotor Scamr Slzc
(Jnductlon Type)
Sinale-Pbase

"

Tu Flnd
Amperes whcn Honepower is known

.s:

lJOV

2
2.8
3.6

S.2
6.8
9.6

IS.2

22
28

42
54
68

6S
77
96
124
156

360

180

lJ SV
4.4
5.8
9.8
13.8
16
20
24

()()
()()
()()

()()

2.S
3.3

S.6

S6
80
100

S1.S

o
o
1
1

34

2
2
3

Ronepower
116
114

230V
2.2
2.9
4.9
6.9
8

112

314
1
1.5
2
3

IO

12
17
28

40

7.5
10
IS
20
25
30
40

50

50
60
15
- . ~ -- - ~

100
125

Sin&le Ph.ue

Hp X 746

1/

200V

7.9
9.2
11.S
13.8
19.6
32.2
46

00

Current

'Three Pitase

H p X 746

E xrxF

1.73 X E X

1/ x F

kW X 1000

kW X 1000

kW X 1000

ExF

1.73 X E X F

kVA X 1000

kVA X 1000

1.73 X E

1X E

l xExF

1 X E X 1.73 X F

1000

1000

1000

1X E

1 X E X 1.73

1000

1000

lxExr

lxEx71xF

1 X E X 1.73 X 1/ X F

746

746

Ampcres whcn kVA is known

O'I

kVA

Horscpowcr-(output)

Sin le PbascAC

230V

Hp X 746

c.>

Kilowaiu

1
J.4
1.8
2.6
3.4
4.8
7.6
JI
14
21
27
34
40
52

80
104
130
154
192
248
312

E X
Amperes whcn K.ilowatts is known

460V

1 amperes; E = YOlts; 11 cfficicncy cxprcssed asdcetmal; F powcrfactor; kW kilowalls; kVA

746
~

kilovolt-ampcns; Hp horscpOWer.

--

ENGINE SIZING
Fuel Coosumptio n Rates
Hea1in11 Value,
B1u/11al

"':::;

137,000 to 156,000
130,000

Fut l
Fueloil
Gaso!ine

'fyplca! consumpllon
for dlfftttnt lypes
of gas t nglnes

Compresslon
Ratio

GasConsump

I0.5:1
10.5:1

8,100
9,200

7.5:1

Nalun lly A5plrattd


Altltude,
Alr
fl
Cnndltionlng Refrlgenllon

5000

o.ooo

10,250

Al r
Condlllonlng

1S

20

20

12
JO
10
10
10

17
J4
11
10
10

J8
J6
14
12
10

10

10

ro

Venlilatlon Air fo r Engine Equlpmeot Room


EnglneRoom
Alr Ttmp R1se

Murner and
Exhaust Plpeb

M ltlfit r and
Exhaust Pipe

dm/ hp

dm!hp

JO
20
30

d m/ hp

140
70
50

280
140
90

550
280
180

Exhaust minus inlet


blnsulatcd or encloffd in >cntilatcd duct

136

_,...

r--., ..

__

'"'!'.)~~~E~~~~~
,...
oor--;:;;z~~:i2~8

""'""'~~

ti

Not insulatcd
dHeat cfcharged in cnginc room

o
oo!2:;~~~2S~~~ .J::
-N..,-,.._fi .. "'
,;

_,.. ..

Blu/hp h

Percenl Mioimum E ngine Reserves for Alr Condlllooing


and Refrlgerallon

-Nf""l\O

:!!

Turbocharged
Naturally aspirated
Naturally aspirated

Sea le\'el
JOOO
2000
3000
4000

..,~~~82~2i8~

c.
O\-oo"'S:<S~~~88
NMf'_,.,
.. V\~

_,...,,

8
~

-s

Typ es o f

Fuel O ils

------NN
~ ';$.

Fuel oils for hea1ing are broadly classificd as distilla1e fue! o


(lighier oils) or residual fue! oils (heavier oils). ASTM b
cstablished specifications for fue! ol propcrties which subdivid
1he oils in to various grades. Grades No. l and 2are distillatc fu
oils. Grades 4, 5 (Light), 5 (Heavy), and 6 are residual fue! oils.
Speci ficat ions for the grades are bascd on required charactcristia
of fue! oils for use in differcnt types of burners. Thc ANSI stan
dard spccification for fue! oils is ASTM Standard 0396-86.

