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CarolineChen Period6 112613 Chapter#16:TheSouthandtheSlaveryControversyBigPictureThemes 1.CottonrantheSouthbeforetheCivilWaritwas"KingCotton."Theentiresouthern economywasbasedoncotton. 2.TheSouthhaddevelopedapyramidlikesocialstructure.Fromtoptobottom:planter aristocrats,smallfarmers,thewhitemajority(whoownednoslaves),freeblacks,slaves. 3.Lifeasaslavecouldbewildlyvariedsomeslaveownerswerekindtowardtheirslaves, somewereimmenselycruel.Inallsituations,slaveswerenotfreetodoastheypleased. 4.Abolition(movetoabolishslavery)beganwiththeQuakers.FrederickDouglassbecame themainspokesmanagainstslavery.AndWilliamLloydGarrisonprinted"TheLiberator",a radicalabolitionnewspaper. 5.Southernerscounteredthatnorthernworkersweretreatedevenworsethanslaves.Slave owners,theysaid,hadavestedinterestintheirslaves.

Northernfactoryworkersexploited thenfiredtheirworkers. IDENTIFICATIONS: NatTurner NatTurnerledanuprisingthatkilledmanyVirginianwomenandtheirchildren.Thiswas causedbyhispreachingandbecauseoftheincident,manybecameparanoidandwouldsleep withagunbytheirside. SojournerTruth SojournerTruthwasablackwomanwhohadthelibertyofbeingfree.Shefoughtfor womensrightsandblacksrightsasshecaptivatedherlistenerswithherstrongtoneand passionforreligion. TheodoreDwightWeld TheodoreDwightWeld,withthehelpofNewYorkmerchantsArthurandLewisTappan, wasabletopreachtoalargegroupofpeopleaboutantislaveryandcreatedapamphletof propaganda. HarrietBeecherStowe HarrietBeecherStowewashighlyinfluencedbythepowerfulthemeofWeldspamphletand useditastheplotofhisUncleTomsCabin. WilliamLloydGarrison WilliamLloydGarrisonwasoneofthegreattriggersoftheCivilWarwithhispublicationof anantislaverynewspaperinBoston.Hecouldnotstandtheactofslaveryandcreateda brawlofwords.However,hewasdislikedbymanybecausehisambitionswereoutof selfinterest. DavidWalker DavidWalkersupportedthefinishofwhitesuperiorityandwasoneoftheblackabolitionists whothoughtofthemselvesasthepioneersofthecauseforfreedomofAfricanAmericans.

CarolineChen Period6 112613 GUIDEDREADINGQUESTIONS: "CottonisKing!" Know: EliWhitney,CottonGin 1. What is meant by"Cotton isKing?" Howdidits sovereigntyextendbeyondtheSouth? Whatimplicationsdiditsrulehave? Cotton is King meant that it was the ruler of the land and controlled what the people did. In the South, cotton was the main product and would be sent to the North to be shipped to Britain. WithouttheSouth,themainexporterofcottonwouldbegoneandtherewouldbemore demand everywhere else. The cotton gin, created by Eli Whitney, made the output of cotton greater and more consistent. The South producedabout70%ofBritainscotton.Withoutit,the economywouldcrasheverywhere. ThePlanter"Aristocracy" Know: Chivalry 2. Inwhatwayswasthesouth"basicallyundemocratic?" The south was basically undemocratic because it was not very democratic but rather had a government based on a planter aristocracy. The planter aristocrats lived a life of richesandfull of chivalry. They were able to send their children to great schools in other places and could relax in luxury. However,thegap betweentherichandpoorwidenedasplantationsfavoredthe ownersandthepoorfarmershadtoworkfortheirowncrop,earningminimalmoney. SlavesandtheSlaveSystem Know: Onecropeconomy 3. WhatweretheweaknessesoftheSouth'sdependenceoncotton? The main weakness of the Souths dependence on cotton was that it had a one crop economy. This would mean that their wealth wouldbebasedontheneedofcottonfrom other places such as the North and Europe. This led to discouragement of others to take upon cultivating other kinds of cropsandmanufacturingwhichalsodidnotpersuadeimmigrantstogo South. TheWhiteMajority Know: YeomanFarmer,hillbilly 4. Whydidmanywhiteswhodidnotownslavessupportslavery? Many whites who did not own slaveswereyeomanfarmers.Thesefarmersdidnotraisecotton but hogs and corn instead. A white man who did not own slaves was seen as a hillbilly.These white men were usually sick with hookworm and were malnutrutioned. They still supported slavery because of the American Dreamofclimbingupthesocialladderandofonedayowning theirownslaves.Theidea ofwhitesuperiorityalsoledthemtostayawayfromadvocatingblack freedom. FreeBlacks:SlavesWithoutMasters Know: Emancipate,mulattoes 5. WouldithavebeenbettertobeafreeBlackintheNorthorintheSouth?Explain. It would have been better to beafreeBlackintheSouth.Freeblacksin thesouthwereusually mulattoes, meaning they were emancipated by their white planter and black mistress. In the

