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\usepackage{amsmath}
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\theoremstyle{plain}
\theoremstyle{definition}
\newtheorem{teor}{\textbf{Teorema}}[section]
\newtheorem{ley}{LEY}[section]
\newtheorem{defin}{Definicion}[section]
\newtheorem{lema}{Lema}[section]
\newtheorem{axio}{Axioma}[section]
\newtheorem{propie}{Propiedad}[section]
\title{\textbf{TRABAJO FINAL DE ANLISIS MATEMTICO}}
\author{WILLIAM FRANCISGO GALEANO CUERVO\\Cod: 20071167014\\e-mail: williamgalea
nocuervo@hotmail.com}
\date{ Proyecto Curricular de Matemticas\\Universidad Distrital\\Junio 02 de 2011
}
\begin{document}
\maketitle
\tableofcontents
\newpage
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{\textbf{INTRODUCCION.}}
En el transcurso del tiempo se han presentado problemas los cuales hicieron que
muchas civilizaciones desarrollaran teoras matemticas como por ejemplo, Las matemti
cas en el Antiguo Egipto constituyeron una rama que se desarroll para estudiar t
odo lo que existe.
\\\\
Y se puede decir que en el desarrollo de la humanidad hubo problemas como la def
inicin de nmero, el orden de los nmeros, la existencia del cero, la introduccin de l
os nmeros reales y su uso.
\\\\
El anlisis matemtico estudia conceptos relacionados con los nmeros reales, en este
trabajo se ver el desarrollo del anlisis matemtico relacionndolo con la solucin de un
problema fsico, solucin que da paso a realizar muchas preguntas e interrogantes q
ue se trataran a partir de conceptos matemticos.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\section{\textbf{RESUMEN DEL TRABAJO.}}
El presente trabajo muestra lo desarrollado a lo largo del semestre en el curso
de anlisis matemtico.
\\\\
Como se sabe se comenz a trabajar con un problema inicial (Un cuerpo cae desde u

na altura constante H Natalia afirma que se puede calcular la velocidad instantne


a usando la velocidad media). Problema con el cual se comenz a buscar un modelo
matemtico para analizar esta situacin fsica, la primera manera en que se atac esta s
ituacin fue por medio de un desarrollo terico-experimental, donde se realiz una ser
ie de experimentos con los cuales se conjeturaron patrones sobre las ecuaciones
que rigen estos movimientos, con este desarrollo se verificaban teoras fsicas d
el movimiento, velocidad y aceleracin , utilizando la teora fsica (leyes de Newton,
ley de gravitacin universal y ecuaciones de la cinemtica), despus de lograr esto s
e analiz el proceso matemtico que ayuda a verificar la valides y formalidad del pr
oceso realizado para dar solucin al problema inicial al cual luego se le agrego u
n problema adicional para hacerlo ms interesante (lanzando el cuerpo hacia arriba
).
\\\\
Luego de haber echo este anlisis resultaron ms preguntas como (funcin continua) y s
e trabajaron conceptos de clculo diferencial e integral (criterios para poder rea
lizar integracin de funciones) vistos de una manera formalista.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
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\section{\textbf{DESARROLLO DEL TRABAJO.}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{\textbf{Razonamiento para desarrollar el problema inicial}}
Cuando lanzamos un cuerpo hacia arriba, este despus de determinado tiempo llega a
una altura $H$ mxima. Luego comienza a caer verificaremos que en este punto, $H$
mximo la velocidad es igual a cero ya que en un instante $t$ mnimo este no tiene
movimiento y en este momento $t$ comienza a caer; Como vimos en el problema ante
rior en el que el cuerpo solamente cae desde una altura $H$ se pueden encontrar
la velocidad instantnea con solo la velocidad media dada por $\frac{\Delta H}{2}$
; en este problema veremos que la velocidad media es igual a cero ya que el desp
lazamiento total en $H$ est dado por $\Delta H$ este est dado por
\begin{center}
$\Delta H={H}_{i}-{H}_{f}$
\end{center}
Pero ${H}_{i}={H}_{f}$, por ley de la suma en los nmeros reales (la cual mirarem
os ms adelante) $\frac{\Delta H}{2}= 0 $
\\\\
Este problema se puede tratar desde el estudio, del movimiento en cada libre, el
movimiento que realiza el cuerpo se puede ver como una parbola en un plano, el tr
azo de esta parbola dependera de el movimiento en el eje Y que sera la altura y el
tiempo que le tomara subir y bajar estara descrito por el eje X.
\\
Para el trato de este problema tendremos en cuenta.
\begin{enumerate}
\item La aceleracin es constante y el valor es igual al valor de la gravedad.
\item Se desprecia la resistencia del aire.
\end{enumerate}
La primera se demostrar con ayuda de la Ley de gravitacin universal de Newton la s
egunda se toma como cierta ya que el problema fue planteado as, de esta forma lo
primero que se realizara es el desarrollo experimental, luego mencionare, leyes,
definiciones, teoremas y lemas, luego se demostraran los teoremas que se necesi
tan para la solucin del problema.\\
Despus de tener claros tales teoremas desde la parte fsica se trataran ms analticame
nte con los axiomas de los nmeros reales y ms elementos matemticos que hacen de est
e problema una base para el estudio del anlisis matemtico.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{\textbf{Desarrollo experimental.}}
\begin{multicols}{2}
Datos del experimento.
\begin{center}

\begin{tabular}{| c | r |}
\hline
Tiempo ($\frac{s}{10}$)& Distancia (cm)\\
\hline
0&0\\
\hline
10&36.54\\
\hline
20&64.7\\
\hline
36&92.71\\
\hline
38&94\\
\hline
40&96.31\\
\hline
70&80.32\\
\hline
82&52.7\\
\hline
95&9.24\\
\hline
97&1.3\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
De donde realizando interpolacin se obtuvo la siguiente ecuacin:
\begin{center}
$y = -0.042{x}^{2} + 4.08739x$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{foto1.png}
\end{center}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{\textbf{Conceptos bsicos para el desarrollo terico.}}
\justifying
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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
A continuacin se enunciaran leyes y definiciones, herramientas las cuales darn ayu
da a la solucin del problema tratado.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{ley}{Ley de gravitacion universal de Newton.}
Cada particula del universo atrae a las demas con una fuerza proporcional al cua
drado inverzo de la distanca y proporcianal al producto de sus masas. Esta fuerz
a actua en la linea recta que une las dos particulas. de este modo la Ley de la
gravedad establece que si las particulas tienen masas ${m}_{1}$ y ${m}_{2}$, y e
stan separadas
por una distancia \textit{r}, la magnitud de esta fuerza gravitacional es:
\begin{center}
${\textbf{F}}_{g}= G \frac{{m}_{1}{m}_{2}}{{\textit{r}}^{2}}$
\end{center}
\end{ley}
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\begin{ley}{\textbf{Primera ley de Newton.}}
Todo cuerpo persevera su estado de reposo o movimiento uniforme y rectilneo a no
ser que sea obligado a cambiar su estado por fuerzas impresas sobre el.
\end{ley}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\begin{ley}{\textbf{Segunda ley de Newton.}}


