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Threats to Biodiversity: An Overview Guided Viewing Name: 1: Natural Capital: Forests

Ecological Services Support energy flow and chemical cycling Reduce soil erosion Absorb and release water Purify water and air Influence local and regional climate Store atmospheric carbon Provide numerous wildlife habitats Economical Services Fuelwood Lumber Pulp to make paper Mining Livestock grazing Recreation Jobs

2: What are the 3 main types of forests? The three types are old-growth forests, second-growth forests, and tree planting forests. 3: What are some of the problems associated with deforestation? Some problems are decreased soil from erosion, runoff eroded soil, and release of CO2 in the air. 4: What are the methods for harvesting trees? The methods of harvesting trees are selective cutting, strip cutting, and clear cutting. 5: Clear-Cutting Forests
Advantages Higher timber fields Maximum profits in shortest time Can reforest with faster growing trees Short time to establish new stands of trees Need less skill and planning Good for tree species needing sunlight Disadvantages Reduces biodiversity Disrupts ecosystem process Destroys and fragments wildlife habitats Leaves large openings Increases water pollution, flooding, and erosion on steep lopes Eliminates most recreational value

6: What are some solutions for sustainable forestry? Some solutions are stop logging of old-growth forests, grow more timber on longer rotations, and certify timber grown by sustainable methods. 7: What is the Healthy Forest Restoration Act? What are the PROS and CONS? The Healthy Forest Restoration Act is the law that was passed that allowed timber companies to cut down medium to large trees if they would clear away smaller trees and underbrush. The pros are underbrush and other small trees can be rid of. The cons are the large trees that are removed will not be able to protect the forest from the fires. 8: Logging in National Forests
Advantages Disadvantages

Help meets countrys timber needs Cut areas grow back Keeps lumber and paper prices down Provides jobs in communities Promotes economic growth in nearby communities

Provides only 4% of timber needs Ample private forest land for lumber Has little effect on timber and paper prices Damages nearby rivers and fisheries Recreation provides more local jobs and income Decreases recreational opportunities

9: What are some causes of tropical deforestation? Some causes are population growth, subsidies, poverty, fires, and roads. 10: Why should we care about the loss of tropical forests? We should care because tropical forests provide habitats for half of the worlds known species and half of the worlds plants that fight cancer are in the tropical forests. 11: Sustaining Tropical Forests
Prevention Protect most diverse and endangered areas Educate about sustainable forestry and agriculture Phase out subsidies that encourage unsustainable forest use Protect forests conservation easements and debtfor-nature swamps Reduce illegal cutting Reduce poverty Slow population growth Restoration Reforestation Rehabilitation of degraded areas Concentrate farming on already cleared areas

12: Why are rangelands/grasslands so important? They supply vegetation, erosion control, nutrient cycling, and soil formation. 13: How can we sustain rangeland productivity? What are some solutions to overgrazing? We can sustain rangeland productivity by controlling the number and distribution of livestock and restoring degraded rangeland. Some solutions to overgrazing are rotational grazing, replanting, and herbicides. 14: What is the 4 point strategy to restoring biodiversity worldwide? The 4 point strategy is to map global ecosystems, locate and protect endangered ecosystems/species, restore as many ecosystems/species, and make development bio-

diversity friendly. 15: What is a biodiversity hotspot? How many are there worldwide? A biodiversity hotspot are the areas that have the most concentrations of endangered species. There are 34 worldwide. 16: What are the top 6 hotspots in the United States? The top 6 hotspots are in Hawaii, San Francisco bay, Southern Appalachians, Death Valley, Southern California, and the Florida Pan-handle. 17: What are the five basic science-based principles for ecological restoration? The principles are: 1. Identify the cause 2.Stop abuse by eliminating reducing factors 3. Reintroduce species if necessary 4. Protect area from further degration 5. Use adaptive management to monitor 18: Define: Preservation: Setting aside or protecting undisturbed natural areas from harmful human activities Remediation: Repairing an ecosystem that has been destroyed Sustainability: Ability of a system to survive for some specified time 18: What are the eight priorities for protecting biodiversity? The eight priorities are: 1. Take immediate action to preserve worlds biological hot spots. 2. Keep intact remaining old growth. 3. Complete mapping of worlds biodiversity for inventory and decision making. 4. Determine worlds marine hot spots. 5. Ensure that the full range of the earths ecosystems are included in global conservation strategy. 6. Make conservation profitable. 7. Initiate ecological restoration products to heal some of the damage done and increase share of earths land and water allotted to the rest of nature. 19: Define: Reconciliation/Applied Ecology: To make new habitats to conserve species in areas where people live; community-based conservation 20: Define: Background Extinction: continuous, low level of extinction of species Extinction Rate: expressed as a percentage or number of species that go extinct within a certain time period Mass Extinction: extinction of many species in a relatively short amount of time 21: What are characteristics of vulnerable species? The characteristics are low reproductive rate, a specialized feeding habit, feeding at high trophic levels, a large size, specialized nesting or breeding areas, and if found only in one place or region. 22: What is HIPPCO? The important causes of premature extinction. 23: What can you do about invasive species? We can not allow wild animals to escape, not dump unused bait into the water, wipe dogs fur after trip, and not buy plants overseas or trade online to help decrease amounts of invasive species. 24: What are some characteristics of successful invader species? The characteristics are high reproductive rate, short generation time (r-selected species), pioneer species, long lived, high dispersal rate, release growth-inhibiting chemicals into soil, generalists, and high genetic variability. 25: How is pollution affecting species? Pollution affects species by killing 1/5 of honeycomb bees, 67 million birds, and 6-14 million fish. 26: What is overexploitation? It is when a species is killed so much for its value. 27: What is the U.S. Endangered Species Act? It is a law passed to help protect and

prevent endangered species trade and overexploitation. 28: What is the CITIES Treaty? It is an international law that helps protect trade of endangered species. 29: What can you do to help terrestrial biodiversity? What can you do to help protect species worldwide? We can adopt a forest, plant trees and take care of them, live in towns to help. We can not buying furs, plants, and ivory products from the wild to protect species.