Você está na página 1de 10

Translation calls for the analysis of lexical, morpho-syntactic, stylistic, textual and cultural equivalence.

We could very well start with the lexical equivalence since, as Lewis (2002 !" pointed out, language consists not of traditional grammar and vocabulary but often of multi-word prefabricated chunks. #n other words, lan$ua$e consists of $ramaticalised lexis, not lexicali%ed $rammar. Therefore, we have to raise our students& awareness as to the importance of findin$ the 'est lexical units, without i$norin$ the $enerative element of $rammar. (Condiii privind asigurarea de accidente persoane i asigurarea medical pentru cltorii n strintate Word-for word rendition Conditions concerning accidents people insurance and medical insurance for travels abroad ) ) the elliptical accidente persoane (the word-for-word translation would sound illo$ical, as well as $rammatically incorrect !accidents people"persons"

Condiii privind ! should not 'e translated 'y conditions concerning!, which, althou$h a $rammatically correct utterance, is not common in the *n$lish le$al lan$ua$e. + $ood dictionary or an on-line concordancer (if students have no or little ,nowled$e of this specific 'usiness sector" would reveal the occurrence of personal accident. +nother issue we need to tac,le is that, semantically spea,in$, the text a'ove does not refer to (condi-ii. understood as conditions, 'ut as terms (of a contract". ) (Condiii privind asigurarea de accidente persoane i asigurarea medical pentru cltorii n strintate ) #ersonal $ccident and %ravel &edical 'nsurance #lan (nceputul i ncetarea rspunderii /. 01spunderea +si$ur1torului 2ncepe la data men-ionat1 2n poli-1 ca fiind data 2nceperii perioadei de vala'ilitate a asi$ur1rii, dar nu 2nainte de trecerea frontierei -1rii de ori$ine, pentru efectuarea c1l1toriei 2n str1in1tate 3i 2ncetea%1 la data expir1rii perioadei de vala'ilitate 2nscris1 pe poli-a de asi$urare sau din momentul 2n care +si$uratul trece $rani-a 2n -ara de ori$ine.. Literal translation 4 (The #nsurer&s lia'ility 'e$ins on the date desi$nated in the policy as the date of commencement of the insurance validity period, 'ut not 'efore the #nsured crosses the 'order of the country of ori$in, in order to ta,e the trip a'road 4 and ends on the expiry

date of the validity period written on the policy or at the moment 4 the #nsured crosses the 'order to his country of ori$in..4 ) The head noun is (rspundere.. This is the first pro'lem that arises. #n (icionar rom)n engle* +omanian-,nglish dictionary (Levi-chi, 566/ /50" the only translation we can find is responsibility[i]. 7i8 responsibility n. a duty to deal with or ta,e care of s'9sth, so that you may 'e 'lamed if sth $oes wron$ (:xford +dvanced ;enie <= 0:>". :ne will also come across some of the most common phrases in which the word occurs. ?anta3 and @1stasescu&s (ictionar ,conomic engle*-rom)n rom)n-engle* (200! A!B" provides another alternative C liability[ii], which is sli$htly 'etter, 'ut still not $ood enou$h. 7ii8 liable adD. the state of 'ein$ le$ally responsi'le for sth (:xford +dvanced ;enie <= 0:>". +t this point we have to ac,nowled$e the existence of a different (semantic world. of 'usiness and economics. We ,now that the main function of an insurer is to (cover risks. C an insurance-specific collocate, less frequent in other $enres. The noun equivalent would consequently 'e (coverage[i].. The meanin$ of (rspundere. is not that the #nsurer is or may 'e held responsi'le for the dama$e that occurs, 'ut that they underta,e to pay 'enefits in case of an accident. 7i8 coverage n. the ran$e or scale of protection $iven to the insured under an insurance policy (+dam, 56/6 5E0". (-nceputul. 7F beginning, outset. commencement. start (in Levitchi, 56// EGGH ?antas I @astasescu, 200! A!B"8 is pro'a'ly 'est translated 'y beginning. (-ncetarea. 7F ceasing. cessation (in Levitchi, 56// EGG"8 may 'e a$ain pro'lematic. @either of the two translations found in the dictionary seems appropriate. #n the 'usiness lexis, a contract is usually terminated or annulled (cf. ?usiness <ollocations *n$lish-0omanian =ictionary, Jopescu-Kurnea I Toma, 200! A6". +n insurance policy e/pires. Limilarly, the ris, covera$e will e/pire. ) ((ata nceperii perioadei de valabilitate a asigurrii.7i8 is a lexical unit in its own ri$ht and this is how we should try and translate it. ) ($sigurarea. (F insurance" in this context refers, o'viously, to the insurance policy, which, 'y definition, is a contract. We ,now that in *n$lish, a contract comes into effect on a certain date. Within the same thematic and semantic area, a date will therefore 'ecome effective. ) 7i8 literal translation the date of commencement of the insurance validity period (&enionat in poli.7i8 and (nscris pe polia de asigurare. (synonymous phrases in 0omanian" refer to the le$ality of the dates in question. The *n$lish le$al lan$ua$e norms impose the use of a stoc, phrase (under this policy..