la aceleracicon de un objeto es directamente proporcional a la fuerza neta que a
ctua sobre el e inversamente proporcional a su masa.
$$\sum \textbf{F}=ma$$
\end{ley}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}{\textbf{Velocidad promedio.}}
Se define la velocidad promedio del cuerpo durante el intervalo de tiempo $\Delt
a t$ como el desplazamiento $\Delta H$ del cuerpo dividido entre el intervalo de
tiempo:
\begin{center}
$\bar{V}=\frac{\Delta H}{\Delta t} $
\end{center}
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}{\textbf{Aceleracin promedio.}}
La aceleracion promedio de una particula cuando se mueve de una posicicion a otr
a se define como el cambio del vector
velocidad instantanea,v,dividido entre el tiempo t durante el cual ocurrio dicho
cambio:
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}{\textbf{Aceleracin instantnea}}
La aceleracion instantanea, $a$, se define como el valor limite de la relacin cu
ando \textbf{$\Delta t$} tiende a $0$; es decir es la
derivada del vector velocidad con respecto al tiempo:
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}{\textbf{Caida libre.}}
Un objeto en caida libre es cualquier objeto que se mueve libremente solo bajo l
a influencia de la gravedad. Los objetos que se lanzan hacia arriba o hacia abaj
o y los que se liberan del reposo estan todos en caida libre una vez se liberan.
Cualquier objeto en caida libre experimenta una aceleracion dirigida hacia abaj
o sin importar su movimiento inicial.
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Como es bien sabido las leyes y definiciones no se demuestran.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{\textbf{Teoremas fsicos.}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{teor}[]
En cada libre la aceleracin es constante.Y es igual a
$$9.8\frac{m}{{s}^{2}}$$
\end{teor}
Demostracion: sea $m$ la masa del cuerpo el cual es lanzado hacia arriba y $M$ l
a masa de la tierra, usando la Ley de gravitacion universal de Newton tenemos qu
e
${\textbf{F}}_{Mm}= -G \frac{Mm}{{\textit{r}}^{2}} $
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{teor}[]
Si un cuerpo est en cada libre, entonces la velocidad final est dada por:
\begin{center}
$V=V_{0}-gt$, con $V_{0}$ velocidad inicial.
\end{center}
\end{teor}
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\begin{teor}[]
Si un cuerpo est en cada libre, entonces la velocidad media esta dada por:
\begin{center}
$ V_{m}=\frac{V+V_{0}}{2}$.

\end{center}
\end{teor}
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\begin{teor}[]
El rea bajo la curva de V(t) es igual a la distancia recorrida.
\begin{center}
$\Delta x=(\frac{V+V_{0}}{2})t $
\end{center}
\end{teor}
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\begin{teor}[]
Si un cuerpo est en cada libre, entonces la distancia en x est dada por:
\begin{center}
$\Delta x=V_{0}t-(\frac{g{t}^{2}}{2})t $
\end{center}
\end{teor}
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\begin{teor}[]
Si un cuerpo est en cada libre, entonces la distancia en x est dada por:
\begin{center}
${v}^{2}={V_{0}}^{2}-2g\Delta x $
\end{center}
\end{teor}
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La demostracin de estos teoremas se omite ya que esta teora se encuentra en libros
de fsica como SERWAY, Raymond A. libro que se menciona en la bibliografa.
\\\\
A decir verdad estos teoremas son las ecuaciones de la cinemtica con las cuales s
e puede dar solucin al problema tratado, pero an nos falta ver la base matemtica en
la cual se sostienen estos teoremas fsicos.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
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\subsection{\textbf{Teoremas matemticos para sustentacin del desarrollo terico.}}
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A continuacin se vern lemas y teoremas del anlisis matemtico y del clculo los cuales
nos dirn porque se pueden hacer diversas operaciones con nmeros las cuales vimos e
n los teoremas fsicos.
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\begin{lema}[]
Si $a,b,c$ pertenecen a $\mathbb{R}$ entonces tenemos las siguientes propiedades
:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Si $a*c=b*c$ entonces $a=b$
\item Si $c*a=c*b$ entonces $a=b$
\end{enumerate}
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracion}.
\newline
Dado $c \in \mathbb{R} $ existe ${c}^{-1}\in \mathbb{R}$ tal que $c*{c}^{-1}=1$
, donde $1$ es el modulo de la multiplicacin en $\mathbb{R}$, definido como $\fra
c{1}{c}$ por axiomas cuerpo en los nmeros reales, tenemos $(a*c)*(\frac{1}{c})= (
b*c)*(\frac{1}{c})$ por propiedades de la igualdad. Por axiomas de los nmeros rea
les la operacin multiplicacin es asociativa por lo tanto $a*(c*\frac{1}{c})= b*(c*
\frac{1}{c})$; de aqu deducimos $a=b$. De manera similar se demuestra para la par
te 2.
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\begin{teor}[]
g es un nmero real.
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracion}.
Sean $F,G, M ,m ,r$ nmeros reales, por tanto, ya que los nmeros reales son un cuer
po, ${r}^{2}$ ser un numero real, por existencia de inversos segn la multiplicacin
en los nmeros reales $\frac{1}{{r}^{2}}$ es un numero real, por tanto ya que $F
=\frac{-GMm}{{r}^{2}}$ y por segunda ley de newton $F=-mg$,usando el axioma de
orden de los nmeros reales de transitividad para la igualdad $-mg=\frac{-GMm}{{r}
^{2}}$ Aplicando propiedad cancelativa para el producto se tiene $g=\frac{GM}{{r
}^{2}}$ Ya que $\mathbb{R}$ es un cuerpo con cerradura para el producto por tant
o $g$ es un numero real.
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\begin{teor}[2.2]
Sean $v, {v}_{0}, t, g$ nmeros reales si $\frac{v-{v}_{0}}{t}=-g$, entonces $v={v
}_{0}-gt$ .
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracion}.
\newline
\newline
Sea $\frac{v-{v}_{0}}{t}=-g$ ya que $t$ es un nmero real, por tanto usando la exi
stencia de inversos $\frac{1}{t}$ es un elemento de los nmeros reales, siendo $
t$ diferente de nulo. aplicando producto de $t$ a ambos miembros de la igualdad
$v-{v}_{0}=-gt$. Usando a ambos lados de la igualdad el inverso de $-{v}_{0}$ se
gun la suma , ${v}_{0}$ se obtiene
\begin{center}
$v={v}_{0}-gt$.
\end{center}
Quedando demostrado .
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\begin{teor}[]
Sean ${v}_{m},v ,{v}_{0},x, {x}_{0}$, entonces
\begin{center}
$x-{x}_{0}=(\frac{v+{v}_{0}}{2})t$
\end{center}
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracion}.
\newline
\newline
Dado $\frac{\Delta x}{t}=\frac{v+{v}_{0}}{2}$ ya que $t$ es un numero real y $t$
es no nulo por tanto $x-{x}_{0}=(\frac{v+{v}_{0}}{2})t$. (Ya que el inverso de
$t$ es $\frac{1}{t}$) .Quedando demostrado.
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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{teor}[2.4]
Sean $v,{v}_{0},g$ y $t$ nmeros reales si $v={v}_{0}-gt$, entonces $\frac{v-{v}_{
0}}{-g}=t$
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracion}.
\newline

\newline
Sea $v={v}_{0}-gt$, entonces por existencia de inversos para la suma $v-{v}_{0}=
-gt$ y como $g$ es un numero diferente del cero, tiene como inverso $\frac{1}{g}
$ segn el producto por tanto $\frac{v-{v}_{0}}{-g}=t$. Quedando demostrado el teo
rema.
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\begin{lema}[]
La funcin $V_{t}=at$ con $a \in \mathbb{R}$ es continua en el intervalo $[0,t_{f}
]$
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracion}.
\newline
\newline Tomemos $c \in [0,tf]$;evaluemos $c$ en la $v(t)$,$v(c) =ac$ existe ya
que esta es una funcin de valores reales y $ac \in \mathbb{R}$
Por la definicin de limite de una funcin se debe demostrar que para cualquier $\ep
silon > 0$ existe $\delta >0$ tal que si $|t-c|<\delta$ entonces $|at-ac|<\epsil
on$.
Digamos que $\delta = \frac{\epsilon}{|a|}$, entonces
$|t-c|< \frac{\epsilon}{|a|}$
$|a||t-c|<\epsilon$
Por propiedades del valor absoluto $|at-ac|<\epsilon$
Con lo cual demostramos que el limite existe y tiende a $v(c)=ac$. Debido a esto
$v(t)=at$ es continua en el intervalo $[0,tf ]$.
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\begin{teor}[]
Si la funcin $V(t)=at$ con $a \in \mathbb{R}$ entonces $\int_0^x V(t)=\frac{{t}^{
2}}{2}$
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracion}.
\begin{multicols}{2}
Por lema anterior $V(t)$ es una funcion continua en el intervalo cerrado $[0,x ]
$
Definimos
\begin{center}
$\int_0^x V(t)\Delta_{t} = \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} $$ \displaystyle\sum_
{n=1}^{n}a\Delta_{t}$$ $
\end{center}
\begin{center}
Donde $\Delta_{t}=\frac{t}{n}$ con $n\neq 0$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} $$ a \displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{n}\frac{t}{n}\Del
ta_{t}$$ $
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} $$ \displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{n}i\frac{t}{n}^{2}
$$ $
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{t}{n}^{2}$$ \displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{n}i
$$ $
\end{center}
\begin{center}
Por propiedades de la sumatoria

