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The Art and Practice of Sausage Making

The Art and Practice of Sausage Making

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FN-176 (Revised


e: orand hat g Art t sa ed at u p Practice a p ed e nd S o m le h of d b C un Sausagend a g o een Makings r b g s es in ic on a sp as h th i r se lly ra w e a atu d th usu n re o d in ctu an ffed fa tu anu s m s. r ng o si a c
Martin Marchello, Ph.D., Professor, Animal and Range Sciences Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., L.R.D., Food and Nutrition Specialist
North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota December 1998
Reviewed and reprinted June 2002


The origin of meat processing is lost in antiquity but probably began Sausage: or when mankind learned that salt is an effective preservative. Sausage making evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat that Chopped eat could not be consumed fresh at slaughter. In sausage making, ground m een quality standards are maintained while using most parts of the animal carcass. hat has b ith Good sausage makers are as discriminating about what goes into t sausage as winemakers are about selecting grapes. Early sausage blended w makers found that a wide range of raw ingredients could be used. nd The primary ingredients of sausage were the parts of the animal spic es a carcasses that could not be used in other ways. Today many primal parts are used in the production of sausage; however, the less other tender cuts, organ meats and even blood can be made delicious gs when ground, spiced and cased. seasonin ly The procedure of stuffing meat into casings remains basically the same today, but sausage recipes have been greatly refined and usual and sausage making has become a highly respected culinary art. Any product can be made from a wide range of raw materials exposed fed in stuf to rather extreme conditions of temperature and time schedules and be consumer acceptable. ral or natu d grew in popularity and brought fame and fortune nufac ture Sausage makers and to various cities. Today more than 250to many sausage varieties ma are sold, and many of these can be traced back to the town and country of origin. c asings. The contemporary role of sausage fits conveniently into our modern lifestyles as an elegant appetizer for entertaining as well as the main course in “quick-and-easy” meals. Furthermore, sausages are a relatively safe product to consume because of the added effects of salt, pH, cure, drying and cooking to preserve the product and eliminate harmful bacteria. Sausage is a convenient food available in a great number of varieties and flavors. Sausages are an excellent source of high quality protein, containing all the essential amino acids in appropriate amounts necessary for growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue. Sausage also provides significant amounts of vitamins and minerals.



Types of Sausage
Sausages are made from beef, veal, pork, lamb, poultry and wild game, or from any combination of these meats. Sausage making has become a unique blend of old procedures and new scientific, highlymechanized processes. Traditionally, sausage was formed into a symmetrical shape, but it now can be found in a variety of shapes and sizes to meet consumers’ needs. Many sausage products are vacuum packed, freshness dated and 100% edible. Sausages can be classified in a variety of ways, but probably the most useful is by how they are processed (Table 1). Processing methods give sausages easily recognizable characteristics.

It only requires a grinder, a good meat thermometer and some general household items to make excellent sausage. If you do not have a grinder, you can purchase ground meat from the store. Many products do not need to be smoked, but liquid smoke can be added to give the smoky flavor desired, or you may add a small portion of a cooked, smoked product like bacon to produce the smoky flavor. You can purchase a household smoker or make one. An old refrigerator converted to a smokehouse works quite well if you need to smoke the product. Smokehouses can be as simple as a tarp covering or as sophisticated as a commercial unit. Plans for smokehouses are available from the Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Box 5626, Fargo, ND 58105 (Phone 231-7261).

Table 1 Sausage Classifications
Fresh sausage

Fresh pork sausage,

Storage and Handling
Keep refrigerated. Cook bratwurst, bockwurst thoroughly before eating. Consume within 3 days or freeze. Keep refrigerated. Cook thoroughly before eating. Consume within 7 days or freeze. Keep refrigerated. Consume within 7 days after opening vacuum package. Do not require refrigeration. For best quality, keep refrigerated. Keep refrigerated. Consume within 3 days after opening vacuum package.

Uncooked smoked sausage Cooked smoked sausage Dry sausage Semi-dry sausage Cooked meat specialties

Smoked, country style, mettwurst, keilbasa pork sausage Frankfurter, bologna, cotto salami Genoa salami, pepperoni, Lebanon bologna, cervelot, summer sausage, thuringer Loaves, head cheese, scrapple


Selecting Ingredients

Sausage making is a continuous sequence of events. Each step in the proper sequence is important to a successful operation.
It is not practical to consider each step separately or to assign more importance to one phase or operation, but for convenience and illustration, we can break sausage production down into four basic processes: selecting ingredients, grinding and mixing, stuffing, and thermal processing.

