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RESPOSTAS DOS EXERCCIOS

CAPTULO I
Seguem as sugestes de soluo dos exerccios da lista 1.6. Observamos que em alguns
exemplos existem mais de um caminho ou maneira para chegar soluo. Apresentamos
somente uma opo.

SEO 1.6 p. 10
1. Determinar todos os intervalos de nmeros que satisfazem as desigualdades abaixo.
Fazer a representao grfica.
a) 3 x < 5 + 3 x
x 3x < 5 3
4x < 2
4x > 2
x >2 4
x > 1 2

(1 / 2 , + )
1 x
1 3
+ x+
3 4
3
1 x 1
3
2x x
< +5
4
3
3
24 x 9 x 4(1 x ) 1 + 15
<
12
3
24 x 9 x 4 + 4 x 16
<
12
3
1 9 x 4 16
<
12
3

b) 2 x 5 <

1 9 x 16 4
<
+
12
3 12
1 9 x 17
<
12
3
57 x < 204
204
57
68
x<
19

x<

( , 68 / 19)

c) 2 > 3 3 x 7

2 + 3 > 3x 7 + 3
5 > 3 x 4
5
4
<x
3
3

(5 / 3 , 4 / 3]

d)

5 3
<
x 4

1 caso: x > 0 20 < 3x x > 20 3


Soluo 1 caso: (0, + ) (20 3 , + ) = (20 3 , + )

2 caso: x < 0 20 > 3x x < 20 3

4
Soluo 2 caso:

( , 0 ) ( , 20 3) = ( , 0)

Soluo final: ( , 0 ) (20 3 , + ) ou x [0, 20 3]

e) x 2 9

x2 9 0
(x 3)(x + 3) 0

1 caso:
x 30
x3

x +30
x 3

Soluo 1 caso: ( , 3] [3 + ) = o/
2 caso:
x 30
x +30
e
x3
x 3
Soluo 2 caso: ( , 3] [ 3 + ) = [ 3, 3]
Soluo final: [ 3, 3]

f) x 2 3 x + 2 > 0

(x 1) (x 2) > 0
x [1, 2]

g) 1 x 2 x 2 0
2x 2 + x 1 0

(x + 1) (2 x 1) 0
x [ 1, 1 2]

h)

x +1
x
<
2 x 3+ x

1 caso:
2x>0
x<2

3+ x>0

x > 3

( , 2) ( 3, + ) = ( 3, 2)

(x + 1) (3 + x ) < x (2 x )
3x + x 2 + 3 + x < 2 x x 2
2 x 2 + 2 x + 3 < 0 no existe x que satisfaz

2 caso:
2x>0
x<2

( , 2) ( , 3) = ( , 3)
(x + 1) (3 + x ) > x (2 x )
2 x 2 + 2 x + 3 > 0 x IR

3+ x<0
x < 3

Soluo 2 caso: ( , + ) ( , 3) = ( , 3)
3 caso:
2x<0

x>2

3+ x>0
x > 3

( 3, + ) (2, + ) = (2, + )
2 x 2 + 2 x + 3 > 0 x IR

( , + ) (2, + ) = (2, + )
4 caso:
2x<0
x>2
(2, + ) ( ,3) = 0/

3+ x<0
x < 3

Soluo final: 0/ ( , 3) (2, + ) 0/ x [ 3, 2]

i) x 3 + 1 > x 2 + x

x3 x2 x + 1 > 0

(x 1)2 (x + 1) > 0
Portanto,
x +1> 0

ou

x > 1.

j) x 2 1 ( x + 4 ) 0

(x 1) (x + 1) (x + 4) 0

7
1 caso:
x 1 0
x 1

x +1 0

x 1

x+40
x 4

Soluo: (, 4]
2 caso:
x 1 0
x 1
Soluo: 0/

x +1 0

3 caso:
x 1 0

x 1

x 1

x +1 0

x 1

x+40
x 4

x+40
x4

Soluo: [ 1, 1]
4 caso:
x 1 0

x 1
Soluo: 0/

x +1 0

x 1

x+40
x 4

Soluo final: ( , 4] 0/ [ 1, 1] 0/ = ( , 4] [ 1, 1]

k)

x+2
2

1
x 2 x 2

1 caso: x 2 > 0

x>2

2 x + 2 (x 2)
22 x x 22
0 x x4
0/
2 caso: x 2 < 0

x<2

8
2x+2x2
0 x x4

x0

Soluo: ( , 0] ( , 2) = (,0]

l) x 4 x 2

x4 x2 0
x 2 ( x 1) ( x + 1) 0
1 caso:

x 1 0
x 1

x +1 0
x 1

Soluo 1 caso: [1, + )


