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Projects Undertaken
1. Construction of residential building (escape)
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Excavation, Layout and Foundation Column layout, shuttering and casting Slab, Beam shuttering and casting Important Components

2. Introduction to bonded slab post tensioning
2.1 Post tensioning 2.2 benefits 2.3 Tendons and stressing

1 3. Design of building component 3.2 3.Projects Undertaken 3.4 Formwork design Staircase design Deep Beams Slabs .3 3.


Column and foundation (raft ) steel is then laid as per drawings. .Excavation.825 mm Excavation is done by the JCB on the hourly basis After the excavation the surface is leveled called surface dressing Layout is done on the PCC poured over leveled surface. Layout and Foundation  Excavation is a process of making trenches by digging up      of earth for the construction of foundations and basements. Excavation level at escape site is 219.

 Check the direction of chair bars in the raft .  Before laying raft reinforcement.  After excavation check the stability of temporary structures built near the excavated ground.Points to take care: layout should be checked properly. shuttering wall which is mainly brick wall should be built and should be filled with soil on other side.  Check any difference between architectural and structural drawings regarding location of column.




Height of cast should be calculated accurately.  The column ties and link bars are provided as per column     reinforcement drawings and general specifications.COULMN CASTING  On the raft the column layout is done.  Layout for starter. . Avoid caps as far as possible. Displacement of main bars should be provided with L bar The plumb of formwork should be checked.




BEAM SHUTTERING & CASTING  beam bottom is first laid on the column and then slab formwork is laid  After the reinforcement. the slab is checked for steel as per drawings and level required.  Casting of slab should be discontinue at l/3 from the support.SLAB.  A camber of 5 mm in provided in the center of slab. .


IMPORTANT COMPONENTS  Key in column  Water bar  Binding materials  Expansion joint .

. to cast the column later the key is made at the junction so that the proper bond between the old concrete and new concrete is formed. hence it is not possible to cast the column at one time.KEY IN COLUMN  since the height of column is very large.


.EXPANSION JOINT  Since concrete is subjected to volume change.  Expansion joint is function of length  Buildings longer than 45 m are generally provided with one or more expansion joints.  Material used as expansion joint material is armour board whose thickness is 25 mm. Provision must be made to cater for the volume change by way of joint to relieve the stresses produced.

EXPANSION JOINT  Expansion joint material. size is 25 mm  Expansion joint in building .

WATER BAR  Water bar is provided in the retaining wall o that the moisture can’t move from the soil to the joint. Water bar is basically provided at the constructions joints of retaining wall of two different towers .


 In the toilets and kitchen sunken portion the joints in any case are packed by water proof and non shrinkable material.  Similarly when the drainage pipes are laid along with the outer wall then again the connection between the pipe and the wall has different coefficient of temperature change hence they are joint to the concrete by lead keys. . The interface between the concrete and the masonry is liable to crack. To avoid this crack the chicken wire mesh is used to avoid the crack and also provides the better grip for Masonry with concrete.BINDING MATERIALS  Since the thermal expansion of concrete is different from that of masonry.

BINDING MATERIALS  Chicken wire mesh between brick masonry and concrete  Connection of pipes with concrete  Chicken wire mesh in conduits through concrete .

pidilite. air-entraining agents helps in reducing the permeability of concrete by reducing the requirement of mixing water. super plasticizers. hence can be also be regarded as waterproof material. cico. unitile.  Water-proofing cement paint:.WATER PROOFING  Water proofing has remained as an unsolved complex problem  Use of plasticizers.  Some of approved water-proofing compound by the company are:. baushimine.super snoweem . fosroe.

WATER PROOFING  Water proofing in sunken portion of kitchen and bathroom  WP in sunken portion at ground level  WP in retaining wall .

Again the plaster is done. On the plaster the 40 mm aggregates are laid. .along with fertilizers. On those sheets the drainage pipes are laid down with suitable slope and these pipes are covered with geo-fabric sheets. is placed on which the gardening is done for the non tower area.WATER PROOFING IN GARDEN AREA  For water proofing in garden area the soil is first leveled and      then rammed to achieve the maximum density The PCC is then laid down mixed with tape Crete (a water proofing compound) After PCC the plaster of fibrous material is done. On the aggregate the geo-fabric sheets are laid down on which the sand is placed & on the sand the soil . the bituminous sheets are laid by heating it with the welder.

WATER PROOFING IN GARDEN AREA  Sandy soil  PCC mixed with tape      Crete (water proof compound) Texas (bitumen) sheet Drainage pipe 40 mm aggregate Geo-fabric sheet Sand .


 allows a high degree of flexibility in the column layout.INTRODUCTION/BENEFITS  Post-tensioning is a method of reinforcing (strengthening) concrete or other materials with high-strength steel strands or bars. span lengths and ramp configurations . thinner slabs  lower overall building height for the same floor-to-floor height. typically referred to as tendons  allows longer clear spans.


tolerance of tendon profiles is recommended as follows:  **vertical: + 5 mm (at lowest and highest points)  Horizontal: + 100 mm  . Lay tendons according to tendon layout in accordance with the drawings.PLACEMENT OF TENDONS      Positioning and fixing of casting and block-outs to the edge formwork or construction joint formwork The support bars shall be prepared in advance. Fix tendons to correct profiles with support bars and chairs and the tendons are made with provisions for grouting using grout using grout vents and grout hoses Prepare installation report for every installation as per the enclosed format.


.  Incidental loads during erection and operation.  Environmental loads.LOADS ON FALSEWORK Loads on Falsework are any combinations of the following:  Dead loads.  Imposed loads. and  Lateral pressure.

. However. The maximum density of ice may be assumed to be 900 kg/m³. a loading of 750 N/m² should be adequate The lateral pressure due to fresh concrete depends on the temperature of concrete as placed.DIFFERENT LOAD DATA  Self load shall be determined by either actual measurement or in     accordance with IS 875 (Part I) the unit weight of wet concrete including reinforcement shall be taken as 26 kN/m². load may be assumed as 500 N/M2 for the purpose of initial calculations . in absence of the data. Loads during constructional operation shall constitute the imposed loads [see IS 875 (Part 2 ) Where allowance has only to be made for access and inspection purposes. the rate of placing of concrete and the concrete mix proportion Wind loads should be taken for design in accordance with IS 875 (Part 3 ) subject to a minimum horizontal load equal to 3 percent of the vertical loads at critical level. Snow loads should be assumed in accordance with IS 875(4) .