The finished product is only as good as the ingredients it contains. Meat should be fresh, high quality, have the proper lean-tofat ratio and have good binding qualities. The meat should be clean and not contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms. In other words, meat used in sausage production should be as safe as any meat you would prepare in your kitchen. Selecting spices and seasonings and combining them in proper amounts is important. They must complement each other to create a satisfying product. Cure, an essential part of some formulations, is sodium nitrite (usually 6 percent) on a salt base. It usually can be purchased at a local locker plant. Sodium nitrite is very necessary to inhibit production and growth of the deadly toxin produced by the microorganism Clostridium botulinum. It also gives the characteristic cured color to a sausage product and improves flavor. Commercial products such as Freeze Em Pickle, Tender Quick and saltpeter can be found in markets and at drugstores. If these are used, be sure to follow directions on the packages.

Grinding and mixing
For safety, keep the temperature of the meat as cold as possible during grinding and mixing. The usual procedure is to grind the various meats coarsely and then add the rest of the ingredients, mixing thoroughly. A slurry is made of the spices and salt using two cups of water. (Water is added to dissolve the curing ingredients, to facilitate the mixing and to give the products their characteristic texture and taste.) The product is then ground again to the desired consistency. Mixing should be done before the final grind. Grinding improves the uniformity of the product by distributing the ingredients and making the particles the same size. Unless you have special equipment, it is desirable to work with small batches (up to 25 pounds) so the cure and seasoning can be more evenly distributed. If you don’t have a grinder, buy ground meats, add the seasonings and mix thoroughly by hand.

It is not necessary to stuff fresh sausage meat. It can be left in bulk form or made into patties. Most sausage, however, is made by placing the ground ingredients in some type of forming device to give them shape and hold them together for thermal processing. The casing materials may be natural or manufactured. Natural casings are the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle, sheep and hogs. Generally, hog casings are the most suitable for home use and work quite well for Polish and breakfast-type sausages. They are digestible and are very permeable to moisture and smoke.

All casings preserved in salt must be soaked in lukewarm water for at least 30 minutes before use. Flush each casing under cold water, running cold water through the casing. This removes excess salt from the casing. Unused casings can be drained, covered with salt and frozen. Fibrous casings are more suitable for summer sausage and similar products because of their greater strength and the variety of sizes available. They are permeable to smoke and moisture and can easily be removed from the finished product. These casings should be soaked before use in 80 to 100 °F water for at least 30 minutes, but not more than four hours before use. If the casings are not pre-stuck they should be punctured with a knife point or pin to eliminate air and fat pockets in the finished sausage. Collagen casings contain the attributes of both natural and fibrous casings. They have been developed primarily for use in products such as fresh pork sausage and pepperoni sticks. They are uniform in size, relatively strong and easy to handle. These casings also are used for the manufacture of dry sausages, because they are permeable and will shrink. For cooked products that are generally water-cooked (like braunschweiger), plastic casings impermeable to water are used.

Procedure for smoking summer sausage: After stuffing in casing, smoke at 140 °F for one hour, 160 °F for one more hour, then at 180 °F for two hours or until the internal temperatures reach 155 °F . Remove from the smokehouse and follow the same procedure as for polish sausage. Procedure for making cooked sausage: After stuffing the ground ingredients into an impermeable casing, put the sausage into a pan of water. Heat water to 170 °F and hold it there until the sausage reaches 155 °F A thermometer is essential for . obtaining proper temperature. The water should not boil, as this will ruin the product. If you are making a sausage product using cooked meat, be sure the meat was cooked with low heat.

Food Safety Guidelines
Bacteria can spread throughout a work area and contaminate equipment and work surfaces. To reduce your risk of foodborne illness:
• Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water before beginning to work and after changing tasks or after doing anything that could contaminate your hands such as sneezing or using the bathroom. • Start with clean equipment and clean thoroughly after using. Be sure all surfaces that come into contact with meat are clean. • Sanitize surfaces with a solution of 1 tablespoon chlorine bleach per gallon of water. Allow to air dry. • If using frozen meat in sausage formulations, thaw it in a cooler on the lowest shelf to avoid dripping of juices on ready-to-eat foods. Keep raw meat separate from other foods. • Marinate raw meat in the refrigerator. • Keep meat as cold as possible (40 °F or lower) during processing. • If dehydrating meat, don’t rely on the dial settings. Measure the temperature of the dehydrator with a calibrated thermometer.