Grade No. J is a light distillate intended for vaporiz.ing-type


burncrs. High volatility is esscntial 10 continued evaporation of
the fue! oil with mnimum residue.
Grade No. 2 is a heavier (API Gravity) distillate than No. l. lt
is used primarily with pressure-atomiz.ing (gun) burners that spray
the ol in to a combustion chamber. The atomized oil vapor mixes
with air and burns. This grade is used in most domestic burners
and many medium capacity commercial-ind ustrial burncrs.
Grade No. 4 is an intermediate fuel that is considered either a
light residual ora heavy distillatc. lntcnded for burners that
atomizc oils of higher viscosity than domestic burners can han.
die, its permissible viscosity range a!Jows it to be pumped and
atomized at relatively low storage temperatures.
Grade No. 5 (Light) is a residual fue! of intermediatc'vscosity
for burncrs that handle fuel more viscous than No. 4 without
preheating. Preheating may be neccssary in sorne cquipment for
burning and, in colder climatcs, for handling.
Grade No. 5 (Heavy) is a residual fucl more viscous tban No.
5 (Lighl), but in tended for similar purposes. Preheating is usually
necessary for burning and, in colder climates, for handling.
Grade No. 6, sometimes referred to as Bunker C, is a bigh
viscosity o l uscd mostly in commercial and industrial heating. Jt
rcquires preheating in the storage tank to permit pumping, andadditional preheating at the burner to permit atomizing.

';$.

:s::s:~:,-:----

:S::S:~::.t----

Table 6 Typlca l Gravlty a nd Hea ting Value .


of Sta ndard Grades o f Fuel Oil
Gnide

No.
1
2
4

SL
SH
6

Gnivlly
API

Ma5s (Wefghl)
lbl &I

llttll ng Vlut
Blu/aal

38 to 4S
30to 38
2010 28
17 to22
1410 18
810 IS

6.9SOto 6.67S
7.296 10 6.960
7.78710 7.396
7.940 10 7.686
8.080 10 7.890
8.448 [0 8.053

137,000 ro 132,900
141,800 to 137,000
148,100 10 143,100
150.00010 146,800
IS2,000 lo 149,4()().
ISS,900 lo ISl,300

138

..f~i
139

~ ~ ~ ~

Ownlng and Operatlng Cost Data and Summary


OWNING COSTS

l. Inicial Cost or System


A. Equipment
B. Control systems- Compleie
C. Wirin& and pi pin& cosis aciributable to systcm
D. Any incrcase In buildin construction cost auributable to systcm
E. Any decrcase in buildin& construction cost auributable to systcm
F. l nstallation cosu
TOTAL INffiAL COST

11. Annual fixed Charges


A. Equivalent uniform annual cost
B. lncome taxcs
C. Property taxes
D. lnsurancc
E. Reni
TOrAL ANNUAL FIXEO CllARGES
OPERATING COSTS
111. Annual Maintenance Allowances
A. Replacemenl or scrvicing oil, air, or water filters
B. Contracted maintenance service
C. Lubrlcatlng ol and arcase
D. General housekeepin coSl
E. Replacement of worn parts (labor and material)
F. Refrgerant
TOTAL ANNUAL MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE
IV. AnnuaJ Energy, fuel, and Water Costs
A. Electric Enery Costs
l. Chiller or compressor
2. Pumps
a) Chlled water
b) Healin water
e) Condenser or tower water
d) WeJJ water
e) Boiler auxiliaries (including fueLoil heaters)
3. Fans
a) Condenscr or tower
b) lnside air handlin
e) Exhaust
d) Makeup air
e) Boiler auxiliaries and equipment room venlilalion

140

Annual Energy, Fuel and Water Costs (continutd)


4. Resistancc heaters
(primary or supplementary)
S. Heatpump
6. Domcstic water heatin
7. Lightin
8. Cookin& and food service equpmcnt
9. Misccllaneous (t.g., clevators, escalators,
and computcrs)
B. Oas, Oil, Coal, or Purchascd Steam Costs
l. On-site eneration of the electrical powcr requittmcnts under A of this section
2. Heatina
a) Direct heatin&
b) Ventilation
(1) Prcheaters
(2) Reheatcrs
e) Supplementary hcnting
(l.t., oil prchenting)
d) O rhcr
3. DomesLc water heating
4. Cooking and food scrvicc equipment
S. Air condilioning
a) Absorprion
b) Chiller or comprcssor
(1) Gas/Diesel engine drivcn
(2) Gas turbine driven
(3) Steam turbine driven
6. Mscellaneous
C. Water
l. Condenser makeup water
2. Sewer charges
3. Chemicals
4. Misccllaneous
TCYfA L ANNUAL FUEL, ENERGY, ANO WATER COSTS
V. Waes of enineers and operators
SUMMARY

11. lbtal Annual fixcd Chares


111. Tutal Annual Mainrenancc Costs
IV. Total Annual Energy, Fuel, and Water Costs
V. AnnuaJ Wages for Engincers and Operacors
TOrAL ANNUAL OWNING AND OPERATING COSTS

141

Life Cycle Costs


A representation in present dollars of lhe cost of an investment
its lifetime is useful for cvaluating mutually exclusive altematives
have lhe same anticipated lifetime.
A discount rote is required for a life-cycle-cost calculation. Tbe
count rate represents the oost of capital to building owners. In es
il is the rate on a loan (or bond) adjusted to account for inflation
taxes. Higb di.scount rates disoourage investments. A 30/o real disco
rate is Lypical for energy policy analyses. Higher rates are often
by private investors for economic evaluation of commercial cons
tion. lb account for inOation and fuel escalation, either lower the
count rate or inOate future encrgy and maintenance costs.
The U.S. Dcpartment of Energy has proposed a 4.SOJo discount
for federal energy management programs, calculated from thc lo
tcrm bond rate (8.S'lo at the time) minus lhe nflation rate (40Jo). Li
cycle cost is calculated by determining thc prcsent worth of the e
of an investment. For system alterna ti ves it looks likc lhis:

!!

