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Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

Background Information: The purpose of the performed experiment was to prove Hess Law through the use of calorimetery and to determine the standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide through the use of the reactants magnesium, magnesium oxide and hydrochloric acid Calorimetery is an extremely accurate process for determining an enthalpy change in a reaction. Calorimetery, as defined by the Nelson Chemistry 12 text book, is the technological process of measuring energy changes in a chemical system. In the performed experiment, the change in heat (kinetic) energy was measured. All lost heat to surroundings areas is considered negligible. The performed experiment was completed in order to prove Hess Law. Swiss chemist G. H. Hess suggested that there would be a mathematical correlation amoung a series of reactions with identical reactants and products. Hess Law states that the value of enthalpy change in any reaction can be written in steps which equal the sum of the values for each of these individual steps. This essentially means that the enthalpy change of any reaction can be determined using a series of other reaction containing the same products and reactants. Hess Law is written as: Htarget = H1 + H2 + H3 or Htarget = Hknown. The standard enthalpy of formation is the energy required for elements to make a compound. Standard enthalpy of formation can also be described as the enthalpy change that had to have occurred for the compound to be present. For example, liquid water has standard enthalpy formation of 285.8KJ/mol. This means that 285.8KJ of energy are needed to produce one mole of liquid water from its products hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. Enthalpy changes can only be compared at SATP since changes in temperature and pressure can result in different amounts of energy being required to generate a reaction. As a result, standard enthalpy of formation only compares reactants that underwent a reaction at SATP. For this experiment, the goal was to find the

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide. Previously it has been determined that the theoretical value for the standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide at SATP is: -601.7KJ/mol. To prove Hess Law, the enthalpy change was determined for reactions of hydrochloric acid with magnesium and magnesium oxide respectively. In order to do this, several steps were followed. The basis of the experiments procedure was the combination of hydrochloric acid and magnesium in a calorimeter. The enthalpy change was then recorded. This process was repeated for the reactants hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxide. These reactions are modelled by the following equations: MgO + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2

The changes in temperature were recorded. The enthalpy change was then determined using the formula: nH = mcT. There are several real-life applications of Hess law. It is used in several different industries including the food industry, automotive industry and the product development industry. Hess Law can be used to determine the calorie (energy) content of food. This is done by adding the reactants (individual food items) together and subtracting the energy lost or gained as they react to create a new food. This process is the same as with any other chemical reaction. Hess Law is also applicable to the automotive industry. A cars engine works by the rapid expansion of gas driving the piston. Hess law can be used to determine if a new fuel additive would cause higher heat levels in the engine, thereby increasing he space between molecules and increasing fuel efficiency of a vehicle. Also, production companies can use Hess Law to determine if production of a new product is economical by predicting the energy it will take to

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

make a new product. For example, a company investigate a new compound that results from the combination of two existing ones. However to make this new compound heat is required. The company can use Hess law to determine exactly how much heat will be needed. Since heat costs money, the company can decided whether or not it is economical to use this new compound. Question: What is the standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide from its elements? Safety Considerations: Several precautions were taken when performing this experiment. Personal protection equipment (PPE) such as aprons, safety glasses and closed toed shoes were worn during this experiment. The lab was also performed in a well-ventilated area. Table 1: WHMIS Chemical magnesium WHMIS Flammable, Reactive Precautions PPE, Washed Hands After Use magnesium oxide Not Controlled by WHMIS Canada hydrochloric acid Corrosive Liquid PPE, Washed Hands After Use PPE, Skin Contact Avoided

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

Materials: Table 2: Materials Chemicals magnesium magnesium oxide hydrochloric acid Measuring Devices Graduated cylinder Calorimeter Scale or Electronic Balance Thermometer
Thermometer

Other Equipment PPE Large Beaker.

Diagram:

Calorimeter

hydrochloric acid solution

magnesium oxide

Figure 1: magnesium oxide placed into hydrochloric acid solution within a calorimeter. Procedure: 1. A calorimeter was prepared. 2. 100ml of hydrochloric acid solution was poured into the calorimeter. 3. The temperature of the hydrochloric acid was measured. 4. One gram of magnesium oxide was laced into the calorimeter containing the hydrochloric acid solution. 5. The maximum temperature the solution reached was recorded.