7i8 literal translation mentioned"designated in the insurance policy ) The other lexical units are, hopefully, not so difficult to translate ) (a trece frontiera"grania. F (cross the frontier"border.H

(ara de origine. F (home country. ((country of origin. (F literal translation" is rather used in connection with export $oods". BEGINNING AND EXPIRATI N ! " #ERAGE /. <overa$e shall 'e$in on the effective date of covera$e under this policy, 'ut not 'efore the #nsured crosses the 'order of the home country in order to travel a'road and shall end on the expiry date of covera$e under this policy, or at the moment the #nsured returns to his home country7i8.. 7i8 one should note the difference in the num'er of words used in the two translated texts (which, althou$h not essential, may contri'ute to 'etter reada'ility" in the first case there are A6 words as compared to E/ in the second. The L5 text counts A5 words. (The #nsurer&s lia'ility 'e$ins on the date desi$nated in the policy as the date of commencement of the insurance validity period, 'ut not 'efore the #nsured crosses the 'order of the country of ori$in, in order to ta,e the trip a'road 4 and ends on the expiry date of the validity period written on the policy or at the moment 4 the #nsured crosses the 'order to his country of ori$in..4 ) +nalyse the L5 text in terms of meanin$ful lexical units. ) Translate these lexical chun,s and chec, their colloca'ility and semantic appropriateness. ) +nalyse the paradi$matic equivalence of the two texts. >a,e any chan$es that are required 'y the L2 morpholo$ical and syntactical norms. ) 0eview the different textual9discourse elements that are conducive to an even 'etter9su'tler L2 renderin$. ) ;o over the L2 text a$ain and scrutini%e it $lo'ally. Mave it chec,ed, if possi'le, 'y a native spea,er9*n$lish teacher9'usiness specialist. Nou may, even 'etter, try to create corpora of specialist texts in the ori$inal lan$ua$e written 'y professionals in that particular field you have to ma,e translations. $sin% co&puters 'or translation purposes ) Osin$ a we' search en$ine ) Osin$ a concordancer ) >achine translation (5" ?a,u$an ?attle ?rawlers are action-fi$ure warriors, that are tuc,ed into spheres that pop open when theyPre rolled onto a $ame card, where they $ather points. The definition we can find on TheKree=ictionary is (ra)l intr v 'rawled, 'rawlin$, 'rawls 5. to quarrel or fi$ht noisily. 2. to flow noisily, as waterH (ra)ler n a fi$hter (especially one who participates in 'rawls". #t stands to reason that a warrior 'rawls in a 'attle. #n such cases it is useful to resort to a localised We' search en$ine li,e ;oo$le 0omania, which can help retrieve relevant national We' pa$es with the accepted translations for the term we need. (5" Lupt1torii ?a,u$an sunt fi$urine ascunse 2n sfere care explodea%1 atunci cQnd sunt aruncate pe c1r-ile de Doc, unde acumulea%1 puncte. (2" =ac1 2n str1in1tate cer3im de foame, acas1 am aDuns s1 Rne$ociemR cu marile companii din domeniul petrolului de frica fri$ului. Si asta pentru c1 $uvernan-ii s-au

tre%it 2n pra$ de iarn1 surprin3i de avalan3a pre-urilor la $a%ele naturale, care tinde s1 2n$roape speran-ele multora dintre romQni de a trece cu 'ine peste se%onul rece. (2&" #f a'road we 'e$ of hun$er, at home we&ve come to (ne$otiate. with the 'i$ companies in the oil field for fear of cold. +nd this 'ecause $overnors wo,e up at the 'e$innin$ of winter surprised 'y the avalanche of prices for natural $ases which tends to 'ury the hopes of many 0omanians to $et well over the cold season. Kirst of all, the literal translation of Tcer3im de foame. - (we 'e$ of hun$er. may sound aw,ward, and the translator may want to chec, in a concordancer 'ased on lar$e corpus how the ver' Uto 'e$& is used 'y native spea,ers.