Thermal processing
Sausage is smoked and heated in order to pasteurize it and extend its shelf life, as well as to impart a smoky flavor and improve its appearance. Smoking and heating also fixes the color and causes protein to move to the surface of the sausage so it will hold its shape when the casing is removed. A few products, such as mettwurst, are smoked with a minimum of heating and are designed to be cooked at the time of consumption. Others, such as liver sausage, are cooked but not smoked. Procedure for smoking polish sausage: After stuffing in hog casings (pre-flushed), let hang and dry. Smoke at 120 °F for one hour, 150 °F for one more hour, then at 170 °F for two hours or until an internal temperature of 141 °F is reached. Remove from smokehouse and spray with hot water for 15 to 30 seconds. Follow with cold shower or dip in a slush tank until internal temperature reaches 100 °F . Let dry for one to two hours. Place in a cooler.


Sausage formulations
The following sausage formulations have been used for classroom work and tested at the North Dakota State University Meats Laboratory

ecia homemade je l considerations when m aking rky from ven ison or other game, since wild venison can be heavily co with fecal ba ntaminated cte hunter in dre ria depending on the skill ssin of wound. While g the animal and locatio the n of the fresh beef is usually rapid deer carcass ly chilled, es are typica lly held at am temperature bient s, p multiplication otentially allowing bacteri . a 6

: Wiscon Animal Scienc sin Cooperative Extensio n Service, M e Departmen ea t. University of Wisconsin t and There are sp — Madison.

at the Univers ity of Wiscon onstrated tha sin demt the followin g time-tempe combination rature s are effectiv e at killing E. 0157:H7 in je coli rk lower temp y products. Although th eratures are e tive at killi considered ng bacteria effec, it is recom that dehyd m rator temp eratures of ended or higher b 145 °F e used. Mon itor the dehydrato r by placing th the temperature of thermomete e metal stem r be of a dial an opening fo tween dehydrator trays, or create r the stem by drilling a hole the side of th e tray. through Drying Minimum Temperatu re Drying Tim e 125 °F 10 hours 135 °F 8 hours 145 °F 7 hours 155 °F 4 hours Source

is very import jerky. The USD ant wh recommend A Meat and Poultry Hotlin en making ation for mak ing jerky safe e’s current to 160 °F be ly is to heat fore the deh meat yd any bacteria present will rating process to assure be destroyed th by wet heat. at Recent work

5 pounds lea n beef 1½ tablespo ons salt 1 tablespoon black pepper 1½ teaspoon s cardamon 2 teaspoons ma 1½ teaspoon rjoram s cure (pink co lor) 2 teaspoons monosodium glutamate 2 teaspoons cayenne pep per 1 tablespoon garlic powde r ½ cup liquid smoke ½ cup water Mix all spices together wit hm meat is tacky. Grind and pre eat. Mix well until ss into a loaf with foil. Put pan lined in cooler or fr eezer to firm for slicing. Sl product ice as thin as desirable and oven racks. Sp lay on ray oven rack slices on the s with oil, th a racks. Spray with liquid sm n lay garlic mixture oke and . Dry in oven at 170 °F for three hours. two to (See chart fo r dehydrator drying.) *NOTE: Tem perature