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

6. Steps 2-5 were repeated twice more with fresh, unreacted hydrochloric acid solution and magnesium oxide. 7. Steps 2-5 were then repeated three more times replacing the magnesium oxide with magnesium ribbon and new hydrochloric acid. 8. The difference in temperature before and after the reaction were used to calculate the overall temperature change. Observations: Table 3: Observations Reactants MgO + HCl MgO + HCl MgO + HCl Mg + HCl Mg + HCl Mg + HCl Trial 1 2 3 1 2 3 Initial Temperature oC 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.2 20.2 20.7 Final Temperature oC 22.2 23.3 22.8 42.3 41.0 41.1 Change in Temperature o C 1.3 2.6 2.1 22.1 20.8 20.4

Calculations: T = T2 T1 MgO + HCl: 1) 22.2 oC 20.7 oC = 1.3oC 2) 23.3 oC 20.7 oC = 2.6 oC 3) 22.8 oC 20.7 oC = 2.1 oC

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

Average) 22.8 oC 20.7 oC = 2.1 oC Mg + HCl: 1) 41.3 oC 20.2 oC = 21.1 oC 2) 41.0 oC 20.2 oC = 20.8 oC 3) 41.1 oC 20.7 oC = 20.4 oC Average) 41.1 oC 20.4 oC = 20.7 Ho = mc T/n (negative answers indicate exothermic equation) MgO + HCl: Number of moles = m/M = 1/40.3044 = 0.025mol 1) (100)(4.18)(1.3) /0.025 = -21.736KJ/mol 2) (100)(4.18)(2.6) / 0.025 = -43.472KJ/mol 3) (100)(4.18)(2.1) / 0.025 = -35.112KJ/mol Average) (100)(4.18)(2.1) / 0.025 = -35.112KJ/mol Number of moles = m/M = 0.5/24.31 = 0.02mol 1) (100)(4.18)(22.1) / 0.02 = -461.89KJ/mol 2) (100)(4.18)(20.8) / 0.02 = -434.72KJ/mol 3) (100)(4.18)(20.4) / 0.02 = -426.36KJ/mol Average) (100)(4.18)(20.7) / 0.02 = -432.63KJ/mol

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

Conclusion: Target: Target Equation: Known Equations: Hfo of MgO Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2(g) + MgCl2(s) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2O(l) + MgCl2(s) Hfo = Hknown: Hfo = ? H = -285.8KJ/mol H = -432.63KJ/mol H = -35.112KJ/mol

(-285.8) + (-432.63) + (-35.112) = -753.542KJ/mol

The standard enthalpy of the formation of magnesium oxide is -753.542KJ/mol. Discussion: Percentage Difference = | |
( ( ) ( ) )

|x100% |x100%

Percentage Difference = Percentage Difference =

25%

There are two sources of error that could have occurred during this experiment. Partially through the experiment, a new batch of hydrochloric acid was needed due to the immense amount being used. Since chemicals were gathered individually before every trial, there was a point at which the new batch of hydrochloric acid solution. Due to the solution being as dilute as it was, there was no way to guarantee that the molecular ratio of water to hydrochloric acid would have been equal for both batches. The concentration of a substance effects the rate at

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

which energy conversion occurs during an experiment. Even a slight difference between the two solutions may have affected the results of the experiment. The second source of error that could have occurred was loss of heat to the surroundings of the calorimeter. Since polystyrene is not a perfect insulator, some heat would have radiated and escaped from the calorimeter. The calculations used consider this heat loss to be negligible, despite the fact that it was unavoidable. As a result, the accuracy of both calculations and observation would have been diminished. To remedy these errors, several steps could have been taken. In order to avoid loss of accuracy due to differences in concentration, gathering all need solutions and chemicals before the experiment is recommended. This would have ensured that all results would have been equally concentrated and reacted at the same rate. In order to solve the error of lost heat to surroundings, more efficient insulators could have been used to make the calorimeter. This would at least limit the amount of heat lost improving the accuracy of the experiment. These recommendations to the experiment would, in theory, increase its accuracy. The procedure followed for this experiment had only one flaw: time restraint. At points, there was not enough time to let the reactants fully mix. When waiting for the solution to reach it maximum level, occasionally the electronic thermometer would read that the solution was cooling, and that temperature was recorded. If more time was allocated to this experiment, it could have been ensured that the solution had fully reacted by waiting longer in between trials. Instead of ending the trial at first sign of temperature decrease, the trial should have continued until a trend was seen, or a consistent temperature decrease. More time would have allowed for a more accurate experiment.

Liam Weinert

Hess Law Experiment

November 16, 2013

Bibliography
Jenkins, F. (2003). Chemistry 12. Toronto: Nelson Education Ltd.