\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{t}{n}^{2}\frac{n(n+1)}{2}$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{t^{2}}{n^{2}}\frac{({n}^{2}+n)}{2}$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{t^{2}}{2n^{2}}+\frac{({{t}^{2}n})}{2n^{2
}}$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{n^{2}t^{2}}{2n^{2}}+\frac{({{t}^{2}n})}{
2n^{2}}$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
Por propiedades de limites
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{t^{2}}{2}+0$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$a \frac{t^{2}}{2}$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
Por lo tanto
\end{center}
\begin{center}
$\int_0^x V(t)\Delta_{t} =a \frac{t^{2}}{2}$
\end{center}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{teor}[]
Si la funcin $a(t)=a$ con $a \in \mathbb{R}$ entonces $\int_0^x V(t)=at$
\end{teor}
(La demostracin de este teorema se omite) .
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\section{\textbf{PREGUNTAS QUE SURGEN DEL DESARROLLO DEL PROBLEMA INICIAL.}}


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Luego de haber dado una solucin al problema inicial se dieron interrogantes como
continuidad de una funcin, por qu se puede integrar una funcin, cuando es integrabl
e una funcin cuando no y bajo qu criterios se cumple esto, tambin se analiz la soluc
in del problema inicial en el caso que el movimiento del cuerpo hubiera sido en
dos dimensiones, anlisis el cual dio como interrogante la definicin de la funcin s
eno y coseno, interrogantes que sern expuesto ms adelante.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{\textbf{Axiomas, propiedades y definiciones.}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\title{\textbf{AXIOMAS DE CUERPO.}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{axio}
$x+y=y+x,$ $xy=yx$.
\end{axio}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{axio}
$x+(y+z)=(y+x)+z,$ $x(yz)=(yx)z$.
\end{axio}
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\begin{axio}
$x(y+z)=xy+xz$
\end{axio}
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\begin{axio}
La existencia del opuesto de $x$ que es $-x$.
\end{axio}
\begin{axio}
La existencia del reciproco o inverso de $x$ que es $\frac{1}{x}$.
\end{axio}
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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\title{\textbf{AXIOMAS DE ORDEN.}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{axio}
Se verifica una y solo una de las relaciones $x=y$, $x<y$, $x>y$.
Y $x>y$ significa lo mismo que $y<x$.
\end{axio}
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\begin{axio}
Si $x>0$, entonces, para cada $z$, es $x+z<y+z$.
Y $x>y$ significa lo mismo que $y<x$
\end{axio}
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\begin{axio}
Si $x>0$ e $y>0$ entonces $xy>0$
\end{axio}
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\begin{axio}
Si $x>y$ e $y>z$ entonces $x>z$
\end{axio}
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\begin{axio}
Todo conjunto no vaco $S$ de nmeros reales que este acotado superiormente admite u
n supremo; es decir, existe un nmero real $b$ tal que $b=Sup S$.\\

\end{axio}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
A continuacin se dan propiedades y definicones conocidas del clculo las cuales ayud
an a explicar la continuidad de una funcin.
\\
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{propie}{\textbf{PROPIEDAD DE ARQUMEDES.}}
Si $x>0$ y si es nmero real arbitrario, existe un entero positivo $n$ tal que $n
x>y$.
$x,y,z\in{\mathbb{R}}$.
\end{propie}
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\begin{defin}
La funcin $f$ tiende hacia el lmite $\textsl{l}$ en a significa: para todo $\epsil
on > 0$ existe algn $\delta >0$ tal que, para todo x, si $0<|x-a|<\delta$, enton
ces $|f(x)-\textsl{l}|<\epsilon$.
\end{defin}
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\begin{defin}
$\displaystyle\lim_{x\to a^{+}}=\textsl{l}$ significa que para todo $\epsilon>0$
existe un $\delta>0$ tal que, para todo x,
si $0<x-a<\delta$, entonces $|f(x)-\textsl{l}|<\epsilon$
\end{defin}
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\begin{defin}
$\displaystyle\lim_{x\to a^{-}}=\textsl{l}$ significa que para todo $\epsilon>0$
existe un $\delta>0$ tal que, para todo x,
si $0<x-a<\delta$, entonces $|f(x)-\textsl{l}|<\epsilon$
\end{defin}
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\begin{defin}
La continuidad en un intervalo cerrado se define para una funcin $f$ en $[a,b]$
si:
\begin{enumerate}
\item $f$ es continua en $x$ para todo $x$ de $(a,b)$.
\item $\displaystyle\lim_{x\to a^{+}} f(x)=f(a)$ y $\displaystyle\lim_{x\to b^{
-}} f(x)=f(b)$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{defin}
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\begin{defin}{\textbf{DEFINICIN DE PARTICIONES.}}
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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Si $I:[a,b]$ es un intervalo acotado, cerrado en $\mathbb{R}$, entonces una part
icin de $I$ es un conjunto finito ordenado $P=({x}_{0},{x}_{1},...,{x}_{n-1},{x}_
{n})$ de puntos en $I$ tales que
\begin{center}
$a={x}_{0}<{x}_{1}<...<{x}_{n-1}<{x}_{n}=b$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
${I}_{1}=[{x}_{0},{x}_{1}]$,${I}_{2}=[{x}_{1},{x}_{2}]$,...,${I}_{n}=[{x}_{n-1},

{x}_{n}]$
\end{center}
Se define la norma(o retcula) de $P$ como el nmero
\begin{center}
$||P||= max\left\{{x}_{0}-{x}_{1},...,{x}_{n-1}-{x}_{n}\right\}$
\end{center}
Se selecciona un punto ${t}_{i}$ de cada subintervalo ${I}_{i}=[{x}_{i-1},{x}_{
i}]$ para $i=1,...,n$ , a estos puntos se les llama etiquetas de los subinterval
os ${I}_{i}$
\newline
A un conjunto de pares ordenados
\begin{center}
$\dot{P}={\left\{[{x}_{i-1},{x}_{i}],{t}_{i}\right\}}_{i=1}^n $
\end{center}
Son llamados particin etiquetada de $I$
\newline
Si $\dot{P}$ es una particin etiquetada, la suma de Riemann de una funcin \newline
$f:[a,b]\Rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ correspondiente a $\dot{P}$ como el nmero:
\begin{center}
$S(f;\dot{P}):=\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{n} f({t}_{i})({x}_{i-1},{x}_{i})$
\end{center}
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}{\textbf{DEFINICIN DE LA INTEGRAL DE RIEMANN.}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Se dice que una funcin $f:[a,b]\Rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ es Riemann integrable en $
[a,b]$ si existe un nmero $L \in \mathbb{R}$ tal que para toda $\epsilon>0$ exist
e ${\delta}_{\epsilon} > 0$ tal que si $P$ es cualquier particin etiquetada de $[
a'b]$ con $||P||< {\delta}_{\epsilon}$ entonces
\begin{center}
$|S(f;\dot{P})|< \epsilon$
\end{center}
el conjunto de todas las funciones Riemann integrables en $[a,b]$ se denotar por
$\Re [a,b]$
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}
Una funcin $f$ acotada sobre $[a,b]$ es Riemann integrable sobre $[a,b]$ si: sup
\{ $L(f,P)$: $P$ es una particin de $[a,b]$ \}=inf \{$U(f,P)$: $P$ es una partic
in de $[a,b]$ \}. En este caso, este nmero comn recibe el nombre de integral de $f$
sobre $[a,b]$ se denota por $$\int_a^b f$$
\end{defin}
\begin{defin}
Si $f$ es una funcin acotada cualquiera sobre $[a,b]$, entonces: $$sup\{L(f,P)\}=
L\int_a^b f $$
\newline
$$inf\{U(f,P)\} = U \int_a^b f $$
Adems existirn ambos aunque $f$ no sea integrable.
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}
Una funcin $f$ acotada sobre $[a,b]$ es Riemann integrable sobre $[a,b]$ si: sup
\{ $L(f,P)$: $P$ es una particin de $[a,b]$ \}=inf \{$U(f,P)$: $P$ es una partic
in de $[a,b]$ \}. En este caso, este nmero comn recibe el nombre de integral de $f$

