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Mykah Mykah Elliott is a 6 year old young lady from a middle class family living
Mykah
Mykah Elliott is a 6 year old young lady from a middle class family living in Ewa Beach, Hi
she home school’s. Her parents are married, her father is a military surgeon and her mother
is a registered nurse. There are 5 children in her family, she has two brothers and two sisters.
Demographics
Mykah is African American, English is her second language, first language was Swazi, but
she has lost her first language at this point. She attended Friendship Christian School a small
private preschool for 2 years however, she had trouble due to her ADHD. With behavior
issues.
Personal
Mykah is involved in numerous extracurricular activities including, dance, zumba,
AWANAs, soccer, swimming and likes to play with Barbies. she spends a lot of time with
siblings, but has many family friends that come over to visit. Mykah does not like school
work unless there is fun activity involved, she loves, doing one on one reading lessons and
hands on activities. She is very task oriented and loves to help around the house.
Mykah Mykah Elliott is a 6 year old young lady from a middle class family living

Cognitive Mykah is adopted from Africa, her mother died when she was 3 years old leaving her to be the primary care giver to her 2 year old brother for a few months before being found and taken to an orphanage. During the few months and her parents estimate, for some time before, she was in a starving state. This has lead to trauma at a very young age and perhaps slowed her brain development, due to malnourishment.

Mykah’s Brain Development

As the victim of a severe trauma and starvation in her early years there are some
As the victim of a severe trauma and starvation in her early years there are some issues that she is at risk of.
She may have suffered some negative effects in the nervous system due to starvation before the age of 3,
issues that cannot be seen in observation nor have been medically noted. “The brain also grows rapidly just
before and for about 2 years after birth. Malnutrition during these periods of rapid brain growth may have
devastating effects on the nervous system and can affect not only neurons, but also glial cell development
and growth. Effects on glial cells may change myelin development especially because myelin continues to
form around axons for several years after birth.”
   Mykah’s Brain Development As the victim of a severe trauma and starvation in

The negative effects of trauma on her brain might have given her a higher level of behavioral and emotional

problems. “Severe trauma in early childhood affects all domains of development, including cognitive, social,

   Mykah’s Brain Development As the victim of a severe trauma and starvation in

emotional, physical, psychological and moral development” (Moroz 6) . Mykah has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, a behavioral disorder for which she is prescribed a daily 5mg dose of Ritalin. The difference in her behavior is almost a polar change. The act of leaving Africa and coming to America could have also been traumatic in a small way. As her life, information, perceptions and

surroundings changed drastically in a few hours. Though she had already had the chance to form
surroundings changed drastically in a few hours. Though she had already had the chance to form an
emotional attachment with her adoptive mother for 8 weeks before they left Africa.
Mykah is just learning to read and has mastered the reorganization of all 27 letters and
Mykah is just learning to read and has mastered the reorganization of all 27 letters and the sounds they
make. Her mother feels this is impressive considering that in the last two years she has learned an entirely
new language and culture. She has learned about + and - but needs reminders and prompts to differentiate
adding a subtracting. She is currently learning skip counting by 5’s.

As a 6-year child Mykah’s brain has reached its optimum point, she has formed around 1,000 trillion

Brain Development Teaching Strategy
Brain Development Teaching
Strategy
reading, writing, etc…A good strategy for her brain would have something to do with Rote memorization.
reading, writing, etc…A good strategy for her brain would have something to do with Rote memorization.
Because she is learning so much, it would be more effective for her brain to teach her small portions of each
subject and then smoothly transition to another and teach just a step in the process. For example in reading,

At the stage of development Mykah is in she is learning a lot of new information at the same time. From math to

Brain Development Teaching Strategy reading, writing, etc…A good strategy for her brain would have something to

Week 1&2 - Daily practice would increase memorization in short snippets, have a book with blends, I would present her with blends, ch, nd, sh. Once she has mastered sounding out of blends,

Brain Development Teaching Strategy reading, writing, etc…A good strategy for her brain would have something to

Week 3&4 -Moving on to words that rhyme, Cloud, proud, loud, and so on. I would repeat the “oud” sound before each word. While she sounded out the blends and “cl” and added “oud” to the end. Until it sounded like cloud to her.

make it more meaningful.
make it more meaningful.