:l
~
$

l~
-

LCC = IC + ESPWF(COSTene11y + COSTmant)

wlzere

-4

LCC
IC
ESPWF
COSTnuay

;;

life-cycle cost
initial cost premium of altcmativc
cqual series prcsent worth factor (see table)
:;carly energy cost savina
cosrmaint :;carly maintenance cost rcduction

.p

~1

~~

~:!
~~
:e

Present Worth Factors


Llfetlme
()"eln)

2.5'!t

3.0'!t

7
8
9
10
IS

6.35
7.17
7.97
8.15
12.38

6.23
7.02
7.79
8. 53
11.94

3.S'!t
6 .11

6.87
7.61
8.32
11.52

OIJcount Rite
4.0'lo 4.S'Tt
6.00
6.73
7.44
8.11
11.12

S.89
6.60
7 .27
7.91
I0.74

71Jo

JOOJo

S. 39
S.97

4.8
5.33
S.16
6. 14
7. 61

6 .Sl
7.02

9.11

~~
$~

18
1~
ri

~!

11

ESPWF for other lifetimes and discourt rates can be calculat


from:
ESPWF

[(! + +dY d(I

~~

..
..
..

u
'1!

1]

d)n

where n lifetime in ycars and d


discount rate in percent/100,
Note that ESPWF can only be used when aonual costs remai
constant.
142

~~

143

111

l1

Estimating Maintenance Costs


The following method may be used for estimating or comparing
total office building H YAC maintenance costs. The premise of
method assumes that the base HVAC system in the building cons
of fi.re-tube.boilers for heating equipment, centrifuga! chillers
coolmg equ1pment, and VAV distribution systems. The total b
ing HVAC maintenance cost for this system is 48.40~/ft 2 Adj
ment factors from the table are then applied to this base cost to
for building age and variations on type of HVAC equipment as fo

for Acceptable HVAC Nolse levds In Unoccupied Rooms


Occupancy

C = Total building HVAC maintenance cost (e/ft2)


= Base system maintenance costs
+ (Age adjustment factor) x (age in years n)
+ Heating system adjustment factor h
+ Cooling system adjustment factor e
+ Distribution system adjustment factor d
ore = 48.40 + 0.18n + h + e + d

HVAC Malnlenance Cost Adjuslment Factors


(in cents per square foot, 1993 U.S. dollars)
lleating Equlpment h
Water tu be boller
Casi iron boilcr
Elcctric boilcr
Heatpump
Electric resistance
Coollng &uipmenl e
Reciprocating chiller
Absorption chiller (single stagc)
Water source hcat pump
Db trlbutlon System d
Single zone
Multizone
Dual duct
Constant volume
1Wo-pipc fan coil
Four-pipc
lnduction

rt and recital halls

Fac1or applies to buildlngs wi1h oldcr, sngle-slage absorptlon chlllers

144

Prefernd

Allemate

RC 2S-30 (N)

NC2S-30

RC 30-3S (N)

NC 30-3S

RC 30-3S (N)
RC30-JS (N)
RC JS-40 (N)
RC40-4S (N)

NC30-3S
NC30-3S
NCJS-40
NC40-4.S

RC2.S-30(N)
RC2S-30(N)
RC30-3S (N)
RC 3S-40(N)
RC40-4S (N)
RC 40-4S (N)

NC2.S-30
NC 2S-30
NC30-3S
NCJS-40
NC40-4S
NC40-4.S

RC 2S-30(N)
RC 30-3S (N)
RC2S-30 (N)
RC 35-40 (N)
RC 30-35 (N)
RC3S-40(N)

NC2S-30
NC30-3.S
NC 2S-30
N C3S-40
NC 30-35
NC 35-40

RC30-3.S (N)

NC30-35

RC2S-30(N)
RC 3.S-40(N)

NC2S-30
NC3S-40

RC35-40(N)

NC 35-40

RC35-40 (N)

NC3S-40

RC 20-2.S (N)

NC20-25

RC 30-3S (N)

NC30-3S

RC 40-4.S (N)

NC40-4S

RC l.S20(N)

NCl.S-20

RC IS-20(N)

NC 15-20

RC20-2.S (N)

NC20-2S

NC curve noise-raling procedure may be used wbcrc rumbly, blssy, or tonal


cteri5tics in the background sound can be toleratcd, ir it is not too loud.

145

RC (Room Criterion) Curves for Specifying Design


Level for Balanced Spectrum
RC curves are prcferablc to NC curves or A-weightcd sound lcvels for
ing systcm design goals and for qualifyin11 or rating ficld installations. This
systcm (1) accounts for thc inlucncc o both spcctrum shape and leve! 011
subjcctive asscssment proccss. (2) includes dala in the octave banclscent
31 .S and 16 Hz. and (3) accounts for low-frcqucncy acoustic encrgy that in
perceptible vibration in li&ht construction.
90.--~-.-~~..-~-.-~~.--~-.-~~T-~-,.~~..........