ing. drying or smok 2 pounds after phase. proximately a pre-cook This recipe uses of fresh meat should weigh ap ck or ds n dehydrator ra Yield: Five poun t meat on a clea n oven. 5. Spread ou half of a kitche strips) with the rack in the top ch on a clean the oven door ds of meat (¼-in meat free of hen oven, open 1. Slice 5 poun 0 °F Use fresh lean If you use a kitc swise. eat at 120 to 15 grain, not cros out meat and second stop. H ad to 24 hours to the first or tive tissue. Spre ack rature) for nine fat and connec 2 tsp. ground bl est oven tempe d. Remove (low sp. salt, a pan yness is reache sprinkle on 3 Tb . Put the meat in til the desired dr or brittle. or un sp. sugar it gets too hard frigpepper, and 2 Tb hours in the re om oven before bent in jerky fr stand for 24 ld crack when or dish and let dried jerky shou Properly o pieces. not break into tw erator. half but should the s to work in wrap eat on both side plastic bags, or 2. Pound the m in clean jars or eat in a liquid 6. Store jerky kept dry, propl: Dip strips of m e part r and freeze. If spice. Optiona rts water to on in freezer pape it indefinitely at (five pa r added will last almost smoke solution two seconds fo prepared jerky rates after erly r one to its quality deterio liquid smoke) fo mperature, but any te flavor. a few months. A. Field ½ cup p salt, me, 1984 by R. dissolving ¾ cu d Your Wild Ga ultural Extension in a recipe: You an e a brine by 3. Mak k pepper **Source of Wyoming Agric , University of sp. ground blac and C.A. Raab sugar, and 2 Tb the salt and 58. , p. . Stir to dissolve Service, B-613R gallon of water sugar. medium boil. Im brine to a low to time) 4. Bring the rips (a few at a asoned meat st merse the se rn gray ine until they tu to the boiling br ). Remove in to two minutes roximately one other (app g clean tongs or 100 pou t. from brine, usin meat nds lean ntacted raw mea beef 9 cups s that have not co utensils alt 6¾ cup s su 3½ table gar spoons nitrate Using 1 -1½ oun ces per salt, sug pou ar making and nitrate mix nd of meat, ru b the sure all ture ont ar o beef tw 90 pou ice at th eas are well co the beef, nds por vered. R ree to fiv kt days pe 3 quart ub ed rp s water rim (70 percen This ma ound of meat fo ay intervals. All the t lean) 3 cups y also b ow two r the cu salt ec curing t r 1 cup s ime per alculated by us e to complete. ugar inch of t ing seve 6 tables hicknes After the poons c s o f t h e n days of beef is c ur 7 tables cut. several t u poons p e imes; th red, rinse it wit lus 3 tea en hang fennel s h cold w hours. A spoons at it p cracked 3 ounce eed Hang in ply a light or he and allow to dr er s paprik y for 24 avy smo a dry, w 1 a /3 cup b e k drying. lack pep NOTE: L ll-ventilated roo e as desired. 1 amb or m for fu per for beef. /3 cup c ven rth ay Use larg 1 or legs, e lean p ison can be su er /3 cup g enne pepper bstitute and sep ieces, su arlic po d arate int w 2 tables ** If yo o top, b ch as the round poons o der u prefer ottom a re 1 tables to cook to nd tip. poon sw gano an intern have a cooke d produ al temp eet basil ct, Coarse-g erature of at lea smoke and r st 160 ° sugar, c ind meat trimm F . ure and ings. Ad sp diamete d salt, w r plate a ices. Regrind ater, th is a fres nd stuff h into po rough ¼-inch rk casin Produc s a u s a g e , n o s g m t must b e cooke oking is nece s. As this ssary. d befor e servin g. 7





10 poun 50/50 pork trim ds 1 pound pork liver fat baco 2/ n 3 cup s alt (7 ou nces) 4 tables po 3 ounce ons white pepp ss er 1 mediu oy protein (70 p m size o ercent) nio (optiona 1 teaspo l) on nutm n e 1½ teas poon gin g ger 1 tables po 2½ teas on cure (6 perc poons ent) (optiona monosodium g l) lutamat e Grind p ork trim mings, li to a ver ver y fi cure. St ne consistency and other ingr uff in m edients . Mix in ois sp cook in 165 °F w ture-proof fibro ices, salt and us casin internal ater bat g h te Chill rap mperature of s for 1½ hours o and ausage r until idly in w rea ater. NO smoky fl avor. TE: Fat b ches 155 °F . acon giv es