Week 5&6 - She does not need to know what a cloud is only how to read the word. However if we only read maybe 20 words a day and as we went through and gave a short explanation of the new words. That would

To ensure mastery and that she is not presented with too much information. This way she can store information in small portions over a long period of time. This would improve Rote memorization and add to her long- term knowledge of the important subject of reading.

Brain Development Teaching Strategy reading, writing, etc…A good strategy for her brain would have something to
Brain Development Teaching Strategy reading, writing, etc…A good strategy for her brain would have something to
Brain Development Teaching Strategy reading, writing, etc…A good strategy for her brain would have something to
Mykah’s Language Development
Mykah’s Language Development

Technically English is Mykah’s second language, she was born in Swazi land and spoke the necessary
Technically English is Mykah’s second language, she was born in Swazi
land and spoke the necessary Swazi, for communication and play during
her first few years of life, she began to learn English in the orphanage she
resided in with her younger brother before she came to the US. They
arrived in the country 2 years ago and in that time Mykah has mastered the
first grade level of the English language. She falls into the category of the
average six year olds; although she does use sentences of more than 5-6
words on a regular basis her vocabulary is probably normal about 10,000
words. She understands and uses spatial relations, opposites, and “same”
and “different” (woolfolk 169). Her language is perhaps a little advanced,
most of the terms I used in the interview did not need to be described, I

could say “can you give me an example”, instead of “can you tell me how?”

As far as over regularization, she did use the phrase “we goed to the Colorado, when
As far as over regularization, she did use the phrase “we goed to the
Colorado, when talking about a family vacation.
Mykah used pragmatics

when she spoke to her bunny, the family has a bunny and upon picking him up she spoke in a rudimentary way that showed she understood his lower intelligence, Mykah is constantly learning new words and attempts to put t

Language Teaching

Strategy
Strategy
on her language learning, I would use the recommendation of the text. I would have her
on her language learning, I would use the recommendation
of the text. I would have her use, “Think aloud” to solve a
problem or to story tell, building on and clarifying her
input. (woolfolk 181)

Mykah is still in the process of learning how to read, so to build

I would model story telling with visual aids . I would then create the opportunity for
I would model story telling with visual aids . I would then
create the opportunity for her to talk at length and organize
stories or problem solutions. I would have alternative
terms prepared as vocabulary for her to discuss. While she
is organizing the information visually she is constructing it
mentally and relating each event in a series. I would use
stories that she is familiar with. I would give feed back by
asking questions like, “can we think of another word for
“said” or “happy” or “walk” How did she get to the
store?”, “Are the two boys related” That make her think
about the story structure and significance of time mapping,
....
not fit, she would need to clarify in a way that makes sense
relationships, transitions etc
If a portion of the story does
and defend her clarification. This would help her to speak
in narrative manner, while receiving necessary prompts or
corrections. She would also be presented with new
vocabulary during the feedback phase. The visual
organizers add to the activities meaning which motivate her
Piaget’s Theory
Piaget’s Theory

According to the text her brain is still preoperational but on the verge of concrete operation. Because she has developed language and has begun to use symbols to represent objects. Though she has no difficulty with past and future and she can think through operations logically in one direction but has the capacity to move backwards through a process mentally. She has difficulties understanding the point of view of another person. She had a lot of difficulty with conservation, but

seemed to understand after the second explanation and example. (Woolfolk 45)
seemed to understand after the second explanation and
example. (Woolfolk 45)

Piaget feels that at the preoperational stage the child is moving toward mastery, but has not yet mastered these mental

operations. Mykah is learning to reason, to pay attention and
operations.
Mykah is learning to reason, to pay attention and

to remember. For this, children need what Piaget called i

Piaget Teaching Strategy
Piaget Teaching Strategy
 A Piaget strategy provided for learning in the concrete operational phase is using objects. “This
A Piaget strategy provided for learning in the concrete
operational phase is using objects. “This technique also is
helpful for early concrete operational students.
Make instructions relatively short not too many steps at once.
Use actions as well as words.” (woolfolk 47) Mykah is having
trouble with skip counting, by 5’s, so I would give her physical

objects to count like nickels. I could also have her number post

Piaget Teaching Strategy  A Piaget strategy provided for learning in the concrete operational phase is

it cards, 1-30, stick them along the wall in order, Mykah could

then remove all of the numbers between 0, 5, 10, 15 and so on.