sobre $[a,b]$ se denota por $$\int_a^b f$$


\end{defin}
\begin{defin}
Si $f$ es una funcin acotada cualquiera sobre $[a,b]$, entonces: $$sup\{L(f,P)\}=
L\int_a^b f $$
\newline
$$inf\{U(f,P)\} = U \int_a^b f $$
Adems existirn ambos aunque $f$ no sea integrable.
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\subsection{\textbf{TEOREMAS MATEMTICOS}}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%
Ac enunciaremos teoremas y lemas los cuales son respuesta a las preguntas e inter
rogantes que queremos responder.
\\
Varios de los rboles de demostraciones son los mismos que fueron mostrados en la
exposicin grupal.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\begin{teor}
Si $f\in \Re [a,b]$, entonces el valor de la integral se encuentra determinado d
e manera nica.
\end{teor}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\textbf{Demostracin.}
\newline
Supongamos que $L^{'}\neq L^{''}=\displaystyle\int_{a}^{b} fdx$ y sea $\epsilon>
0$. Entonces existe ${\delta}_{\frac{\epsilon}{2}}$ entonces.
\begin{center}
$|S(f;{\dot{P}}_{1})-L^{'}|<\frac{\epsilon}{2}$
\end{center}
Tambin existe ${\delta ''}_{\frac{\epsilon}{2}}$ tal que si ${\dot{P}}_{2}$ es cu
alquier particin etiquetada con
\begin{center}
$||{\dot{P}}_{2}-L''<\frac{\epsilon}{2}||$
\end{center}
Ahora sea ${\delta}_{\epsilon}=$ min$\left\{ {\delta'}_{\epsilon},{\delta''}_{\e
psilon} \right\}>0$ y sea $\dot{P}$ una particin etiquetada, con $||\dot{P}||<\d
elta_\epsilon$,entonces.
\begin{center}
$|S(f;\dot{P})-L^{'}|<\frac{\epsilon}{2}$ y $|S(f;\dot{P})-L^{''}|<\frac{\epsilo
n}{2}$
\end{center}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
Entonces $|L'-L''|=|L'-S(f;\dot{P})+S(f;\dot{P})+L''|$

\end{center}
Por desigualdad triangular
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$|L'-L''|$&$\leq$& $|L'-S(f;\dot{P})|+|S(f;\dot{P})+L''|$\\
$|L'-L''|$&$<$&$\frac{\epsilon}{2}+\frac{\epsilon}{2}$\\
$|L'-L''|$&$<$&$\epsilon$\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
pero $\epsilon >0$\\
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Teorema 4.2}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\includegraphics[scale=0.44]{Teorema2.png}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $\epsilon >0,\in \mathbb{R}$
\item $g\in \mathbb{R}$
\item $\epsilon = \delta$
\item $|x-a| < \delta$
\item $f(x)=g$
\item $f(a)=g$
\item $|x-a|<\epsilon$
\item $0<|x-a|<\epsilon$
\item Axioma $1$
\item $|0|<\epsilon$
\item $|g-g|<\epsilon$
\item $|f(x)-f(a)|<\epsilon$
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{teor}
Sea $f(x)=g$ una funcin definida de los reales a valor real, en un intervalo cerr
ado $[a,b]$, entonces $f(x)$ es continua en $[a,b]$.
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Sea $ \epsilon > 0$ arbitrario pero fijo. tomemos $ \delta=\epsilon $.
\newline
Supongamos $|x-a|<\delta $
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$|f(x)-f(a)|$&$=$&$|g-g|$\\
&$=$&$0$\\
&$<$&$\epsilon$\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\newpage
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%55
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Teorema 4.3}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{Teorema3.png}
\end{center}

\begin{enumerate}
\item $f(x)=gx+w; f(a)=ga+w$
\item $\epsilon >0,\in \mathbb{R}$
\item $\delta=\frac{\epsilon}{|g|}$
\item $|x-a|<\delta$
\item $w\in\mathbb{R}$
\item $|x-a|<\frac{\epsilon}{|g|}$
\item Axioma $5$
\item $|g||x-a|<\epsilon$
\item Axioma $4$
\item Propiedades de valor absoluto
\item $|gx-ga|<\epsilon$
\item $|gx-ga+w-w|<\epsilon$
\item Axioma $1$ y $2$
\item $|(gx+w)-(ga+w)|<\epsilon$
\item $|f(x)-f(a)|<\epsilon$
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{teor}
Sea $f(x)=gx+w$ con $g$ y $w$ que pertenecen a los reales, $f(x)$ una funcin defi
nida de los reales a valor real, en un intervalo cerrado $[a,b]$, entonces $f$ e
s continua en $[a,b]$.
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Sea $\epsilon>0$ arbitrario. Tomemos.
\newline
$\delta=\frac{\epsilon}{|g|}$. supongamos que $|x-a|<\delta$
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$|f(x)-f(a)|$&$=$&$|(gx+w)-(ga+w)|$\\
&$=$&$|gx+w-ga-w|$\\
&$=$&$|gx-ga|$\\
&$=$&$|g||x-a|$\\
&$<$&$\epsilon$\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\newpage
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Teorema 4.4}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{Teorema4.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $|x-a| \leq 1$
\item $\epsilon \in{\mathbb{R}},\epsilon > o $
\item $\delta = \frac{\epsilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)}$
\item $|x-a| < \delta$
\item $|x+a| \leq |x|+|a|$

