David N. Talbott

Intrigued by Velikovsky’s claim that Saturn was once the pre-eminent planetary god, David Talbott resolved to e amine its mythical character! "I wanted to know,# he wrote, "i$ ancient sources had a coherent story to tell about the planet ! ! ! I had no inkling o$ the spectacular tale hidden in the chronicles!# In this startling re-interpretation o$ age-old symbolism Talbott argues that the "%reat %od# or "&niversal 'onarch# o$ the ancients was not the sun, but Saturn, which once hung ominously close to the earth, and visually dominated the heavens! Talbott’s close te tual and symbolic analysis reveals the $undamental themes o$ Saturn imagery and proves that all o$ them — including the "cosmic ship#, the "island at the top o$ the world#, the "eye o$ heaven# and "the revolving temple# were based on celestial observations in the northern sky! In addition he shows how such diverse symbols as the (ross, "sun#-wheels, holy mountains, crowns o$ royalty and sacred pillars grew out o$ ancient Saturn worship! Talbott contends that Saturn)s appearance at the time, radically di$$erent $rom today, inspired man)s leap into civili*ation, since many aspects o$ early civili*ation can be seen as conscious e$$orts to re-enact or commemorate Saturn’s organi*ation o$ his "celestial# kingdom! + $ascinating look at ancient history and cosmology, The Saturn Myth is a provocative book that might well change the way you think about man’s history and the history o$ the universe! David N. Talbott is the $ounder and $ormer publisher o$ Pensee, an out-growth o$ the Student +cademic ,orum which developed the book, Velikovsky Reconsidered! -e is also the co-author o$ The Ecstasy of Sati-Ra, a cosmological mystery! -e now lives with his $amily in .regon! Talbott, David /!, The Saturn 'yth IS0/1 2-345-663378-5 9ibrary o$ (ongress (atalog (ard /umber 78-56:48 (opyright ; 6:42 by David /!Talbott! +ll <ights <eserved! =rinted in the &nited States o$ +merica! ,irst >dition! ?indle version created by PapaLazzzaru, +ug @263

I. INTRODUCTION MYTH AND CATASTROPHE II. THE GREAT FATHER THE “ONE GOD” OF ARCHAIC MONOTHEISM THE UNIVERSAL MONARCH The Age of Kronos The Rites of Kingship THE HEAVEN MAN Who Was Adam? THE GREAT FATHER SATURN THE SATURN MYTH RECONSTRUCTED III. THE POLAR SUN SUN AND SATURN Day And Night SATURN AND THE POLE The Unmoved Mover Egypt Mesopotamia India China The Americas IV. SATURN’S COSMOS THE ENCLOSED SUN The ost Is!and THE COSMOS AND THE DIVINE ASSEMBLY The Circ!e of the "ods THE GREAT MOTHER Wom# and Thigh Wom# and Cosmos The $ermaphrodite V. THE HOLY LAND THE MOTHER LAND The Egyptian %aradise The Wor!d Whee! The &ne'Whee!ed Chariot The City of $eaven The Enc!os(re as %rototype The Wor!d Nave! The &cean VI. THE ENCLOSED SUN-CROSS The )o(r Rivers of %aradise THE CROSSROADS The )o(r'eyed or )o(r'faced "od The )o(ndation *tone The )o(r %i!!ars of $eaven *ymmetrica! E!a#orations of the *(n'Cross VII. TEMPLE, CROWN, VASE, EYE, AND CIRCULAR SERPENT THE TEMPLE The Egyptian Temp!e Temp!e and Wom# The Cro+n The ,ase The Eye The Circ(!ar *erpent In *(mmary- A Coherent Doctrine

VIII. THE COSMIC MOUNTAIN Egypt Mesopotamia India .apan/ China/ Iran/ *i#eria *i#eria "reece and Rome Western *emitic The Americas A Co!!ective Memory The Mo(nt of Masc(!ine %o+er The Cosmic Mo(ntain %ersonified The *ing!e eg The *erpent0Dragon The *tream of ife The King of the Mo(ntain IX. THE CRESCENT The Crescent and *at(rn The Crescent and Wom# Crescent and Mother!and The Crescent and Mo(nt THE HEAVENLY TWINS Who Were the Diosc(ri? The 1!ac2 and White T+ins *ym#o!ism of the Crescent THE CRESCENT HORN The $orned Mo(ntain THE CRESCENT-ARMS The Ka'Arms THE CRESCENT-WINGS INTERCONNECTED SYMBOLS The %!ant of ife *+ord The A!tar A#ove and 1e!o+/ eft and Right *at(rn3s Day CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ENDNOTES

I. Int od!"tion
The planet Saturn today is recognizable only to those who know where to look for it !ut a few thousand years ago Saturn do"inated the earth as a sun# presiding over a universal $olden %ge 'odern man considers it sel$-evident that our $amiliar heavens di$$er hardly at all $rom the heavens encountered by the earliest star worshippers! -e assumes that the most distinctive bodies venerated in primitive times were the sun and moon, $ollowed by the $ive visible planets and various constellations—all appearing as they do today, but $or such ever-so-slight changes as the precession o$ the eAuino es! This long-standing belie$ not only con$ines present discussion o$ ancient myth and religionB it is the $i ed doctrine o$ modern astronomy and geology1 every prevailing theory o$ the solar system and o$ earth ’s past rests
upon an underlying doctrine o$ cosmic uni$ormity—the belie$ that the clocklike regularity o$ heavenly motions can be proCected backward inde$initely!

0ut the evidence assembled in the $ollowing pages indicates that within hu"an "e"ory e traordinary changes in the
planetary system occurred1 in the earliest age recalled by man the planet Saturn was the most spectacular light in the heavens and its impact on the ancient world overwhelming! In $act Saturn was the one "great god# invoked by all mankind! The $irst religious symbols were symbols o$ Saturn, and so pervasive was the planet god’s in$luence that the ancients knew him as the creator, the king o$ the world, and +dam, the $irst man!

Since the only meaning$ul de$ense o$ this claim is the entire body o$ evidence presented here, I shall not presume upon the reader’s credulity, but only ask that he $ollow the narrative to its end!

'yth +nd (atastrophe
I$ our generation disdains the possibility o$ $act in the language o$ myth it is because we are aware o$ discrepancy between myth and the modern world view, and we ascribe it to the blindness or superstition o$ the ancients! There is hardly an ancient tale which $ails to speak o$ world-destroying upheavals and shi$ting cosmic orders! Indeed, we are so accustomed to the catastrophic character o$ the stories that we hardly give it a second thought! Dhen the myths tell o$ suns which have come and gone, or o$ planetary gods whose wars threatened to destroy mankind, we are likely to take them as amusing and absurdly e aggerated accounts o$ local $loods, earthAuakes, and eclipses—or write them o$$ altogether as e pressions o$ unconstrained $ancy! -ow many scholars, seeking to unravel the astronomical legends and symbols o$ antiAuity, have Auestioned whether the heavenly bodies have always coursed on the same paths they $ollow todayE In the past three hundred years barely a hand$ul o$ writers have claimed any connection between myth and actual celestial catastrophe—1 Dilliam Dhiston published in 68:8 % &ew Theory of the Earth# arguing that the biblical Deluge resulted $rom a cometary
cataclysm! The book produced a storm o$ scienti$ic obCections and had no lasting impact outside (hristian orthodo y!

In 644@ and 6443 two books by Ignatius Donnelly appeared1 %tlantis# the %ntediluvian 'orld# and Ragnarok( the %ge of
)ire and $ravel <elying on global myths, Donnelly claimed that a massive continent called +tlantis once harboured a primordial civili*ation, but the entire land sank beneath the sea when a comet rained destruction on the earth! 0oth o$ Donnelly’s books became best sellers and are still available today! Fet conventional theories o$ earth and the solar system remain una$$ected by these works!

+round the turn o$ the century Isaac Vail argued in a series o$ brie$ papers that myths o$ cosmic upheaval relate to the collapse o$ ice bands surrounding our planet! 6 Three Auarters o$ a century a$ter his death, his work is $amiliar only to the esoteric $ew! In 6:63 -ans -oerbiger published his $lacial-*os"ogonie# contending that the great catastrophes described in ancient myth occurred when the >arth captured another planet which became our moon!@ The relatively small interest in -oerbiger’s thesis
vanished within a couple o$ decades!

This was the e tent o$ noteworthy research into myth and catastrophe when Immanuel Velikovsky, in early 6:G2, $irst wondered whether a cosmic disturbance may have accompanied the -ebrew > odus! +ccording to the biblical account, massive plagues occurred, Sinai erupted, and the pillar o$ cloud and $ire moved in the sky! -is Auest $or a solution led Velikovsky through a systematic survey o$ world mythology and eventually to the conclusion that ancient myths constitute a collective memory o$ celestial disorder! The great gods, Velikovsky observed, appear e plicitly as planets! In the titanic wars vividly depicted by ancient chroniclers the planets moved on erratic courses, appearing to wage battles in the sky, e changing electrical discharges, and more than once menacing the earth!

Velikovsky set $orth his claims o$ celestial catastrophe in his book 'orlds in +ollision Hpublished in 6:52I, proposing
that $irst Venus and then 'ars, in the period 6522-848 0!(!, so disturbed the >arth’s a is as to produce world-wide destruction! The book became an immediate best seller and the $ocus o$ one o$ the great scienti$ic controversies o$ this century! 3

I mention Velikovsky not only because his work obviously relates to the thesis o$ this book, but because, as a matter o$ record, Velikovsky $irst directed my attention toward Saturn! In a manuscript still awaiting publication Velikovsky proposed that the now-distant planet was once the dominant heavenly body, and he identi$ied Saturn’s epoch with the legendary %olden +ge! Dhile I have not seen Velikovsky’s unpublished manuscript on Saturn,
a brie$ outline o$ his idea inspired the present inAuiry1 was Saturn once the preeminent light in the heavensE

Fet I possessed at the outset no conception o$ the broad thesis presented here—which $ell into place with surprising rapidity, once I set out to reconstruct the Saturn myth! Dhile e pecting to $ind, at best, only $aint echoes o$ Saturn Hor no hint at allI, I $ound instead that the ancients, looking back to "the beginnings,# were obsessed
with the planet-god and strove in a thousand ways to relive Saturn’s epoch! The most common symbols o$ antiAuity, which our age universally regards as solar emblems H , etc!I were originally unrelated to our sun! They were literal pictures of Saturn# whom the entire ancient world invoked as "the sun!# In the original age to which the myths re$er, Saturn was no remote speck $aintly discerned by terrestrial observersB the planet loomed as an awesome and terri$ying light! +nd i$ we are to believe the widespread accounts o$ Saturn’s age, the planet-god’s home was the unmoving celestial pole, the apparent pivot o$ the heavens, $ar removed $rom the visible path o$ Saturn today!

+t $irst glance, however, the Saturn myth seems to present an entanglement o$ bi*arre images! The earliest, most venerated religious te ts depict the great god sailing in a celestial ship, consorting with winged goddesses, $ashioning revolving islands, cities and temples, or abiding upon the shoulders o$ a cosmic giant! It is impossible to pursue Saturn’s ancient image without encountering the paradise o$ >den, the lost +tlantis, the $ountain o$ youth,
the one-wheeled "chariot o$ the gods,# the all-seeing >ye o$ heaven, or the serpent-dragon o$ the deep! Though celebrated as living, visible powers, none o$ Saturn’s personi$ications or mythical habitats con$orms to anything in our $amiliar world! Fet once one seeks out the concrete nature o$ these images, it becomes clear that each re$erred to the sa"e celestial for" The subCect is a Saturnian con$iguration o$ startling simplicity—whose appearance, trans$ormation, and eventual disappearance became the $ocus o$ all ancient rites!

I now have little doubt that, i$ Velikovsky had pursued the Saturn Auestion to the end, he would have perceived a vastly greater in$luence o$ the planet than he originally recogni*ed! -e would have discovered also that the $ull story o$ Saturn adds a new perspective to much o$ the mythological material gathered in 'orlds in +ollision
HIn this connection I must stress that I alone am responsible $or the themes and conclusions presented in this book! <eali*ing that Velikovsky has had to de$end his own heresy $or better than a Auarter o$ a century, I have no desire to burden him with the heresy o$ others!I

/othing came as a greater surprise to me than the sheer Auantity o$ material bearing directly on the Saturn tradition! The scope o$ the subCect matter made it necessary to separate the material into two volumes1 the $irst dealing with the original Saturnian apparition, the second with Saturn ’s catastrophic $ate! This initial volume then,
$ocuses on the primordial age o$ cosmic harmony and the uni$ied image o$ Saturn as king o$ the world!

II. T#$ G $at Fat#$
+nyone attempting to trace the Saturn legend must reckon with the primordial god-$igure whom ancient races celebrate as "the great $ather,# and who is said to have $irst organi*ed the heavens and $ounded the antediluvian kingdom o$ peace
and plenty, the "%olden +ge!# Dhile $ew o$ us today could locate Saturn in the starry sphere, the earliest astral religions insist that the planet-god was once the all-power$ul ruler o$ heaven! 0ut parado ically, they also declare that he resided on earth as a great king! -e was the $ather both o$ gods and men!

This dual character o$ the great $ather has been the subCect o$ a centuries-long, but unresolved debate! Das he a living ancestor subseAuently e aggerated into a cosmic divinityE .r was he originally a celestial god whom later myths reduced to human proportionsE ,or an e planation o$ the great $ather researchers look to such varied powers as the solar orb, an esteemed tribal chie$, or an abstract "vegetation cycle!# +lmost uni$ormly ignored is
the connection o$ the primordial man-god with the actual planet Saturn—even though it is precisely the latter that can tell us why the great $ather appears in both human and celestial $orm!

The overwhelming preoccupation o$ ancient ritual is with an ancient "great god#1 6! The myths say that the god emerged alone $rom the cosmic sea as the preeminent power in the heavens! .ut o$ watery chaos he produced a new order! The ancients worshipped him as the creator and the supreme lord o$ the (osmos! @! This solitary god, according to the legend, $ounded a kingdom o$ unparalleled splendour! -e was the divine ancestor o$ all earthly rulers, his kingdom the prototype o$ the Cust and prosperous realm! Throughout his reign an unending spring prevailed, the land produced $reely, and men knew neither labour nor war! 3! In the god-king’s towering $orm the ancients perceived the -eaven 'an, a primordial giant whose body was the newly
organi*ed (osmos! The legends o$ten present the $igure as the $irst man or "primordial man,# whose history personi$ied the struggle o$ good and evil!

G! Dhether emphasi*ing the great $ather’s character as creator, $irst king, or -eaven 'an, widespread traditions proclaim him
to be the planet Saturn!

In investigating the traits o$ the archaic god we must give greatest weight to the oldest astral religions—those which are closest to the original e perience! The best material, coming $rom ancient >gypt and 'esopotamia, provides a remarkably coherent picture o$ the god and enables one to see the development and the distortions o$
the idea among later peoples! Dhat is most surprising, however, is the enduring power o$ the root themes!

T#$ %On$ God& O' A "#ai" Monot#$i()
,n the beginning the ancients knew one supre"e god only# a divinity invoked as the creator and the father of all the gods +ccording to a long-established school o$ thought, man ’s consciousness o$ a supreme being emerged slowly $rom a
primitive $ascination with petty spirits and demons! +dherents to this opinion tell us that human reason gradually modi$ied capricious spirits o$ "vegetation,# "spring,# "the ancestors,# or "se ual power# into the great gods o$ global religion!

.$ such an evolutionary process, however, one $inds little evidence! The great edi$ices erected by -erbert Spencer, >!0! Tylor, and James %! ,ra*erG appear to rest e clusively on the assumption that one can learn the origins o$ theism by studying e isting primitive cultures! The idea is that the civili*ed races o$ old must have $irst passed through "primitive#
phases! 0e$ore the -ebrews, %reeks, or -indus developed their elevated ideas o$ a supreme god, they must have possessed belie$s and customs similar to those o$ modern-day tribes o$ +$rica, +ustralia, or =olynesia! .nly by slow develop"ent# say these theorists, could a race rise above the ludicrous magic, totems, and $etishes o$ the savage!

It is interesting that the advocates o$ the various evolutionary theories, in their $ascination with present-day primitive cultures, almost never concern themselves with the oldest religious te ts and symbols which have come down to us! The sacred hymns and eulogies o$ ancient >gypt and 'esopotamia, reveal a tradition o$ a
"great god# reaching back into prehistoric times! 'oreover, a comparison o$ early and later sources, rather than suggesting a development, actually indicates the disintegration o$ a once-uni$ied idea into magic, astrology, totemism, and other elements with which the evolutionists associate the "$irst stages# o$ religion!

*. At!)+ t#$ (olita , -od o' b$-innin-(. There are grounds $or speaking o$ an archaic monotheism, astral in nature, e isting long be$ore the idea o$ %od received its spiritual and philosophical elevation in -ebrew and %reek thought! To the ancients themselves the entire Auestion was simply a matter o$ concrete history1 the present world is a $ragmented copy o$ an earlier age, in which the supreme light god stood alone in a primeval sea, occupying the cosmic centre! +ncient >gyptian te ts repeatedly invoke a singular $igure worshipped as the greatest and highest light o$ the primeval age! .ne o$ his many names was +tum, a god "born in the +byss be$ore the sky e isted, be$ore the earth e isted!#5 These are the words o$ the Pyra"id Te-ts# perhaps the world’s oldest religious hymns, but the te ts o$ all periods look
back to the same primordial time when +tum shone $orth alone! "I came into being o$ mysel$ in the midst o$ the =rimeval Daters,# states the god in the !ook of the .ead 8 'ore than once the +offin Te-ts recall the time when +tum "was alone, be$ore he had repeated himsel$!#7 -e "was alone in the =rimeval Daters,# they say! 4 "I was Kthe spirit inEL the =rimeval Daters, he who had no companion when my name came into e istence!:

>ach locality in >gypt appears to have possessed its own special representative o$ the $ather god! 62 To some he was -orus, "the god who came $irst into being when no other god had yet come into e istence, when no name o$ anything had yet been proclaimed!#66 .ther traditions knew him as <e, "the %od .ne who came into being in the beginning o$ time ! ! ! . thou
who didst give Thysel$ birthM . one, mighty one o$ myriad $orms and aspects, king o$ the world ! ! !#6@

The $ollowers o$ +men proclaimed their god "the +ncient o$ -eaven ! ! ! , $ather o$ the gods! 63 " =tah was "the splendid god
who e isted alone in the beginning!#6G

The di$$erent local names o$ the primeval deity, though adding comple ity to >gyptian religion as a whole, do not cloud the underlying idea! -e is the "god .ne,# the ".nly .ne,# the "$ather o$ beginnings,# the "Supreme 9ord,# the
singular god "e cept whom at the beginning none other e isted!#65

Surveying >gyptian religion one cannot $ail to notice the priests ’ obsession with the past—and their vivid portrait o$ the
great god in his "$irst appearance!# Those who look $or an unseen creator in early >gyptian religion will be disappointed! -e is a visible and concrete power, the "lord o$ terror,# or "the great o$ terror!# 68 The memory o$ this solitary light god and creator

was as old as the most ancient >gyptian ritual! -is appearance—and eventual departure—shaped every aspect o$ the >gyptian world view! So also in 'esopotamia, about which Stephen 9angdon raises the Auestion o$ archaic monotheism! +$ter prolonged study o$ Semitic and Sumerian sources, 9angdon concludes that veneration o$ spirits and demons had nothing to do with the origins o$ 'esopotamian religion! <ather, "both in Sumerian and Semitic religions,
monotheism preceded polytheism and belie$ in good and evil spirits!# 67

9angdon notes that on the pictographic tablets o$ the prehistoric period, the picture o$ a star repeatedly appears! The sign , he claims, is virtually the only religious symbol in the primitive period, and in the early Sumerian language this star symbol is the ideogram $or writing "god,# "high,# "heaven,# and "bright!# It is also the ideogram o$ +n,
the oldest and lo$tiest o$ the Sumerian gods!

+n Hor +nuI was the $ather o$ the gods and the central light at the universe summit, a god o$ "terri$ying splendour#
who governed heaven $rom his throne in the cosmic sea +psu!