CarolineChen Period6 112613 South, it is even possible for a free black to own property. A prosperous community of mulattoes even formed in the south. The North would have treated the free blacks worse becausetheywouldjustbeinthewayofimmigrantstryingtogetjobs,justliketheIrish. PlantationSlavery Know: Chattel,naturalincrease,HarrietBeecherStowe 6. "...planters regarded slaves as investments [like a mule]...." Explain what was positive andwhatwasnegativeaboutthissituationforslaves. There were many black human chattels in the South by 1860. The population of the blacks in America was not from imports but from a natural increasefromreproduction.Theblackswere the source of income for the South and so were regarded with great care. However, auctions for slaves were quite scarring as one could see families separating, never seeing each other again,asitwasforHarrietBeecherStowe. LifeUndertheLash Know: Overseer,breaker,OldSouth,DeepSouth 7. Give evidence to show that slaves developed a separate, unique culture. What circumstancesmadethispossible? Slaves worked hard all day long while being supervised by their white overseer. Those who were sent to a breaker were usually from the Deep South and were much tougher and harder thanthosewhocamefromtheOldSouth.The slavestriedtopreservetheconceptoffamilyand even took the time to name their children and grandchildren. Through the influence of others, slaves were able to develop their own religion that was a mix with Christian idealsandAfrican backgrounds. TheBurdensofBondage Know: Peculiarinstitution,GabrielProsser,DenmarkVesey,NatTurner 8. Thomas Jefferson once said that having slaves was like holding a wolf bytheears,you didn't like it but you couldn't let go. How does this section help to explain this statement? Slaves who worked in a peculiar institution would always find a way to cause trouble. They would try to damage equipment or just try to delay the work process. Even thoughallthis,the slaveownermustbepatient.GabrielProsserwasthereasonformanyleadersbeinghangedand Denmark Vesey tried to startle everyone with a rebellion only to end up being shamed. Nat Turner led an uprising that left many Virginians dead. The metaphor with the wolf meant thatif youletthemloose,theywouldbepotentiallydangerous. EarlyAbolitionism Know: Abolition, The American Colonization Society, Theodore Weld, Arthur and Lewis Tappan,HarrietBeecherStowe 9. Describesomeoftheearlyabolitionists. Abolition was themovementofgettingridofslavery.ThereweremanyabolitionistssuchasThe American Colonization Society which attempted to move blacks back to Africa. Theodore Weld, with the help of Arthur and Lewis Tappan,wasabletoappealtoawideaudienceabout

CarolineChen Period6 112613 antislavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the novel Uncle Toms Cabin which had a great influenceonotherabolitionists. RadicalAbolitionism Know: William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, David Walker, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass 10. HowweretheattitudesofWilliamLloydGarrisonandFrederickDouglassdifferent? Whendealingwithanissuethatismoralandpolitical,howrigidshouldapersonbe? William Lloyd Garrison had a strong sense of principle while Frederick Douglass was quite flexible. Garrison was a strong advocate of antislavery and Wendell Philips was so against slavery that he would not buy anything made by slaves. DavidWalkerwantedtoseeanendto the superiority of white men and Sojourner Truth tried to change peoples views of black and womens rights. A person should be knowledgeable and cautious of action when dealing with politicalormoralissues.Heshouldbefirmbutflexibleandlisten. TheSouthLashesBack 11. HowdidtheSouthdefenditselfagainsttheattacksofabolitionists? The South put more emphasis on its Slave Codes and believed that the relationship of a slave andhisownerwasmuchlikethatof asonandfather.Someevenbelievedthatslaverywasfrom the Bible and Aristotle and others statedthatslavesworkedinbetterconditionsthanthosewho workedinfactorysystems. TheAbolitionistImpactintheNorth 12. HowdidNorthernersviewabolitionists?Didtheyhaveanysuccess? Northerners viewed theabolitionistsasalostcausebecausetheywerehighlyunpopular anddid not catch the attention of many in the North. However, as more time passed, the idea of abolishing slavery pleased the people of the North as they soon started to see the South as a placeofhatefulinstitutions.MoreNorthernerssoonjoinedthecausetofightforantislavery.