This would give her a visual and concrete way of seeing the numbers, we could then
This would give her a visual and concrete way of seeing the
numbers, we could then put the numbers back and remove
only the fives, or move the 5’s a little lower than the other
Vygotsky Theory
Vygotsky Theory
• Vygotsky’s belief that learning pulls development to higher levels  means that other people, including
Vygotsky’s belief that learning pulls development to higher levels
means that other people, including teachers, play a significant role in cognitive
development. Woolfolk, Anita E. (2012-02-08). Educational Psychology (12th
Edition) (Page 60). Prentice Hall. Kindle Edition.
Mykah is at the point in her development where she has a good concept of the
logical steps toward performing a task, she is very task oriented. I think that she
is more interested in having a teacher teach her than to learn at play with other
children. This could have something to do with attachment and attention.
However, she seems to be more of a leader at play even with children that are
older than her. She also seemed to get easily frustrated at the other children
when they did not understand her directions or the concepts she was trying to
convey. She stopped play at one point, sighed and told the other child to “hold
on, I will just do it myself”. In contrast, when she is working with an adult, like
when her and I baked cookies, she took direction very well, and seemed eager to
learn, asking questions about measurement and reasoning for each step. She
also was excited to share her new knowledge with her parents and siblings.
She uses self-talk when she is left to her own work, though most of the self talk
is not directly related to the activity she is doing. She will have a made up
conversation concerning two of her friends while she colors or loads the

Vygotsky Teaching

Strategy Because of her intent to learn from adults she will often mimic them, using imitative
Strategy
Because of her intent to learn from adults she will often mimic them, using imitative
learning. She also used instructed learning, I gave her a math page to work on, and
instructed her on the math formulas before she began, she went quietly to the table and
used the formulas, solving the problems. Mykah, does use technology tools for learning,
she is not allowed to use the family computer, but she does have a “leap pad” that she
enjoys using for play.
Some of the strategies in the text provide for activities that can be broken down into
scaffolding, I think in order to put the teaching into context for Mykah, a good strategy
would be a project.
Something that does not take a long time has a definite beginning

and end and provides a rewarding end result. I chose baking cookies, this is a project in which I would be able to model self talk. I would have a recipe to follow that has defined steps along with instructions for set up and clean up of the project. There are many small tasks involved with baking, and each step is crucial to a finished project. Walking

through and explaining each step asking her questions and answering any questions she might have. After
through and explaining each step asking her questions and answering any questions she
might have. After Mykah finished with the overall project I could provide her with a few
questions about the process and maybe explain to her if she had any questions. Even ask
her to re-organize the steps on a chart. This could be performed several times and she
would probably learn something new every time.
This would also work with a zone of
proximal development because the act of baking cookies would be above her personal
understanding but she would be highly motivated toward the goal because of the one on
one adult interaction and the final product being cookies!
Mykah’s Physical Development
Mykah’s Physical Development

Mykah is 7 years old, she is 46 inches tall and weighs 34 lbs her bone
Mykah is 7 years old, she is 46 inches tall and weighs 34 lbs her bone structure is long, she is
undergoing a growth spurt. balance. She has a long thin frame. When questioned, Mykah didn’t care
much about her body; she knew that she was smaller than her older siblings. But she also knew that
she was taller than the younger ones. She wasn’t sure if she was weak or strong but when comparing

herself and the way that she made use of her body, she finally decided that she was strong because of

how she could climb trees. Her fine motor skills are still being perfected but she has a lot of dexterity.