0ut the Sumero-0abylonian pantheon is $illed with competing $igures o$ the primordial creator! >nki Hor >aI, /ingirsu, /inurta, Tammu*each appears as a local $ormulation o$ the same great god! 64 >ach shares in the character o$ the singular +n, ruling as universal lord, $ashioning his home above and radiating light in the midst o$ the celestial ocean! -ere, as in >gypt, the god o$ archaic monotheism is not a transcendent spirit or invisible power, but a central light! + Sumerian epic to /inurta proclaims, "+nu in the midst o$ -eaven gave him $ear$ul splendour!# /inurta, according to the te t, is "like +nu,# and casts "a shadow o$ glory over the land!# 6: +ll 'esopotamian $igures o$ the primeval god possess this tangible character, and accounts o$ the god’s radiant appearance are more o$ a historical than a speculative

>gyptian and 'esopotamian traditions o$ the solitary creator $ind many parallels in later -ebrew, %reek, =ersian, -indu, and (hinese mysticism and philosophy! 0ut it is the earlier imagery which illuminates the later! +nd however unorthodo the idea may seem, the oldest records treat the great god ’s birth in the deep and his acts o$
"creation# as events e perienced by the ancestors! "-earts were pervaded with $ear, hearts were pervaded with terror when I was born in the abyss,# proclaims the god in the =yramid Te ts! @2 The solitary god, in the presence o$ the ancestors, brought $orth the primeval world or "earth!# To understand the great god’s creation one must put aside modern philosophical and religious conceptions! The tradition has nothing to do with the origins o$ our planet or o$ the material universe! The sub/ect of the original creation legend is the for"ation of the great god0s visible dwelling above The legend records that when the creator rose $rom the cosmic sea a great band or revolving island congealed around the god as his home! The band appeared as a well-de$ined, organi*ed, and geometrically uni$ied dwelling—a celestial "land# $ashioned by the great $ather! +ll space outside this enclosure belonged to unorgani*ed (haos!

In a later section o$ this book I intend to show that ancient races the world over recorded pictures o$ the great god and Hthe second, more complete $orm showing streams o$ light radiating $rom the god to animate his "city o$ heaven#I! The words which in the ancient languages denote this enclosure
and his circular abode! The images were receive various translations as "heaven,# "cosmos,# "world,# "land,# "earth,# "netherland#—terms which take on vastly di$$erent meanings in modern usage! In their original sense the words signi$ied one and the same thing1 a band o$ light which appeared to set apart the "sacred ground# o$ the great god $rom the rest o$ space!

H.ne cannot begin a survey o$ the great $ather without con$ronting his celestial enclosure, but a $ull discussion o$ this dwelling will be possible only a$ter certain other aspects o$ the single god receive clari$ication! I mention the enclosure now in order to indicate the general, and unconventional, direction o$ this investigation! Dhen te ts cited in the $ollowing pages employ the terms "heaven,# "earth,# or "world# the reader should know that the usual
interpretation will not be my interpretation!I

.$ the >gyptian +tum Hor <eI I note these special characteristics1 *. Primeval Unity. +tum is the ".ne,# but also the "+ll!# Though he is the solitary god o$ beginnings, an assembly o$ lesser gods
emanate $rom him and revolve in his company! These secondary deities, the paut or "circle# o$ the gods, constitute +tum’s own "limbs!# +tum’s body is the primeval (osmos,@6 denoted

by the circle in the sign

.. Regulator. +tum is the stationary god, the ",irm -eart o$ the Sky!# -is hieroglyph, however, is the primitive sledge , signi$ying "to move!# +s the central light or pivot, he imparts motion to Hor "moves#I the heavens, while he himsel$ remains em
hetep, "at rest!# Directing the celestial motions Hand the related cyclesI he becomes the god o$ Time! @@

/. The Word. The >gyptians recall +tum as the ancient Voice i$ heaven1 The Dord came into being! +ll things were mine when I was alone! I was <e KN+tumL in his $irst mani$estations! The te ts describe the god’s "$irst mani$estations#@3 as the bringing $orth o$ his companions Hhis "limbs#I, which issue
—or e plode—$rom the god as his $iery "speech!# This circle o$ secondary divinities receives the name ?hu, meaning "words o$ power,# but also "brilliant lights# or "glorious lights!#

0. Water God. + well-known chapter o$ 0ook o$ the Dead includes this description o$ <e1

I am the %reat %od who created himsel$! Dho is heE The %reat %od who created himsel$ is the water it is the +byss, the ,ather o$ the %ods!@G The great god and the celestial oocean—"a lake o$ $ire#—are $undamentally one! The waters issue $rom the god yet,
parado ically, give birth to him!

1. The Seed. +tum is the masculine power o$ heaven, the luminous Seed embodying all the elements o$ li$e Hwater, $ire, air, etc!I,
which $low $rom him in streams o$ light! -e is the universal source o$ $ertility animating and impregnating the (osmos! @5

Dhat is most compelling about the portrait o$ +tum-<e is that numerous >gyptian divinities duplicate the image!
The very traits o$ the great god, outlined above, are endlessly repeated in the $igures o$ .siris, =tah, -orus, ?hepera, and +meneach o$ whom appears as the solitary god in the $iery seaB the god .ne who brought $orth the company o$ gods as his own limbsB the god o$ the reverberating speechB the un"oving god producing the celestial revolutionsB the $inal source o$ waters and the impregnating Seed o$ the (osmos!@8

I$ we were to inAuire o$ an >gyptian priest how he arrived at this notion o$ the supreme god, the priest would tell us that he did not "arrive# at the idea at all! The great god was a historical divinity, who ruled heaven $or a time, then
departed amid great upheavals! The hymns and ritual te ts Hthe priest would sayI simply record the incarnation o$ the god in the primordial era and recount the massive cataclysms which accompanied the collapse o$ that era!

+s the $ollowing sections will show, the general tradition is global and highly coherent!

T#$ Univ$ (al Mona "#
The sa"e cos"ic figure who" the oldest races knew as the creator and supre"e god appears in the "yths as a terrestrial king# reigning over the $olden %ge 1is rule was distinguished for its peace and abundance# and he governed not one land alone but the entire world# beco"ing the "odel of the good king Every terrestrial ruler# according to the kingship rites# received his charis"a and authority fro" this divine predecessor /o mythical $igure remains more enigmatic than the great king to whom so many ancient peoples traced their ancestry! Dho was .siris, the legendary ruler who led the >gyptians out o$ barbarianism and reigned as king o$ the entire worldE Dho was >nki, whom the ancient Sumerians revered as the "universal lord# and $ounder o$

The same $igure appears repeatedly as one passes to India, %reece, (hina, and the +mericas! ,or the -indus it was FamaB $or the %reeks, ?ronosB $or the (hinese, -uang-ti! The 'e icans insisted that the white god Ouet*alcoatl once ruled not only 'e ico but all mankind! In /orth +merica the same idea attached to the primordial $igure 'anabo*o! So vivid are the recollections o$ the &niversal 'onarch that his story usually $orms the $irst chapter in the chronicles o$ kingship! +nd the kingship rites meticulously preserve a memory o$ the god-kings rule! >ach stage in the inauguration o$ a new king reenacts the "$irst# king’s li$e and death! The rites take the initiated back to the
beginning—to the mythical "creation!#

+n e traordinary theme emerges1 In the original age o$ cosmic harmony and human innocence the gods dwelt on earth! =residing over the epoch o$ peace and plenty was the &niversal 'onarch, who $ounded temples and cities and taught humanity the principles o$ agriculture, law, writing, music, and other civili*ed arts! This %olden +ge, however, ended in the god-king’s catastrophic death! Dhat is most pu**ling to modern commentators is that the king o$ the world, "ruling on earth,# is at the same time the
creator, the "god .ne!# -ow did the ancients come upon this parado ical notionE

The Age of Kronos
%reek legends recall a remote and mysterious era o$ ?ronos, the creator god who, wielding his sickle, ruled $rom the summit o$ .lympus! >ventually displaced by his own son, against whom he warred violently, ?ronos seems to have appeared to the %reeks as a split personality, at once a radiant god—the very author o$ the world —and a dark, demonic power! 0ut in an old tradition, with roots in earliest antiAuity, ?ronos is preeminently the good king, his darker side concealed! ",irst o$ all
the deathless gods who dwell on .lympus made a golden race o$ mortal men who lived in the time o$ ?ronos when he was reigning in

heaven! +nd they lived like gods without sorrow o$ heart, remote and $ree $rom toil and grie$1 miserable age rested not on them ! ! ! The $ruit$ul earth un$orced bare them $ruit abundantly and without stint! They dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with many good things, rich in $locks and loved by the blessed gods# @7

Dhen -esiod wrote these lines the %olden +ge o$ ?ronos was but a $aint and o$ten con$used memory! To observe the antiAuity o$ the idea one need only re$er to the cradles o$ ancient civili*ation—>gypt and 'esopotamia! +mong the >gyptians the $ather o$ the paradisal age possessed many names, but each tradition proclaimed the same original e cellence o$ creation, subseAuently corrupted! The peace$ul epoch was distinctly the age o$ ?ronos, under a di$$erent title! "Throughout their history the >gyptians believed in a time o$ per$ection at the beginning o$ the
world,# observes (lark!@4

In the earliest age, say the >gyptian sources, the great god was the $irst king, a ruler whose li$e served as a model $or all succeeding ages! Dith the god-king .siris the >gyptians constantly associated a vanished %olden +ge! +s king, .siris, the "0ene$icent 0eing,# taught his subCects to worship the gods, gave them the arts o$ civili*ation, and
$ormulated the laws o$ Custice! ,ounding sacred temples and cities and disseminating wisdom $rom one land to another, he became the bene$actor o$ the whole world!@: 0ut his eventual murder brought world-wide destruction!

+mong classical writers H-erodotus, Diodorus, =lutarchI the idea prevailed that .siris lived on our earth as a man or man-god! >gyptian sources, too, o$ten portray him in human $orm! Fet the early religious te ts say again and again that .siris was the supreme light o$ heaven, ruling $rom the cosmic centre! -e was, in $act, "the lord o$ the gods, god .ne!#32 -is body $ormed the (ircle o$ the Tuat# the celestial residence o$ the gods! +nd the secondary
gods themselves constituted the limbs o$ .siris!36

Indeed, the traditions o$ .siris melt into those o$ <e, the "god .ne, who came into being in primeval time!# Just as .siris’
$ollowers remembered his rule on earth, so did other >gyptians recall the terrestrial reign o$ the (reator <e! To this age, states 9enormant, the >gyptians "continually looked back with regret and envy! To declare the superiority o$ one thing above all other things imaginable, it was enough to a$$irm, Pits like had never been seen since the days o$ <e!’3@

<e, the $ather o$ the gods, reigned over the terrestrial world, but wandered away when the heavens $ell into disorder! "+ll chronological tradition a$$irms that <e had once ruled over >gypt,# writes 0udge, "and it is a remarkable $act that every possessor o$ the throne o$ >gypt was proved by some means or other to have the blood o$ <e $lowing in his veins ! ! !# 33 0ut the same belie$ applied to -orus, the god-king par e-cellence# as well as +tum, ?hepera, =tah, and +men! The $act which
must be e plained is that the memory o$ the creator-king and his original age o$ abundance was $ar broader than any local tradition!

+nd the story was not limited to >gypt! +ccording to the theologian and historian >usebius Hwho relates the account o$ the 0abylonian priest-historian 0erossusI, the ancient tribes o$ (haldea owed their civili*ation to a power$ul and benevolent $igure named .annes, who ruled be$ore the Deluge! =rior to .annes, the tribes lived
"without order, like the beasts!# 0ut the new god-king, who issued fro" the sea# instructed mankind in writing and various arts, the $ormation o$ cities, and the $ounding o$ temples! "-e also taught them the use o$ laws, o$ bounds and divisions, also the harvesting o$ grains and $ruits, and in short all that pertains to the molli$ying o$ li$e he delivered to menB and since that time nothing more has been invented by anybody!#3G

.annes was simply the %reek name $or the 0abylonian >a Hthe Sumerian >nkiI, worshipped in the city o$ >ridu at the mouth o$ the >uphrates! The tradition dates to the earliest stage o$ Sumerian history, a time when the myths say that >nki and his wi$e Damkina governed the lost paradise o$ Dilmun, the "pure place# o$ man’s genesis! They alone reposed in DilmunB Dhere >nki and his wi$e reposed, That place was pure, that place was clean ! ! ! In Dilmun the raven croaked not! The kite shrieked not kite-like! The lion mangled not! The wol$ ravaged not the lambs!35 The inhabitants o$ this paradise lived in a state o$ near per$ection, drinking the waters o$ li$e and enCoying unbounded prosperity!

<uling over this $avoured domain, >nki introduced civili*ation to mankind, $ounded the $irst cities and temples, and set down the $irst laws! I$, in the account o$ 0erossus, the bringer o$ civili*ation appears as a man Hor part man, part $ishI, the earlier accounts call him the creator! -is home was the cosmic sea +psu, the celestial waters o$ "$ire, rage, splendour and terror!#38 The priests o$ >a or >nki deemed him Mu""u# the creative "Dord!# 9ike the >gyptian creator, >nki brought $orth
the secondary gods through his own speech!

Diverse localities worshipped the same cosmic power under di$$erent names! In the ancient city o$ 9agash the priests honoured the god /inurta as the $ather o$ the paradisal age! /inurta $ounded temples and citiesB the years o$ his rule, connected with the beginning o$ the world, were "years o$ plenty!# /inurta—scaled the mountain and scattered seed $ar and wide, +nd the plants with one accord named him as their king!37 The Sumerians themselves knew that /inurta was the same as the "vegetation god# Damu*i Hor Tammu*I, "son o$ the
+psu#—the shepherd o$ mankind whom classical mythology knew as +donis and whose catastrophic departure or death became the $ocus o$ ritual lamentations $or many hundreds o$ years!

0ut >nki, /inurta, and Damu*i were only aspects o$ the creator +n, whose ideogram Has previously notedI appears as the earliest 'esopotamian sign o$ divinity! In all the myths and temple hymns, the Sumerians distinguish the present age $rom "that day,# or "the days o$ old,# when the gods "gave man abundance, the day when vegetation $lourished!#34 The supreme $igure reigning over this remote age was +/, the central and highest light, whose $oremost epithet was lugal, "king!# The Sumerians claimed that the very institution o$ kingship descended $rom "the heaven o$
+n!# It was +n who produced the bene$icent age—"when the destiny was $i ed $or everything that was engendered Hby +nI, when +n engendered the year o$ abundance!#3:

-ow widespread was this memory o$ a %olden +ge, $oundered and governed by the creator himsel$E It appears that the tradition was either preserved in or migrated to every section o$ the world! In 'e ico, legends recount the ancient rule o$ Ouet*alcoatl, who appeared $rom the sea to become the good and wise ruler o$ Tollan, in the %olden +ge o$ +nahuac! The legend describes the god as a "lawgiver, teacher o$ the arts, and $ounder o$ puri$ied religion!#G2 -e was the "+ncestral ,ounding ?ing,# and all later Toltec kings considered themselves his direct descendants G6 .$ Ouet*alcoatl the Toltecs sang1 +ll the arts o$ the Toltecs, their knowledge, everything came $rom Ouet*alcoatl! The Toltecs were wealthy, their $oodstu$$s, their sustenance, cost nothing! They say that the sAuash were big and heavy ! ! ! +nd those Toltecs were very rich, they were very happyB There was no poverty or sadness! /othing was lacking in their houses, There was no hunger among them ! ! !G@ In the story o$ Ouet*alcoatl one $inds the same con$usion o$ man and god as in the legends o$ >gypt and 'esopotamia! The chronicler Sahagun writes, "+lthough this Ouet*alcoatl had been a man they respected him as a god!# G3 Indeed, he was the creator, $or "-e made the heavens, the sun, the earth!# GG The Toltecs claim that in the beginning their race knew only one god1 .nly one god did they have, and they held him as the only god, they invoked him, they supplicated himB his name was Ouet*alcoatl!G5 /ot only was Ouet*alcoatl the "%iver o$ 9i$e#B the legend proclaims that the $irst divine generation emanated directly $rom him!
0ut eventually the god Hlike his counterparts around the worldI su$$ered a violent $ate, bringing to an end his %olden +ge! To the

>gyptian, 'esopotamian, and +merican Indian accounts o$ the remote epoch correspond numerous legends o$ India, Iran, (hina, and northern >urope1

ndia. The -indu 0rahma, Fama, Vishnu, and 'anu converge as representatives o$ a solitary supreme god and creator governing a lost paradise as the $irst king, setting $orth the $irst moral codes, and imparting to mankind the $undamentals o$ civili*ation! Fama appears as the "universal lord#B 'anu, as the "king o$ the world# or "universal legislator,# to whom later monarchs traced their lineage!G8 "In the beginning,# say the &panishads, "there arose the %olden (hild! +s soon as born he alone was lord o$ all that is!# G7 This was 0rahma, the "god .ne!# -is prosperous epoch, however, ended in his own death and a world-destroying con$lagration! ran. Fima, the Iranian transcript o$ the -indu Fama, is the patriarchal lord o$ mankind, the "brilliant Fima# who $irst introduced law and civili*ation to the world! -is age knew "neither cold nor heat ! ! ! neither age nor death!# So resplendent was his rule that "the world assembled round his throne in wonder!# 0ut then Hwhen Fima diverged $rom the path o$ CusticeI, the %lory $led $rom his kingdom, and he was put to death! Thereupon, the eternal spring became a devastating winter! G4 !hina. In the earliest age, according to ancient (hinese lore, the purest pleasure and tranAuillity reigned throughout all nature!
'ankind su$$ered neither hunger, nor pain, nor sorrow! "The whole creation enCoyed a state o$ happiness ! ! ! , and things grew without labourB and a universal $ertility prevailed!# It was over Cust such a paradise that the "Fellow >mperor# -uang-ti ruled! (onsidered the $ather o$ the Taoist religion, -uang-ti was the creator, a universal lawmaker and $ounder o$ arts and civili*ation! -e was also a mortal, and his $ruit$ul era vanished upon his death!G:

"orthern #urope. During the "peace o$ ,rodi,# a mythical Danish king, no man inCured another and a magical mill ground out
peace and plenty $or the entire land! ,rodi is the /orse god ,rey, $ounder o$ temples and religious rites, the "generous lord under whom peace and $ruit$ulness abounded,# both the "lord o$ the Swedes# and "god o$ the world!# In the $ootsteps o$ the Scandinavian .din Hthe creatorI well-being, peace, and good seasons $ollowed! The legends style him the $irst king, the "inventor o$ arts,# and the source o$ human wisdom! 0ut the age o$ ,rey dissolved in $lames, Cust as .din and his prosperous kingdom came crashing down in the $ires o$ <agnarok!52

-ere then, is a world-wide moti$, deeply ingrained in the religious and historical records o$ all principal races!
"The idea o$ the >denic happiness o$ the $irst human beings constitutes one o$ the universal traditions,# states 9enormant! 56

'inistering over this age is the &niversal 'onarch! Dhile e tolled as the solitary supreme god and the creator o$ the world, he yet appears as a ruler on earth, the ancestor o$ terrestrial kings! 0y his teaching mankind rose $rom barbarianism! 0ut in the end the god met a catastrophic $ate, and his death or departure brought a violent termination o$ the $irst world order!

The Rites of Kingship
The ritual surrounding ancient kings amounts to a summary o$ ancient belie$s about the &niversal 'onarch, $or every local sovereign was the successor and representative o$ the great god who ruled the world during the %olden +ge! The rites o$ kingship testi$y to the enormous power which the collective memory o$ this god-king held over later generations! (hronicles o$ kingship $rom >gypt, to 'esopotamia, to =ersia, to (hina, to Italy, to northern >urope, to pre-(olumbian 'e ico all trace the line o$ kings back to the $irst king, a supreme cosmic deity who "$ounded# the kingship rites! "Dhen history begins there are kings, the representatives o$ the gods,# states -ocart! 5@ /o greater mistake could be made by historians than to assume that the sovereignty o$ kings grew out o$ economic or material concerns! Instead, the crucial $orces were religious! The king was a product o$ ancient ritual, and the ritual centered in cosmic belie$s which, $or several millennia, could not be shaken loose! To comprehend the mighty in$luence o$ kingship in the ancient world one must penetrate the mystery o$ the king’s prototype, the &niversal 'onarch! In the $irst king’s li$e and rule originated the prerogatives and obligations o$ all local sovereigns! It was the duty o$ every king to
per$orm the rites instituted by the great god in the beginning, and to renew, i$ only symbolically, the primordial era o$ peace and plenty!

In the ritual, the king turns the wheel o$ law $irst turned by the great god, rides on the god ’s own cosmic ship, takes
as spouse the great mother Hmistress o$ the great $atherI, builds temples and cities patterned a$ter the god’s celestial abode, and subdues the $orces o$ darkness HbarbariansI, Cust as the god de$eated chaos in the beginning! Dhatever the marvels o$ the great $ather, it is the duty o$ each local king to repeat them, or at least ritually to reenact these accomplishments as i$ he were the great god him sel$!