2 caso:
x 1 0
x 1

x +1 0
x 1

Soluo: ( , 1]
Soluo final: ( , 1] {0} [1, + )

m)

x
<4
x3

1 caso: x 3 > 0

x>3

x < 4 ( x 3)
x < 4 x 12
x 4 x < 12
3 x < 12
3 x < 12
x<4
Soluo 1 caso: (4, + )
2 caso: x 3 < 0 x < 3
x > 4 ( x 3)
x > 4 x 12
x 4 x > 12
3 x > 12
3 x > 12
x>4
Soluo 2 caso: ( , 3)
Soluo final: ( , 3) (4, + )
x [3, 4]

n)

1 2x 3
>1
4+x

1 caso: 4 + x > 0
1
x3>4+x
2
1
x x > 4 +3
2
1
x>7
2
x < 14

x >4

10

Soluo 1 caso: 0/
2 caso: 4 + x < 0 x < 4
1
x 3< 4+ x
2
1
x x < 4 +3
2
1
x > 7
2
x > 14
Soluo 2 caso: ( 14, 4)
Soluo final: ( 14, 4)

o)

3
2
x 5

1 caso: x 5 > 0 x > 5

3 2 ( x 5)
3 2 x 10
2 x 13
2 x 13
x 13 2
Soluo 1 caso: [13 2 , + ]
2 caso: x 5 < 0 x < 5
3 2 ( x 5)
x 13 2

11
Soluo 2 caso: ( , 5)
Soluo final: ( , 5) [13 2 , + )

x [5 , 13 2)

p) x 3 x 2 x 2 > 0

(x 2) (x 2

+ x +1 > 0

x2>0

x>2

q) x 3 3 x + 2 0

(x

2 x + 1 (x + 2) 0

(x 1)2 (x + 2) 0
x + 2 0 x 2
Soluo Final: ( , 2] {1}

r)

1
3

x +1 x 2

1 caso:
x +1> 0
x > 1

x2>0
x>2

ou (2, + )

12

x 2 3 ( x + 1)
x 2 3x + 3
x 3x 3 + 2
2x 5
x 5 2
Soluo 1 caso: 0/
2 caso:
x +1< 0
x < 1
x 2 3( x + 1)
x 5 2

x2<0
x<2

ou ( , 1)

Soluo 2 caso: (, 5 2]
3 caso:
x +1> 0
x > 1

x2<0
x<2

ou ( 1, 2 )

x 2 3( x + 1)
x 5 2
Soluo 3 caso: ( 1, 2 )
caso:
x +1< 0
x < 1

x2>0
x>2

Soluo final: ( , 5 2] ( 1, 2)

ou 0/

13
s) 8 x 3 4 x 2 2 x + 1 < 0

(2 x 1)2 (2 x + 1) < 0
2x + 1 < 0
2x < 1
x < 1 2

t)

12 x 3 20 x 2 11x + 2
12 x 3 20 x 2 + 11x 2 0

(2 x 1)2 (3x 2) 0
3x 2 0
3x 2
x2 3
Soluo Final: [2 / 3,+) {1 / 2}

2. Resolva as equaes em IR
a) 5 x 3 = 12

5 x 3 = 12

ou

5 x 3 = 12

5 x = 12 + 3

5 x = 12 + 3

5 x = 15

5x = 9

x = 15 5

x = 9 5

x=3

14
Soluo: { 9 5 , 3}

b) 4 + 12 x = 7

4 + 12 x = 7

ou

4 + 12 x = 7

12 x = 7 + 4

12 x = 7 + 4

12 x = 11

12 x = 3

x = 11 12

x = 3 12
x =1 4

Soluo: { 1 4 , 11 12}

c) 2 x 3 = 7 x 5
2x 3 = 7 x 5

(2 x 3) = 7 x 5
2x + 3 = 7 x 5
2x 7 x = 5 3
9x = 8
x =8 9

ou

2x 7 x = 5 + 3
5x = 2
5x = 2
x=2 5
Soluo: {2 5 , 8 9}

d)

x+2
=5
x2

x+2
= 5 ,x 2
x2

ou

x+2
= 5, x 2
x2

x + 2 = 5 (x 2)

x + 2 = 5 (x 2)

x + 2 = 5 x 10

x + 2 = 5 x + 10

x 5 x = 10 2
4 x = 12

x + 5 x = 10 2
6x = 8

x = 12 4

x =8 6

x=3

x=4 3

15
Soluo: {4 3 , 3}

e)

3x + 8
=4
2x 3

3x + 8
=4
2x 3

x 3/ 2

ou

3x + 8
=4
2x 3

x 3/ 2

3 x + 8 = 4 (2 x 3)

3 x + 8 = 4 (2 x 3)

3 x + 8 = 8 x 12

3 x + 8 = 8 x + 12

3 x 8 x = 12 8

3 x + 8 x = 12 8

5 x = 20

11x = 4

x = 20 5

x = 4 11

x=4
Soluo: {4 11, 4}

f) 3x + 2 = 5 x

3x + 2 = 5 x

ou

3 x + 2 = (5 x )