5 poun ds 3 p o u n pork hearts ds pork liv 2 poun ds beef er suet 21 cup so 2-3 med atmeal (3½ po unds) ium on 1 ions /3 cup s alt 2½ tab les 1 tables poons white p epper poon n utmeg Cook h ea tender; rts and liver in d 1 broth, a o not boil. Rem 80-190 °F wa ter until nd grin ove coo d throug h ¼-inc hearts and liv ked items. Re serve h plate. er with Bring th be Ch e Stir vigo broth to a bo op onions to ef suet af il a r meats, ously. To the h nd sprinkle in ine pulp. onions, ot mass oatmea s proof c l. a asing a alt and spices. dd the cooke nd coo d Stuff in water, o k fo m r Chill in until internal t r about 3 hou oistureice wat empera rs in 17 er 0 tu Quite p erishab and keep at 3 re reaches 16 °F le. You 0 °F 0-34 °F the amo . ma . N unt of o atmeal. y want to cut OTE: down o n

il ½ teasp k or water oon pe pper ¼ teasp o 1½ tea on nutmeg sp 1½ tea oons ground spoons c ground loves 1 table spoon allspice salt 1 cup q uick co oking r 5-6 cup oll s flour – enou ed oats dough gh to m ake a fa irly stiff Mix abo ve ingr edients spoonf uls t salted b (about ½ cu ogether. Drop p) into oiling w by larg a e Remov e from ater. Cook un large kettle o water. f til brow and syr May be n up. eaten h throughout . ot with To heat butter up with potatoe gravy: s c pan. Ad in potato sala ut into small pieces d) into d 1 tab (lik ak le taste an d milk. spoon of shor ettle or frying e gravy. S Cook u tening, n e s as nece rve hot. Addit til milk forms ugar to a light ional m ssary. br ilk may be add own ed

BLOOD SAUSA GE (KL 1 pint b UB) lood 1 pint m

5 pound s 5 pound pork trim 60/40 s lean b ee 20 clov es garlic f trim , crushe 4 teaspo d on 4 teaspo s red pepper on 2 teaspo s fennel seeds , crushe ons thym d 8 bay le e aves 3 tables po 1 tables ons salt poon bla ck pepp ½ teasp er oon nut meg Grind m e spices a at through a co nd mix t arse pla te ho a mediu m plate roughly. Grind , then add . Stuff in 140 °F fo again th to r r raise tem proper color d hog casing. Sm ough evelopm oke at perature ture of p ent and to 170 ° th r very ho oduct reaches F until internal t en t, spicy 155 °F empera . N pr will sub stitute fo oduct. Excellen OTE: This is a t on pizz r peppe roni. a and





1 beef he art 1 beef to ngue 5 pound sn 1 large o eck bones or sho nion (cho rt ribs pped) 2 cloves garlic (ch opped) 1 teaspo on ½ teaspo salt on black pepper ¼ teaspo on musta rd seed 2 cups p earled ba rley (1 po Old-fashio und) ned oatm eal Cook hea rt bones in and tongue in o ne kettle another .C kett cover me at and sim le. Add enough ook neck water to Skim off mer unti an l te from bro y extra fat from b nder (2 to 3 hou th ro rs tongue. , remove meat fr th. Remove mea ). om bone Grind me t s and skin at throug kettle of h fi bro simmer fo th add the spice ne plate. To each sa r barley. Sim 1 hour. Strain bro nd herbs and th and ad mer unti cooked g d pearled l round m barley becomes plump. M eat. Add oatmeal eno ix in to with salt soak up excess b ugh old-fashion ed roth. Sea and pep pe son to ta desired, ste add beef r. NOTE: If a bee fier taste bouillon grits into is cubes to patties an broth, fo d fry. rm


45 poun ds fre (70 perc sh pork trimmin ent lean gs 2½ qua ) rts wate r 11/3 cup s salt 15 ½ tab les ¼ cup ru poons white pe pper bbed sa ge ½ cup s ugar Coarse-g rind por k; product to desire mix in seasonin d size. S gs; grind NOTE: M tuff a 120 °F fo y also smoke pr into sheep cas in o r before s smoky flavor. P duct for 2 hours g. erving. roduct m a ust be c t ooked




12 poun ds 10 poun pork trim 60/40 ds veniso n tr 2 pound s beef trim im 1 pint w ate 1½ table r spoons c 2/ ure 3 cup salt 4 tablesp oons bla ck 2 teaspo ons marjo pepper ra 5½ teasp oons mu m stard see 2 cloves d garlic or ½ teaspo on garlic Use sam powder e proced ure as fo r Polish s ausage.