In his study o$ kingship in >gypt, -enri ,rank$ort tells us that the great god was the first king( "Dhether named <e, ?hepri or +tum, he is the prototype o$ =haraoh, and the te ts abound in phrases drawing the comparison!# 53 To certi$y his

authority as a successor o$ the &niversal 'onarch, the king credits himsel$ with having introduced an age o$ abundance like that
o$ the ancestral sovereign! Thus, Thutmose III not only sits "upon the throne o$ +tum,# but claims to have achieved "what had not been done since the time o$ <e# and to have restored conditions "as they were in the beginning!# 5G +menhotep III strives "to make the country $lourish as in primeval times#55

Similarly, when the Sumerian king Dungi ascended the throne, the people supposed that a champion had arisen to restore the =aradise which e isted be$ore the ,lood Hbut was lost through transgressionI! 58 >ach king, states +l$red Jeremias, was e pected to reproduce the wonders o$ the great god, the primeval king! 57 Thus does +ssurbanipal proclaim that upon his ascension to the throne "<amman has sent $orth his rain—the harvest was plenti$ul,
the corn was abundant—the cattle multiplied e ceedingly!# 54

+mong the -ebrews, ">very king is a 'essiah, and at times the hope is e pressed that the king will introduce a new %olden
+ge!5: " Such is the test o$ the /ust or good ruler, who brings prosperity and a $ruit$ul earth! This belie$, which seems to have held sway over the entire ancient world, receives insu$$icient attention $rom historians1 it points directly to the e traordinary memory o$ the &niversal 'onarch!

(onsider1 -omer gives as the ideal "a blameless king whose $ame goes up to the wide heaven, maintaining right, and the black
earth bears wheat and barley and the trees are laden with $ruit, and the sheep bring $orth and $ail not, and the sea hives store o$ $ish, and all $rom his good guidance, and the people prosper!#82

(an this be anything other than the lost age o$ ?ronosE Dhy should a $ertile soil con$irm the righteousness o$
kingsE The connection becomes clear once one takes the &niversal 'onarch as more than an esoteric $iction and recogni*es him as the shaping $orce behind the ideals o$ kingship! Just as peace and plenty $ollowed in the $ootsteps o$ the $irst Hideal, "good#I king, they should $ollow those o$ his successors who share in the charisma o$ the great predecessor!

"The $urther we go back in history,# observes Jung, "the more evident does the king’s divinity become ! ! ! In the /ear >ast the whole
essence o$ kingship was based $ar more on theological than on political considerations ! ! ! it was sel$-evident that the king was the magical source o$ wel$are and prosperity $or the entire organic community o$ man, animal, and plantB $rom him $lowed the li$e and prosperity o$ his subCects, the increase o$ the herds, and the $ertility o$ the land!# 86 This image o$ the local king is drawn

directly $rom the image o$ the &niversal 'onarch! Thus did every ancient ruler call himsel$ the "king o$ the world# and claim to radiate power and light! Thompson tells us that
the 'ayan ruler declared himsel$ "as something like ?ing o$ ?ings, ruler o$ the world, regent on earth o$ the great It*am /a ! ! ! a sort o$ divine right o$ kings which would have turned James I green with envy!# 8@ Dhat Thompson calls an "in$lated notion o$ grandeur# seems to characteri*e all ancient kings Hwho "shine like the sun# and direct the heavenly motionsIB but the reason must be appreciated1 every king was, in a magical way, the &niversal 'onarch reborn! The institution and ritual of kingship point to the sa"e great god and the sa"e $olden %ge as do the "yths of cos"ic beginnings

In what historical conditions did this collective memory originateE +nd i$ the &niversal 'onarch governed the entire heavens as the god .ne, why was he called an "ancestor#E

T#$ H$av$n Man
So vivid was the great father0s celestial i"age and so overpowering was his influence on civilization in its infancy# that the ancient chroniclers often gave hi" hu"an for"# recalling hi" as the 2first "an 3 !ut he was no "ortal of flesh and blood ,n his original character he upheld the +os"os as the 1eaven Man# a celestial giant whose body enco"passed all the gods and co"posed the 2pri"eval "atter3 of creation The great $ather reigned over the prosperous age and then departed amid great upheavals! The mythical accounts give this imposing $igure such tangible and "human# traits that more than one scholar reduces him to a living man
—an esteemed tribal ancestor whose heroic e ploits succeeding generations progressively enlarged until the entire universe came under his authority!

This is the approach o$ Dilliam <idgeway, who, in a survey o$ the best-known $igures o$ the great $ather, argues that only an actual tribal chie$ could have le$t such a pro$ound imprint on primitive communities! <idgeway asks us whether the abstract "sky,# or the solar orb, or a vegetation spirit—common e planations o$ the great $ather
—could produce such devotion as is evident in the annual lamentations over the ruler’s catastrophic death! .siris, 0rahma, Tammu*, Ouet*alcoatl—their devotees remember each as a living ancestor, whose passing was a terri$ying calamity! 83

.$ course <idgeway does not assume that one man alone accounts $or all the traditions o$ a great $ather! <ather he seeks to identi$y each in terms o$ a historical $igure Auite distinct $rom the venerated ancestors o$ other tribes! I$ his arguments against prevailing astronomical and vegetation theories carry great weight, they $ail to

e plain the global parallel between the respective myths! /or can one reconcile <idgeway ’s interpretation with the
incontrovertible $act that, in the earliest accounts, the great $ather is mani$estly cos"ic

That many sacred histories, however, present the creator-king in human $orm is a parado e planation! The solution lies in the nature o$ the legendary "$irst man!#

reAuiring an

Who Was Adam$
I$ one compares the traditions o$ +dam with the global image o$ the great $ather there can be little doubt that this primal ancestor was simply a special $orm o$ the &niversal 'onarch! +ccording to -ebrew legends +dam’s stature was so great that he e tended $rom earth to the centre o$ heaven! 8G -is countenance obscured the sun!85 9ike the &niversal 'onarch, "+dam was lord on earth, to rule and control it,# 88 teaching his subCects the $irst arts and sciences!87 The myths say that terrestrial creatures "took him to be their creator, and they all came to o$$er him adoration!# 84 Dhile the chroniclers call this a "mistake,# substantial evidence shows that the tradition pertained more to a god than a man! In %nostic and other mystic systems +dam is not a mortal but a cosmic being whose body contained the seed o$ all later creation! +s observed by %!%! Scholem, summari*ing the traditions o$ the -ebrew ?abala! +damor
%da" 4ad"onis the "primordial man,# that is, "a vast representation o$ the power o$ the universe,# which is concentrated in him! 8: This +dam is a "man o$ light# occupying the centre o$ the (osmos and radiating energy along the a is o$ the universe! -e is creator and supporter o$ the world, whose body encloses all the elements o$ li$e! 72

Islamic mystics called +dam "the universal man# or "the per$ect man# upholding the cosmos! 76 To the .phites o$ the early (hristian era, he was +damas, "the man $rom on high# or, in the words o$ 9enormant, "the typical per$ect man, that is, the
heavenly prototype o$ Pman!’" In one o$ the cosmogonic $ragments preserved in the e tracts o$ Sanchuniathon Has recorded by =hilo o$ 0yblosI +dam is born at the beginning o$ all things and is identical with the %reek ouranos# "heaven!#7@ The modern day 'andaeans o$ IraA know +dam as the "?ing o$ the &niverse,# a personi$ication o$ all that spiritual man is intended to be and achieve!73

This, o$ course, sounds almost e actly like the primordial god .ne o$ global legend! Indeed, in the "yths of "any
lands the first "an and creator-king are identical Though the -indu Fama and his counterpart 'anu appear as the creator and king o$ the world, they also signi$y the primal ancestor! Their character as $irst man, however, does not mean $lesh and blood! They are the celestial prototypes# notes 9enormant, symbolic o$ "man# in general!7G

The role o$ the -indu Fama is $illed in =ersian myth not only by Fima, but also by %aya 'aretan, a legendary $irst king, a man o$ per$ect purity, "produced brilliant and white, radiant and tall!#75 -e, too, "appears as the prototype o$

'any myths make no distinction between the creator and $irst man! The .ceanic Tiki "is at once the $irst man, and the creator or progenitor o$ man!#77 +mong the ?oryak the creator o$ the world is also "the $irst man, the $ather and protector o$ the ?oryak!#74 The +ssiniboin, a /orth +merican Siouan tribe, say that it was the ,irst 'an who brought the Dorld out o$ the primeval water! " ! ! ! They also say o$ the ,irst 'an, the (reator, that no one made him, and
that he is immortal!#7:

The +ltaic Tatars similarly speak o$ a Dorld 'an or ,irst 'an! In the creation myths he doubles $or god himsel$ and raises the Dorld $rom the cosmic waters!42 (omparable is the Dorld 'an o$ the 9aps,46 or the 9onely 'an whom the Fakuts deem the $irst ancestor and whose dwelling pierced the summit o$ heaven!4@ I$ the general tradition be our guide, +dam is the solitary god o$ beginnings, presented in human $orm! This was the opinion o$ the controversial %erald 'assey, who, enchanted by the depth o$ >gyptian cosmology, proposed that the -ebrew +dam echoed the older >gyptian +tum, the god who shone $orth alone in the +byss! 43 It matters little whether the relationship o$ the two $igures is as direct as 'assey suggested! Throughout the ancient world the original god .ne passed into the legendary $irst ancestor! +s the creative intelligence and voice HDordI o$ heaven, the great $ather came to be viewed as the thinking and
speaking "man#—a towering giant whose body was the original (osmos! 0oth +tum and the later +dam possess this distinctive character as -eaven 'an, but certain developments o$ the idea stand out1

6! In the >gyptian version o$ the myth the great god H+tum-<eI, through tumultuous "speech,# brings $orth a circle o$
subordinate gods as satellites revolving in his company and $orming his own limbs! The central god and his revolving members compose the primordial cosmos H-eaven, DorldI! The crucial term is paut# "primeval matter,# re$erring to the material emitted by +tum, which took $orm as the (osmos! Paut is eAuivalent to the *hu or $iery "words o$ power# uttered by the great god! The term

signi$ies at once the "circle# o$ the gods and the "body# o$ +tum-<e! Dhich is to say1 (osmos N (ompany o$ %ods N (reator’s 9imbs, 0ody!

That the created (osmos emanated $rom the primordial god is a theme which persisted in later traditions o$ +dam! ,rom +dam Oadmon sprang successive degrees o$ creation! %nostic tradition knew +dam as the pri"a "ateria o$ the (osmos4G—a remarkable parallel to the >gyptian primeval matter, the limbs o$ +tum-<e! The great god’s body embraces and is "heaven#—not only in >gyptian but in all principal cosmologies! 9ike +tum, the Sumerian
+n encompasses "the entire heaven#B indeed, his very name signi$ies "heaven,# and one can trace the eAuation o$ "god# and "heaven# Hor "shining heaven#I through all o$ the ancient languages! The (hinese tien signi$ies both the high god and "heaven,# as does the +ltaic tengri The Sanskrit dyaus H9atin deusI carries the double meaning "god# and "heaven!# It is useless to look to the open sky $or an e planation o$ this eAuivalence! .riginally, "heaven# meant the organi*ed (osmos Hor bodyI o$ the god .ne, $ormed by the circle o$ lesser gods! The myths unanimously insist that this celestial order collapsed with the death o$ the great god, the -eaven 'an!

@! The all-embracing character o$ the great $ather $acilitated an important development o$ the god’s image at a time
when cultural mi ture could have destroyed the "monotheistic# theme! In ancient >gypt almost every district seems to have had its $avoured representative o$ the god .ne, a $act which gives the great compendiums o$ >gyptian religion H Pyra"id Te-ts# etc!I a misleading appearance o$ con$usion! -ow can we speak o$ a solitary god when >gyptian te ts re$er to an endless number o$ primary deitiesE

In more than one locality the priests themselves at least partially resolved the problem by adopting alien gods as the li"bs o$ the local great god—a process obviously encouraged by the pree isting image o$ the god as -eaven 'an! This habit was
widespread in >gypt and occurred as early as the Pyra"id Te-ts# which assimilate a number o$ once-independent gods into the body o$ +tum1

Four head is -orus o$ the /etherworld, . Imperishable ! ! ! Four nose is the Jackal K+p-uatL, Four teeth are Sopd, . Imperishable, Four hands are -apy and Duamute$ ! ! ! Four $eet are PImsety and ?ebhsenu$ ! ! ! etc!45 + hymn $rom the =apyrus o$ +ni similarly honours .siris1 The hair o$ .siris +ni is the hair o$ /u! The $ace o$ .siris +ni is the $ace o$ <e! The eyes o$ .siris +ni are the eyes o$ -athor! The ears o$ .siris +ni are the ears o$ +p-uat! The lips o$ .siris +ni are the lips o$ +npu ! ! !48 In almost the same words, the Papyrus of &u Coins the divinities .siris, =tah, +npu, -athor, -orus, Isis, and others to the body o$ <e!47 In the 'emphite theology +tum, -orus, Thoth, and the company o$ gods became the limbs o$ =tah! 44 Syncreti*ation o$ this sort, though appearing absurd to us today, actually helped to preserve the original idea against the eroding $orces o$ cultural assimilation! ,aced with a growing number o$ competing deities, the priests proclaimed1 there was only one great god in the beginning, whose body encompassed a circle o$ subordinate deities! 3! In a subseAuent development o$ the myth, the -eaven 'an passed into a mythical-philosophical e planation o$ our >arth and the material universe as a whole! -ere the god appears as a primordial giant who e isted be$ore the Deluge and gave his body to creation—not the creation o$ the primordial (osmos, but o$ our world
with its mountains, seas, clouds, and surrounding heavenly bodies!

+ noteworthy e ample is the Scandinavian primeval giant Fmir! In the Prose Edda the gods $ashion "the world# $rom
the giant’s body—"$rom his blood the sea and lakes, $rom his $lesh the earth, $rom his bones the mountains!# -is teeth become rocks and pebbles, his skull the sky, and his brains the clouds! The sparks and burning embers produced by his dismemberment become the stars!4:

(ompare the -indu giant =urusha, whose body $ormed the world1 "-is mouth was the 0rahman, ! ! ! his two thighs the
VaisyaB $rom his two $eet the Sudra was born! The moon was born $rom his mindB $rom his eye the sun was born! ,rom his navel was produced the airB $rom his head the sky was evolvedB $rom his two $eet the earthB $rom his ears the Auarters!# :2

=urusha is the =rimal 'an! In 0uddhist lore this cosmic giant is 0odhisattva 'anCucriB elsewhere in (hina the role belongs to the demiurge =an-?u, whose body provides the material $or creation! :6 The Qoroastrians

claimed that the created world was the giant Spihr H"(osmos#I, the body o$ the great god Qurvan! :@ +ll such heavensustaining giants can be best understood by re$erence to the original (osmos o$ the god .ne, rather than the open e panse to which the term "heaven# normally re$ers today! G! I$ the giant myths emphasi*ed the material $orm o$ the -eaven 'an, an age o$ metaphysics stressed the god ’s
character as universal intelligence, raising his image to a high degree o$ philosophical purity! The god .ne became the ,irst =rinciple, ,irst (ause, 'ind, Dord, or Sel$ H logos# nous# sophia# tao# etc!I! Fet in none o$ these cases did detached philosophy succeed in creating a pure abstraction! The %reek nous# the animating "'ind# or "Intelligent Spirit,# was never $ully divorced $rom the antecedent tradition o$ the -eaven 'an! 0oth >usebius and Syncellus identi$y the great 'ind with =rometheus, the =rimordial 'an who lived be$ore the Deluge!:3 In .rphic description o$ the universal 'ind it is hardly distinguishable $rom the -indu giant =urusha1 " ! ! ! +ll things were contained within the vast womb o$ the god! -eaven was his head1 the bright beams o$ the stars were his radiant locks ! ! ! The all-productive earth was his sacred womb1 the circling ocean was his belt ! ! ! B his body, the universe, was radiant, immovable, eternalB and the pure ether was his intellectual soul, the mighty /ous, by which he pervades, animates, preserves, and governs, all things!# :G

&ous was the primordial .ne, $rom which all things emanated—the central light which produced and regulated the (osmos HbodyI!
+n e actly eAuivalent notion was the -indu &niversal Sel$! -ere the original concept certainly did not mean "invisible soul# or anything like it! The cosmic Sel$ was 0rahma or =raCapati, the "%olden (hild# who appeared alone on the $irst occasion! "In the beginning,# say the 5panishads# "=raCapati stood alone!#:5

The same te ts say, "In the beginning there was Sel$ alone!# ,rom the primordial Sel$, enclosing all the li$e elements, issued the creation in successive degrees! ",rom the Sel$ sprang etherB $rom ether, airB $rom air, $ireB $rom $ire, water# ! ! ! etc! :8 H+dam Oadmon radiated the elements in similar $ashion!I -indu thought portrays the &niversal Sel$ as the $irst $orm Hand the animating soulI o$ the -eaven 'an! "In the
beginning this universe was nothing but the sel$ in the $orm o$ a man! It looked around and saw that there was nothing but itsel$, whereupon its $irst shout was PIt is IM’B whence the concept PI’ arose!# Then the Sel$ "poured $orth# the creation! The created Dorld H(osmosI, in -indu myth, took $orm as the giant Purusha# recogni*ed as the body o$ =raCapati-0rahma HSel$I!

/umerous traditions view the emanation or pouring out o$ creation as the great god ’s "speech!# This is the root
meaning o$ the %reek and -ebrew "Dord,# which signi$y, really, " visible speech!# HThe (hinese tao, the primeval unity or ,irst (ause, also conveys the idea "to speak!#I "0y the word o$ the 9ord the heavens were made,# states the -ebrew =salmist H=s! 3318I! "This idea o$ the creative Dord o$ %od,# observes John +llegro, "came to have a pro$ound philosophical and religious importance and was, and still is, the subCect o$ much metaphysical debate! !ut originally it was not an abstract notion6 you could see the 7'ord of $od 02 In the -ebrew creation legend the "speech# o$ the creator is poured out as "spittle# or "seed!# "The most $orce$ul spurting o$ this Pseed’ is accompanied by thunder and the shrieking wind!# :7 The imagery takes us back to the thundering voice o$

+tum! In most creation legends and certainly in the >gyptian and Sumerian prototypes—the great $ather, his li$e-bearing rays, his voice
HwordI, and the company o$ gods HlimbsI all appear as powers seen and heard The god is the celestial "'an# whose history became the overwhelming obsession o$ ancient ritual! <esiding at the stationary centre—the domain which the >gyptians called 'aat H"truth# or "wisdom#I and the 'esopotamians denominated +psu Hresidence o$ "wisdom#I the god commanded the cosmic revolutions! -e was, in short, the creative "intelligence,# producing a new and harmonious celestial order! Thus was the -eaven 'an the ideal man and the ideal king!

T#$ G $at Fat#$ Sat! n
The lost epoch of peace and plenty was the age of the planet Saturn %ncient "yths and rites present Saturn as the god 8ne# the first king# and the all-enco"passing 1eaven Man +dam, the $irst ancestor, presided over a garden o$ abundance! +mong the -ebrews such sacred occasions as the Sabbath and Jubilee commemorated this original state o$ man and the world, when +dam ruled >den and the land produced $reely without human e$$ort! The %reek celebration o$ the *ronia similarly hearkened back to the
lost %olden +ge o$ ?ronos! The parallel was no coincidence1 +dam was ?ronos, in human $orm!

Dhat the %reeks called the *ronia# celebrating the $ortunate era o$ ?ronos, the 9atins termed the Saturnalia# a symbolic
renewal o$ the Saturnia regna or reign o$ the planet Saturn! In the mystic heritage Saturn is the &niversal 'onarch, whose prosperous age all ancient people sought to recover!

These are the words with which James %! ,ra*er summari*es the 9atin tradition1 KSaturnL lived on earth long ago as a righteous and bene$icent king o$ Italy, drew the rude and scattered dwellers on the mountains together, taught them to till the ground, gave them laws, and ruled in peace! -is reign was the $abled %olden +ge1 the earth brought $orth abundantly1 no sound o$ war or discord troubled the

happy world1 no bale$ul love o$ lucre worked like poison in the blood o$ the industrious and contented peasantry! Slavery and private property were alike unknown1 all men had all things in common! +t last the good king, the kindly king, vanished suddenlyB but his memory was cherished to distant ages, shrines were reared in his honour, and many hills and high places in Italy bore his name!:4 The 9atin poet .vid knew the tradition well1 The $irst millenium was the age o$ goldB Then living creatures trusted one anotherB =eople did well without the thought o$ ill1 /othing $orbidden in the book o$ laws, /o $ears, no prohibitions read in bron*e, .r in the sculpted $ace o$ Cudge and master ! ! ! /o brass-lipped trumpets called, nor clanging swords! /or helmets marched the streets, country and town! -ad never heard o$ war1 and seasons traveled! Through the years o$ peace! The innocent earth 9earned neither spade nor ploughB she gave her <iches as $ruit hangs $rom the treeB grapes Dropping $rom the vine, cherry, strawberry <ipened in silver shadows o$ the mountain, +nd in the shade o$ Jove’s miraculous tree The $alling acorn, Springtide the single Season o$ the year!:: 0ut then, states .vid, "old Saturn $ell to Death’s dark country!# There is not a race on earth that $orgot this cataclysmic event—
the death o$ Saturn, the &niversal 'onarchB or the $all o$ +dam, the -eaven 'an! +nd peoples the world over, $or thousands o$ years, awaited the $ull turn o$ Time’s wheel, when Saturn’s kingdom would appear again to rescue the world $rom a decadent age o$ Iron Hthe present age, marking the lowest o$ the descending ages a$ter the $olden %geI! The power$ul memory o$ Saturn’s age gave rise to a prophesied return, as announced in the $amous lines o$ Virgil1

/ow is come the last age o$ the (umean prophecy1 the great cycle o$ periods is born anew! /ow returns the 'aid, returns the reign o$ Saturn1 now $rom high heaven descends a new generation! +nd . holy goddess o$ childbirth 9ucina, do thou be gracious at the boy’s birth in whom the Iron race shall begin to cease and the %olden to arise
all over the world ! ! !#622

That Saturn governed the %olden +ge is a supreme tenet o$ the ancient mysteries! This is why the most sacred day o$ the week, commemorating the primordial era, was dedicated to Saturn! The -ebrew Sabbath, the seventh day o$ the week, was the day o$ Saturn, as was the seventh day o$ the 0abylonian and =hoenician weeks! 626 ,or the <omans the seventh day was Saturni dies# "Saturn’s day!# This was the +nglo-Sa on "day o$ Seater KSaturnL,# which, o$
course, became our Saturday!

