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Hot Wheels- Force and Motion

5th grade- Science Lesson Type of Setting: Suburban, NYC public school 19- Bronx/Woodlawn NY. This lesson plan is targeted for 28 5th grade students with two ESL students and 11 students with IEPs. Date of Lesson: November 7th 2013

PURPOSE: The purpose of this lesson is to teach the students about force and motion.

In order to do this, I will use Internet resources including videos, along with a chart that displays force and motion. The rationale for this lesson is that the children have previously touched on the subject of force and motion in previous grades and have learned the basics of motion including push, pull, attract, repel, gravity, rest and motion. They are now ready to move on to Newtons Second Law of Motion. Students will be informed about the Second Law of Motion and will do an activity that will display the law. Essential Questions: How does the speed of an object affect how the object travels? How is the size of the object and amount of force applied related to the motion of the object? What is Newtons Second Law of Motion?

VOCABULARY & KEY TERMS: Speed: A measurement of distance over time Force: A push or pull on an object Newtons 2nd Law of Motion: By increasing or decreasing the mass or acceleration of an object you change the force applied by that object Acceleration: increase in the rate or speed of something Distance: A measure of how far an object moves Position: The location of an object

SKILLS: Students will be able to demonstrate their knowledge of Newtons Laws of Motion through an activity.

OBJECTIVES: The student will demonstrate his/her knowledge of the function of force and motion. The student will demonstrate his/her knowledge of Newtons Second Law of Motion. The student will demonstrate his/her ability to reason what affected the speed of each object. The student will be able to apply Newtons Laws of Motion to everyday activities.

NEW YORK STATE LEARNING STANDARDS: Science Standards: 5. The Physical Setting F. Motion 5F/E1a: Changes in Speed or direction of motion are caused by forces 5F/E1bc: The greater the force is, the greater the change in motion will be. The more massive an object is, the less effect a given force will have

11. Common Themes B. Models 11B/E2: Geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and oral and written descriptions can be used to represent objects, events, and processes in the real world Math- Grade 5 Measurement and Data Represent and interpret data

PRE-ASSESSMENT 1) I determined these objectives are appropriate for the learners by researching the 4th grade science standards and lessons on force and motion in order to determine the students prior knowledge. I simplified the definitions in order to meet 5th grade childrens needs. The learners are expected to meet the objectives at a mastering level as the vocabulary and differentiated lesson plan is appropriate for students of different abilities as well as grade level. The tasks will be modeled for the students in order to ensure their understanding. In order to plan for instruction, I looked up the science standards for the appropriate grade level first. I decided that a force and motion lesson would be both fun and interactive! I did my own research on the topic in order to ensure my background knowledge on the topic before teaching it to my students.

LESSON PRESENTATION:

SET-INDUCTION In order to get my students interested in my lesson, I will have three students come up in front of the classroom, each holding different sized balls (golf ball, baseball, and a basketball). Each student will hold the ball out at equal levels and drop it to the ground at the same time. Students will first make predictions about which ball will drop to the ground the fastest. They will turn and talk to their partner and decide which ball would fall to the ground first. Their results may include the mass or weight because these are terms they have been introduced to in previous grades. It is a simple yet interactive way for the students to have a basic understanding of force and motion.

PROCEDURE After the students elaborate on the results, I will ask them if they know who Isaac Newton is. I will explain that Sir Isaac Newton is an English scientist that lived during the 1600s. There is an old story that has been passed through the years