40 pou nds le (80 per an pork trimm ings 3 poun cent lean) ds lean beef trim 1 quart mings ( water 80 perc 3 tables ent lean poons c ) ure 11/3 cup s salt ½ cup b la 4 tables ck pepper poons m ustard s 4 teasp oons m e arjoram ed 3 clove s garlic or ¾ te aspoon Coarse-g garlic p r owder cure an ind meat trimm d spices ings. Ad ; ¼-inch diamete mix thoroughly d salt, water, r plate a . Regrin Smoke pr nd d interna oduct to desire stuff into por through l tempe k casing d color rat s. a cooked before s ure of 141 °F nd heat to an . Produ erving. ct must be




17 poun ds 33 poun beef or veniso n trim ds pork tr 1½ cup s Tende im (50/50) 2/ r Quick 3 cup s alt 1 cup b rown su ga ½ cup b lack pep r per 6 tables poons g arlic pow 2 teaspo der on 1 teaspo s sage on allsp ice 1 tables poon co rian 1 gallon warm w der ater Grind m eat thro u water a nd pour gh coarse plate . over me through at. Mix t Mix spices in coarse p horoug casing. late aga hly. U in 12 hour sing a cool smo and stuff in ho Grind s. Produ ke (90 ° g F), ct NOTE: If you don must be cooke smoke for d before amount ’t like ga .A s r desired. lso could fine-g lic flavor, cut ba erving. ck on rind the product , if

15 pou nd 10 pou s venison nds 50 2/ /50 po 3 cup s rk trimm a ing 1½ tab lt les 2½ tab poons cure lespoon s ½ cup black p mustard seed epper ½ cup su 1 tables gar po 1 tables on marjoram poon m o 3 table spoons nosodium glu tamate garlic p (option owder Mix salt al) and cu re with Pack in co sh to five d allow pan an arse-ground pr d place ays. Mix and stu in coole oduct. ff in 3-in in remainder r for thr o 140°F f e c or 2 ho h fibrous casin f spices, regrin e urs; rais for 2 ho d gs. Smo e u interna rs, and finish temperature t ke at o 160 ° produc l tempe ta F ra substitu te lamb ture reaches 1 t 170 °F until 55 °F N or beef . for the venison OTE: Can .

90 poun ds pork trim (70 3 quarts percent water lean) 3 cups s alt 1 to 11/ 3 cups sugar 6 tables poons c ure ¾ cup w hite pep per ¼ cup c ayenne 2 tables poons n utmeg 2 tables poons th yme 2 tables poons g inger 1 tables poon ro semary 1 tables poon m ace Coarse-g r sugar, c ind meat trimm in ure and spices. M gs. Add water, through salt ix ¼ casings. -inch diameter thoroughly. Re , gr p S heat to a moke product t late. Stuff into p ind ork o desire n d color a must be internal tempe nd ra cooked before s ture of 141 °F . Produ erving. ct



und 40 pou s turkey trim (9 nd 0 perce nt 3 quart s pork trim (50 s water percent lean) lean) 3 cups salt 1 cup to 1 6 tables cup and 2 tab lespoon poons c ure s dextro 1 cup w se hite pep per ½ cup s age ¼ cup c ay 1 tables enne poon th yme 1 tables po 1 tables on nutmeg po 1 tables on ginger poon m ace 10 table spoons monoso (option dium glu al) tamate Coarse-g r dextros ind meat trimm e, cure ings. Ad an ¼-inch diamete d spices. Regr d water, salt, ind thro r plate. Smoke ug Stu pr interna oduct to desire ff into pork ca h l tempe sin d color rat and hea gs. be cook t to an ed befo ure of 141 °F . Produ re servin ct must g.


Emulsified Products
30 pounds bull meat 25 pounds 50/50 beef trim 20 pounds 60/40 pork trim 10 quarts water 5 pounds flavorings* NOTE: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) intensifies and enhances flavor but does not contribute a flavor of its own. It is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, an amino acid. One to two percent of the population may be sensitive to MSG and have mild to transitory reactions in some circumstances when they consume significant amounts, such as would be found in heavily enhanced foods. FDA believes that MSG is a safe food ingredient for the general population.