The archaic god .ne, the $ather o$ all the gods, was not the solar orb, not the "open sky,# but the planet Saturn!
"Saturn possessed the double property o$ being the $ore$ather o$ all other planetary gods, and o$ having his seat in the highest heaven,# writes <! ?libansky, >! =ano$sky, and <! Sa l in their study o$ Saturn and Melancholy 62@ The tradition was

maintained with striking consistency $rom its early e pressions in Sumero-0abylonian religion through the age o$ medieval astrology! .n the subCect o$ 'esopotamian religion and astronomy, three widely respected researchers are =eter Jensen, +l$red Jeremias, and Stephen 9angdon! + survey o$ their works will reveal these conclusions concerning the identity o$ the great god in 'esopotamia1 +n, the oldest and highest o$ the Sumero-0abylonian gods, whose primordial age was "the year o$ abundance,# signi$ied Saturn, according to Jensen! 623 The same verdict is tacitly maintained by Jeremias and 9angdon, who identi$y the great god /inurta as both the planet Saturn and a for" of %nu 62G The shepherd Tammu* was likewise Saturn, according to Jeremias! 625 +nd one can add the well-known $act that the Sumerian >nki H0abylonian >a, the .annes o$ 0erossusI came to be translated ?ronos HSaturnI by the %reeks!628

The identity o$ the creator-king as the planet Saturn seems to occur throughout the ancient world! The (anaanite Hand -ebrewI >l—closely corresponding to the Sumero-0abylonian +n—was Saturn! 627 The -indu 'anu, the king o$ the world, was Satyavratta# the planet Saturn!624 (ollit* tells us that Fima, the Iranian transcript o$ the -indu Fama, god o$ the %olden +ge, likewise denoted Saturn! 62: The Qoroastrians knew Saturn as the heaven-sustaining Qurvan, "the ?ing and 9ord o$ the 9ong Dominion!# 662 The (hinese -uang-ti, mythical $ounder o$ the Taoist religion, "is acknowledged to be Saturn!666 " >ven the Tahitians say o$ ,etu-tea, the planet Saturn, that he "was the

In classical thought Saturn is the primordial satus, "seed,# $rom which the (osmos sprangB the mind or cause which brought
$orth the original creationB the universal source o$ water, $ertility, and vegetationB and $ather Time, the regulator o$ the cosmic cycle!663

It was Saturn who, be$ore retiring to the nether realm, dwelt on earth# establishing his rule over the entire world! +n .rphic $ragment declares1 ".rpheus reminds us that Saturn dwelt openly on earth and among men!# 66G This be$ore the reign o$ Qeus,
"?ronos KSaturnL ruled on this very earth,# writes Dionysius o$ -alicarnassus! 665

Saturn was the cosmic +dam, bringing $orth a company o$ secondary deities as his own limbs! In the ancient Sumerian city o$ 9agash the priests deemed Saturn H/ingirsu or /inurtaI "the man whose stature $illed the an-ki# the
entire (osmos!668

The Sumero-0abylonian worshippers o$ the planet Saturn, observes -ildegard 9ewy, "conceived their god as the
e"bodi"ent of the whole universe# the various dei$ied astral as well as natural phenomena being imagined as "e"bers of this divine body and, there$ore, as e ecutors o$ a uniAue will!# "The guiding idea ! ! ! KwasL the belie$ in the e istence o$ only one great god!# 667

To preserve "the strictly monotheistic principle,# notes 9ewy, the priests composed this hymn to Saturn H/inurtaI1 . 9ord, Thy $ace is the sky ! ! ! Thy two eyes, oh 9ord, are the gods >nlil and /inlil! The lids o$ thy two eyes are %ula HandI 0elit-ili! The white o$ thy two eyes .h 9ord, are the twin HgodIs Sin and /ergal! The lashes o$ Thy two eyes are the radiance o$ the Sun god ! ! ! Thy chin, oh 9ord, is the astral Istar! The gods +num and +ntum are thy two lips! Thy tongue is the god =abilsag ! ! !664 Though the language pertains to the later-evolved imagery o$ the -eaven 'an, it leaves no doubt that the archaic doctrine conceived Saturn’s body as the entire (osmos! The legendary cos"ic giant originated in the "ythical
recollections of Saturn0s all-enco"passing for"

In Qoroastrian myth this celestial giant is Qurvan, widely recogni*ed as Saturn! The mystic traditions de$ine Qurvan as the "$irst principle# and the "original seed!# -e is, writes Qaehner, "the $ather o$ the (osmos! ,rom his seed proceeds the entire material (osmos ! ! !#66: In the creation Qurvan provided, or emitted, the "original un$ormed matter# $rom which the
wheel o$ the (osmos was produced! The idea is precisely that o$ the >gyptian "primeval matter# or the alchemist’s pri"a "ateria# i!e!, +dam, the =rimordial 'an!

The created (osmos, say the Qoroastrian te ts, took the $orm o$ an immense giant named Spihr, housing the elements o$ $ire, wind, water, and earth! The Spihr was "the ,irst 0ody,# "the body of 9urvan of the :ong .o"inion #6@2
"+s the god whose body is the $irmament he is the macrocosm K(osmos as a wholeL corresponding to man, the microcosm K(osmos in miniatureL,# observes Qaehner! Thus did Qurvan come to be viewed as "the prototype o$ man,# eventually acAuiring human $orm as the $irst ancestor—"the origin o$ the human race!#6@6

Saturn’s identity as the -eaven 'an and $irst ancestor occurs again and again in %nosticism, in alchemy, and in the traditions o$ the
?abala! "+s the $irst man,# observes Jung, "+dam is 1o"o "a-i"us# the +nthropos K'an par e-cellenceL $rom whom the macrocosm arose, or who is the macrocosm! -e is not only the prima materia but a universal soul which is also the soul o$ all men!#6@@ Saturn, Jung adds, is a synony" $or +dam and the prima materia! The planet is the =hilosophical 'an or .riginal 'an —"the blessed 'an on high, the arch man +damas!#6@3

In the %reat 'agical =apyrus o$ =aris, ?ronosRSaturn is "9ord o$ the Dorld, )irst )ather #6@G .rphic thought identi$ies the primordial man =rometheus with SaturnB6@5 the 9apps speak o$ the ancient 'aralden 8l"ay or "Dorld 'an#—who "is the same as Saturnus#6@8B and /orse legend identi$ies Saturn as the -eaven 'an ?roder!6@7

+ll o$ this means simply that the primordial (osmos originally signi$ied the li"bs of Saturn# a circle o$ secondary
lights revolving in the company o$ the giant planet! The terms conventionally translated as "(osmos,# "heaven,# "world,# "universe,# or "$irmament# Has in the previous paragraphsI denoted the primeval celestial order o$ which Saturn was king and which collapsed with Saturn’s $all!

T#$ Sat! n M,t# R$"on(t !"t$d
,rom the $oregoing evidence a distinctive portrait o$ Saturn emerges! In the earliest age recalled by the ancients the planet—or proto-planet—came $orth $rom the cosmic sea to establish dominion over the primeval (osmos! The planet-god ruled as the solitary, central light, worshipped as the god .ne—the only god in the beginning! Saturn’s epoch le$t a memory o$ such impact that later generations esteemed the god as the &niversal 'onarch, the $irst and ideal
king, during whose rule occurred the prehistoric leap $rom barbarianism to civili*ation! Throughout Saturn’s era o$ cosmic harmony no seasonal vicissitudes threatened men with hunger or starvation, and men su$$ered neither labour nor war!

In the "creation# Saturn, the primal Seed, eCected the $iery material H"primeval matter#I, which congealed into a circle o$ lesser lights
Hthe (osmosI! The myths describe this resounding birth o$ the secondary gods as Saturn’s "speech#1 Saturn was the Dord or voice o$ heaven!

The ancients conceived Saturn as the visible intelligence bringing $orth the (osmos as his own body and regulating its revolutions! Thus was the planet denominated the -eaven 'an , a being eventually recalled as the
prototype o$ the human race—the $irst ancestor!

Dhen Saturn departed the world, the %olden +ge catastrophically ended! This is the universal tale o$ the dying god, the overthrown "$irst king# or $allen "$irst man!# Dhether betrayed by a dark $orce, or chastised $or having committed the
$orbidden sin, or in$licted with old age and a weariness o$ mankind, the result is the same1 a corruption o$ nature and a progressive worsening o$ the human condition! The story is the $irst—and one could almost say, only# theme o$ tragedy and drama in antiAuity1 Saturn’s %olden +ge came to a sudden and catastrophic end, either caused by or accompanied by the $all o$ the great god!

That the distant planet Saturn should loom at the centre o$ ancient rites is a $act which conventional wisdom will not easily e plain! .ne looks in vain $or any characteristic o$ Saturn, the present-day planet# which might
account $or Saturn, the pri"eval god (ould the present speck o$ light have provoked the ancient memory o$ a creator standing alone in the deepE .r produced the universal legend o$ the $irst king and the lost age o$ abundanceE .r inspired the myth o$ the -eaven 'anE

I$, as is almost universally believed, the heavens have undergone no maCor changes in astronomically recent times, then the myth—however meticulously developed—can only be a $abrication, produced through the purest disregard $or actual observation and e perience! I do not ask the reader to ignore this possibility, and I am $ully aware that to many mythologists myth and $ancy are synonymous! Since the argument o$ this book rests on the coherence o$ the Saturn myth as a whole, and since many details remain to be covered I urge only a willingness to consider the evidence in its entirety! Dhatever the true origins o$ the myth, it constituted $or the ancients a compelling vision—a vision deserving care$ul study by all students o$ history, religion, and mythology!

III. T#$ Pola S!n
Saturn’s mythical history includes two themes which not only contradict the planet’s visible appearance today, but seem to mock the
canons o$ modern astronomy1

6! Saturn, not the solar orb, was the authentic "sun#-god o$ ancient ritual! @! Throughout Saturn’s reign this sun-planet remained $i ed at the north celestial pole! These two themes, a$$irmed by the straight$orward testimony o$ ancient sources, compose a global memory1 in the beginning Saturn did not move on its present remote orbit, but ruled as the central sun around which the other
heavenly bodies visually revolved! .$ this tradition early man has le$t us evidence $ar too numerous to cover $ully in this volume! I o$$er below a summary o$ the principal sources!

S!n And Sat! n
The "yths and rites celebrate Saturn as the pri"eval sun Today, $ew mythologists looking back across several millennia to the beginnings o$ astral religion see anything more than worship o$ the rising and setting sun, the solar orb! This preoccupation with the solar orb is evident in popular surveys1 "The preeminence o$ the Sun, as the $ountainhead o$ li$e and man’s well-being,# writes D! (! .lcott, "must
have rendered it at a date almost contemporaneous with the birth o$ the race, the chie$ obCect o$ man’s worship ! ! ! It was sunrise that inspired the $irst prayers uttered by man, calling him to acts o$ devotion, bidding him raise an altar and kindle sacri$icial $lames!

"0e$ore the Sun’s all-glorious shrine the $irst men knelt and raised their voices in praise and supplication, $ully con$irmed in the belie$
that their prayers were heard and answered!#6@4

/ot without reason do scholars identi$y the %reek -elios, +ssyrian Shamash, or >gyptian <e with the solar orb! (an it be doubted that -elios, radiating light $rom his brow and mounted on a $iery chariot, is our sunE That
helios became the %reek word $or the solar orb is beyond dispute!

In >gypt countless hymns to the god <e e tol him as the divine power opening the "day!#6@: "The lords o$ all lands ! !
! praise <e when he riseth at the beginning o$ each day!# <e is the "great 9ight who shinest in the heavens ! ! ! Thou art glorious by reason o$ thy splendours ! ! !#632 Such imagery would seem to leave no Auestion as to the god’s solar character!

Fet i$ the preceding analysis o$ the great $ather is correct, <e Hor +tumI is not the solar orb but the planet Saturn! The %olden +ge o$ <e was the age o$ +n, Fama, or ?ronos! .ne thus $inds o$ interest an >gyptian ostrakon H$irst century 0!(!I cited by ,ran* 0oll1 the ostrakon identi$ies the planet Saturn as the great god <e!636 Taken alone, this identi$ication could only appear as a very late anomaly divorced $rom any solid tradition! 0ut many scholars notice that among the %reeks and 9atins there prevailed a mysterious con$usion o$ the "sun#
H%reek helios# 9atin solI with the outermost planet! Thus the e pression "star o$ -elios# or "star o$ Sol# was applied to Saturn! 63@ Though the %reek *ronos was the 9atin Saturn# /onnus gives *ronos as the +rab name o$ the "sun!# -yginus, in listing the planets, names $irst Jupiter, then the planet "o$ Sol, others say o$ Saturn!# 633 Dhy was the planet most distant $rom the sun called both "sun# and "Saturn#E

(oncerning the con$usion o$ the sun and Saturn among classical writers, a simple e planation was o$$ered1 the %reek name 1elios so closely resembles the %reek transliteration o$ the =hoenician >l that classical authors con$used the two godsB since >l is the %reek ?ronos—and is so translated by =hilo—?ronosRSaturn came to be con$used with -elios, the sun! 63G Fet, as noted by 0oll, the identi$ication is more widespread than generally acknowledged and is much more than a misunderstanding o$ names!635 The "con$usion# is also $ar older than =hilo, who lived in the $irst century o$ the (hristian era!
In the Epino"is o$ =lato Hwho lived in the $i$th and $ourth centuries 0!(!I, there is an enumeration o$ the planets, which, as customarily translated, entails this unstartling statement1 "There remain, then, three stars HplanetsI, one o$ which is preeminent among them $or slowness, and some call him a$ter ?ronos!# 638 Fet the original reading is not *ronos but 1elios637—which is to say that =lato Hor his pupil =hillip o$ .pus, to whom some ascribe authorship o$ the Epino"isI gave the name -elios to Saturn! 0ut copyists, who could not believe that -elios was anything other than the sun, "corrected# the reading to "?ronos!# 'oreover, writes 0oll, this practice o$ "correcting# the name -elios to ?ronos was not uncommon among later copyists! 634 .riginally, 0oll concludes, -elios and Saturn were "one and the same god!#63:

The eAuation o$ sun and Saturn is very old, with roots in Sumero-0abylonian astronomy! .$ the 0abylonian star-worshippers the chronicler Diodorus writes1 "To the one we call Saturn they give a special name, PSun-Star!’# 6G2
+mong the 0abylonians the "sun#-god par e-cellence was Shamash, the "light o$ the gods,# whom scholars uni$ormly identi$y with

the solar orb! 0ut '! Jastrow, in an article entitled "Sun and Saturn,# reports that in the 0abylonian astronomical te ts the identi$ication o$ Shamash with Saturn is uneAuivocal1 "the planet Saturn is Sha"ash## they boldly declare!6G6

In support o$ this identity Jastrow notes numerous e amples involving "the interchangeable application o$ the term
PSamas’ to either the great orb o$ the day or the planet Saturn!6G@

The apparent eAuivalence o$ Saturn and the "sun# goes back to Sumerian times, as is evident in the dual aspect o$ the creator
god /inurta! 9angdon deems /inurta both the sun and Saturn1 " ! ! ! the sun-god /inurta ! ! ! in the original Sumerian >pic o$ (reation, de$eated the dragon o$ chaos and $ounded cities ! ! ! In Sumero-0abylonian religion he is the Dar-god and planet Saturn!# 6G3

It is not di$$icult to see why /inurta, or /ingirsu, though identi$ied with the planet Saturn in the astronomical te ts, came to be con$used with the solar orb! "/ingirsu, coming $rom >ridu, rose in overwhelming splendour! In the land it became day!#6GG Saturn, as /ingirsu, is "the god who changes darkness into light!# 6G5 The priests o$ 9agash invoke him as "?ing, Storm, whose splendour is heroic!# 6G8 This une pected Auality o$ the planet led Jensen to designate Saturn as a symbol o$ the "eastern sun# or "the sun on the hori*on,# though he o$$ered no e planation $or the proposed connection!6G7 The sunlike aspect o$ Saturn prevails $rom the earliest astronomy through medieval mysticism and astrology!
"Saturn with its rays sends $orth transcendent powers which penetrate into every part o$ the world,# wrote an +rabic astrologer o$ the tenth century! 6G4 Dhen the alchemists, inheritors o$ ancient teachings, spoke o$ Saturn as "the best sun,#6G: it is

unlikely that they themselves knew what to do with the idea! 0ut that the tradition was passed down $rom remote antiAuity is both indisputable and crucial! In claiming that the great $ather Saturn, presiding over the lost epoch, was the primeval "sun,# I do not propose that
our sun was absent—rather, that it simply did not preoccupy the ancients! To avoid con$usion on this point I must indicate here a conclusion $or which I intend to cite additional evidence in a later section!

%ay And "ight
Those scholars who notice the identi$ication o$ the ancient sun and the planet Saturn usually speak o$ Saturn as a mythical "night sun# or "second sun!#652 0ut in truth, Saturn was the sun-god pure and simple, $or the body we call
"sun# today was not a subCect o$ the early rites!

The problem is to discern the original meaning o$ "day# and "night!# 'any hymns to Shamash and <e—the celebrated suns
o$ 'esopotamia and >gypt—describe these gods coming $orth at the beginning o$ the ritual day, and the terminology o$ten appears to signi$y the rising solar orb! .ne o$ the chapters o$ !ook of the .ead# $or e ample, is "The (hapter o$ (oming ,orth by Day!# 656

Does this not re$er to the solar orb rising in the eastE + Auite di$$erent interpretation is possible! (onsiderable evidence suggests that, to the ancients, the day began with what modern man calls "night#—that is, with the setting o$ the solar orb! It is widely acknowledged that the >gyptian day once began at sunset!65@ The same is true o$ the 0abylonian and Destern Semitic days! 653 The +thenians computed the space o$ a day $rom sunset to sunset, and the habit appears to have prevailed among northern >uropean peoples!65G This widespread custom poses a special problem $or solar mythology! I$, originally, the day began with the
disappearance o$ the solar orb and the coming out o$ other heavenly bodies, who is the great god who shines at the beginning o$ this dayE The e plicit answer comes $rom the Sumerian te ts identi$ying Saturn as god o$ the "dawn!# Saturn "came $orth in overwhelming splendour! In the land it became day!# 655 This does not Has Jensen proposedI eAuate Saturn with the "sun Ksolar orbL on the hori*on!# It means that the coming $orth o$ Saturn inaugurated the archaic day, which began at sunset! So long as the solar orb was visible, the $iery globe o$ Saturn remained subdued, unable to compete with the sheer light o$ the $ormer body! 0ut once the solar orb sank beneath the hori*on, Saturn and its circle o$ secondary lights acAuired a terri$ying radiance!

There$ore, in archaic terms, Saturn was the great god o$ the "day,# not the "night sun# as scholars usually propose! 0ut
obviously, the eventual shi$ting o$ the "dawn o$ day# $rom the solar sunset to the solar sunrise could only create a widespread con$usion o$ day and night and morning and evening! .n this distinction among the >gyptians, 0udge writes, "+t a very early period, however, the di$$erence between the Day-sky and the /ight-sky was $orgotten!# 658 &nder normal circumstances would one

likely $orget this distinctionE I$ there is con$usion, it is because radically di$$erent celestial orders separate the present age $rom the $ormer! The pri"eval sun was the solitary god o$ the deep, the one god o$ archaic monotheism, the planet Saturn! .nly in a later age did
Saturn come to be con$used with the solar orb!