Spedflc Total Sound Power Levels of 'fypical Fans


Oclave Bands
Fanl)pe
63 t25 250 500 tX lK 4K 8K BFI

'fuga!
, BC, or 81 whccl diamcter
(f{Cr 36 in.
under 36 in.
Curvcd

40 40 39 34

17
19

26 21

32

29

26

38

33

29

26

23

4S

4S

43

39

30
34

S3

S3

43

36

36 31

S6 47

43

39

37

S8 S4 4S 42

19

28 24

l.cw pressu re

~ to

(4 to JO in. of water)
ldcdium prcssurc
(6 to IS in. of water)
High prcssure
(IS to 60 in. of water)

<

a: 70

:1

61

58

S3

48

46

44

41

38

49
49
S3

43
43

43
46
51

48 47
43 41
5 1 49

4S
36
47

38
30
43

34
28

6
6
6

2
t

~ 80
J

"'a:

52
40
axial
Over 40 in.
whecl diamcter
SI 46 47 49 47 46 39 37 7
Under 40 in.
48 47 49 53 S2 SI 43 40 7
wheel diamctcr
pcller
General vcntilation
48 51 58 56 SS 52 46 42 5
Jncludcs total sound powcr lcvcl in dB for both inlet and outlct. Valu: a~c
r~ns only-not packagcd cquipmcnt. BFI Blade frcquency octave an .

...

w 60
a:

a:

z~

'

30

~
e

>
<
~

Sound power levels at a ctual operating conditions can be estimated


lhe actual fan volume low rate and fan pressure, as:

20

L., = K..,
10

10 log (QIQt)

20 log (plpt)

,L,~-,~,~.~-=ac...~~,21c...~~250c...~~500c...~~,ooo;;;._~~2000;::;..~-4000;;i;;..~.....,hue

OCTAVE lllANO CEHTER. FREOUENCY,

HZ.

Region A: High probability that noisc-induccd vibration lcvcls in light waJJ

cciling consrructions will be clcarly feclablc; anticipa ce audible rattlcs in loW


mass fixrurcs. doors. windows, etc.
Region B: Noisc-induccd vibration lcvcls in light walls and ceilings may
modcratcly
windows,
etc.fcclablc; slight possibility of rattles in low mass fixturcs, doo

..
cstimatcd
sound
power
Jevel
of fan,
dBabovc)
re 1 pW
.. spccific
sound
powcr
leve!
(from
table
= now me, cfm
= 1 cfm
= prcssurc drop. in. of water
= 1 ih. of water
.
= corrcction factor for point of fan opcrauon, dB

R~gion C: Below thrcshold of hcaring for continuous noisc.

146

147

-------...------------------Passive Duct Sound Attenuators


fabricated sound anenuators are available in various sizes and
rute another method of obtaining noiseattenuation in ducts. Recar units are available in 3, S, 1, and 10 rt lcngths. The lengths of
ar units are generally two to three times their diamcter. They are
1able with varlous percentages of open flow arca for different
s of attenuation and pressure drop. Consider: (1) required
ion loss, (2) static pressurc drop, and (3) self-noise, by air movthrough the attenuator. Ali three are related to the air velocity
ugh the auenuator-the insertion loss in the low- and miducncy range is inversely related to the velocity, and the pressure drop
self-noise are directly related to the air velocity.
Guidelines for locating duct silencers and for mnimum static
ssurc drop wilh maximum acoustical performance are as follows:

trifugal Fans

From fan discharge- One duct diameter for every 1000 fpm
From fan intake- 0.75 duct diamcler for every 1000 fpm

ar Fans

From fan discharge- One duct diameter for every 1000 fpm
From fan intake-0.75 diameter for every 1000 fpm
et Efbows
Three duct diameters or equivalent both upstream and downstrcam
ixing Boxes and VAV Terminafs
Onc duct diametcr upstream or downstrcam
rilles, Registers, and Diffusers
One duct diameter upstream or downstream

lnstall duct sound attenuators in or close to the mechanical equipnt room wall opening. This helps keep the reverberant sound from
e equipment room from bypassing the duct sound attenuator.

148

149

Vibra1lon lsolalor Sdtttion Gaide"


C~o Supponod

Eqllipmont "JYpo

Refrl1ero1ion Machines
Rcciprocatin Comprcssors
Rcciproca1ina Conden51ng
Uni1 .t Chilling Uni1
Hermetic Ccn1riugal Chillers
Open Centrifuga! Chillers
Absorption Chillcrs

Slab

Equipmont Loailion (Stt Notes 3 and 11)'


30 fl Floor Sp..
40 ft Tioor Spae
20 ft Floor SpH
lso- Mln.
IJo- Mla.
lso- Jifia.
~
lator DdL
a- lator Odl.
Base lator ~n.
ljlpo 'JYpo'
In.
ljlpo 'fypo' D.
JYpo 'fypo'
la.