Her gross motor skills are fully developed. She can run at full speed and is fast.
Her gross motor skills are fully developed. She can run at full speed and is fast. She can walk on her
hands and do gymnastic moves like a back bend to a handstand on her own without lessons. I tested
her skipping and hopping on one leg; she successfully did 5 jumping jacks, walked a straight line and
moved small objects from one cup to the other with tweezers.
Mykah is very active. She plays several times a day with her siblings, rides her bike every day, visits
the community swimming pool at least twice a week. Practices soccer and takes a kids Zumba class.
Around the house she is very active doing chores and doesn’t really like sitting down to do school
assignments, because she “would rather be outside”. The text says “these breaks may be especially
important for students with attention-deficit hyperactive disorders (ADHD). (Woolfolk 73)
Mykah does need to gain a bit of weight; she is a good eater in the amount she consumes though she
takes a long time to eat and goes through phases of big portions and small. Due to her previous
malnutrition she is very underweight for her age and is therefore served meat and fat more than her
siblings, but otherwise her diet is balanced with fruit and vegetables.
Mykah sleeps for at least 8 hours a night, her bedtime is around 8pm and she admits to taking a while
to fall asleep. Her mother says that she sleeps in late and is allowed to sleep as long as she needs to.
Mykah only recently stopped taking formal mid-day naps.
Physical Teaching Strategy
Physical Teaching Strategy

I feel that Mykah has good self-esteem, she is given a lot of positive talk and
I feel that Mykah has good self-esteem, she
is given a lot of positive talk and loving
reinforcement by her parents who tell her
that she is “pretty”, “strong”, “smart” and
“capable”.
I think that a change in that at
this point would make her more self
conscious, possibly to her detriment.
However, because the text says that activity
is important for children with ADHD, I
would suggest that Mykah take some sort of
formal dance class. To further hone her
gross motor skills and maybe make her a
little more graceful. This would also work
on her control of her body, as she still
struggles with knocking over cups and
getting over excited, trips or drops objects
she may be carrying. A Ballet class, or hip
hp class will give her an active outlet while
Physical Teaching Strategy  I feel that Mykah has good self-esteem, she is given a lot
Mykah’s Self and Social Development
Mykah’s Self and Social
Development
Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

Do you think that you are good at school overall? - Yes, I rock itHow do you feel about being (good, bad, or average) at school? - good

Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

Do you think that you will complete the grade you are in this year? How confident are you? Yep, I asked her how she will do that , she said by working hard and finishing all of my work.

Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -
Do you think that you will do on your next upcoming test or project at your
Do you think that you will do on your next upcoming test or project at your school? (self-efficacy – one’s belief that he/she can complete a task.)Her next assignment that
she feels is big, is memory verses. She feels that she will memorize them, by practicing.
Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

Who do you like to hang out with? Miss Rachael (nanny), What kinds of things do you like to do? Go to the pool, beach, make cookies.

How do you see yourself as a person? Good of bad? Both, cause everyone is bad
How do you see yourself as a person? Good of bad? Both, cause everyone is bad and everyone is good. I’m good sometimes and bad sometimes, mainly good.
Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

What do you want to be when you grow up? A mommy and a nurse

Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

Who are your heros? Daddy, because he can find stuff

Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

Who do you relate to? Miss Beth (family friend)

Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

Do you get along with everyone in your family? No, none of the kids, I get along with mommy and daddy. I get along with Jackson! ( younger brother, biological sibling also adopted) and Maddie, kind of, sometimes. (younger sister)

Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -
Mykah’s Self and Social Development Do you think that you are good at school overall? -

How do you think males and females act in society? -Ladylike and gentlemenlike, they don’t burp at the table, don’t chew with your mouth open, everyone should be clean and girls should wear pretty dresses and boys should be handsome.

Mykah’s Psychosocial Development according to Eric Erikson
Mykah’s Psychosocial Development
according to Eric Erikson
 Initiative vs. guilt 3-6 years, Independence, the child continues to become more assertive and to
Initiative vs. guilt 3-6 years, Independence, the child continues
to become more assertive and to take more initiative but may
be too forceful, which can lead to guilt feelings.
Industry vs. inferiority, 6-12, school, child must deal with
demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority,
failure and incompetence
Mykah is in between these stages of development. I believe
her social development has been stunted. Her parents treat
her like she is younger than her younger sister because she is
much smaller in size. Also Mykah is still gaining the
understanding of American friendships and social queue’s.
These things have a lot to do with her development.