There is, in $act, a decisive di$$erence between the primeval god and the body we call the sun today1 unlike the rising and setting solar orb, the original sun-god never "oved

Sat! n And T#$ Pol$
,n ancient ritual Saturn appears as the stationary sun or central fire at the north celestial pole Dhen Saturn ruled the world, his home was the summit o$ the world a is1 with this point all maCor traditions o$ the great $ather agree! >ven today, in our celebration o$ (hristmas, we live under the in$luence o$ the polar Saturn! ,or as 'anly =! -all observes, "Saturn, the old "an who lives at the north pole# and brings with him to the children
o$ten a sprig o$ evergreen Hthe (hristmas treeI, is $amiliar to the little $olks under the name Santa (laus!# 657

Santa (laus, descending yearly $rom his polar home to distribute gi$ts around the world, is a mu$$led echo o$ the &niversal 'onarch, the primordial .siris, Fama, or ?ronos spreading miraculous good $ortune! -is polar abode, which might appear as an esoteric aspect o$ the story, is in $act an ancient and central ingredient! Saturn, the "best sun# and king o$ the world, ruled $rom the polar *enith! 0ut while popular tradition located Santa (laus at the geographical
pole, the earlier traditions place his prototype, the &niversal 'onarch, at the celestial pole, the pivot o$ the revolving heavens!

The home o$ the great $ather is the cosmic centre—the "heart,# "midst,# or "navel# o$ heaven! +s the earth rotates on its
a is the northern stars wheel around a $i ed point! Dhile most stars rise and set like the sun and moon, the circumpolar stars—those which describe uninterrupted circles about a common centre—never $all below the hori*on! The invisible a is o$ the earth’s rotation leads directly to that central point—the celestial pole—around which the heavens visually turn! +ll o$ the ancient world looked upon the polar centre as the "middle place,# "resting place,# or "stead$ast region# occupied by the &niversal 'onarch!

.ne o$ the $irst writers to recogni*e the pole as the special domain o$ the great god was D! ,! Darren, who wrote in Paradise )ound Hpublished in 6445I1 "The religions o$ all ancient nations ! ! ! associate the abode o$ the supreme %od with
the /orth =ole, the centre o$ heavenB or with the celestial space immediately surrounding it! KFetL no writer on comparative theology has ever brought out the $acts which establish this assertion!#

In the $ollowing years a number o$ scholars, each $ocusing on di$$erent bodies o$ evidence, reached the same conclusion! The controversial and erratic %erald 'assey, in two large works H The &atural $enesis and %ncient
EgyptI, claimed that the religion and mythology o$ a polar god was $irst $ormulated by the priest-astronomers o$ ancient >gypt and spread $rom >gypt to the rest o$ the world! In a general survey o$ ancient language, symbolism, and mythology, John .’/eill H The &ight of the $odsI insisted that mankind’s oldest religion centered on a god o$ the celestial pole!

Qelia /uttall, in )unda"ental Principles of 8ld and &ew 'orld +ivilizations# undertook an e tensive review o$ ancient 'e ican
astronomy, concluding that the highest god was polar! ,rom 'e ico she shi$ted to other civili*ations, $inding the same une pected role o$ a polar god!

<ein$orcing the surprising conclusions o$ the above researchers was the subseAuent work o$ others, among them &no -olberg H.er !au" des :ebensI, who documented the preeminence o$ the polar god in the ritual o$ +ltaic and
neighbouring peoples, suggesting ancient origins in -indu and 'esopotamian cosmologiesB 654 9eopold de Saussure H:es 8rigines de l0%strono"ie +hinoiseI, who showed that primitive (hinese religion and astronomy honour the celestial pole as the home o$ the supreme godB <ene %uenon H:e Roi du Monde and :e Sy"bolis"e de la +roi- I, who sought to outline a universal doctrine centering on the polar gods and principles o$ ancient man!

That these and other researchers, each starting down a di$$erent path, arrived at much the same conclusion concerning a supreme polar god o$ antiAuity should have been su$$icient to provoke a reappraisal o$ longstanding assumptions! Is it possible that, as these writers claimed, the ancient star-worshippers paid greater heed to a god o$ the pole than to the solar orbE <ather than respond to the Auestion, solar mythologists diplomatically ignored it, thereby assigning the above investigators to an undeserved obscurity! I want to reopen the Auestion, but to approach it $rom a di$$erent perspective! 'ost o$ the a$orementioned writers possessed a common—i$ unspoken—$aith in the ceaseless regularity o$ the solar system, seeking to e plain the polar god in strictly $amiliar terms1 the centre o$ our revolving heavens is the celestial poleB the great god o$ the centre and summit must have been the star closest to this cosmic pivot! 0ut as observed in the previous pages, the great $ather was not a mere "star#B he was the planet Saturn, recalled as the
preeminent light o$ the heavens! 'oreover, the Saturn myth states that the planet-god resided at the celestial pole;65:

In the myth and astronomy o$ many lands Saturn ’s connection with the pole is direct and uneAuivocal! (hinese astronomers designated the celestial pole as "the =ivot,# identi$ying the "%enie o$ the =ivot# as the planet Saturn! 682 Saturn was believed to have his seat at the pole, reports %! Schlegel! 686 This strange and une plained image o$ Saturn caught the attention o$ de Saussure Hone o$ the $oremost e perts on (hinese astronomyI, who added an additional startling $act1 the Iranian *evan# the planet Saturn, also occupies the polar centre!68@

0ut the theme is older than (hinese or Iranian tradition, $or it $inds its $irst e pression in the Sumero0abylonian +n H+nuI, the highest god, acknowledged as the planet Saturn! >ach evening, at >rech, the priests looked to the celestial pole, beginning their prayer with the words, ". star o$ +nu, prince o$ the heavens!#683 Saturn ruled $rom the summit o$ the world a is! 68G I must note, however, that I am not the $irst to observe this general principle! + recent volume by %iorgio de Santillana and -ertha von Dechend, entitled 1a"let0s Mill#
o$$ers the revolutionary conclusion that according to an ancient doctrine Saturn occupied the celestial pole!

0ut the authors, maintaining an unAuali$ied attachment to the uni$ormitarian premise, e clude in advance any e traordinary changes in the solar system! Instead they speak o$ Saturn ’s polar station as a "$igure o$ speech# or astral
allegory whose meaning remains to be penetrated!

"Dhat,# they ask, "has Saturn, the $ar-out planet, to do with the =oleE ! ! ! It is not in the line o$ modern astronomy to establish any
link connecting the planets with =olaris, or with any star, indeed, out o$ reach o$ the members o$ the *odiacal system! Fet such $igures o$ speech were an essential part o$ the technical idiom o$ archaic astrology, and those e perts in ancient cultures who could not understand such idioms have remained helpless in the $ace o$ the theory!# 685

I$ one could $ind, in the present order o$ the heavens, a possible inspiration $or the widespread tradition o$ Saturn’s polar station, then the historians and mythologists, operating on uni$ormitarian principles, would have something concrete
to work with! 0ut the primordial age, as de$ined by universal accounts, stands in radical contrast to our own era! .ne can no more e plain Saturn’s ancient connection with the pole by re$erence to the present arrangements o$ the planets than one can e plain, within the uni$ormitarian $ramework, Saturn’s image as the &niversal 'onarch, the -eaven 'an, or the primeval sun! Fet the $act remains that throughout the ancient world these images o$ Saturn constituted a pervasive memory which many centuries o$ cultural evolution could not obliterate!

The Unmoved &over
In the si th century 0!(! Senophanes o$ (olophon o$$ered this de$inition o$ the true god1 "There is one %od,
greatest among gods and men, neither in shape nor in thought like unto mortals ! ! ! 1e abides ever in the sa"e place "otionless# and it befits hi" not to wander hither and thither #688

+ remarkable parallel occurs in the -indu &panishads1 There is only one 0eing who e ists, &nmoved yet moving swi$ter than the mindB Dho $ar outstrips the senses, though as gods They strive to reach him, who, himsel$ at rest, Transcends the $leetest $light o$ other beings! Dho, like the air, supports all vital action! 1e "oves# yet "oves not 687 To the supreme power in heaven +ristotle gave the name "&nmoved 'over,# a term which e pressed succinctly the parado ical
character o$ the god .ne1 though turning the heavens, he himsel$ remained motionless! +ccording to the general tradition, the god stood at the stationary cosmic centre, imparting movement to the celestial bodies which revolved about him!

+ $act which conventional interpretation cannot e plain is that the very terms which ancient astronomers apply to the celestial pole are applied also to Saturn! (onsider the image o$ the pole1 I am constant as the northern star, .$ whose true-fi-0d and resting Auality! There is no $ellow in the $irmament! So declared Shakespeare’s (aesar! 'any centuries be$ore Shakespeare, -ipparchus spoke o$ "a certain star remaining ever at the same place! +nd this star is the pivot o$ the (osmos!# +mong the (hinese, the pole star is the "star o$ the =ivot,# 684 to the =olynesians it is the "Immovable .ne!#68: The =awnee call it "the star that stands still#B this star, they say, "is di$$erent $rom other stars, because it never moves!#672 To the -indus, the star is .hruva# "$irm!#676 (onsider now the image o$ the planet Saturn! In (hina, as noted above, Saturn rules "the =ivot!# The Sumero0abylonian /inurta—Saturn—is the god o$ the "steady star# and o$ "repose!# 67@ >nki, also the planet Saturn, is "the motionless lord!#673 'ithraic teaching portrays the planet as the cosmic man +ion, the "resting# god!67G In Sanchuniathon’s
description o$ the =hoenician >l HSaturnI the god "$lew while at rest and rested in $light!# To this description, .’/eill responds1 "Just the symbolism o$ the =olar =ower whirling the heavens round, but ever reposing himsel$ at the motionless centre!# 675

Saturn’s stationary character is the trait most overlooked by conventional mythologists! The reason is that the mythologists e pect
the image o$ the primeval light god to $it the rising and setting solar orb, while in $act ancient ritual and myth portray the god as a central sun at the polar *enith!

To the modern mind nothing could be less "scienti$ic# than a polar sun! Fet the unmoving sun is the ancient tradition, as
noted by >! +! S! 0utterworth1 "KThe primeval sunL is not the natural sun o$ heaven, $or it neither rises nor sets, but is, as it seems, ever at the *enith above the navel o$ the world! There are signs of an a"biguity between the pole star and the sun #678

I$ 0utterworth is correct we have a convergence o$ three vital truths1 Saturn was the primeval sunB Saturn occupied the celestial poleB the primeval sun occupied the pole! >ach o$ these points contradicts modern understanding, yet each $inds veri$ication in the independent research o$ specialists, none o$ whom seem to have been aware o$ the work o$ the others! HThat is, de Santillana and von Dechend, while documenting Saturn’s connection with the pole, seem unaware o$ the planet’s identity as sunB Jastrow and 0oll, though perceiving the eAuation o$
Saturn and sun, ignore Saturn’s polar stationB 0utterworth, though recogni*ing the polar sun, $ails to notice that he is dealing with the planet Saturn!I

.n the tradition o$ the polar god or polar sun numerous traditions concur!

I$ there is an orthodo y among >gyptologists, it is the belie$ that the >gyptian great god has his inspiration in the rising and setting sun! +tum, <e, .siris, -orus, ?hepera, and virtually all the great gods o$ the >gyptians are e plained as
symbols o$ the solar orb—either the sun o$ day, or the sun "during its night Courney!#

0ecause the >gyptian concept o$ the "sun# involves many comple ities which might distract $rom the present general inAuiry,
I shall reserve many details $or treatment in later sections! I cite below, however, a $ew o$ the evidences indicating the polar station o$ the >gyptian supreme god!

6! .$ the >gyptian great $ather there is no better representative than the mighty +tum, whom >gyptologists usually regard as a sun-god shining at night! -e is the acknowledged alter ego o$ the primeval sun <e, $ounder o$ the lost %olden +ge! The +offin Te-ts say1 The %reat %od lives, $i ed in the middle o$ the sky upon his support!677 The re$erence is to +tum, whom the eminent >gyptologist <! T! <undle (lark calls "the arbiter o$ destiny perched on
the top o$ the world pole!#674

The creation legend states that when +tum came $orth alone in the beginning, he stood "otionless in the cosmic sea!67: -is epithet was "the ,irm -eart o$ the Sky!# 642 To the >gyptians, states >nel, "+tum was the chie$ or centre o$ the
movement o$ the universe# at the celestial pole, $or the >gyptians knew the pole as the "midst# or "heart# o$ heaven—"the single, immovable point around which the movement o$ the stars occurred!# 646

(lark tells us that "the celestial pole is Pthat place’ or Pthe great city!’ The various designations show how deeply it impressed the
>gyptian imagination! I$ god is the governor o$ the universe and it revolves around an a is, then god must preside over the a is!# 64@

(lark is so certain o$ the great god’s polar station that he writes, "/o other people was so deeply a$$ected by the eternal circuit o$ the stars around a point in the northern sky! -ere must be the node o$ the universe, the centre o$ regulation!# 643 H+s we will see, (lark underestimates the in$luence o$ the polar centre in other lands!I +tum was the "&nmoved 'over# described in >gyptian te ts many centuries be$ore +ristotle o$$ered the phrase as a de$inition o$ the supreme power! The >gyptian hieroglyph $or +tum is a primitive sledge , signi$ying "to move!# To the god o$ the
cosmic revolutions, the !ook of the .ead proclaims "-ail to thee, Tmu K+tumL 9ord o$ -eaven, who givest motion to all things!# 64G 0ut while moving the heavens +tum remained e" hetep# "at rest# or "in one spot!#

@! 'oreover, and contrary to nearly universal opinion, the great god <e has little in common with the solar orb! &nlike our ever-moving sun, <e stands at the stationary "midst# or "heart# o$ heaven!645 -e is the motionless sun
"who resteth on his high place!#648

-is home is the polar *enith1

! ! ! 'ay your $ace be in the north o$ the sky, may <e summon you $rom the *enith o$ the sky! 647 'y $ather ascends to the sky among the gods who are in the skyB he stands in the %reat =olar <egion and learns the speech o$ the sun $olk! <e ! ! ! sets his hand on you at the *enith o$ the sky!644 (oncerning the enigmatic symbolism o$ the >gyptian sun-god, ?ristensen tells us that "the place where the light sets is also called the place where it rises!# 64: In re$erence to the solar orb the statement appears meaningless! 0ut the notion that <e rises and sets in one spot is inseparable $rom the vision o$ <e as the lord o$ hetep# "rest!# In $act the
god does not literally "rise# or "set# at all! Dith the phases o$ day and night his light "comes $orth# and "recedes#B the god "comes out# and "goes in!# Dhen we say today that the moon "comes out# at night we do not mean that it rises in the eastB we mean simply that the moon grows bright =recisely the same meaning attaches to the >gyptian words which so o$ten receive the translation "rise# Huben, pert, unI!6:2

Thus, rather than a moving sun, <e is the central pivot round which the lesser gods revolve! "They Kthe companions o$ <eL go round about behind him,# 6:6 states one te t! The deceased king aspires to attain the great god ’s position so that
"these gods shall revolve round about him!#6:@

.. T#$ $(tin- O(i i(. 3! The god-king .siris, an obvious counterpart o$ the primeval sun <e, is the god o$ the tet# "$irmness# or "stability!#
"-e is always a passive $igure,# notes 0udge! "+s a cosmic god he appears as a "otionless director or observer o$ the actions o$ his servants who $ul$il his will!#6:3 In this he is the prototype o$ the terrestrial king, who takes up symbolic residence at

the cosmic centre! Thus is .siris the stationary heart o$ heaven1 "0eauti$ul is the god o$ the motionless heart,# proclaims the !ook of the .ead 6:G The hymns e tol .siris as the lord o$ hetep# "rest,# or as "the resting heart!# .ne >gyptologist a$ter another seeks to
understand the imagery in terms o$ a night sun "resting# in an imagined underworld! 0ut numerous >gyptian sources show that the place o$ rest is the motionless centre and summit! .siris is "e alted upon his resting place,# 6:5 or "in the heights!#6:8

The hieroglyphs portray a column o$ steps leading to the polar *enithB it is here that the hymns locate .siris1 "-ail, . .siris, thou hast received thy sceptre and the place whereon thou art to rest, and the steps are under thee!# 6:7 The deceased beseeches the great god1 " ! ! ! 'ay I be established upon my resting place like the 9ord o$ 9i$e!#6:4 It is also $utile to interpret .siris’ "rest# or "motionless heart# as mere symbols o$ death! The state o$ rest, one must remember, belongs to the living or resurrected .siris, $or the te ts apply the term hetep# "rest,# to .siris e" ankh# "as a living being!#6:: It should be clear to all who consider the language o$ the hymns that the unmoving heart means the unmoving god, $or the heart is the god Has when the te ts describe the heart "upon its seat#I! @22 .siris, the motionless heart, is the central, stationary sun1 ". still heart, Thou shinest $or Thysel$, . still heart!#@26 G! The stationary sun, the sun at the polar *enith, also occurs under many other names in >gyptian religion, including1 - -orus, the "$irm and stable# god who "takes his place at the *enith o$ the sky!# @2@ - =tah, "in the great resting place!# - Iemhetep, whose name means "the one who comes $orth while standing in one place!#@23 - Sepa, whose name means "stable!#@2G

- 'en, whose name means "$i ed,# "abiding,# "stable,# "$irm!#@25 - Tenen, connected with the root enen, meaning "motionless,# "rest,# "inactivity!#@28 - ?heprer, the Turning .ne, who spins around while occupying the same stationary position!@27 Thus, in the hieroglyphs, all o$ the >gyptian great gods appear as fir"ly seated $igures! This immovable posture which corresponds to divine imagery in many other lands is no accident! The seated or resting god is the &nmoved 'over!

/. K#$2 $ + t#$ T! nin- On$.

0. T#$ 'i )l, ($at$d 3 $(tin-4 -od. 5! That the >gyptians conceived the cosmic centre as the source o$ celestial motions is clear $rom the terminology o$ the centre! The "heart# o$ heaven is ab H
"centre# or "midst!# 0ut as noted by <enou$, ab H

I, a word which has the concrete meaning o$ I also conveys "the sense o$ lively motion!#@24 In the latter

usage, the determinative appears to depict a human $igure turning around while standing on one $oot, i!e!, in one place, at rest! Denoted by the word ab is the resting but ever-turning heart o$ heaven! Similarly, while the term men means "$i ed# or "abiding,# in re$erence to the god o$ the stable centre and summit, mennen means "to go round!# @2: To the great god, as the stead$ast centre or $oundation stone o$ the (osmos, the >gyptians gave the name 0enben Hsee discussion o$ "The ,oundation Stone#I! 0ut ben alone "is a verb o$ motion, and particularly o$ Pgoing around’" This
dual, seemingly parado ical relationship o$ motion and rest occurs throughout the >gyptian te ts and becomes intelligible only when one recogni*es the central sun, the &nmoved 'over, as the source o$ the imagery!

"I am the -eir, the primary power o$ motion and o$ rest,# reads the !ook of the .ead Though the words have a modern sound, <enou$ assures us that they e press the literal sense o$ the
hieroglyph te t! It is in the root character o$ every polar god to "move# while at "rest!# @62

8! Inseparable $rom the >gyptian motion o$ "rest# is the concept o$ "silence!# The motionless centre o$ the heavens is the Still
=lace or <egion o$ Silence! H.ur >nglish word still accurately conveys the close relationship between the concepts un"oving and silent I

KThe great god isL ?ing o$ the Tuat ! ! ! /oble 0ody whose rest is complete in the <egion o$ Silence!@66 ?ing / is he who rests in the Silent <egion!@6@ 0ut those e perts who connect the solar orb with the great god have nothing to say concerning such language! The god who stands at rest in the Silent <egion is <e, the sun-god par e-cellence6 yet the entire concept contradicts the
image o$ our wandering sun!