3x + x = 5 2

3x + 2 = 5 + x

4x = 3

3x x = 5 2

x=3 4

2x = 7
x = 7 2

Soluo: { 7 2, 3 4}

g) 9 x 11 = x

16
x>0

x<0

9 x 11 = x ou

9 x 11 = x

9 x x = 11
8 x = 11

9 x x = 11
10 x = 11

x = 11 8

x = 11 10

Soluo: { 11 10, 11 8}

h) 2 x 7 = x + 1

x>0

ou x < 0

2x 7 = x + 1

2x 7 = x + 1

2x x = 1 + 7

2x + x = 1 + 7

x =8

3x = 8
x = 8 / 3 no satisfaz a condio de x < 0

Soluo: {8}

3. Resolva as inequaes em IR
a) x + 12 < 7
7 < x + 12 < 7
7 12 < x < 7 12
19 < x < 5

x ( 19, 5)

b) 3x 4 2

17
2 3x 4 2
2 + 4 3x 2 + 4
2 3x 6
2
x2
3

x [2 3 , 2]

c) 5 6 x 9
5 6x 9

ou

6x 9 5

5 6x 9
6x 9 5
6 x 14

6x 4

6 x 14
x 14 6

x4 6
x2 3

x7 3

x ( , 2 3] ou x [7 3, + ) ou, de forma equivalente, x ( 2 3 , 7 3)

d) 2 x 5 > 3
2x 5 > 3
2x > 3 + 5
2x > 8
x>4

ou

2x 5 < 3
2x < 3 + 5
2x < 2
x <1

Soluo: x ( , 1) (4 ,+ ) ou x [1, 4]

e) 6 + 2 x < 4 x

18
2

6 + 2x < 4 x

36 + 24 x + 4 x 2 < 16 8 x + x 2
3 x 2 + 32 x + 20 < 0
(3 x + 2) (x + 10) < 0
3 ( x + 2 3) ( x + 10 ) < 0

x ( 10, 2 3)

f) x + 4 2 x 6
x 2 + 8 x + 16 4 x 2 24 x + 36
3 x 2 + 32 x 20 0
3 x 2 32 x + 20 0

(x 10) (3x 2) 0
3( x 10)( x 2 / 3) 0
Soluo: ( , 2 3] [10, + ] ou x (2 3 , 10)

g) 3x > 5 2 x

9 x 2 > 25 20 x + 4 x 2
5 x 2 + 20 x 25 > 0
(x 1) (x + 5) > 0

x [ 5, 1]

h)

7 2x 1

5 + 3x 2

19

7 2x 1

5 + 3x 2
2 7 2 x 5 + 3x

4 49 28 x + 4 x 2 25 + 30 x + 9 x 2
196 112 x + 16 x 2 25 + 30 x + 9 x 2
7 x 2 142 x + 171 0
(x 19 ) (7 x 9 ) 0
7( x 19)( x 9 / 7) 0
Soluo: x [9 7, 19]

i) x 1 + x + 2 4
1 caso:

x 1 0 x + 2 0
e
x 1
x 2

isto x 1

x 1+ x + 2 4

2x + 1 4
2x 3
x3 2

2 caso:

x 1< 0 x + 2 < 0
e
x <1
x < 2

isto x < 2

x +1 x 2 4
2x 1 4
2x 5
x 5 2

3 caso: 2 x < 1
x +1+ x + 2 4
3 4
Soluo : 0/
Resultado Final: [3 2 , + ) ( , 5 2] ou x ( 5 2 , 3 2 )

20
j) 1 < x + 2 < 4
1 caso: x + 2 0

x 2

1< x + 2 < 4
1 < x < 2

x ( 1, 2)
2 caso: x + 2 < 0
1 < x 2 < 4

x < 2

3< x<6
6 < x < 3

x ( 6, 3)
Soluo final: ( 6, 3) ( 1, 2 )

k)

2+ x
3 x

2+ x
>4
3 x

>4 ,x3

2 + x > 43 x

4 + 4 x + x 2 > 16 9 6 x + x 2

4 + 4 x + x 2 > 144 96 x + 16 x 2
15 x 2 + 100 x 140 > 0
(x 2)(3x 14) < 0
3( x 2)( x 14 / 3) < 0
Soluo: x (2, 14 3) {3}

l)

5
1

2x 1 x 2

21

5
1

| 2x 1 | | x 2 |
5 x 2 2x 1

25 x 2 4 x + 4 4 x 2 4 x + 1
2

25 x 100 x + 100 4 x 2 4 x + 1
21x 2 96 x + 99 0

(x 3)(7 x 11) 0
x (11 7 , 3) e x

1
2

m) x + 1 < x
1 caso: x 0
x +1< x
x x < 1
0 < 1
Soluo: 0/
2 caso: x < 0
x +1< x
x x < 1
2x < 1
2x > 1
x > 1/ 2
Soluo: 0/
Soluo Final: 0/

n) 3 x 1 + x < 1
1 caso:

22

x 1 0

x0

x<0

x<0

x0

x 1
3( x 1) + x < 1

3x 3 + x < 1
4x < 1 + 3
4x < 4
x <1
Soluo: 0/
2 caso:

x 1< 0
x <1
3( x + 1) + ( x ) < 1
3x + 3 x < 1
4x < 2
4x > 2
x>

1
2

Soluo: 0/
3 caso:

x 1 0
x 1
Soluo: 0/
4 caso:

x 1< 0
x <1

ou seja x > 1

23

3( x + 1) + x < 1
3x + 3 + x < 1
2x < 2
2x > 2
x >1
Soluo : 0/
Soluo Final: 0/

o) 2 x 2 + 3 x + 3 3
1 caso:
2 x 2 + 3x + 3 0
x IR
2 caso:
2 x 2 + 3x + 3 < 0
0/

2 x 2 + 3x + 3 3
2 x 2 + 3x 0
x(2 x + 3) 0
Soluo Final: x [ 3 2, 0]

p) x 1 + x 3 < 4 x

1 caso: x 3
x 1 + x 3 < 4x
2x 4x 4 < 0
2x < 4
2x > 4
x >2
Soluo: x 3 ou x [3,+)

24
2 caso: 1 x < 3
x + 1 x 3 < 4x
2 < 4x

x > 1/ 2
Soluo: 1 x < 3 ou x [1, 3)
3 caso: 0 x < 1
x + 1 x + 3 < 4x
2x + 4 < 4x
4 < 6x
x > 2/3

2
Soluo: x ,1
3
4 caso: x < 0
x + 1 x + 3 < 4 x
2 x + 4 x < 4
2 x < 4
x < 2
Soluo: x (,2)
[1, 3)
Soluo Final: ( , 2 ) (2 3 , + )

q)

1
1

x +1 x 3 5

5 x +1 x 3
1 caso: x > 3
x +1> 0
x > 1

x 3>0
x>3

25

5 ( x +1) ( x 3)
5 x 2 3x + x 3
x 2 2x 8 0
(x 4 ) (x + 2) 0

x [ 2, 4]
Soluo: x (3, 4]
2 caso: x ( 1, 3)

5 ( x +1) ( x + 3)
5 x 2 + 3x x + 3
x 2 2x + 2 0
x IR
Soluo: x ( 1, 3)
3 caso: x < 1
5 ( x 1) ( x + 3)

5 x 2 3x + x 3
x 2 2x 8 0
x [ 2, 4]
Soluo: x [2, 1)
Soluo Final: [ 2, 4] { 1, 3}

r)

x 1 2
<1
x +1 2

x 1 2 < x +1 2
x2 x +

, x 1 / 2

1
1
< x2 + 1 x +
4
4

2x < 0
2x > 0
x>0
Soluo Final: (0,+)

26

s)

3 2x
4
1+ x

3 2 x 41 + x

, x 1

9 12 x + 4 x 2 16 1 + 2 x + x 2

9 12 x + 4 x 16 + 32 x + 16 x 2
12 x 2 44 x 7 0
12 x 2 + 44 x + 7 0
(6 x + 1)(2 x + 7 ) 0
Soluo: x ( 7 2 , 1 6 )

4. Demonstre:
a) Se a 0 e b 0 , ento a 2 = b 2 se e somente se a = b .
(i) a = b a 2 = b 2
(ii) a 2 = b 2

a=b

Se a 2 = b 2 ,

a2 = b2

( obvia)

a =b

Como a 0 a = a
Como b 0 b = b
Logo a = b .

b) Se x < y ,ento x <

1
(x + y ) < y
2

x< y

x< y

x+x< y+x

x+ y < y+ y

2x < x + y

x + y < 2y

1
(x + y )
2
1
Logo, x < ( x + y ) < y
2
x<

1
(x + y ) < y
2

27
c)

x > a se e somente se x > a ou x < a , onde a > 0

(i) | x |> a , a > 0 x > a ou x < a


Se x > 0 , | x |= x e, portanto, x > a.
Se x < 0 , | x |= x . Temos, ento: x > a e dessa forma x < a .
(ii) x > a ou x < a , a > 0 | x |> a
x > a , a > 0 x > 0. Ento | x |> a.
x < a , a > 0 x < 0. Portanto, | x |= x > a , pois x < a.
d) Se 0 < a < b , ento

ab <

0<a<b 0< a < b

b a

>0

b 2 ab + a > 0
a + b > 2 ab
a+b
ou ab <
2

a+b
2