Social Teaching Strategy Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of development recognizes that the physical and social contexts
Social Teaching Strategy
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of
development recognizes that the physical and
social contexts in which we develop are
ecosystems because they are constantly
interacting with and influencing each other.
(Woolfolk 76)
I would have Mykah create a “Star of the
Week” board with information about herself.
The text says that self-concept is directly
reflected in the students micro system. So I
would have Mykah show case the positive
things in her micro system, things like, her
likes, activities she participates in, what she is
good at, her favorite people and places and her
family. This would help her to focus on the
positive points in her life and the things that
make her who she is. This would add to her
self-concept because she would have to focus
on the positive and compile it in one place that
she can showcase and discuss with others. I
would give positive feed back and ask the other
students to also share what they like about her
board.

Mykah’s Moral Development

Upon reading the prompt story about Valjean, after listening intently and asking a few questions. Mykah’s final answer was that Valjean should in fact be sent back to jail to finish his sentence. I reminded her of the generosity he showed to his employees, but this did not seem to change her mind and she stuck with her

Mykah’s Moral Development Upon reading the prompt story about Valjean, after listening intently and asking a

answer. When I asked her why she said that, “he stole and when you steal you go to Jail”. I believe Kohlberg

would classify her under pre-conventional morality. This means that she is less interested in the reasoning
would classify her under pre-conventional morality. This means that she is less interested in the reasoning
behind
Mykah’s Moral Development Upon reading the prompt story about Valjean, after listening intently and asking a
She did not admit to having any part in dishonesty, such as stealing or cheating and
She did not admit to having any part in dishonesty, such as stealing or cheating and seemed to be alarmed at the
insinuation. In contrast she did say that she had done something that she later felt sorry for. When I
slammed the door at mommy, I was mad but after I felt bad”. She seemed however to be more concerned
with punishment, when asked about Valjean and herself feeling bad about what they had done, she
referenced to being punished, not that what they had done was in any way wrong.
“did he feel bad about what he did?”
“yes”
why”
“because he had to go to Jail

She also showed little empathy for Valjean and his predicament of poverty.

Moral Teaching Strategy
Moral Teaching Strategy
 “But in time, children internalize the moral rules and principles of the authority figures who
“But in time, children internalize the moral rules and principles of the
authority figures who have guided them; that is, children adopt the external
standards as their own. If children are given reasons they can understand
when they are corrected—particularly reasons that highlight the effects of
actions on others—then they are more likely to internalize moral principles.
They learn to behave morally even when “no one is watching” (Woolfolk
104)
Mykah’s family encourages perspective-taking, so I would probably present
her with a few problems in which she would have to “put herself in another
persons shoes”. I might let her play with other students and when a
learning opportunity arises take the time to talk her through the other
students perspective. Asking questions like “do you like to be teased” or
“how would you feel if I took your toy without asking” letting her give
short concrete answers that help her identify with another student. I believe
that at this point Mykah is not prepared to answer to “why” she made a
certain decision. Children with ADHD sometimes have trouble with why
Sources
Sources
 Woolfolk, Anita E. (2012-02-08). Educational Psychology (12th Edition) (Page 36, 45, 73, 169, 174, 181)
Woolfolk, Anita E. (2012-02-08). Educational Psychology
(12th Edition) (Page 36, 45, 73, 169, 174, 181) Prentice
Hall. Kindle Edition.
http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs609w.htm,
sean brotherson
http://mentalhealth.vermont.gov/sites/dmh/files/repo
rt/cafu/DMH-CAFU_Psychological_Trauma_Moroz.pdf
Kathleen J. Moroz, DSW, LICSW, Report Prepared for
the Vermont Agency of Human Services Department of
Health Division of Mental Health Child, Adolescent and
Family Unit
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/adhd.html