\item $|x+a| \leq 2|a|+1$


\item $|x| \leq |a|+1$
\item $|x-a| < \delta = \frac{\epsilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)}$
\item $|g|(2|a|+1)|x-a| < \epsilon $
\item $|g||x+a||x-a| < \epsilon $
\item $|g||x^2-a^2| < \epsilon $
\item $f(x)=gx^2; f(a)=ga^2$
\item $|gx^2-ga^2| < \epsilon $
\item $|f(x)-f(a)| < \epsilon $
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{teor}
Sea $f(x)=gx^2$ una funcin definida de los reales a valor real en un intervalo
cerrado $[a,b]$, entonces $f(x)$ es continua en $[a,b]$.
\end{teor}
\textbf{\textbf{Demostracion 1.}}
Sea $\epsilon >0$ arbitraria. Tomamos $\delta = \frac{\epsilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)} $.
Supongamos que $|x-a|< \delta$.
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$|gx^2-ga^2|$&$=$&$|g||x^2-a^2|$\\
&$=$&$|g||x+a||x-a|$\\
&$<$&$|g|(2|a|+1)|x-a|$\\
&$<$&$\epsilon$\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
Como hemos supuesto que $|x-a|< \frac{\epsilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)}$ y $|x-a|< 1$ debem
os tomar a $\delta$ como el $min(1,\frac{\epsilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)}) $\\\\
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\textbf{\textbf{Demostracion 2.}}
Sea $\varepsilon >|g|(2|a|+1)$. Tomando a $\delta$ como el $min(1,\frac{\vareps
ilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)}) $ llegamos a que $\delta = 1$. Supongamos que $|x-a|< \delta
$.
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$|gx^2-ga^2|$&$=$&$|g||x^2-a^2|$\\
&$=$&$|g||x+a||x-a|$\\
&$<$&$|g| \cdotp 1 \cdotp |x+a|$\\
&$<$&$|g|(2|a|+1)$\\
&$<$&$\epsilon$\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\textbf{\textbf{Demostracion 3.}}
Sea $\epsilon <|g|(2|a|+1)$. Tomando a $\delta$ como el $min(1,\frac{\epsilon}{
|g|(2|a|+1)})$ llegamos a que $\delta = \frac{\epsilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)}$. Supongamo
s que $|x-a|< \delta$.
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$|gx^2-ga^2|$&$=$&$|g||x^2-a^2|$\\
&$=$&$|g||x+a||x-a|$\\
&$<$&$|g| \cdotp \frac{\epsilon}{|g|(2|a|+1)} \cdotp |g|(2|a|+1)$
\\
&$=$&$\epsilon$\\

\end{tabular}
\end{center}
Si tomamos a $\epsilon =|g|(2|a|+1)$. Llegaremos a que $\delta = 1$, lo cual y
a esta demostrado.\\\\
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{teor}
Supngase $f$ integrable sobre $[a,b]$ y que $m\leq f(x)\leq M$ para todo $x$ de $
[a,b]$; entonces: $$m(b-a)\leq \int_a^b f \leq M(b-a)$$
\end{teor}
Teorema 4.5 demostrado en el clculo de M.Spivak 1978, pag 343.\\\\
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{teor}
Si $f(x)$ es continua sobre $[a,b]$, entonces $f(x)$ es Riemann integrable sobr
e $[a,b]$.
\end{teor}
Teorema 4.6 demostracin basada en Spivak 1978, pag 373.\\
\newline
\textbf{Demostracion.}
Sea $L(x)$ y $U(x)$ definidas as:$$L(x)=L \int_a^x f$$ $$U(x)=U \int_a^x f $$ pa
ra $x \in (a,b)$
Si $h>0$ ; definimos $m_h$ = $inf \{ f(t):x \leq t \leq x+h \}$
\newline
$M_h$ = $sup \{ f(t):x \leq t \leq x+h \}$
entonces: $$m_h \cdotp h \leq L \int_x^{x+h} f \leq U \int_x^{x+h} f \leq M_h \c
dotp h $$
De donde $$m_h \leq \frac {L(x+h)-L(x)}{h} \leq \frac {U(x+h)-U(x)}{h} \leq M_
h $$
Del mismo modo si $h<0$ ; definimos $m_h$ = $inf \{ f(t):x+h \leq t \leq x \}$
\newline
$M_h$ = $sup \{ f(t):x+h \leq t \leq x \}$
entonces: $$m_h \cdotp (-h) \leq L \int_{x+h}^x f \leq U \int_{x+h}^x f \leq M_h
\cdotp (-h) $$
De donde $$m_h \leq \frac {L(x+h)-L(x)}{h} \leq \frac {U(x+h)-U(x)}{h} \leq M_
h $$
Como f es continua en x entonces: \\
$$\displaystyle\lim_{h \to{o}}{m_h}=\displaystyle\lim_{h \to{o}}{M_h}=f(x)$$
Por tanto $f(x)=L^{\prime}(x)=U^{\prime}(x)$ $\forall{x}\in{(a,b)}$ \\
Esto es que existe $c$ tal que $U(x)=L(x)+c$ $\forall{x}\in{[a,b]}$.
Y como $L(a)=U(a)=0$ entonces $c=0$ y $U(x)=L(x)$ $\forall{x}\in{[a,b]}$
de donde
$$U \int_a^b f=U(b)=L(b)=L \int_a^b f$$
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Lema 4.1}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.45]{Lema1.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $S \subseteq \mathbb{R}$
\item $S=\{ \frac{1}{n}:n \in{\mathbb{N}} \}$
\item $S\neq \emptyset$
\item $\frac{1}{n} > 0 $

\item S esta acotado superiormente por 0


\item $\forall{\epsilon} > 0 $
\item Propiedad de Arqumedes
\item $\exists{m} \in{\mathbb{N}}$ tal que $\frac{1}{\epsilon}> 0 $
\item $0 \leq \frac{1}{m} < \epsilon$
\item Definicin de nfimo
\item inf $S=0$
\item $t$ no es una cota inferior de $S$
\item $\exists{n_t} \in{\mathbb{N}}$ tal que $ 0< \frac{1}{n_t}< t $
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{lema}
Si $t>0$ existe un $n_t$ que pertenece a los naturales tal que $0<\frac{1}{n_t}<
t$
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Sea $S\subseteq \mathbb{N}$; $S=\{ \frac{1}{n}: n\in {\mathbb{N}}
\wedge n \neq 0\}$.\\
Como $S \neq \emptyset$ y $\frac{1}{n}>0$, $S$ est acotado inferiormente por
$0$, por tanto tiene un nfimo y inf $S\geq 0 $. Para cualquier $\epsilon > 0$
y por la propiedad de Arqumedes $\exists{n}\in{\mathbb{N}}$ tal que $ \frac{1}{\
epsilon}<m$. $$0 \leq \frac{1}{m} < \epsilon $$
Por la definicin de nfimo $0-\epsilon < \frac{1}{m} $ por lo que el inf $S = 0$,
$t>0$ entonces $t$ no es una cota inferior de donde se deduce que existe
$n_t \in{\mathbb{N}}$ tal que $0< \frac{1}{n_t} <t$.
\newpage
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Lema 4.2}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{Lema2.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $y>0$
\item $S_y=\{ m \in{\mathbb{N}} : y \leq m \}$
\item $S_y \subseteq \mathbb{N}$
\item Propiedad del buen orden de los naturales
\item $n_y$ es el minimo de $S_y$
\item Axiomas de Peano
\item $n_y -1 < n_y$
\item $n_y -1 \leq y < n_y$\\\\
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{lema}
Si $y>0$ existe $n_y\in {\mathbb{N} }$ tal que $n_y - 1\leq y< n_y$.
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Se define $S_y=\{ m\in {\mathbb{N} }: y\leq m\}$, como $S_y \subseteq \mathbb{N}
$ por el principio del buen orden $S_y$ tiene un elemento mnimo $n_y$.\\
Por los axiomas de peano y como $y>0$ existe $n_y -1 < n_y$. Pero como $n_y$ es
menor natural mayor a $y$, $n_y -1 \notin S_y$, por tanto $$n_y-1<y<n_y$$

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\newpage
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Lema 4.3}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{Lema3.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $x<y$ y $x>0$
\item $y-x>0$
\item Lema 1
\item $\frac{1}{n}< y-x$
\item Axioma 5
\item $\frac{1}{n}<y-x$; $1<{ny-nx}$; $1+nx<ny$
\item $nx>0$
\item Lema 2
\item $m-1\leq nx<m$; $m\leq nx+1$
\item $m\leq nx+1<ny$
\item $nx<m<ny$
\item $x<\frac{m}{n}<y$
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{lema}
Si $x$, $y$ son nmeros reales cualesquiera con $x<y$, entonces existe un nmero rac
ional $r$ tal que $x<r<y$.
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
\begin{multicols}{2}
Si $x<y$ y sin perder generalidad $x>0$, $y-x>o$,y por el lema 1
$\exists{n}\in{\mathbb{N}}$ tal que $\frac{1}{n}<y-x$.De donde:
$$\frac{1}{n}<y-x$$
$$1<ny-nx$$
$$1+nx<ny$$
Ademas $nx\geq o$, por el lema 2, existe $m \in{\mathbb{N}}$ tal que
\newline
\newline
\newline
$$m-1 \geq nx <m$$
$$m \geq nx +1$$
$$m\geq nx +1<ny$$
$$nx<m<ny$$
Multiplicando $\frac{1}{n}$ tenemos que $x<\frac{m}{n}<y$ y por definicin
$r=\frac{m}{n}$ y $r \in{\mathbb{Q}}$, entonces $$x<r<y$$.
\end{multicols}
\newpage
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Lema 4.4}}
\end{center}