that Isaac was sitting in an apple orchard not bothering anyone when an apple fell on his head. He wondered, how did that apple fall? He started to think about the fact that objects always fall down and never up. He was the first to figure out that it wasnt just apples that fall down to the ground, but the force of gravity. Students will make a KWL chart based on what they already know about motion and Newtons Second Law and then they will fill in what they want to know I will then reveal a separate video for Newtons Second Law of motion that gives an explanation as well as demonstration on the video. (Video 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nO7XeYPi2FU. Video 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I05zT7GfajY ) After watching the video, I will ask the students if they can discuss what they learned throughout the video. Students will fill in the L part of their KWL chart in order to document what they learned. Next, I will ask the students specific examples of Newtons Second Law of Motion. I will give them the definition of Newtons Second Law of Motion: Newtons 2nd Law of Motion: By increasing or decreasing the mass or acceleration of an object you change the force applied by that object. I will give them an easier definition- Heavier objects require more force to move the same distance as lighter objects. Students will copy down definitions as I write them on the overhead. I will then hand out the sheet for the activity. Students will be placed in three different levels according to their academic placements- gifted and talented, on grade level, and struggling learners. I will also hand out the materials that include a one meter ramp, a hot wheels car, a ruler, and 4 textbooks for each group.

Students will answer the first question individually, Does height of a ramp affect the distance a hot wheels car will travel? The correct answer is yes.

I will model the directions as each group follows along: 1) Build the ramp one textbook high. 2) Place the hot wheels car at the starting point and release. 3) Measure the distance the car travels down the ramp and onto the floor. 4) Record the distance in centimeters in your table. 5) Repeat two more times. 6) Find the average distance of the three trials and record. 7) Repeat steps 1-6 for 2, 3, and 4 textbooks 8) Make a bar graph of the average distances for 1, 2, 3 and 4 textbooks 9) Write a conclusion about your findings. I will then ask students as a class what their results were. Each group will share their answers with the class. Students should conclude that the higher the stack of books, the farther in distance the car goes.

CLOSURE In order to close this lesson, I will ask again what Newtons Second Law of Motion activity revealed. We will have a group discussion and I will record the three groups results on the board.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES: Teacher: Web link for videos 1 prepared chart showing the basics of force and motion 1 black sharpie 24 copies of the group activity 3 hot wheels cars

3 meter sticks 3 one meter ramps 12 textbooks

Student: Science notebook Pencil Pen 1 copy of group activity one meter ramp a hot wheels car a meter stick, 4 textbooks for each group

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY or ASSIGNMENT: As a follow up activity, students will be assigned homework. The homework will direct them to demonstrate Newtons Second Law of Motion in a different way. They will describe an everyday activity or random activity that reflects the law. They will write two paragraphs about how their topic demonstrates either law of motion. As a critical thinking question, students will be asked to reflect on whether or not any of their daily routines incorporates any of Newtons Laws.

10 EVALUATION / ASSESSMENT:

The students will be informally assessed on their

participation in the group activity, their ability to record important information from the videos on Newtons 2nd Law, ability to hypothesize based on facts they already know about motion, ability to learn new vocabulary, and their ability to have an understanding of the material. This

informal assessment will serve as a tool by which we measure their comprehension from the lesson.

11 DIFFERENTIATION:

This lesson plan has been differentiated to accommodate different

learning styles incorporated throughout the classroom. There is a variety of different activities that incorporate different multiple intelligences. The bodily-kinesthetic learners are addressed in the opening demonstration where three students are holding different sized balls in order to understand the effects of mass against force and motion. The visual-spatial learners are addressed in the videos that they watch for each of Newtons Laws of Motion. The intrapersonal learners are addressed during the KWL chart when they individually demonstrate what they already know and what they want to know. The hot wheels experiment demonstrates both interpersonal and bodily-kinesthetic learners who learn by doing. The lesson is differentiated for ESL students and gifted and talented students. By placing these students in separate groups, they are able to work at each others pace. ESL students can help each other understand the directions. Expectations for the gifted and talented students would be higher. For example, their conclusions for the experiment would be more elaborate.

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RESOURCES: Lausten, L. (2012, January 10). Todays investigation- motion and speed. Retrieved from http://sciencegal-sciencegal.blogspot.com/2012/01/today.html

Louivere, G. (2006, October). Newtons laws of motion. Retrieved from http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/louviere/Newton/hotwheels.html

Youtube. Newtons 2nd Law of Motion. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nO7XeYPi2FU

Youtube. Newtons Second Law of Motion. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I05zT7GfajY