+s can 'e seen from the a'ove selection, the phrase Uhavin$ to 'e$ for food& is used in a similar context, referrin$ to starvation and poverty. <onversely, the phrase U$overnors wo,e up at the 'e$innin$ of winter surprised 'y the avalanche of prices for natural $ases& does not seem to sound too native-li,e. + simple search throu$h the ?@< corpus would return more natural associations Usurprised to find9see&.

>oreover, the expression Uavalanche of prices& needs improvement too. :ur search throu$h a concordancer would return the collocation Usoarin$ prices&, which would retain the meanin$ in 0omanian, and would at the same time sound more appropriate.

(2&&" #f a'road we 'e$ for food, at home we&ve come to (ne$otiate. with the 'i$ companies in the oil field for fear of cold. +nd this is 'ecause at the 'e$innin$ of winter our $overnors were surprised to see the soarin$ prices of natural $ases, which tend to crush9,ill off the hopes of many 0omanians to successfully withstand the cold season. =ac1 2n str1in1tate cer3im de foame, acas1 am aDuns s1 Rne$ociemR cu marile companii din domeniul petrolului de frica fri$ului. The ;oo$le Translate facility (V2006 ;oo$le" will provide the followin$ translation #f a'road 'e$$in$ hun$er at home have come to Rne$otiateR with 'i$ oil companies in the field of cold fear. A &odel o' translation co&petence

Lan%ua%e learnin% process* ) Lin$uistic competence ) #ntercultural competence ) Lociolin$uistic competence ) Jra$matic competence Translation co&petence* content-,nowled$e competence (economics, finance, medicine, law, etc.", #<T competence (hardware, operatin$ system environment, pac,a$es used Windows, Trados, etc., the #nternet"H ) monitorin$ competence (awareness of the quality of translations made" and ) research competence (the a'ility to resort to 'i'lio$raphic and lexico$raphic resources". Peda%o%ic i&plications 'or teac+in% translation ) )

- ;iven the fact that lan$ua$e is a dynamic phenomenon, chan$es that occur are intrinsically lin,ed to the social and cultural reality of the community that spea,s a certain lan$ua$e. - We were actually witnessin$ the creation of a (crisis lexicon. in *n$lish and 0omanian (with social and cultural loads", however different from each other, dependin$ on the lan$ua$e users& perceptions and attitudes towards the events. Business &etap+ors 'ro& t+e reli%ious re%ister +T TM* annual pil%ri&a%e to =avos last month, politicians were united in a$reement the 'i$$est dan$er facin$ the world economy is protectionism. >any of the &ountaintop ser&ons pic,ed out the ris, of financial mercantilism, a reflux of capital from forei$n mar,ets to home ones. ;ordon ?rown, ?ritain&s prime minister, preac+ed a$ainst a (retreat into domestic lendin$ and domestic financial mar,ets.. Pa,in% t+e Piper

F to accept the unpleasant results of somethin$ you have doneH pay the price Jlatind (suflatorul. +chitarea datoriilor =upa fapta si rasplata9Luportarea consecintelor (0asplata. pentru $reselile comise9 =upa fapta si rasplataW + plati un pret 9 + suporta consecintele <um 2-i a3terni a3a dormi 9 =up1 plat1 3i r1splat1 9 +cceptarea consecin-elor Luportand consecintele XnfruntQnd consecin-ele Jlata oalelor sparte Jlata r1scump1r1rii

<appin$ the non-equity-'ased remuneration of executives in companies receivin$ (exceptional assistance. at YE00,000 a year and 'annin$ ($olden parachutes. for failed executives is li,ely to stri,e most +mericans as fair, or even $enerous, $iven that >r :'ama himself earns a mere YG00,000 and the rules will apply only to new 'ail-outs.

The expression ($olden parachute. is exactly a crisis-related newly coined term. #n 0omanian it would 'e inappropriate to translate literally, as (para3ut1. in slan$ refers to a fallen woman. + few of the students understood this cultural inadequacy and tried to find 'etter renditions