SO ft Tioor Spu
lso- Mln.
a- lalor Oof1.
-ypo 'Jilp' In.

Iso-

Jifia.

0.15

0.7S

l.SO

l.SO

2SO

A
A

2
1

A
A

0.7S
0.7S
0.7S
0.15

i.SO
l.SO
l.SO
0.7S

2.SO
1.50
l.SO
1.50

4
4
4
4

2..SO

4
4
4
4

A
A

4
4
4
4

A
A

4
4
4
4

A
A

0.2S
0.2S
0.25
0.2S

0.7S

0.75

1.50

2.50

2-50

e
e

3
3

0.7S
0.7S

e
e

l
3

0.1S
0.75

e
e

3
3

l.SO
l.SO

e
e

i.SO
i.SO

e
e

3
J

2.SO
2-SO

2
3
3

0.2S
0.75
0.1S

e
e
e

3
3
l

0.15
0.75
0.1S

e
e
e

J
3

e
e
e

3
3

0.7S
l.SO
1.50

0.75
1.50
2.SO

e
e
e

J
3
J

0.75
1.50
2.SO

0.7S

A/B

l.SO

AIB

a- lator lkn.
-ypo lYpo' In.

e
A

1.50
2.50
l.SO

AirCom~

'Ilulk Mounlcd
Base Moun1cd
UptoSOOrmp
SOi rpm & ovcr
Pumps

Close couplcd, 10 7 ! hp
B/C
Flexible couplcd, 10 hp
Flexible couplcd, SO 10 12S hp e
Fkidblecouplcd, ISOhp&O>'er

Ptlckagttf Roo/top Air


Conditionin1 Units

(Not Applicable)

..

..2.'

0.7S

A/B

3
3

l.SO
i.SO

A/B

l.SO
0.7S

3
3

0.75
0.15

e
e

0.25

2
2

0.25
0.25

Coollng Tbwrs el Clos'1d C1n:uu cootars


301 to SOOrpm
A
I, 2
SOi rpm & ovcr
A
1, 2

J.$0

1.SO

2..SO

AIC

0.7S

AJC

l.SO

2.SO
1.50

e
e

3
3

2.50
!.SO

e
e

3
3

2.SO
2..SO

0.15

AIC

0 .1S

AJC

0.7S

i.SO
0.7S

2.so
1.50

8
8

3
3

l .SO
2. 50

3
3

2.SO
l.SO

e
e

2.50
2.50

e
e

l
3

3.50
2.SO

0.7S

0.15

!.SO

A
A

3
3

1..SO
l.SO

A
A

3
3

1.SO
1.SO

A
A

2.50
2.SO

0.75

e
e

3
3

0.7S

AIB

l.SO
0.7S

8
8

l.SO
1.50

e
e

0.7S

3
3

0.15
0.1S

0.2S

A/B

0.15
0.7S

e
e

0.2S

3
3

....... ..
A

i.SO

0.2S
0.2S

2.SO
0.7S

3.S

2.so

A/B

11
A

A
A

2-SO

Fons and Air Handling Equipmont


AJria/, tubular, & Jan hoads
A/B
Up to 22 in. whl da.
24 in. wbeel dia. & ovcr
B/C
301 rpm to 500 rpm
B/C
SOi rpin & aver
Cen1rifugal Fons & Vent Sets
A/B
Up to 22 in wheel da.
24 in. wbeel dia. & ovcr
B
301 lO 500 fPIJl
8
..... SOi rpm & ovcr
U1 SOhp&ov<r
.....
8/C
301 to SOO rpm
SIC
SOi rpm el over
PtJckaged Air Handling Equipment
Upto IObp
A
IS bp&over
A
UptoSOOrpm
A
SOi rpm &: over

s.. Notes ror Use ""''h lllbt Z7 section or '"'' Cllapkf Sl. 1917 ASHll.'E
Handbook for eq>iaMlloo
b&.. ;pa:
/\. No b&5C. isolatort attacb<d dutttly lo tqwpcncnt (Not 27)
B. StN<tllfl) sted rails or base (Notes 28 4' 29)
c. Conmte intrtia bll$c (Norc 30)
o. Curt.-mountcd btie (Notdl)

1so1a1or 7;pa:
1 Pad rubbC< or lass filler (Notes 20 & 21)
i_ Rubbcr 0oor OJOl&lor or bangu (Nota 20 lit 25)
J. Sprin& noor isolator or hangcr (NOI<> 22. 23 llt lS)
4. R<>traincd spnng 1.obl<>< (Notes ll llt 2Al
s. ThruSl ttst.-aint (Note 26)

__ \_
. ,___,_ _

OUTDOOR AIA SUPPLY AIR - RETURN AIR

----------1

r-

R.CTVRN
AIR

11ANUAL

~~M~'l))