7! Dhat o$ten prevents generalists $rom perceiving the stationary character o$ the primeval sun is the translator’s un$ortunate habit o$ substituting vague and intangible terms $or literal meanings! 0udge $ollows a common practice when he renders a hymn to <e in these words1 "-omage to thee, . thou who art in peace!# @63 ,rom such terminology one could hardly be e pected to $ormulate a clear concept o$ the god! 0ut the phrase "in peace# actually conceals a vital
meaning, $or the >gyptian original is e" hetep 9iterally, the hymn celebrates the god who shines "at rest# or "while standing in one place!# HIn seeking to interpret >gyptian sources I have $ound that speci$ic, literal, and concrete meanings o$ the original te ts are uni$ormly pre$erable to the more general and abstract language so o$ten chosen by translators! .$ this truth, the reader will $ind many e amples in the $ollowing sections!I

9ike the central sun o$ >gypt, the primeval light god o$ Sumero-0abylonian religion "comes $orth# HshinesI and
"goes in# Hdeclines, diminishesI at the "centre# or "midst# o$ heaven H *irib sa"i6 *abal sa"iI, which is also the *enith HilatuI! "In the centre he made the *enith,# states one te t! @6G <esiding at the centre and summit, the great god is the "$irm# or "stead$ast# light!@65

The oldest representative o$ this stationary sun is the polar god +n H+nuI! @68 +n $ills the sky with his radiant— even terri$ying—light1 "the terror o$ the splendour o$ +nu in the midst o$ heaven!# @67 Thus does <obert 0rown, Jr!, term the polar god a nocturnal sun# the "9ord o$ the /ight!#@64 +ll principal $orms o$ +n appear as stationary gods! >nki is "the motionless lord# and the god o$ "stability!# @6: + broken Sumerian hymn, in re$erence to /inurash Ha $orm o$ /inurtaI reads1 Dhom the "god o$ the steady star# upon a $oundation! To ! ! ! cause to repose in years o$ plenty! @@2 ,ailing to perceive the concrete meaning o$ such terms, solar mythologists like to think o$ a place o$ "repose# as a
hidden "underworld# beneath the earth, a dark region visited by the sun a$ter it has set! 0ut the place o$ repose is no underworld! It is1

The lo$ty residence ! ! ! The lo$ty place ! ! ! The place o$ lo$ty repose ! ! !@@6 /inurta, in his "place o$ lo$ty repose## is the precise eAuivalent o$ the >gyptian <e, who " resteth on his high place!# That both
gods are identi$ied with the planet Saturn $urther con$irms the striking parallel! Dhat, then, o$ the great god Shamash, whom one e pert a$ter another identi$ies with the solar orb aloneE The prevailing consensus cannot hide the $act that Shamash, like /inurta and +nu, is addressed as the planet Saturn H"Shamash is Saturn,# say the astronomical te tsI! Thus Shamash sends $orth his light $rom the immovable centre or "midst# o$ heaven1

9ike the "idst o$ heaven may he shineM@@@ . Shamash ! ! ! suspended $rom the "idst o$ heaven!@@3 . Sun-god, in the "idst o$ heaven ! ! !@@G I have cried to thee, . Sun-god, in the "idst o$ the glittering heaven!@@5

9et there be no misunderstanding as to the literal and concrete meaning o$ the "midst!# It is, states <obert 0rown, the stationary centre, "that central point where =olaris sat enthroned! @@8 +ccordingly, in the symbolism o$ the *iggurat and other "sun# temples, Shamash occupies the " su""it house,# the "fi-ed house,# or the "house o$ rest!# @@7 The top o$ the *iggurat, a symbolic model o$ the (osmos, is the "light o$ Shamash,# and the "heart o$ Shamash,# denoting Hin the words o$ >! %!
?ingI the pivot "around which the highest heaven or sphere o$ the $i ed stars revolved!# @@4

The 0abylonian tradition o$ the polar sun has been preserved up to the modern era in the tradition o$ the 'andaeans o$
IraA! In their midnight ceremonies these people invoke the celestial pole as 8l"a ,0nhoara# "the world o$ light!# Dith the $ollowing words they beseech the polar god1 "In the name o$ the living one, blessed be the primitive light, the Divinity sel$-created!# This polar god, states one observer, is the 2pri"itive sun o$ the star-worshippers!#@@:

The -indu Dhruva, whose name means "$irm,# stands at the celestial pole—"a Spot bla*ing with splendour to which the
ground is $irm, where is $i ed the circus o$ the celestial lights o$ the planets, which turn all around like o en round the stake, and which Kthe SpotL subsists motionless!# @32 Dhat remains to be e plained by mythologists is that the "obviously solar# god Surya "stands fir"ly on this sa$e resting place #@36 Surya, states V! S! +grawala, "is himsel$ at rest, being the immovable centre o$ his system!#@3@ +nd Cust as the >gyptian primeval sun "rises and sets# in one place, Surya occupies samanam dhama—"the same place o$ rising and setting!#@33

+nother name $or the stationary sun is =raCapati! "The sun in the centre is =raCapati1 he is the horse that imparts movement
to everything,# writes +grawala!@3G

1. R$(tin- B a#)a

5. R$(tin- B!dd#a The motionless Dhruva, Surya, and =raCapati compare with the light o$ 0rahma, called the "true sun,# which, "a$ter having risen thence upwards ! ! ! rises and sets no more! It remains alone in the centre!# @35 0rahma, observes %uenon, is "the
pivot around which the world accomplishes its revolution, the immutable centre which directs and regulates cosmic movement!# @38

In $act, every -indu $igure o$ the primeval sun appears as the $i ed mover o$ the heavens! The -indu Varuna,
"seated in the "idst o$ heaven,# is the <ecumbent,# the "a is o$ the universe!# @37 ")ir" is the seat o$ Varuna,# declares one o$ the Vedic hymns!@34 In him "all wisdom centres, as the nave is set within the wheel!# @3: .ne o$ Varuna’s $orms is Savitar, the "impeller!# Dhile the rest o$ the universe revolves, the impeller stands $irm! " ! ! ! ,irm shalt thou stand, like Savitar desirable!# @G2

.ccupying the same resting place is the supreme god Vishnu "who takes a fir" stand in that resting place in the sky!# @G6 The location is the celestial pole, called "the e alted seat o$ Vishnu, round which the starry spheres $orever wander!# @G@ Vishnu is the polar sun or central $ire1 "$iery indeed is the name o$ this steadfast god,# states one Vedic te t!@G3 + $ascinating and archaic $orm o$ the -indu great god is +Ca >kapad, originally conceived as a one-legged goat, the support and mover o$ the universe! .bserves +grawala1 "The Auestion arises as to the meaning o$ ekapad It K+CaL is called ekapad or one-$ooted $or the reason that ekapad or one-$ooted denotes the absence o$ motion!#@GG +grawala calls this supreme being or principle that o$ "+bsolute Static <est!#@G5 "The principle o$ <est,# writes the same author, "is
ine haustible and the source o$ all motion!#@G8

The sacred ground occupied by the -indu great god is the "middle place,# "the stead$ast region,# or "the motionless heaven!#@G7 In the 0rahmanist tradition it is &irvana# "the Supreme <esting =lace# at the centre and summit! To the 0uddhists this is the nave o$ the cosmic wheel, the throne o$ the 0uddha himsel$! It is acalatthana# the "unmoving site,# or the "unconAuerable seat o$ fir" seance #@G4 The 0uddha throne crowned the world a is, states (oomaraswamy!

The ancient >mperor on -igh, according to a universal (hinese tradition, stood at the celestial pole! (hinese astrologers, according to Schlegel, regard the polar god as "the +rch-=remier ! ! ! The most venerated o$ all the celestial
divinities! In $act the =ole star, around which the entire $irmament appears to turn, should be considered as the Sovereign o$ the Sky!#@G: The supreme polar god was Shang-ti, the $irst king! -is seat was "the =ivot# and all the heavens turned upon his e clusive power!

<aised to a $irst principle, the polar god became the mystic Tao# the motor o$ the (osmos! The essential idea is contained
in the very (hinese word $or Tao, which combines the sign $or "to stand still# with the sign "to go# and "head!# The Tao is the &nmoved 'over, the god .ne who goes or "moves# while yet remaining in one place!

(hinese sources proclaim the Tao to be the "light o$ heaven# and "the heart o$ heaven#@52 that is, the central sun! +ction is reversed into non-action,# states Jung! >verything peripheral is subordinated to the command o$ the centre!# @56 Thus the Tao rules the "golden centre,# which is the "+ is o$ the Dorld,# according to >rwin =ousselle!@5@ Fet while many writers have observed the polar station o$ the (hinese supreme power, $ew indeed have noticed that (hinese astronomers identi$y this central sun as the planet Saturn! Saturn, according to the astronomical te ts, is "the =ivot,# his primeval seat the celestial pole! It is Saturn, states Schlegel, who imparts motion to the universe! @53 .ne o$ the $ew writers to notice Saturn ’s connection with the pole is de Saussure, who tells us that (hinese astronomy places
the planet in the (entre, around which all secondary elements and powers revolve1 " ! ! ! the (entre represents the (reator, <egulator o$ the entire (osmos, the =ole, seat Hor throneI o$ the supreme Divinity!# @5G Saturn, states de Saussure, "is the planet o$ the centre, corresponding to the emperor on earth, thus to the polar star o$ -eaven!#@55

The Ameri'as
In southern =eru the Inca FupanAui raised a temple at (u*co to the creator god, the authentic sun, who was superior to the sun we know! &nlike the solar orb he was able to "rest# and "to light the world $rom one spot!# "It is an
e tremely important and signi$icant $act,# writes /uttall, "that the principal doorway o$ this temple opened to the north!# HSince the north celestial pole is not visible $rom (u*co, 6G-deg below the eAuator, /uttall assumes that this tradition o$ a polar sun was carried southward!I@58

In 'e ico a $orm o$ the central light is Te*catlipoca, who, though said to "personi$y the Sun,# yet resides at the pole—
as does Ouet*alcoatl, the "sun,# $irst king, and $ounder o$ civili*ation, who /ahuatl priests say inaugurated the era o$ "the (entre!# @57

6. R$(tin- 7i!#t$"!#tli 0urland tells us that, among the 'e icans, "the nearest approach to the idea o$ a true universal god was Siuhtecuhtli,#
recalled as the .ld, .ld .ne who enabled the $irst ancestors to rise $rom barbarism! Siuhtecuhtli appears as the +entral )ire and "the heart o$ the &niverse!# "Siuhtecuhtli was a very special deity! @54 -e was not only the 9ord o$ ,ire which burnt in $ront o$ every temple and in the middle o$ every hut in 'e ico, but also :ord of the Pole Star -e was the pivot o$ the universe and one o$ the $orms o$ the Supreme Deity!# +n obvious counterpart o$ this central sun is the 'ayan creator god -uracan, the " 1eart o$ -eaven# at the celestial pole!

The =awnee locate the "star chie$ o$ the skies# at the pole! -e is the "star that stands still!# .$ this supreme power they say, "its
light is the radiance o$ the Sun %od shining through!#@5:

The +merican Indians also have a counterpart to the >gyptian Still =lace and the -indu 'otionless -eaven! + Quni account relates that long ago the heart o$ the great $ather ?ian’astepe rested in a sacred spot called the Middle Place -ere, at the cosmic centre, the holy ancestors "sit per$ectly still!# @82 It does not take a great deal o$ imagination to see that this is, once more, the stationary pivot o$ the heavens! ,rom one land to another one encounters the same connection o$ the great $ather or primeval sun with the celestial pole! To the traditions cited above, one might add the $ollowing1 In the =ersian 9end %vesta the sun god 'ithra occupies the summit o$ the world a is, a $i ed station "around which the many stars revolve!#@86 The common identi$ication o$ 'ithra with the Qoroastrian QurvanRSaturn cannot be ignored! Iranian cosmology, as reported by de Saussure, esteemed the celestial pole as the centre and summit o$ heaven, where resided "the %reat .ne in the middle o$ the sky!# who is eAuated with *evan# the planet Saturn!@8@ Throughout the ancient /ear >ast, states -! =! 9’.range, the "?ing o$ the &niverse# appears as a central sun, "the + is and the =ole o$ the

The %reek sun-god -elios, in an old tradition, resides at the centre o$ the (osmos, with the heavenly bodies revolving around him!@8G &pon evaluating the imagery o$ -elios in -omer ’s 8dyssey# 0utterworth concludes that the mythical sun remained always at the *enith, the celestial pole! @85 Dhat gives meaning to the tradition is the identity o$ -elios and the planet Saturn, as earlier documented! "+ccording to Jewish and 'uslim (osmology,# writes +! J! Densinck, "the divine throne is e actly above the seventh heaven, conseAuently it is the pole o$ the &niverse!# @88 Thus Isaiah locates the throne o$ >l Horiginally the planet SaturnI in the $arthest reaches o$ the north!@87 The alchemists regarded the pole as the dwelling place o$ "the central $ire,# the motor o$ the heavens! " ! ! ! The whole machinery o$ the world is drawn by the in$ernal $ire at the /orth =ole,# notes Jung! @84 +n alchemical te t proclaims1 "+t the
=ole is the heart o$ 'ercurius, which is the resting place o$ his 9ord!#@8: "'ost important o$ all $or an interpretation o$ 'ercurius,# Jung writes, "is his relation to Saturn! 'ercurius sene- Kthe aged 'ercuriusL is identical with Saturn!#@72

<ecords o$ numerous nations around the world stand as a collective witness to a strange, yet consistent idea— an idea which $inds no e planation in the heavens we know! %lobal myths insist that when the $irst civili*ations rose $rom barbarism a brilliant light occupied the celestial pole! This stead$ast light was the ancient sun-god, repeatedly identi$ied as the planet Saturn, the &niversal 'onarch!

Is it possible to reckon with this e traordinary memory in terms acceptable to the modern ageE 'ythologists and historians o$ religion always assume that archaic astral traditions, though $illed with imaginative e planations, nevertheless re$er to the very celestial order which con$ronts us today! The entire Saturn myth challenges this long-standing assumption! (ould it be that Saturn’s image as the polar sun—however strange, however
di$$icult to reconcile with present physical theory—represents true historyE

I8. Sat! n9( Co()o(
The ancients preserved more than mythical-historical accounts o$ Saturn ’s rule! ,rom one section o$ the world to
another the planet-god’s worshippers drew pictures o$ the Saturnian con$iguration, and these pictures become the universal signs and symbols o$ antiAuity!

In the global le icon o$ symbols the three most common images are the enclosed sun

, the sun-cross


and the enclosed sun-cross ! It appears that every ancient race revered these signs as images o$ the preeminent cosmic power! In 'esopotamia and >gypt the signs occur in the earliest period! =rehistoric pottery and rock carvings $rom (rete, (hina, Scandinavia, +$rica, <ussia, =olynesia, and the +mericas suggest that numerous ancient rites centered on these simple $orms —which became the most venerated
images in the $irst hieroglyphic alphabets!

0ut what did these signs signi$y to the ancientsE Dith scarcely a dissenting voice, scholars routinely tag them as solar symbols! They tell us that such renderings o$ the sun are per$ectly natural Hthat is, they "ust be "natural#
ways o$ representing the sun because one sees the signs everywhereMI

Though everyone seems to agree on the solar origins,@76 many disagree as to what the signs depict! In the image, does the outer band represent a parhelion Hatmospherically caused halo around the sunIE .r does it stand $or "the
circle o$ the sky#E Some commentators suggest that the outer circle is itsel$ the sun, leaving open the Auestion o$ the meaning o$ the enclosed dot!@7@

Similarly, in evaluating the sign , the e perts cannot agree whether the $our arms o$ the cross denote rays o$ the sun or $our Auarters o$ the world! It is also said that the $our arms depict spokes o$ an imagined sun wheel rolling across the sky each day! Is it necessary to point out that these di$$erences o$ opinion immediately throw into Auestion the common claim that the signs are natural solar emblemsE So long as the meaning is uncertain one can hardly state that a symbol is a natural
e pression o$ anything! Fet surely those e perts who debate the signi$icance o$ the "sun# symbols must wonder why the ancients, with one accord# inscribed the same images the world over!

(onsider the relatively comple sign ! The basic $orm occurs along with many variants on every continent! Dhatever it may signi$y, it is more than a simple drawing o$ the sun! I$ it is a solar image, then one must assume not only that the sun worshippers around the world instinctively adopted the sun to a more complicated abstract $orm, but that every ancient sun-cult drew upon the same abstraction! DhyE The enclosed sun-cross is not an abstraction! It simply records what the ancients originally saw It is a literal

drawing o$ the polar sun# passed down $rom earliest antiAuity1 the image o$ Saturn, the &niversal 'onarch!

<arely do archaeologists, seeking to interpret the widespread "sun# symbols, consult ancient mythology! Fet the myths
e plain the symbols, and the symbols illuminate the myths! 9argely overlooked by archaeologists are the hundreds upon hundreds o$ myths and liturgies $ocusing on the cosmic images , , and ! +ncient sources reveal a world-wide concern with a concrete celestial $orm—an ideal con$iguration identi$ied as the great god and his heavenly dwelling! The subCect is not the present world order, but the $ormer! The symbols, legends, and sacred hymns attempt to preserve a memory o$ Saturn and the primeval (osmos!

T#$ En"lo($d S!n
'hen Saturn appeared alone in the cos"ic waters# a brilliant band congealed around the god as his celestial 2island 3 This band was the original +os"os# often portrayed as a revolving egg# a coil of rope# a belt or a shield enclosing the central sun The sacred hymns and creation legends o$ ancient >gypt say that when the creator arose $rom the cosmic sea, a vast circle appeared around the god, $orming the original =lace—"the place o$ the primeval time,# or "the =rovince o$ the


This primeval dwelling was the "island o$ 1etep K<estL,#@7G a stead$ast, revolving enclosure! >gyptian te ts o$ all periods o$$er vivid images o$ this enclosure on the waters —called "the golden =ai-land,# the "Island o$ ,ire,#
"the divine emerging primeval island,# or "the island emerging in /un Kthe cosmic watersL!# @75

Diverse sources agree that the island o$ creation stood at the cosmic centre and that it was the residence o$ the creator himsel$, the central sun! Thus, while .siris is the "motionless heart# in the Island o$ ,ire, +tum, the stationary
-eart o$ -eaven, is "the Sole .ne who is alone ! ! ! , who made his heart in the Island o$ ,ire!# @78

In the $ollowing pages I shall attempt to show that >gyptian sources depict the band as so"ething seen<the god’s
visible dwelling in heaven! Indeed, the Egyptians<and all other ancient races<were so preoccupied with the Saturnian band that they elaborated a vast sy"bolis" presenting the sa"e enclosure under wide-ranging "ythical for"s

Fet standard treatments o$ ancient myth and religion say little or nothing o$ the enclosure! +nd even less do writers on the subCect seem aware that the pictograph o$ the enclosure sun Saturn and his legendary home! is a straight$orward portrait o$

It is not $or want o$ evidence that the e perts have missed this connection! The only obstacle is the a priori world
view o$ the researchers themselves—who presuppose that all re$erences to the primordial light god can only signi$y the solar orb! In connection with our sun today, the ancient language o$ the enclosure will appear esoteric or meaningless!

.$ <e, the +offin Te-ts say, "De honour him in the sacred enclosure!# @77 <e is the "sender $orth o$ light into his (ircle!# @74 "I am the .ne who is in his (ircle,# he announces! @7: Dhat could this terminology signi$y in relationship to the solar orbE Since our sun possesses no perceptible relationship to an enclosure or circle, the translators will likely ignore the terms or contrive a complicated metaphysical concept to e plain them! Though the >gyptian hieroglyph $or <e is , and though this sign, taken literally, immediately illuminates the $oregoing re$erences, no one seems inclined to take the signor the te ts—literally! To the enclosure round the sun the >gyptians gave the name +ten, a term $amiliar to every student o$ >gyptian religion! "Spacious is your seat within the %ten## reads the +offin Te-ts @42 .ne o$ <e’s titles is a" aten-f# the dweller in his %ten #
0oth +tum and -orus possess the same title! Similarly, the !ook of the .ead invokes .siris1 ". great god who livest in thy divine %ten #@46

Since the >gyptian pictograph o$ the %ten is circular enclosure housing the sun-god!


, it should be clear that the term re$ers to a

0ut $rom the beginning >gyptologists have attempted to e plain the %ten as the sun itsel$, translating the word as "the
solar disk!# <ather than clari$y the >gyptian concept, such a translation only con$uses the sun-god with his celestial dwelling! .ne >gyptologist, $or e ample, states that the %ten was the sun, and that the sun was conceived as "the window in heaven through which the unknown god, P9ord o$ the Disk,’ shed a portion o$ his radiance upon the world!#@4@

-aving identi$ied the %ten with the solar orb, the writer concludes that the god who resides in the +ten is an invisible god! 0udge
voices a similar opinion when he calls the +ten "the material body o$ the sun wherein dwelt the god <e# @43 as i$ <e himsel$ were an invisible power and the solar orb the visible emanation and dwelling o$ the god!

It is impossible to reconcile such metaphysical interpretations with the concrete imagery o$ the %ten in >gyptian
te ts! The %ten is indeed the visible "window in heaven# and the "body o$ the sun,# but this "window# or "body# is surely nor the solar orb! It is, as the %ten sign H


I indicates, a band housing the sun! +nd the primeval "sun# is Saturn!