\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{Lema4.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $t \in{\mathbb{Q}}$
\item $r \in{ \mathbb{I}}$
\item Supongamos $tr=\frac{p}{q}$ con $p$ y $q$ $\in{\mathbb{N}}$ y
$q \neq o$
\item $r=\frac{p}{q}\cdotp t$ lo cual es una contradiccin.
\item $t\cdotp r \in{ \mathbb{I}}$
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{lema}
Si $t \in \mathbb{Q}$ y $r \in \mathbb{I}$ entonces $t\cdot r $ es irracional.
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin por contradiccin.}
Sean $t \in \mathbb{Q}$ y $r \in \mathbb{I}$. se supone que $t\cdot r $ no es ra
cional; como $t\cdot r \in \mathbb{R}$, $t\cdot r \in \mathbb{R}$ por lo tanto $
t\cdot r= \frac{p}{q}$, de aqu se obtiene que $r= \frac{p}{q\cdot t}\Rightarrow \
Leftarrow$ por lo tanto $t\cdot r$ es irracional.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{lema}
$\sqrt{2}$ es irracional.
\end{lema}
Demostrado en Spivak pag 33 segunda edicin.
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Lema 4.6}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{Lema6.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $t \in{\mathbb{Q}}$
\item $r \in{ \mathbb{I}}$
\item Supongamos $tr=\frac{p}{q}$ con $p$ y $q$ $\in{\mathbb{N}}$ y
$q \neq o$
\item $r=\frac{p}{q}\cdotp t$ lo cual es una contradiccin.
\item $t\cdotp r \in{ \mathbb{I}}$
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%4.
\begin{lema}
Si $x$, $y$ son nmeros reales cualesquiera con $x<y$, entonces existe un nmero irr
acional $z$ tal que $x<z<y$.
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Si $x, y \in \mathbb{R}$ y $x<y$ entonces

\begin{center}
$\frac{x}{\sqrt{2}}<\frac{y}{\sqrt{2}}$
\end{center}
Como $\frac{x}{\sqrt{2}}, \frac{y}{\sqrt{2}} \in \mathbb{R}$ y por el \textbf{le
ma 4.3} existe $r \in \mathbb{Q}$
\begin{center}
$\frac{x}{\sqrt{2}}<r<\frac{y}{\sqrt{2}}$
\end{center}
\begin{center}
Por lo tanto $x<r\sqrt{2}<y$.
\end{center}
Si se dice que $z=r\sqrt{2}$ por el \textbf{lema 4.4} $z\in \mathbb{I}$ de aqu se
deduce que
\begin{center}
$x<z<y$
\end{center}
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{UNA FUNCIN NO RIEMANN INTEGRABLE}}
\end{center}
Este es el ejemplo ms comn de una funcin no Riemann integrable el cual fue propuest
o para desarrollar en clase.
\\
\begin{teor}
Sea $f$ la funcin definida en el intervalo $[a,b]$ por
\[
f(x)= \left\{ \begin{array}{lcl}
0 & \mbox{ si } & x\in{\mathbb{Q}}\\
&
&
\\
1 & \mbox{ si } & x\in{\mathbb{I}}
\end{array}
\right.
\]
La funcin $f$ no es integrable
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracin.}(demostracin inspirada de APOSTOL, Tom

Calculus)

Se define $S=\{0,1\}, S\subset {\mathbb{N}}$; utilizando el principo del buen or


den de los naturales $0$ es el elemento mnimo de $S$, y para todo $w\in{S} 0 w$ y
$1\geq w$, esto es, $0$ es una cota inferior y $1$ es una cota superior.
Por otra parte, para cualquier particin $P=\{x_0,x_1,...x_n\}$ de $I$ con $a=x_0
<x_1<...<x_n=b$ y para toda $i=1,2,...n$, por el lema 3 y lema 4, para cualquie
ra $j,k \in{[x_i-1,]} $ tal que $j<k$, existe $r\in{\mathbb{Q}}$ que cumple $j<r
<k$ y existe $z\in{\mathbb{I}}$ que cumple $j<z<k$.
Si se evaluan los valores $r,z$ en la funcin $f$ se observa que $f(r)=0$ y $f(z)=
1$, adems si $u$ es una cota superior de $S, u\leq 0$ y si $v$ es una cota superi
or de $S$ entonces:
$v\geq 1$.De lo anterior, y teniendo en cuenta que $S$ es el codominio de $f$ s
e deduce
\begin{center}
$m_i=$inf $\{f(x):x\in{[x_i-1,x_i]}\}=0$
\end{center}
\begin{center}

$M_i=$ sup$\{f(x):x\in{[x_i-1,x_i]}\}=1$
\end{center}
Ahora
\begin{center}
$L(P,f)=\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{n} m_i(x_i - x_i-1)=0$
\end{center}
y\begin{center}
$U(P,f)=\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{n} M_i(x_i - x_i-1)=1$
\end{center}
Por lo tanto $L(P,f)\neq U(P,f)$ y $f$ no es integrable
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\subsection{\textbf{Anlisis funciones trigonomtricas.}}
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El estudio de estas funciones se realiza por la necesidad de verlas desde el pun
to de vista del anlisis matemtico ya que estas funciones se utilizan en muchos cam
pos de la matemtica desde trigonometra bsica en adelante.
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\begin{defin}
Una funcin $f$ cuyo domino es el conjunto de los enteros positivos $1,2,3,...$ se
denomina sucesin infinita. el valor ${a}_{n}$ de la funcin se denomina "n-esimo tr
mino de la sucesin"
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}
Sea $\left\{{a}_{n}\right\}$ una sucesin, se dice que $\left\{{S}_{n}\right\}$ es
una suma parcial de los $n$ primeros trminos" si y solo si
\begin{center}
${S}_{n}= {a}_{1}+{a}_{2}+...+{a}_{n}=\displaystyle\sum_{K=1}^{n} {a}_{K}$
\end{center}
La sucesin $\left\{{S}_{n}\right\}$ de sumas parciales se llama "serie infinita"
o simplemente "serie", y se indica por los smbolos
\begin{center}
$\displaystyle\sum_{K=1}^{n} {a}_{K}={a}_{1}+{a}_{2}+...$
\end{center}
\end{defin}
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%
\begin{defin}
Sean $a,r\in \mathbb{R}$, $r>0$, la bola con centro en a y radio r "$B(a,r)$" se
define como:
\begin{center}
$B(a,r)=\left\{x \in \mathbb{R}: |x-a|<r \right\}$
\end{center}
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}