SIJPPLY
NC

2-90Sll10N

AIR

St.f'PL Y

~n~

r~

WrTHOUT RETURN FANS

Economlzer Cycle Control


-RETVRN AIR

OUTDOOR AIR
SUl'f'I.Y AIR - llETURN AIA

CUTTlOOR
AIR

-~
AIR

NC

SUPPL Y
AlR

2P061TION
,1.CTION

WITH RETURN FANS

r- - - - -

NO
-l-1I11-1.<:.<..<..i

1
1
1
1
1 lkfl lllDISU'PLY
1
~
Ali!
1
NC.,,,...:L..J~-----~.::-...c::.._ __ _
L _ - - - - -ffiimiiD-

OU11>00A All IUPl'\.Y All Af:l\lllN A11 + EXIWJST All

WlTH RETURN EXHAUST FANS- OUTOOOR AIR IS GREATER THAN


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUPPLY ANO RETURN AIRFLOWS

Controls for Fb:ed Mlnimum Outdoor Air

Makeup Alr System

152

153

,._,

......

CHIU0'2

--

CMIU.lR

CHN.LlA

04~J

..,..,,.,.....

,_.,,,,.,.
.,.,....

... . l.DW

>--.

'"""
.,.,....
''"""

.,.,....
''""'

Two-Way Valve witb Pump Bypass


Variable water now to terminal units and constant now lhrough
chiller. AJ fulJ load botb chillers are on-line, and full flow ocs to tenni
nal wts. As terminal wt val\ICS modulate flQID dcaeased load, flow
dccreases and pressure drop from supply to retum mains increascs. 1be

T00tl1EA

COOLS

AIAFl,.Qw

Three-Way Valve Control of a Coil


diITcrential pressure conttoller partiaDy opcns bypass valve to compensatc. Size bypass valve to match flow through onc chiller, so onc chiUcr
pump will shut down wbcn bypass opcns fully. As load increases to
closc thc bypass completely, thc sccond chilla" and pump restarta.

g~l
~ !!l!<

!.!!)~~

l
e!~~

c.

~ ~
~<
;!

..
-!!.
=
e::

'

=
.,

~;

'<

".::>

~ ta~

.....
:r

!::

~
<
;!

.. ~o

-
=

""

~
< '<
;! :>

~~
:e

~= e~ m
:::;~

.!!)

1 i
~

,,r
~

i~~
~~ e

mol!=

::nz
)

;!.

e::
~

k ~~
/

....
m

-==

"~

... );

~~

~' lU
1
1

~8~
~::c

~E

D f1CAl 8 f$ET

OUTDOOll

SCHEDULE
HOT WATER

.JltL!L

180
140

eo

J;J----r-------.

'
Affi

RCTURN

QJ s:~~

l RESE:r

ou1000R1

~
;> -.____.._J

.---- 1

PUMP

~~
SPACf: TEMPCAA TURC

TAHK

8011..l R

__

CCl.Jl

EXP

+URHEll l

HDT

Load and Zone Control In a Simple llydronlc System

Fan-Powered VAV Terminal Unlt

SUPPLY

DI SCHARGt

AfR

Affi-.=;.........:_

, .
NC

!"-.....;:::::.-.....;::;;. HWS
SHELLHUBE

J.------..