The same misunderstanding occurs in the case o$ the >gyptian terms khu and khut The terms re$er to "the circle o$
glory# or the "brilliant circle,# conceived as a $i ed place# —the place where the KprimevalL sun shines $orth!# Though the >gyptians regarded this circle as the visible emanation o$ the creator, standard translations render khu as "Spirit# or "Soul# Himplying an unseen powerI and khut as "hori*on# Hsuggesting the place o$ the solar sunriseI! 0oth translations violate the literal sense o$ the words1 literally, the khut Hwritten with the sign

I is the "'ount o$ %lory!#

The circle o$ the khu or khut was the "glory,# "halo,# "nimbus,# or "aureole# o$ the creator—what the -ebrews called the
Shekinah Hthe encircling "glory# o$ %odI and the %reeks stephanos Hcircle or crown o$ "glory#I! Indeed, every $igure o$ the creator stands within the luminous ring, always considered as his own emanation! The band is not only the god’s "halo,# but his dwelling at

the cosmic centre!@4G "In diagrams o$ the (osmos# observes J! (! (irlot, "the central space is always reserved $or the (reator, so that he appears as i$ surrounded by a circular or almond-shaped halo!#@45

:. Mit# ai" Sat! n+ ;it# (! o!ndin- #alo.

<. =a2an$($ B!dd#a+ ;it# (! o!ndin- #alo. I$ one accepts the immediate sense o$ the archaic terminology, the enclosure was no abstraction! It was Saturn ’s shining band! The 0abylonian +nu—Saturn—was "the -igh .ne o$ the >nclosure o$ 9i$e,# @48 his dwelling "the brilliant enclosure!# H-ere, too, the enclosure becomes the place o$ the primeval "sunrise!#I @47 The 'aori o$ /ew Qealand know the planet Saturn as =arearau, whose name conveys the meaning "circlet# or "surrounding band!# ,rom this name o$ Saturn,
Stowell concluded that the natives could see the present Saturnian ring with the naked eye—something all astronomers know to be impossible today!@44

Dhen the +$rican Dogon draw Saturn they depict it as an orb within a circle —a $act which <obert Temple, in his book
The Sirius Mystery# cites as evidence $or seemingly ine plicable Dogon astronomical knowledge Hwhich he contends was introduced to the ancients by e tra-terrestrial visitorsMI! 0ut no one asks whether the order o$ the solar system may have changed, allowing $or a once-visible Saturnian band!

The Lost sland

*>. Cla((i"al a ti(t( o't$n 2o t a,$d t#$ - $at -od9( %#alo& o %a! a& a( an a "#$d )antl$

,or the primeval enclosure the >gyptians employed a variety o$ interrelated symbols! The circle o$ the khu or
%ten was nothing other than the Island o$ ,ire, the =rovince o$ 0eginning! + single spell o$ the (o$$in Te ts thus identi$ies <e as "the noble one who is at the land o$ the Island o$ ,ire,# but also calls <e the god "who is in his +ten!# @4: The subCect is not two

di$$erent enclosures but one enclosure under two di$$erent titles! +nd this identi$ication o$ the central sun as an enclosed or encircled god appears to throw light on the endlessly repeated
myth o$ the lost island! Dhat the %reeks called .gygia Hthe island o$ ?ronosRSaturn in the $arthest northI occurs under many di$$erent names the world over! The white island, the $loating island, the revolving island—may not these primeval dwellings simply echo the Saturnian enclosureE .ne recalls the words o$ Dionysius o$ -alicarnassus1

-aste to the real"s KringsL o$ Saturn shape your course, Dhere (otyle’s $amed island wandering $loats .n the broad sur$ace o$ a sacred lake Kthe +byssL!@:2 /ot o$ our earth, the lost isle $loated in the sea o$ heaven! Japanese legends recall the ancient cradle o$ li$e as .nogora, a $loating island H"the dri$ting land#I which congealed on the waters! This was the isle o$ the (ongealed Drop! Its
location, states a native commentator, was originally the /orth =ole, $rom which it eventually moved to its present position! @:6 .’/eill properly relates the Japanese isle to the $loating island o$ Delos raised $rom the sea by =oseidon! +nother name $or this island was .rtygia, which .’/eill connects with the 9atin verto# Sanskrit vart# "to turn!#@:@ +nswering to the same tradition are the ,loating Islands o$ the %rgonautica# called the Strophades, or "Islands o$ Turning!#

In the voyages o$ the (eltic divine hero 'aelduin the adventurer encounters a $abulous isle in the midst o$ the sea1 "+round the island was a $iery rampart, and it was ever wont to turn around and about it!#@:3 > amples are too numerous to receive elaborate treatment here1 the primeval, revolving islands o$ <hodes and (orcyra, spun on the cosmic spindleB the primeval isle o$ the +yclos# "wheel,# which gave its name to the (ycladesB the
"white island# o$ Qeus "in the midst o$ the sea#B the $loating -indu white island H Shweta-dwipaI at the polar centreB the lost Toltec "white island# o$ Tula, the centre o$ the world!@:G

Dithout e ception, the shining, $loating, revolving islands are esteemed as the place where history began and seem to answer to the same archaic tradition as the >gyptian =rovince o$ the 0eginning, the revolving enclosure around the central sun! Is it possible that the ancients saw the mythical island—that the isle was not a geographical location,
but a visible band enclosing SaturnE .ne must consider several closely related images, which also imply a visible band around the ancient sun-planet!

The #gg. + hymn $rom the >gyptian +offin Te-ts reads? I was he who came into e istence as circle, he who was the dweller in his egg! I was the one who began everything, the dweller in the primeval waters!@:5 -ere the re$erence is to +tum as the creator o$ the egg, but other traditions say o$ the great god =tah that he
"created the egg which proceeded $rom /un Kthe cosmic watersL!@:8

In the !ook of the .ead the light god shines as "the mighty one within the egg!# @:7 "-omage to thee, . thou holy god who dwellest
in thine egg!#@:4

+s the stationary light god "turns round about# his egg revolves around him! "I am the god who keepeth opposition in eAuipoise as his >gg circleth round!#@:: ". thou who circlest round, within thine >gg!# 322 +tum, as governor o$ the revolving egg, is the lord o$ Time, $or "time is regulated by the motion around the egg,# (lark tells us!326 Similar to the egg o$ +tum is the revolving sphere produced by the .rphic (hronos HTime, who is *ronos#

The great (hronos $ashioned in the divine +ether Kthe $iery seaL a silver egg! +nd it moved without slackening in a vast circle!32@ To this revolving egg compares that o$ the Society Islands ’ creator Ta’oroa, "the ancestor o$ all the gods,# who sat "in his
shell in an egg revolving in endless space!#323

**. Pta#+ 'a(#ionin- t#$ @o ld E-- !2on a 2ott$ ( ;#$$l. The same egg appears in -indu myth, set in motion by the central sun =raCapati!32G 'ircea >liade $inds recollections o$ the cosmic egg in Indonesia, Iran, =hoenicia, 9atvia! >stonia, Dest +$rica, (entral +merica, and the west coast o$ South +merica as well!325 (ertainly, none o$ the later traditions improve upon the >gyptian te ts which describe the egg as the enclosure round +tum-<e! 0ut one can hardly $ail to be impressed by the consistency o$ the tradition! +nd even the alchemists, much o$ whose teachings descended $rom >gypt, remember the connection o$ the egg with Saturn! They recall the egg as a $iery enclosure on the primordial sea —a circle with a "sun-point# in the centre Hi!e!,
"world-egg is the ancient Saturn,# they say! 328

I! This

Is not this cosmic egg the band which the >gyptians called %ten= ". thou who art in thine egg, who shinest $rom thy %ten## reads the !ook of the .ead 327 Just as the >gyptian god-king is "the ruler o$ all that the %ten encircles,# so also is he
"power$ul in the egg# or "ruling in the egg!#324

In celebrating the primeval egg, the priests commemorated the island o$ beginnings! 0udge summari*es the >gyptian tradition1 "The $irst act o$ creation began with the $ormation out o$ the primeval watery mass o$ an egg, where$rom issued the light o$ the day, i!e!, <e!#32: (oncerning the identity o$ this egg and the island or "=rovince o$ the 0eginning,#
the te ts $rom the temple o$ >d$u remove all doubt1 another name $or the =rovince o$ the 0eginning was " the ,sland of the Egg #362

>gyptian sources thus suggest this eAuation1 %ten >enclosure of the central sun? @ +os"ic Egg @ Pri"eval ,sland The (ond. To reside within the %ten is to reside "in the coil# or "in the cord!# The -ieroglyphs depict the %ten as a cosmic bond or
knot, indicated by an enclosure o$ rope with the ends tied together H shen

I! HThus shen# "coil,# "bond,# may be written with the

determinative , the %ten sign!I The bond signi$ies both a boundary—distinguishing the uni$ied domain o$ the &niversal 'onarch $rom the rest o$ space—and order# marked by ceaseless, stable revolution round the central sun! It is the "bond o$ regularity# Hshes "aatI, protecting the god-king $rom the surrounding waters o$ (haos! +ccordingly, the >gyptian king, considered as the incarnation o$ the &niversal 'onarch, takes up symbolic residence within the celestial cord, acAuiring the great god’s power as "ruler o$ all that the %ten encircles!# The priests indicated this power o$ the terrestrial ruler by placing his hieroglyphic name within the

! +nd in order to accommodate longer names they eventually e panded the coil to an ovoid $orm, which yielded the $amiliar royal cartouche in which the names o$ all later kings were inscribed!














I! 0ut each possesses the same root meaning as a protective boundary de$ining the original dwelling o$ the creator in heaven! The symbols convey the sense "to circumscribe,#
"to set the bounds!# The creator, as the 'easurer, prescribes the limits and measures out the sacred enclosure by "stretching the cord# round about, producing a uni$ied dwelling Hthe primeval islandI, protected $rom the evils o$ (haos and darkness! 366

That the ancient mythmakers conceived Saturn’s enclosure as a cord binding together the god’s dwelling will e plain why
the 0abylonian /inurta, Saturn, holds the "arkasu or "bond# o$ the (osmos! 9angdon writes1 "The word "arkasu# Pband,’ Prope,’ is employed in 0abylonian philosophy $or the cosmic principle which unites all things, and is used also in the sense o$ Psupport,’ the divine power and law which hold the universe together!# 36@ The .rphic poet thus celebrates Saturn H?ronosI as ",ather o$ the blessed gods as well as o$ man ! ! ! you who hold the indestructible bond ! ! !#363

It is easy $or contemporary writers to speak o$ Saturn’s bond as an invisible principle holding "the universe together,# but
in the original symbolism one sees the bond as the shining boundary o$ Saturn0s dwelling Hthe true (osmosI! It was not in >gypt alone that the cord signi$ied the "edge# or "border!# Dhat the %reeks called peirata# "rope# or "bond,# possesses the additional meaning "boundary!# The 9atin ora# "cord,# means also "edge!# 36G + similar meaning attaches to the "noose# o$ the -indu Varuna and Fama! The bond delimited and protected the sacred space occupied by the &niversal 'onarch, and its connection with the sign links it directly with Saturn’s island-egg!

The Garment. 'ythmaking imagination also appears to have conceived the Saturnian band as the god’s girdle, collar, or belt! "I am the girdle o$ the garment o$ /u, shining, shedding light,# states a hymn $rom the >gyptian !ook of the .ead 365 The great god is "the %irdled and the 'ighty one, coming $orth triumphantly!# 368 + common hieroglyphic determinative o$ the "girdle# or
"collar# is the cord sign


The Shield. +ll creation legends involve a struggle between the light god and the destructive powers o$ the +byss H(haosI! The
mythic enclosure provides the god’s de$ense against the turbulent waters which originally prevailed! The >gyptian enclosure, states <eymond, "had the $unction o$ protecting the sacred area $rom the evil coming $rom outside!# 367 %ten was one o$ the numerous >gyptian names $or this de$ensive rampart in heaven1 "The %ten makes thy protection,# states the :itany of Re 364 The cosmic egg serves as the same $ortress1 "I am -orus ! ! ! , whose protection was made within the eggB the $iery blast o$ your mouths Kthe $iery water o$ (haosL does not attack me!#36:

The band o$ the %ten

, as the protective boundary, was the great god ’s "shield,# $ending o$$ what the te ts call "the signi$ied

$iends# o$ disorder! It is this mythic history o$ the band which e plains why, in the hieroglyphs, the shield sign sacred space in general! +ll who resided within the shield’s enclosure occupied the sa$e and stable ground!

*.. M$Ai"an divinit, #oldin- a $volvin- "o dB(#i$ld !ord) *elt) and shield 'onverge. The great $ather wears the cord as a girdle1 it protects him as a shield—not merely in >gyptian
symbolism, but in the international language o$ symbols! Dhy, $or e ample, did divine $igures $rom 0abylonia to %reece to 'e ico wear a sacred belt o$ rope, and why was the belt conceived as an impenetrable de$enseE 'e ican illustrations o$ the divine shield show it to be nothing "ore than a circle of rope It was certainly not practical e perience which suggested the magical powers o$ a shield so conceivedM 0ut the mythical imagery o$ the enclosed sun is Auite su$$icient great god’s shield and the celestial cord signi$ied one and the same protective enclosure!

to e plain such anomalies1 the

I$ the ancients actually saw a band around Saturn, it is clear that the enclosure $ostered diverse but interrelated mythical interpretations! + literal reading o$ >gyptian and other te ts will con$irm an e traordinary eAuation1

enclosure of the central sun @ pri"eval island @ cos"ic egg @ cord >bond? @ girdle >belt# collar? @ shield (oncerning the overlapping images much more needs to be said! The signs and the myths become comprehensible only when one relates them to the heavens o$ ancient times! (elestial island, egg, cord, girdle, and shield
mean nothing more than a shining, revolving enclosure around the great god! Das this band real or imaginaryE The Auestion can be answered by e ploring certain other aspects o$ the enclosure!

T#$ Co()o( And T#$ Divin$ A(($)bl,
The sign of the enclosed sun portrays a circle of secondary lights revolving about the stationary god and for"ing Saturn0s +os"os The mystic traditions o$ the great $ather present an apparent parado 1 he is the god .ne, the solitary
god in the cosmic seaB yet he is the +ll, embracing a company o$ lesser gods!

This is not a contradiction! In the $irst phase o$ creation the god brought $orth a circle o$ secondary lights1 these
issued directly fro" the god to beco"e his visible li"bs It is the $undamental character o$ the god .ne—the -eaven 'an—to unite in a single "body# all the secondary powers o$ the (osmos!

In =ythagorean, /eoplatonist, and %nostic systems the primal $igure is "the .ne, the +ll,# whose symbol is the ! -indu mysticism o$$ers the latter sign as the image o$ the primordial unity, and the same interpretation is repeated by the alchemists!
enclosed sun

Today one naturally thinks o$ "the +ll# as boundless space! The terms which translators render as (osmos, heaven, $irmament,
sky, or universe suggest to the modern mind a limitless arena o$ the sun, moon, planets, and constellations! 0ut the original meaning o$ the +ll is bounded space—a place Hthe place, or place par e-cellenceI! The +os"os simply means the province o$ the god .ne, who, as 9ord o$ the +ll, governs and is the "whole and its parts!# -aving overlooked this restricted sense o$ the terminology the translators replace concrete meanings with ambiguity Hin the guise o$ modern-sounding metaphysicsI! The once-visible dwelling o$ the central sun thus becomes, in the translations, "all e istence!#

+lmost without e ception the translators $ail to notice 6I that the creator was Saturn, recalled as the central sunB and @I that the sign o$ the central sun and the sign o$ the +ll were the same image ! The true (osmos was Saturn’s enclosure! +nd nothing else is necessary in order $or one to understand the ancient characteri*ation o$ Saturn as the -eaven
'an whose "body# enco"passed the (osmos! Dhen -ildegard 9ewy reports that the Sumero-0abylonian priests o$ Saturn regarded the planet-god as "the embodiment o$ the whole universe# the modern mind boggles1 could the ancients have been so $rivolous as to identi$y Saturn—the present, barely discernible point o$ light—with "the whole universe#E The answer is that Saturn was not a mere speck o$ light, but a gigantic globe at the polar centreB and the "universe# did not mean the open heavens but Saturn’s dwelling, the an-ki or band o$ the (osmos! Saturn’s towering $orm "$illed the an-ki #

Qoroastrian te ts describe the original (osmos as the body o$ Qurvan HTime, SaturnI , a revolving wheel called the
Spihr, which remained ever in the sa"e position The $all o$ the stationary wheel coincided with the collapse o$ the primordial era! 3@2

The image suggests, not unlimited "space,# but the tangible con$iguration o$ the enclosed sun


+ccordingly, the later mystic traditions, as reviewed by Jung, describe the image as the cosmic $orm o$ +dam, the +nthropos, the .riginal 'an or 'an on -igh—identi$ied as Saturn!3@6 +lways the "body# o$ this primal man
means "(osmos!#

The interrelated myths and symbols o$ Saturn ’s (osmos receive remarkable clari$ication in the creation accounts and the
liturgies o$ ancient >gypt! Though I brie$ly touched on the >gyptian te ts in earlier discussions o$ the -eaven 'an, ampli$ication is necessary!

The !ir'le of the Gods
Dhether called +tum, <e, .siris, -orus, ?hepera, or =tah, the >gyptian great god sits enthroned within a circle o$ secondary deities, satellites o$ the central sun! The gods are the %lorious .nes, /ever-<esting .nes, or 9iving .nesB the (ircle o$ ,ire, Divine (hie$s, +pes o$ Dawn, -oly +ncestors, or <evolving .nesB the ,ollowers o$ -orus, the ,ollowers o$ <e, or the ,ollowers o$ .siris!

Dhile the divine assembly possessed many names, its singular character stands out in the te ts o$ all regions! There is no >gyptian company o$ the gods other than that which revolves round the central sun —a $act uni$ormly
ignored by writers on >gyptian religion!

The te ts repeatedly con$irm the same relationship o$ the assembly to the great god1 This is the (ircle o$ gods about <e and about .siris!3@@ The satellites o$ <e make their round!3@3 Thy $ollowers circle about!3@G <e maketh his appearance ! ! ! with the cycle o$ gods about him! 3@5 -is >nnead Kcircle o$ godsL is around about his seat!3@8 I am <e amidst his >nnead!3@7 %o ye round about me, . ye gods!3@4 -ail to you, Tribunal ! ! ! . you who surround me ! ! !3@: Divine is your name in the middle o$ the gods!332 These gods shall revolve round about him!336 %lorious is your sah Kbrilliant $ormL in the midst o$ the living .nes!33@ These are the "stars who surround <e!#333 Dhen it is light all $aces adore him, the 0rilliant .ne, he who arises KshinesL in the midst o$ his >nnead!33G The dilemma $or solar mythology is obvious1 seeing the re$erences to the great god in the above lines, no one would think o$ denying that the subCect is a visible power Hwhich all presume to be our sunI! 0ut the descriptions o$ the god’s
revolving companions are eAually e plicit! To what visible powers do they answerE /o circle o$ lights appears to revolve about the body we call sun today!

>gyptian descriptions o$ the celestial assembly take us back to the remote age, separated $rom the present by a wide chasm! >very >gyptian cult possessed mythical accounts relating to the birth o$ the divine assembly in remote times! Despite numerous versions o$ the legend, it is impossible to ignore the coherent pattern! ,rom a study o$ the numerous $ragments, I o$$er the $ollowing reconstruction and interpretation o$ the myth! In the primordial epoch the creator $irst appeared in the +byss, alone, wandering, without a resting place! "I
$ound no place to stand—I was alone,# states the god!335

+$ter his appearance the god "uttered words# and these utterances possessed a visible for" as the kheperu# the $irst things created! The kheperu "came $orth $rom my mouth!#338 These visible "words# $lowed $rom the creator as the waters o$ (haos, the
sea in heaven upon which the creator $loated or wandered! To reckon with the tradition in its own terms one must think o$ the primordial sea as a $iery "ocean o$ words# in heaven, emitted by the god in a prolonged and resounding e plosion!

+n >gyptian term virtually identical to kheperu is pautti# o$ten translated as "primeval matter!# The pautti issued directly $rom
the creator in the $orm o$ radiant speech, $orming a $iery, watery mass! The creator brought $orth this primeval matter and, parado ically, "produced himsel$# in it H"I produced mysel$ $rom the primeval matter which I made#I! 337

,or a time the creator wandered in the luminous sea but eventually came to rest at a point o$ stability, the cosmic centre! Two events $ollowed1 an island congealed around the god as his "place o$ rest,# and the circle o$ the
gods came into being, embracing the creator! The two events are synonymous!