*5 pounds of flavorings consists of:
Ounces Pounds %

salt 40 corn syrup solids 16 mustard 11.2 cure 3.2 ground black pepper 3.2 coriander 2.2 nutmeg 2.2 dehydrated onion and garlic 1.4 sodium erythorbate .6

2.5 1. .70 .20 .20 .14 .14 .09 .04

50 20 14 4 4 2.75 2.75 1.75 .75

Weights & Measures Table
4 cups = 1 quart = 950 ml 2 pints = 1 quart = 950 ml 16 ounces = 1 pint = 500 ml 2 cups = 1 pint = 500 ml 2 cups = 16 fluid ounces = 500 ml 16 tablespoons = 1 cup = 240 ml 8 liquid ounces = 1 cup = 240 ml 4 tablespoons = ¼ cup = 60 ml ¼ cup = 2 liquid ounces = 60 ml 1 liquid ounce = 2 tablespoons = 30 ml 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon = 15 ml 1 cc = 1 ml 1 ounce = 28 g

From the above formulation, different products can be made. These differ in texture and taste. • wieners – stuff in sheep casing; smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature. • dinner franks – stuff in hog casings; smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature. • ring bologna – stuff in beef casing; form into a ring; smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature. • bologna – stuff in 6-inch diameter fibrous casings; smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature. • Leona – add 20 pounds cooked, diced and skinned hog jowls plus 1/3 cup garlic powder to the emulsion; stuff into 2-inch diameter fibrous casings; smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature. • pickle and pimento loaf – add 5 pounds sweet pickles and 5 pounds pimentos. Stuff into parchment-lined metal molds or waterproof fibrous casing. Can be water-cooked or baked to internal temperature 155 °F. • macaroni and cheese loaf – add 5 pounds cheese and 5 pounds cooked macaroni. Proceed as with pickle and pimento loaf.

Weight Conversions of Common Ingredients
1 pound salt = 1½ cups 1 pound sugar = 2¼ cups 1 ounce cure = 1½ tablespoons 1 ounce MSG = 1 tablespoon


Spice Weights and Measures
This table is for approximate weights and measures of various spices and is intended as a handy compilation in estimating quantities.

¼ Name of Spice
Allspice Basil Caraway Cardamom Celery, ground Cinnamon Cloves, ground Coriander, ground Cumin Dill, whole Fennel, whole Garlic powder Ginger Mace, ground Marjoram MSG Mustard Nutmeg Onion powder Oregano Paprika Parsley flakes Pepper, black Pepper, ground Rosemary, ground Sage, ground Salt Savory Thyme Tumeric, ground 1.25 1.5 1.25 1 1 0.88 1 1 1 1 1 0.75 1.25 1.33 1.5 0.5 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 0.93 1.75 2.5 0.5 1.33 1.75 1.17

Conversion from OUNCES ½ ¾ 1 2 3 To TABLESPOONS
2.5 3 1.75 2 2 1.75 2 2 2 2 2.25 1.5 2.5 2.75 3 1 2 2 2 4 3.75 4.5 2.66 3 3 2.63 3 3 3 3 3.33 2.25 3.75 4 4.5 1.66 3 3 3 6 5 6 3.5 4 4 3.5 4 4 4 3.9 4.5 3 5 5.5 6 2.2 4 4 4 8 10 12 7 8 8 7 8 8 8 7.8 9 6 10 11 12 4.4 8 8 8 16 8 32 8 7.4 14 20 4 11 14 7 15 18 10.5 12 12 10.5 12 12 12 11.7 13.5 9 15 16.5 18 6.6 12 12 12 24 12 48 12 11.1 21 30 6 16.5 21 10.5

20 24 14 16 16 14 16 16 16 15 18 12 20 22 24 9 16 16 16 32 16 64 16 15 28 40 8 22 28 14

2 3 4 6 12 16 2 3 4 1.85 2.75 3.7 3.5 5 1 2.75 3.5 1.75 5.25 7 7.5 10 1.5 2 4 5.5 5.25 2.66 7 3.5

Example: If a recipe calls for one ounce of Allspice, then you would use 5 level tablespoons.

For more information about food safety, visit the NDSU Extension web site: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/subfood.htm
NDSU Extension Service, North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Sharon D. Anderson, Director, Fargo, North Dakota. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. We offer our programs and facilities to all persons regardless of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, disability, age, Vietnam era veterans status, or sexual orientation; and are an equal opportunity employer. 2M-12-98, 2.5M-6-99, 1.5M 7-00, 1.5M-6-02 This publication will be made available in alternative format upon request (701) 231-7881.

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