HE.Al EXCHANOER
~~~~~~~....--(Y
CONDEN$ATE

ORHOTWATEll
RETURH
IGT
SPACX TOftllA Ntt

Bypass Fao loduclion Ttrmlnal Unlt

Steam-to-Hot Water Heat Exch anger Control

156

157

HWR

Conversioo Equivaleots

AirConditioning Formulas
1 Btu = amount of heat requircd to raise (or lower) temperature of
one pound of water 1F
1 ton refrigeration

Atmosphcrc

= 12,000 Btu/b = 200 Btu/min

1 watt = 3.412 Btu/h

1 horsepower

= 2545 Btu/h

1 bar

1 lb = 7000 grains

l British thcrmal unlt


(lntl. table)

1 ft (head) 0.433 psi

1 square foot EDR {equiv. drect radiation)

= 240 Btu

1 boiler horsepowcr = 33,479 Btu/b


No. of air changcs {N)

= (60 cfm)/ft2

Sensible heat {Btu/ b) = 1.08 Qt:.t


where tJ.t = differcncc between entering and leaving dry-bulb
temperature and Q = arflow rate in cubic fect per minute

Latcnt heat (Btu/h)


0.68 Qt:.g
where tJ.g difference in moisture content of entering and
leaving air, grains per pound of dry air
Water quantity {gpm) required for heating and cooling

1 Btu/h
1 Btu/min
1 Btu/h t2 f
celsius
1 centimetre
1 centimelre of mercury
(OC)
1 cin:ular mil
1 cubic foot/min
1 cubic ccntimctre
1 cubic foot

q/500 lwattr
where q load in Btu/b

Chiller capacity (tons)


gpm (chilled water)
For Air:
1 lb/h = 4.5 Q
1 ton .. Q tJ.h/2670

Fan hp "'

x t:.t (water)/24

1 cubic foot/sec
1 cubic inch
1 cubic metre

cfm x static prcssure (in. w.g.)

- - - - - - " ---.:...._--=...:..

6356 x Efficiency

1 erg
Fahrcnhcit
1 foot
1 foot of water (68 F)
1 foot/min
1 foot-pound

Density of__
air _
x----;.._
Dcnsity of standard air
ForWater:
1 lb/h = 500 gpm
1 ton = (gpm) t:.t/24
Pump hp =

gpm x fthead
3960 x Efficiency

158

1 cubic yard

mm of mcn:ury
fl of water (4 q
in. of men:ury coq
kg/cm 2
psi
kilopascal
atmoshpere
kilopascal
foot-pounds
aram-calories
joule
kilowatt hour
watt
watt
W/(m 2 K)
S.618
Fahrenheit
(1.8C) + 32
inches
0.3937
feet of water
0.4460
pounds/sq in.
0.1934
square mils
0.7854
5.051 X 10- squaremm
litres per second
0.472
cubic inches
0.06102
gallo ns
7.481
cubic inchcs
1728
cuble metre
0.02832
litres
28.32
allons/min
448.8
cubic cm
16.387
litres
0.016387
cubic feet
35.31
cubic yards
1.308
gallons
264.2
litres
1000.0
cubic fect
27.0
cubic mctre
0.7639
dynccm
1.0
cclsius
(f' - 32)/l.8
mctrc
0.3048
lb/sq in.
0.4335
miles pcr hour
0.01136
4
cm-ram
1.383 X 10
joule
1.356

760
33.91
29.92
1.0333
14.696
101.325
0.9869
100
778.2
252.0
1055
2.930 X 10-
0.2931
17.58

x Specific Oravity

159

Conversion EquJvalents
l gallen

1 grain/U.S. gal
1 gram
1 ram-calorie
1 horscpower

1 horsepower (boiler)
1 horscpower-hour
1 inch
1 inch of mercury (32.F)

1 inch of water (OC)


1 joule

231.0
cubic inches
3.785
litre
8.346
lb of water (68F)
17.118
parts per million
0.3527
cunee (avdp)
2.205 X 10 J pound
3.969 X 10 .J Btu
1.163 X 10 J wau-hour
42.41
Btu/min
33000
ftlb/min
550
t-lb/scc
0.7457
kilowatt
34.5
lb stcam at 212 F
33476
Btu/h
2545
Btu
0.7457
kilowau-hour
25.40
millimmcs
1.133
fcct of water
0.4912
lb/sq in. (psi)
0.03453
k/cm 2
3.386
kilopascal
0.07361
inchcs of mercury
0.03613
lb/sq in.
4
9.480 X J0 Btu
0.7376
footpound
2.389 X 10
k-calories
2.788 X 10
wau-hour
2.205
pounds
0.9678
atmosphere
32.81
fcet of water
28.96
inches of mercury
98 .07
kilopascal
3.968
Btu
3088
footpound
4186.8
joule
3281
fcct
0.6214
miles
54.68
fcct/min
56.89
Btu/min
1.341
horscpower
34j
Btu
3.6 X 106
joule
860
kilogram-calories

1 kiloram
1 kilogram/sq cm

1 kilogram-calorie

1 kilometrc
1 kilomctrc/hr
1 kilowau
1 kilowatthour

Converslon EquivaJents
1000
61.02

litre

0.2~-

litre per sccond


lumen/sq t
metre

micron
mile (nautical)
(U.S. statute)
mile per hour
milligram
millmetre
!mil

t minute (anglc)
1 newton pcr SQ metre
1 ouncc
1 cunee (Ouid)
1 pint (liquid)

1 poisc
1 pound (mass)
1 pound (force)
1 pound of water
(4C)
1 pound/sq in. (psi)

1 quart (U.S. liqud)

160

f.057
2.119
15.852
1.0
10.76
3.281
39.37
1.094
1.0
6080
1852
5280
1609
88.0
0.447
0.01543
0.03937
39.37
l
25.4
2.54 X 100.001
0.01667
60.0
1.0
28.35
0.0625
1.805
0.02957
473.2
28.87
0.4732
0.1
7000
0.4536
4.448
0.01602
27.68
- 0.1200
2'.307
2.036
6.895
703.1
57.75
0.9464

161

cubiccm
cubic inches
gallons
quarts
cfm
gpm (gal/min)
rootcandle
lm/m 2
reet
in ches
yards
micrometre
rcet
metre
fcct
metre
fcct/min