Una sucesin ${f}_{n}$ de funciones $A\subseteq \mathbb{R}$ converge uniformemente


en $A_0\subseteq A$ a una funcin $f:A\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ si para todo $\epsi
lon>0$ existe un nmero $N \in \mathbb{N}$, tal que si $n\geq N$, entonces:
\begin{center}
$|{f}_{n}(x)-f(x)|<\epsilon , \forall x \in A_0$
\end{center}
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}
Se dice que un conjunto $S$ de $\mathbb{R}$ esta acotado si existe un real $r>0$
tal que:
\begin{center}
$S\subseteq B(a,b); a \in \mathbb{R}$
\end{center}
\end{defin}
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%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}
si $A\subseteq \mathbb{R}$ y $\varphi:A\rightarrow \mathbb{R} $ es una funcin , s
e dice que $\varphi $ "esta acotada en A" si el conjunto $\varphi (A)$ es un con
junto acotado de $\mathbb{R}$. Si $\varphi$ esta acotada, se define la "norma u
niforme de $\varphi$ en $A$" por
${|\varphi|}_{A}:=sup\left\{|\varphi (x)|: x in A \right\}$
\end{defin}
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\begin{defin}
Sea $f$ una funcin cuyo dominio es $\mathbb{Z}^{+}$ y su recorrido es $\mathbb{Z}
^{+}$, y supongamos que $f$ es uno a uno (Spivak, Clculo) Sean $\sum {a}_{n}$ y
$\sum {b}_{n}$ dos series tales que
\begin{center}
${b}_{n}={a}_{f(n)}$, para $1,2,3,....$
\end{center}
Entonces se dice que $\sum {b}_{n}$ es una reordenada de $\sum {a}_{n}$
\end{defin}
\newpage
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\begin{defin}
Sea $x\in \mathbb{R}$ , se define la funcin real \textit{coseno} simbolizada por
$cos(x)$ como:
\begin{center}
$\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^\infty{\frac{(-1)^i}{(2i)!}x^{2i}}$.
\end{center}
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}
Sea $x\in \mathbb{R}$ , se define la funcin real \textit{seno} simbolizada por $s
en(x)$ por:
\begin{center}
$\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^\infty{\frac{(-1)^i}{(2i+1)!}x^{2i+1}}$.
\end{center}
\end{defin}
%%%%%%%%%%%%
\begin{defin}
Sea $x\in \mathbb{R}$,entonces se define la funcin exponencial, simbolizada por $
{e}^{x}$:
\begin{center}
${e}^{x}= \displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{{x}^{n}}{n!}$

\end{center}
\end{defin}
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\begin{center}
\title{\textbf{Lema 4.7}}
\end{center}
\begin{multicols}{2}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[scale=0.55]{Lema21.png}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\item $n\geq 1$ y $n\in{N}$
\item Axiomas de orden
\item $n\leq (2n)!$
\item $\frac{1}{n}\geq\frac{1}{(2n)!}$
\item Teorema convergencia en lmites nfinitos
\item $\displaystyle\lim_{x \to\infty}{}\frac{1}{n^2+1}=0$
\item Propiedades de lmites
\item $\displaystyle\lim_{n \to\infty}{} \frac{1}{(2n)!}$
\end{enumerate}
\end{multicols}
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\begin{lema}
\begin{center}
$\displaystyle\lim_{n \to{}\infty}{\frac{1}{(2n)!}}=0$
\end{center}
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Supngase $n \geq 1$, usando axioma de orden de $\mathbb{R}$ se deduce que
$n \leq (2n)!$, por propiedad dada por los axiomas de orden $\frac{1}{n} \geq \f
rac{1}{(2n)!}\geq 0$, por teorema de convergencia para lmites infinitos (Larson,
R, Clculo, pg. 653, sexta ed.) y $\displaystyle\lim_{n \to{}\infty}{\frac{1}{(n)}}
=0$ con $\displaystyle\lim_{n \to{}\infty}{0}=0$, ya que es el lmite de una cons
tante, entonces $$\displaystyle\lim_{n \to{}\infty}{\frac{1}{(2n)!}}=0$$ quedand
o demostrado.
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\textbf{Los dos lemas siguientes son para demostrar el lema 4.10.}
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\begin{lema}
$\frac{1}{{2}^{n}}<\frac{1}{n}$. $n \in \textbf{N}$, $n>0$
\end{lema}

\textbf{Demostracin.}
Sea $n=1$, por lo tanto:
\begin{center}
$\frac{1}{2}<1$
\end{center}
Ahora, supngase cierto para n, es decir $\frac{1}{{2}^{n}}<\frac{1}{n}$ (hiptesis
de induccin) por tanto, operndola a ambos lados por $\frac{1}{2}$ y usando axioma
s de orden
\begin{center}
$\frac{1}{{2}^{n+1}}<\frac{1}{2n}=\frac{1}{n+n}<\frac{1}{n+1}$
\end{center}
por tanto aplicando transitividad de $<$ obtenemos
\begin{center}
$\frac{1}{{2}^{n+1}}<\frac{1}{n+1}$
\end{center}
Quedando demostrado.
\begin{lema}
$\displaystyle\lim_{n \to \infty}{\frac{1}{{2}^{n}}}=0$, $n \in \textbf{N}$, $n>
0$
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Por lema anterior, entonces:
\begin{center}
$\frac{1}{{2}^{n}}<\frac{1}{n}$
\end{center}
Entonces:
\begin{center}
$0<\frac{1}{{2}^{n}}<\frac{1}{n}$
\end{center}
Ya que
$\displaystyle\lim_{n \to \infty}{0=0}$
y por teorema expuesto: $\displaystyle\lim_{n \to \infty}{\frac{1}{n}=0}$ enton
ces por teorema de compresin, (I. al anlisis matemtico Bartle , pg. 79 $7^{a}$ed) $
\displaystyle\lim_{n \to \infty}{\frac{1}{{2}^{n}}}=0$ quedando as demostrado.
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\begin{lema}
$\displaystyle\lim_{n \to{}\infty}{\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}}=0$, para $A\in \textbf{
R}$ tal que $A>0$.
\end{lema}
\textbf{Demostracin.}(Esta demostracin fue inspirada del libro Yu Takeuchi Sucesi
ones y Series.)
Sea $k \in N$ tal que $k>A$ y sea de manera que $\frac{A^{2k}}{(2k)!}=c$, $ c \i
n \textbf{R}$, $c<0$, escogiendo el n-simo trmino si $n>k$ entonces
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$0<\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}$&$=$&$\frac{A^{2k}}{(2k)!}\cdot\frac{A}{(2k+2)}\cdot\fra
c{A}{(2k+4)}\cdots\frac{A}{(2n)}$\\\\
&$=$&$c\cdot\frac{A}{(2k+2)}\cdot\frac{A}{(2k+4)}\cdots\
frac{A}{(2n)}$\\
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
Como exigimos $k>A$ entonces por axioma de orden en \textbf{R}
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{rcl}
$k$&$>$&$A$\\\\
$1$&$>$&$\frac{A}{k}$\\\\
$\frac{1}{2}\cdot 1 $&$>$&$\frac{1}{2}\cdot\frac{A}{k}$\\\\
$\frac{1}{2}$&$>$&$\frac{A}{2k}$
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
Entonces:
\begin{center}
$\frac{1}{2}>\frac{A}{2k}>\frac{A}{2k+2}>\cdots>\frac{A}{2n}$
\end{center}
Lo cual deduce
\begin{center}
$c\cdot\frac{A}{(2k+2)}\cdot \frac{A}{(2k+4)}\cdots\frac{A}{(2n)}<c \cdot \under
brace{\frac{1}{2}\cdot \frac{1}{2} \cdot \frac{1}{2} \cdots \frac{1}{2}}_{{n-k}_
{veces}}=\frac{c}{2^{n-k}} \rightarrow 0 $
\end{center}
En efecto, porque $\displaystyle\lim_{n \to \infty}{\frac{1}{{2}^{n}}}=0$. Usand
o teorema de compresin $0<\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}<\frac{c}{2^{n-k}}$ \\entonces\\\\
$\displaystyle\lim_{n \to{}\infty}{\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}}=0$ que era lo se quera d
emostrar.