CarolineChen Period6 112613 Chapter#17:ManifestDestinyandItsLegacyBigPictureThemes 1.AboundarydisputewithEnglandoverMainewassettledpeacably.Inthelongrun,the U.S.likelygotthebetterendofthedeal. 2.TexasfinallyjoinedtheU.S.SincetheTexasrevolution,itdbeenhanginginthebalance. Americanlawmakersfinallydecideditwastoogoodofaprizetoletslipby,soitwas annexedin1845 3.Oregonwasnextonthelistoflandstosealup.Itwassharedland,mainlybetweenthe U.S.andEngland.Aftersomenegotiatingovertheborder,the49thparallelwasagreed upon.Again,theU.S.likelygotthebetter. 4.Theelectionof1844sawJamesK.PolkrunonaManifestDestinyplatform.Americans likedtheidea,votedhimin,andhewentafterCalifornia. 5.WhentheMexicanAmericanwarwasover,theprizeofCaliforniathatPolkhadwanted, wasobtained.SowasallofthemodernAmericanSouthwest. IDENTIFICATIONS: JohnTyler JohnTylerwasaVirginianwhotookHarrisonsplaceasPresidentafterhediedof pneumoniajustafter16daysinoffice.Hefeltobligatedtofollowtherulesandwasseenby enemiesasaDemocratinWhigclothing.Aspresident,heagreedtopassalawthatended theindependenttreasurysystemandwasextremelyhostiletowardsacentralizedbank. SlidellsMission SlidellsMissionwastobuyCaliforniafromtheMexicanpeopleatnomorethan25million dollars.TheMexicanpeoplerejectedhisofferandwouldntevenconsidersuchalowprice. JohnC.Fremont JohnC.FremontwasacaptainwholedseveralarmedmenandcollaboratedwithAmerican navalofficersandlocalAmericanstooverthrowMexicanrule. ManifestDestiny ManifestDestinyisthebeliefthattheUSistoexpandfurtherintotheAmericancontinentand haveitslandsusedforfreedevelopmentofthepeople.Itwasntseenasarightbutaneed, almostlikeaprophecy. JamesK.Polk JamesK.PolkwasfromTennesseeandwasAmericasfirstunexpectedpresidential candidate.Hewantedtolowerthetariffandrestoretheindependenttreasury.Healso wantedtheacquireCaliforniaandsettletheOregondispute. WebsterAshburtonTreaty TheWebsterAshburtonTreatyresolvedmanyproblemsdealingwithbordersbetweenthe USandBritishcoloniesinAmerica. SpotResolution TheSpotResolutionwassuggestedbyAbrahamLincolntorequestPresidentPolktotell Congresswheretheexactspotwaswherebloodshedoccurred.Itrefutedthecongressional

CarolineChen Period6 112613 angerthatAmericanbloodwasshedonAmericansoil. TheTariffof1842 TheTariffof1842rateswasreducedto25percentbyPolksSecretaryoftheTreaty, RobertJ.Walker. TreatyofGuadalupeHidalgo TheTreatyofGuadalupeHidalgowassignedbyTristandforwardedtoWashington.It confirmedtheAmericantitletoTexasandyieldedtheenormousareastretchingwestwardto OregonandtheoceanandembracingcovetedCalifornia. WilmotProviso TheWilmotProvisowasendorsedbythemajorityoflegislaturesofthefreestatesand symbolizedtheburningissueofslaveryintheterritories.