metre pcr scc
rains
inches
mil
micrometre
centimetre
inches
derees
scconds (angle)
pascal
gnm
pound
cubic inches
litre
cubiccm
cubic inches

litre
pascal sccond
rains
kiloram
newton
cubic feet
cubic inches
gallo ns
fcei of water
inchcs of mercury
kilopascal
kg/m 2
cubic inchcs
litre

Conversion Equivalents
1 radian
1 revolution/min

1 slug
1 squarc ccntimctre
1square foot

1 squarc inch

57.30
6.0
0.1047
14.59
32.17
0.1550
144.0
0.09290
6.452
106

1squarc mctrc
1 squarc millimetre
1 square yard

tcmpcrature:
Kelvin
Rankine
1 ton (long, 224-0 lb)
1 ton (short, 2000 lb)
1 ton (rcfrigeration)
l tonne (metric ton)
1 torr
1 watt
1 watt-second
1 yard

10.764
1.1960
0.001550
9
0.8361

dcrces
degrecs/sec
radians/scc
kilogrom
pounds
square inches
sq inchcs
sq mctre
sqcm
sq mils
sq n
sq yards
sq inches
sq fcct
sq metrc

Celsius + 273.15
Fahrenheit + 459.67
1016

907.2
12,000
3.517
1000
2205

1.0
133.3
3.412
0.8598
1.0

0.9144

kilogram
kiloram
Btu/h
kilowatt
kilogram
pounds
mm Hg(OC)
pascal
Btu/h
kg-caloric per hour
joule
mc1rc

Air (stt also Contaminants)


conditioning formulas, 158
dcnsity, 13
enthalpy, 14-15
ilters, 8-21
friction charts, 13
moisture relationships, 12
psychrometric chart, 11
qualily standards, 17

I NDEX
friction charts, 1-3
velocity vs. vclocity pressurc, 4

Air spaccs
emittances, 91
thermal resistance. 92
Air velocity
capture. 22
desin, 7-8
exhaust contours, 23
prcssure. 4
Ammonia
line capacities, 86-89
thermodynamic propcrties, 74-77
Conductivity
building materials, 94-100
insulation, 94-101
soils, 106
Contaminants (see a/so Filters,
Hoods)
quality standards, 11
sourccs. 20
transpon vclocitics, 24
Control schcma.tics, 152-157
Conversion factors, 159-162
Coollng load
check valucs, 128-129
CLTD values, 108-112
equations. 107
glass, sunlit, 113-114
shading cocfficients, 115
Costs
life cycle. 142
maintenance. 144
owning and operatiog, 14-0141
Ouct
circular equivaleots of, 5-6

162

Electrical (see also Motors)


conductors, ampacity, 130-131
formulas, 135
Engines, 136
Equipment
costs, 140-144
noise from, 148
service life. 143
Fan
laws, 9-10
sound powcr lcvcls, 147
Filters
absorbers, 21
dcsign velocity, 7-8
electronic, 18
performance, 19
Fittings. for HVAC applications,
56-51
Formulas
air conditioning, 158
cooling load, 107
electrical, 118
water now for hcating/cooling, 41
Frlction charts
air, 1-3
water, 47-49
Fuel oil data, 138-139
Gas pipe sizing, 137
Glycols, freezing point of, 40
Heat gains
hospital equipmcnt, 121
motors, elcctric, 122
offite equipment, 120
pcople, 117
restaurant equipmcnt, 118-119
Heat transmission coefficients
air spaccs, 92
building matcrials, 94-100
fcnestration, 93

163

INDEX
insulation, building, 94-100
insulation, industrial , 100-101
metal buildins, 102-103
surfacc conductanccs, 91
Hoods (set a/so Contaminants)
capture vcloclties, 22
entry losscs, 2S
kitchcn range, 26-27
laboratory, 28
lnsulation
air spaces, 92
thermal values for, 94-101
underround piping, 104
Lou vers, 7-8
Mo1ors
characterislics, 132-133
full-load amperes, 134
hea1 aain from, 122
Noise
acccptablc levels, 145
attcnuators, 149
cquipment, 148
fans, 147
RC curves, 146
Pipe
applications, S6-S1
copper, S2-S3
expansion, thcrmal, S8
friction loss, water, 47-49
fucl ol, 139
gas, 137
hangers, .S9
insulation, 104
plastic, S4-SS
rcfrigcrant capacites, 78-90
stcam capacity, 35-38
steel, SOSI
volume of waier in, 44
Pollu1an1s (.rtt Contaminants)
Pump
affini1y laws, 30-31
curves, 32-34
terms, 29

Psychrometric chart, 11
Refrigerant
linc capacitics
R-22, 18-8S
R-717 (ammonia), 86-89
R-134a, 90
1hermodynamic properties
Rll, 62
R-12, 63
R-22, 64-67
R-123, 68
R-134a. 6972
R-S02, 73
R-717 (ammonia), 74-77
Refrigcratcd display txturcs, 116
R-Values, 91-101
Soil
1emperatures, JOS
thermal conductivity, 106
Solar collector data, 6061
Sound (set Noisc)
Stcam
now rate for hcating/cooliag, .. 41
pipe capacitics, 3.S-38
table. 16
Thnks. cylindrical
capacity of horizontal, 43
volume, 42
Thermal properties
(ste air, rcfrigcrant, stcam, water)
Tube, coppcr, S2-S3
Ventilation rcquircments, 123-126
Vibration isolators, ISO-ISI
Water
demand, hol, 4S-46
mass low vs. tcmperaturc, 40
pipe sizing, 47-49
pumps, 2934
speci fic heat, 40
visc:osity, 39
volumc in pipe, 44
Weathcr design factors, 127

164