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\begin{teor}
La funcin $cos(x)$ converge uniformemente en $\mathbb{R}$ \\
\end{teor}
\textbf{Demostracin.}
Sea $A>0$ , $A\in \mathbb{R}$ ,junto a la propiedad arquimediana se deduce que
existen $m,n\in \mathbb{N}$ tal que $m>n>2A$. De modo que:
$$C_m(x)=\sum_{i=1}^m{\frac{(-1)^i}{(2i)!}x^{2i}}$$.
$$C_n(x)=\sum_{i=1}^n{\frac{(-1)^i}{(2i)!}x^{2i}}$$.
Por tanto:
$$\left |{C_m(x)-C_n(x)}\right |=\left |{\sum_{i=1}^m{\frac{(-1)^i}{(2i)!}x^{2i}
}-\sum_{i=1}^n{\frac{(-1)^i}{(2i)!}x^{2i}}}\right |=\left |{\frac{x^{2n+2}}{(2n+
2)!}+...+-\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m)!}}\right |$$
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Usando la desigualdad del tringulo:
$$\left |{\frac{x^{2n+2}}{(2n+2)!}+...+-\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m)!}}\right |\leq\left |
{\frac{x^{2n+2}}{(2n+2)!}}\right | +...+\left | {\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m)!}}\right |$$
Utilizando axiomas de orden, sumando al lado derecho de la desigualdad $$\left |
{\frac{x^{2n}}{(2n)!}}\right |$$ , y posteriormente aplicando propiedades en un
cociente para el valor absoluto se obtiene:
$$\left |{\frac{x^{2n+2}}{(2n+2)!}}\right | +...+\left | {\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m)!}}
\right |\leq \frac{\left |{x^{2n}}\right |}{(2n)!}+\frac{\left |{x^{2n+2}}\righ
t |}{(2n+2)!} +...+\frac{\left |{x^{2m}}\right |}{(2m)!}$$
Ya que exigimos que $\left |{x}\right | \leq A$ , y de lo deducido anteriormente
, trmino a trmino se ve que:
$\frac{\left |{x^{2n}}\right |}{(2n)!}+\frac{\left |{x^{2n+2}}\right |}{(2n+2)!}
+...+\frac{\left |{x^{2m}}\right |}{(2m)!}\leq \frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}+\frac{A^{2n
+2}}{(2n+2)!} +...+\frac{A^{2m}}{(2m)!}$.
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Ya que:
$\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}+\frac{A^{2n+2}}{(2n+2)!} +...+\frac{A^{2m}}{(2m)!}=\frac{A
^{2n}}{(2n)!}\begin{bmatrix}{1+\frac{A^{2}}{(2n+2)!} +...+\frac{A^{2m-2n}}{(2n+2
)...(2m)}}\end{bmatrix}$.
Ahora por axiomas de orden para los reales es posible ver que:
$$\frac{A^{k}}{(\prod_{l=2}^{l=k}{2n+l})}\leq \left\{{{\frac{A}{2n}}}\right\}^{k
}$$,Para $k=2,4,...,2m-2n$.
Es posible ver que:
$$\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}\begin{bmatrix}1+\left\{{{\frac{A}{(2n)}}}\right\}^2 +...+
\left\{{{\frac{A}{(2n)}}}\right\}^{2m-2n} \end{bmatrix} \geq \frac{A^{2}}{(2n)!}
\begin{bmatrix}{1+\frac{A^{2}}{(2n+2)!} +...+\frac{A^{2m-2n}}{(2n+2)...(2m)}}\en
d{bmatrix}$$.
Dado que el segundo factor es una serie geomtrica , por efectos tales que
$0<\frac{A}{2n}<\frac{1}{4}<1$, entonces, segn la notacin ms divulgada para esta se
rie, sea $r=\frac{A}{2n}$ y $c=1$:
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$$\sum_{i=0}^\infty{c{r}^{i}}=\sum_{i=0}^\infty{{\left(\frac{A}{2n}\right)}^{i}}
=\frac{1}{1-\frac{A}{2n}}=\frac{2n}{2n-A}$$.
De donde se utiliz el teorema para la convergencia de una serie geomtrica de radio
$\left |{r}\right | <1$. Entonces:
$$\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}\begin{bmatrix}1+\left\{{{\frac{A}{(2n)}}}\right\}^2 +...+
\left\{{{\frac{A}{(2n)}}}\right\}^{2m-2n} \end{bmatrix} \leq\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}
\frac{2n}{2n-A}$$
Usando axiomas de orden en $\mathbb{R}$
\begin{center}
$\frac{2n}{2n-a}<\frac{4}{3}$
\end{center}
Por lo tanto:
$$\left |{C_m(x)-C_n(x)}\right |<{\frac{A^{2n}}{(2n)!}}\frac{4}{3}$$
Y por el lema anterior tenemos que: $\displaystyle\lim_{x \to{+}\infty}{\frac{{A
}^{2n}}{(2n)!}}=0$\\
Entonces, ya que $\left |{C_m(x)-C_n(x)}\right |$ tiende a cero, haciendo
$C_m(x)=C(x)$. Por la definicin de convergencia uniforme
$\left\{{C_n(x)}\right\}$ converge en A. y como A se escogi arbitriario luego con
verge para todo real.
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\begin{teor}
\begin{center}
Sea $y \in \mathbb{R}$, $cos(y)=\frac{{e}^{iy}+{e}^{-iy}}{2i}$
\end{center}
\end{teor}
\begin{teor}
\begin{center}
Sea $y \in \mathbb{R}$, $sin(y)=\frac{{e}^{iy}-{e}^{-iy}}{2i}$
\end{center}
\end{teor}
El anlisis de la funcin seno se omite ya que es anloga a la de la funcin coseno.(Ba
rtle-Sherbert, Introduccin al anlisis matemtico).
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\section{CONCLUSIONES.}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Se concluye que segun el problema planteado se puede calcular la velocida
d instantanea a partir de la velocidad media si se conocen y manejan los concept
os de limite, derivada e integral.
\item El analisis matematico esta ligado de manera formalista a la fisica.
\item Se concluye que el trabajo desarrollado a lo largo del semestre es satisfa
ctorio en medida de los objetivos de la materia debido a que estos se cumplieron
a cabalidad adems de lograr un aprendizaje de manera investigativa.
\item En este trabajo desarrollado se dio un enfoque en el cual los conceptos fsi
cos pasaron a segundo plano en comparacin con las justificaciones del anlisis mate
mtico.
\item Se obtuvo conocimiento minucioso de los conceptos en el anlisis matemtico i
nvolucrados en el problema ideal de movimiento parablico.
\end{enumerate}
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\section{BIBLIOGRAFIA.}
\begin{enumerate}
\item APOSTOL, Tom Calculus . :clculo con funciones de varias variables y lgebra
lineal, con aplicaciones para ecuaciones diferenciales y probabilidad . versin e
spaola por Francisco Vlez Cantarell. Barcelona : Mxico : Revert, 2007.
\item APOSTOL, Tom M. Anlisis matemtico; versin espaola por Jos Pl Carrera Barcelona :
Revert, 2002
\item SERWAY, Raymond A. Fsica /Raymond A. Serway, Jerry S. Faughn, autor colabor
ador Clement J. Moses ; traduccin Jorge Humberto Romo y Angel Carlos Gonzlez. Mxico
: Thomson, 2005. xxv, 846 p. : il. ; 28 cm.
\item TIPLER, Paul Allen,, 1933-.: Fsica para la ciencia y la tecnologa /Paul A. T
ipler, Gene Mosca ; versin espaola por Albert Bramn Planas ... [et al.]. Barcelona
: Revert, c2005. 2 v. : il. ; 27 cm.
\item Spivak, Michael Clculo Infinitesimal, Versin espaola por Bartolom Frontera Ma
rqus, Segunda edicin, Barcelona, Reverte 1992.
\item Takeuchi, Yu, Sucesiones y Series, Bogot-Colombia 1971.
\item Bartle-Sherbert, Introduccin al anlisis matemtico de una variable, tercera ed
icin Limusa Wiley, 2010.
\end{enumerate}
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\end{document}