,rom the unorganized sea o$ words the kheperu or pautti the creator brought $orth an organized dwelling! -e "gathered# the
enclosure together as a barrier against the watery (haos which he himsel$ had created! The $iery particles o$ the newly $ormed enclosure composed the circle o$ the gods! That is, the gods stood on the enclosure’s "edge# or "border#—the "shore# o$ the celestial

! In one te t these are "the gods who belong to the Shore! They give an island to the .siris //!# 334 This was the (osmos, $ormed by the "(ouncil o$ the gods who surround the Island o$ ,ire!#33:

Vital to this interpretation o$ the myth is the identity o$ the divine assembly with the kheperu or pautti "uttered# by
the creator! The secondary gods are themselves the shining "words# or "names# spoken by the creator and organi*ed into a revolving

circle! *heperu thus means "the revolving ones,# while pautti signi$ies "the primeval ones,# who inhabit and give $orm to the Island o$ ,ire!3G2

Dhat, then, do the te ts mean when they say that the kheperu or pautti# though erupting $rom the creator, "produced# the
great godE The answer is clear-cut1 the circle into which the constituent particles Hvisible wordsI congealed was the creator’s "body!# The god .ne "collected# or "gathered together# his own li"bs H"I united my members#I! -e "produced himsel$!#3G6

The +offin Te-ts depict the creator alone in the primeval sea1 KI wasL he who had no companion when Kor untilL my name came into e istence ! ! ! I created my limbs in my "glory# I was the maker o$ mysel$ ! ! !3G@ 9iterally, the limbs which the god produced are "my limbs o$ my khu # The phrase is o$ sweeping signi$icance! +n >gyptian
sign o$ the khu was the hieroglyph ! The term, in e plicit re$erence to the creator ’s "circle o$ glory# Hhalo, aura, %tenI, means at once "words o$ power# and "brilliant lights!# Depicted by the hieroglyph is the island o$ creation, around which are ranged the secondary deities HkhuI produced through the creator’s "speech!# In bringing $orth this divine assembly the creator became the maker o$ his own body! ". ?hepera ! ! ! whose body is the cycle o$ the gods $orever,# proclaims the !ook of the .ead 3G3 The same te ts speak o$ "the souls o$ the gods who have come into being in Kor asL the members o$ .siris!#3GG

The entire symbolism $ocuses on the celestial $orm o$ the enclosed sun ! Individually, the $iery lights which compose the enclosure Hisland o$ the (osmosI are the creator ’s "limbs# HpluralI, but as a uni$ied circle, the assembly
$orms his "body# HsingularI! (orrespondingly, the respective lights are the creator’s multiple "names# or "words# H"the names o$ his limbs#I, while as an organic whole Hthe +llI the circle is the god’s singular "/ame!# Dhen the hymn cited above states that the god was alone "until my name came into e istence,# the meaning is concrete, not abstract! The creator remained alone until he brought $orth the circle o$ the khu# his visible /ame in heaven!

That the god’s /ame was his tangible dwelling—his circle o$ glory—is a $act absolutely essential to a comprehension o$ the enigmatic symbolism! "I have "ade fir" "y na"e# and have preserved it that I may have li$e through it!# 3G5 The re$erence is to the enclosure o$ li$e, the Island o$ ,ire "made $irm# at the stationary cosmic centre, when the creator ceased to wander in the
+byss! Thus the hieroglyphic determinative o$ "name# H renI is the shen sign

, the sign o$ the celestial enclosure or

circle o$ the %ten To possess a "na"e# is to reside within the %ten provides a remarkable summary o$ the related symbols1 I am the great god who came into e istence by himsel$! This is /u who created his names paut neteru as god! Dho, then is thisE It is <e, who created the names o$ his limbs! There came into e istence in the $orm o$ the gods who are in the $ollowing o$ <e ! ! ! Dho, then, is thisE It is Tem K+tumL in his %ten 3G8

! + single hymn $rom the 0ook o$ the Dead

The sel$-generated god in the above lines is /u, whose hieroglyph identi$ies him as both the source and the substance o$ the cosmic waters! The te t says not only that the great god "created his names# but that
these "names# are the paut neteru—the circle o$ the gods!

0ut why is the assembly called the paut# or primeval matterE It is because the revolving gods erupted directly $rom the creator,
eventually $orming the organi*ed enclosure! The secondary gods, as words or names spoken by the creator, composed the god’s own "limbs,# so that the te t can say the god "created the names o$ his limbs!# That these "came into e istence in the $orm o$ the gods who are in the $ollowing o$ <e# means simply that they $ormed the revolving assembly!

Dho, then, is this god who shines within the circle o$ his own limbsE "It is +tum in his %ten # The priests could not
have stated more emphatically the eAuation o$ the celestial assembly and enclosure o$ the primeval sun

! -ere is the $ormula

set $orth by the >gyptian te ts1

+os"os >enclosure of the central sun? @ pri"eval "atter >sea of words? in its organized for" @ circle of the gods @ li"bs or body of creator @ creator0s visible &a"e That the circle $ormed by the divine assembly is the cosmic dwelling o$ the creator is a truth a$$irmed not by one local cult
alone, but by all streams o$ >gyptian ritual! 0elow I list a $ew o$ the >gyptian words that connect the assembly with the enclosure o$ the central sun1

*hu In the creation, as noted above, the khu erupt $rom the creator as "words o$ power# or "brilliant lights!# This "circle o$ glory# the body o$ .siris or <e composes the god’s celestial home, the %ten ! Thus khus means "to $ashion a dwelling!#

*/. T#$ bod, o' O(i i( 'o )in- t#$ "i "l$ o' t#$ T!at+ t#$ Co()o(. Tuat The term re$ers to the "resting place# o$ the creator at the summit! The hieroglyphic symbol o$ the Tuat shows the light god within a celestial band which the te ts eAuate with the circle o$ the %ten# "The 'ysterious Soul, which rests in its %ten# rests in the Tuat o$ <e!#3G7 In the hymns and in art, the >gyptians depicted the Tuat as the body o$ .siris or <e!
0ut Tuat means also "the circle o$ the gods#B the enclosure, the "body# o$ the sun-god and the divine assembly are synonymous!

Shen# shenit# sheniu# shenbet The shen signs


portray the central sun’s enclosure as a cord o$ rope—the bond and the %ten sign

o$ the (osmos! Shen means "to revolve,# in re$erence to the revolving band o$ the %ten HThe shen sign

$unction as interchangeable glyphs!I -ence, the sheniu is the great god’s cosmic "chamber# while the shenit are the "chie$s# or "nobles# on high who travel the circuit round the shen Shenbet# meaning "body,# is the bet or "place# marked out by the shen +gain, enclosure, "body,# and assembly converge! Tchatchat The tchatchat are the "chie$s# or "heads#—the council o$ gods revolving around the stationary sun! 0ut tchatchat also signi$ies boundary,# "enclosure,# or "holy domain!# The circuit traversed by
the chie$s is the boundary o$ the celestial enclosure


Rer# reri# rert Dhile rer means "to revolve or encircle,# rert means "men#—the inhabitants o$ the primordial domain! The reri are
"the revolving ones# Hcomparable to the kheperuI, who collectively enclose the sacred space! +ccordingly, rer possesses the additional meaning "the enclosed domain!#

Paut# pat The secondary gods are the pautti# the "primeval matter# which Has stated aboveI congealed into the creator’s revolving
dwelling! Paut thus signi$ies the creator’s "body!# .bviously related are the pat# the primeval gods whose name conveys the sense "to go round like a wheel or in a circle!# It is no coincidence that the hieroglyphic determinative o$ the pat is an egg around which the pat revolve is the egg o$ the (osmos, and this egg is the "body# o$ the god Seb!

1 the circle

Tchet# tchet# tchetu Dhile tchet means "to speak,# tchetu signi$ies "words,# "things spoken!# In the creation the great god uttered
visible "words# in the $orm o$ the lesser gods! That the creator’s words became his dwelling is re$lected in the term tchet# the "house# or "chamber# o$ the great god! Tchet also means "body!#

Shes# shesi +n >gyptian name o$ the cosmic bond is shes, written with the hieroglyph ! The Tuat H , dwelling o$ <e or .sirisI is the shes "aat# the "bond o$ regularity# Hor o$ stable, ceaseless revolutionI! The te ts also speak o$ celestial shesi#
divine "warriors# who protect the great god! They "protect# the god because, collectively, they $orm the de$ensive rampart, the cosmic shield!

The language and symbolism o$ the celestial assembly reveal an underlying idea connecting the separate traditions! The secondary gods are not merely ill-de$ined "companions,# or "assistants# Has so many >gyptologists seem to
assumeIB rather, they possess concrete $orm as the enclosure o$ li$e, the very enclosure which the priests celebrate as the island o$ beginnings, the revolving bond, or the cosmic egg Hall $igures o$ the (osmosI!

The (osmos, in other words, has nothing to do with "all e istence!# The concept relates to an organized do"ain—"the
whole and its parts#—$ashioned by the creator out o$ previously unorgani*ed cosmic debris Hprimeval matterI! +n >gyptian word $or the uni$ied domain is te"t# which means "all# or "complete# and also "to collect,# "to gather together!# (learly related is the word Te"tiu# one o$ the names o$ the secondary gods! It is the secondary gods themselves that the creator "collects# or "gathers together# to $orm the cosmic island!

=ertaining to the same root concept are the terms te"a# "to uni$y, Coin together#B te"i# "shore,# "bank,# or "border#B and
te"en# "all,# "totality!# The unified +ll H(osmosI is contained within the border o$ the enclosure, and the border is the shore o$ the cosmic island


The Saturnian band is thus the pathway traversed by the secondary gods! The gods revolve around the shore, or around the
bond, or around the egg! ">very god who is on the border o$ your enclosure is on the path ! ! ! ,# states a +offin Te-t 3G4

The testimony could not be more e plicit! The road traveled by the secondary gods is the uat# the "way# or "path,#
denoted by the glyph ! 0ut the same glyph signi$ies the tcher# "boundary!# The path o$ the gods and the boundary o$ the uni$ied (osmos Hthe +llI are synonymous! Thus the phrase er tcher H"to the tcher# or "to the boundary#I means "all,# "the whole!# The great god, as &eb-er-tcher#—he who rules to the boundary#—is the ruler o$ the whole, lord o$ the revolving (osmos! It is the same thing to say that he governs "all that the %ten K interpretations!

L encircles!# The whole range o$ images challenges orthodo

0ut the symbolism o$ the (osmos and divine assembly reaches $ar beyond >gypt! Do not all supreme gods sit enthroned within the circle o$ secondary divinitiesE /inurta, ?ronos, >l, Fama, -uang-ti and every other Saturnian $igure has his "sons,# "councilors,# "spies,# "$ollowers,# "assistants,# or "warriors# seated round about him! The
'esopotamian sign is a sel$-evident image o$ the celestial assembly! It is this (osmos —not boundless space— which Saturn’s "body# encompassed! Dhat the mystics knew as "the universe# organi*ed within Saturn’s "bond# or "cord# H0abylonian "arkasuI becomes meaning$ul only as the visible Saturnian band, or circle o$ the gods!3G:

T#$ G $at Mot#$
The sign of the enclosed sun also portrays Saturn# the generative Seed# within the wo"b of the "other goddess %s the fe"ale personification of the +os"os# the great "other is inseparable fro" Saturn0s "body # The mysteries o$ the mother goddess give rise to an endless debate! Dhat is the $act in nature which will e plain the cosmic union o$ Isis and .siris, Tammu* and Ishtar or ?ronos and %aeaE .ne scholar a$ter another pu**les over the goddess’ varied $orms, $inding her everywhere and nowhere! I$ to one writer she is the $ertile earth around us, to
another she is the moon and to another "the universe,# the "sky,# or the morning star! The diverse interpretations seem to suggest that there were many goddesses with a singular $igure—the heavenly consort o$ the great $ather! -ere, $or e ample, is one statement, o$$ered as the words o$ the >gyptian goddess Isis to +puleius1

! ! ! 'y name, my divinity is adored throughout the world, in divers manners, in variable customs, and by many names! ,or the =hrygians that are the $irst o$ all men call me the 'other o$ the gods o$ =essinusB the +thenians, which are sprung $rom their own soil, (ecropian 'inervaB the (yprians, which are girt about by the sea, =aphian VenusB the (retans, which bear arrows, Dictynian DianaB the Sicilians, which speak three tongues, in$ernal =rosperpineB the >lusinians, their ancient goddess (eresB some Juno, others 0ellona, others -ecate, others <amnusie ! ! ! B and the >gyptians, which are e cellent in all kind o$ ancient doctrine, and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me, do call me by my true name, Oueen Isis! 352 In their cosmic rites the >gyptians seemed unwilling to distinguish Isis $rom such local $igures o$ the great mother as /ut, -athor, 'ut, or /eith! >ach local goddess bore identical or similar epithets Hthe >ye o$ <e, # "the
mother o$ <e,# "the 9ady o$ the -oly 9and,# etc!I!

0ut i$ the ancients acknowledged a common personality o$ the goddess, what was that personality ’s underlying
traitE There is one universal attribute1 the great goddess possesses the $orm o$ an enclosure—a circle or womb—housing and "giving birth to# the great $ather! /eumann perceived this trait when he described the goddess’ "elementary character# as "the %reat <ound# or "the world-containing and world-creating uterus!# 356 ,rom his e haustive study o$ the great mother %! S! ,aber concluded that every goddess appears as a protective enclosure sheltering the great $ather! .$ this truth there is no shortage o$ evidence!35@

The god Tammu* sits within the womb o$ Tiamat, "the mother o$ the hollow!# "'other-womb# is the epithet o$ the Sumerian goddess %ula, while Ishtar’s name means "womb!# 353 -indu sources describe the great mother as the yoni or "womb# and the great $ather as "he enveloped in his 'other’s Domb!# 35G +gni is the male god "shining in the 'other’s eternal

Similarly, the /orse .din is "the dweller in ,rigg’s bosom!#358 In .rphic doctrine the receptacle housing the great $ather is the goddess Vesta! The %nostics remembered the old god as the "+ncient o$ Days who dwelt as a babe within the womb!#357 +mong the 'aori the great mother is the "Shelter 'aid# or "-aven 'aid!#354 Descriptions o$ the primeval womb show that the ancients recall the goddess as a visible band—what -indu te ts call the "golden womb,#35: and 0abylonian "the Ceweled circlet Ha title o$ IshtarI! 382 The imagery pertains directly to the enclosed sun

! In -induism the latter sign depicts "the male seed-point or bindu in the cosmic womb,# states +lan "The ,ather is like the centre H&abhiI o$ the circle and the 'other the circum$erence H Para"antaI,# notes +grawala!38@ The

same male-$emale symbolism o$ the enclosed sun occurs in >uropean stone carvings discussed by V! (! (! 383 (ollum! That the -ebrews regarded the Shekinah Hthe creator’s encircling "aura,# "anima,# or "glory#I as "the 'other# 38G leads to the same conclusion1 the great god’s halo was his own spouse! +ccordingly, the Tibetan ritual invokes the great god
as "the centre o$ the (ircle, enhaloed in radiance, embraced by the HdivineI 'other!# 385

This conception o$ the great mother receives compelling support $rom ancient >gyptian sources! The >gyptian sun-god has his home within the womb o$ his mother and consort, the "%reat =rotectress!#388 .$ <e, the !ook of the .ead proclaims, "Thou shinest, thou makest light in thy mother!# 387 >lsewhere <e appears as the sun "in the womb o$

.siris shines $orth $rom the enclosure o$ his mother /ut1 "-omage to thee, ?ing o$ kings, 9ord o$ lords, =rince o$ princes, who fro" the wo"b of &ut hath ruled all the world!#38: The abode o$ -orus is his mother -athor, whose name means
"the -ouse o$ -orus!# +nd the goddess /ekhebet is said to personi$y the primeval abode o$ the sun!372

+s earlier noted, the >gyptians portrayed the celestial dwelling as the shen bond ! 0ut this enclosure was 376 really the womb o$ /ut, states =ianko$$! HThus the goddess Shentit takes her name $rom the shen bond!I The mother goddess was not our earth, not the open sky, not the moon, but the dwelling of the central sun# the
enclosure o$ the +ten

1 "'y %ten has given me birth,# states the god-king! 37@ This direct connection o$ the mother

goddess with the sun’s enclosure will e plain why the %ten sign , though serving as the glyph o$ <e, also denotes "mistress,# in re$erence to the god’s celestial consort!373 The god’s mistress was his own emanation, his halo o$ "glory# or
"splendour!# The priests who invoked the great god’s khut or "circle o$ glory# also celebrated the goddess *hut# who was the same circle!

<esiding within the enclosure, the central sun is the shining seed impregnating the great mother! "I am indeed the
%reat Seed,# declares <e!37G ". <e, make the womb o$ /ut pregnant with the seed o$ the spirit which is in her,# reads a hymn o$ the Pyra"id Te-ts 375 The same te ts celebrate "the womb o$ the sky with the power o$ the seed o$ the god which is in it!# 378 +nd again, "=ressure is in your womb, . /ut, through the seed o$ the god which is in you!#377

In his coming $orth within the cosmic womb the sun "copulates with# or "impregnates# the mother goddess, and this
relationship e presses itsel$ in the language! The >gyptian nehep means "to copulate# while nehepu means "to shine!# Though beka denotes "the coming $orth# o$ the sun, the same word means "pregnant!# Thus the union o$ the primal pair is renewed daily Hor with each "dawn# o$ the central sunI!

0ut the same coming $orth receives mythical interpretation as the birth o$ the light god! /ut is at once <e’s spouse and
his "other# who "bears <e daily#1374

I am e alted like that venerable god, the 9ord o$ the %reat -ouse, and the gods reCoice at seeing his beauti$ul comings $orth $rom the womb o$ /ut!37: -is birth is wonder$ul, raising up his beauti$ul $orm in the womb o$ /ut!342

-ail, =rince, who comest $orth $rom the womb!346 (onception and birth are thus con$used! The impregnating Seed H$atherI is also the (hild! It is this eAuation which yields <e’s title as "'an-(hild!#34@ -e is the prototype o$ "the son who impregnates his mother,# or the "$ather who
gives birth to himsel$!#

0ut the con$usion does not end here, $or the mother goddess, as the great $ather ’s encircling aura, is hersel$ the
e"anation o$ the masculine power! The solitary god brings $orth the womb o$ heaven unassisted! In this sense the goddess is the great $ather’s "daughter,# so that i$ one considers the entire range o$ possibilities, three relationships to the goddess—$ather, husband, and son—are united in one $igure!

Imagery o$ this sort runs through all o$ the religious te ts o$ ancient >gypt! +mon-<e is "he who begets his $ather!#343 The goddess -athor becomes "the mother o$ her $ather and the daughter o$ her son!# 34G +tum-?heprer "brought himsel$ into being upon the thigh o$ his divine mother!# 345 In the ritual o$ the ?arnak temple <e’s "daughter# 'ut encircled "her $ather <e and gave birth to him as ?honsu!#348 The same goddess is "the daughter and mother who made her sire!#347 >Auation o$ $ather and son is e plicit in the case o$ .siris and his "son# -orus! The Pyra"id Te-ts describe .siris
shining "in the sky as -orus $rom the womb o$ the sky!# 344 "The king is your seed, . .siris, you being potent in your name o$ -orus who is in the sea!#34: The gods, in the !ook of the .ead# recall the ancient time o$ -orus "when he e isted in the $orm o$ his own child!#3:2

0ecause the terrestrial king symbolically acAuires the attributes o$ the &niversal 'onarch, the rites show the local ruler uniting with the mother goddess and reproducing himsel$ within the cosmic womb! -e announces that he has been "$ashioned in the womb# o$ the great mother, 3:6 and a$ter invoking "the womb o$ the sky with the power o$
the seed o$ the spirit which is in it,# then proclaims1 "0ehold me, I am the seed o$ the spirit which is in her!# 3:@ ". /ut ! ! ! it is I who am the seed o$ the god which is in you!#3:3

,rank$ort deals with the subCect at length, showing that the king’s impregnation o$ the mother goddess and simultaneous
birth in the womb was central to >gyptian ritual! The king "enters her, impregnates her, and thus is borne again by her# 3:G e actly as the great god himsel$!

I$ the king receives his authority on earth through personi$ication o$ the &niversal 'onarch, it is through the same identi$ication that he attains the heavenly abode o$ the goddess upon death, taking up his residence within the sheltering womb as an Imperishable .ne! In a hymn to /ut, ?ing =epi beseeches the goddess, "'ayest thou
put this =epi into thysel$ as an imperishable star!# 3:5 "'ayest thou trans$igure this =epi within thee that he may not die!# 3:8

,rank$ort comments1 " ! ! ! the notion o$ a god who begets himsel$ on his own mother became in >gypt a theological $igure o$
thought e pressing immortality! The god who is immortal because he can re-create himsel$ is called ?amute$, Pbull o$ his mother!’# 3:7 The king aspires to duplicate the $eat o$ the &niversal 'onarch, giving birth to himsel$ in the womb o$ /ut! Though the divine marriage and its imitation in kingship ritual involve many comple ities and enigmas, the underlying theme remains clearly de$ined! Symbolically, the king has his home in the cosmic wombB he simultaneously impregnates the goddess and is "born# by her! The source o$ the ritual is celestial, $or it reenacts the ,irst .ccasion when the great $ather, the $iery Seed, took to wi$e the band o$ "glory# which congealed around him! The sign o$ the primordial union is everywhere be$ore us but rarely recogni*ed! It is the sign o$ the enclosed sun


Wom* and Thigh
In connection with the symbolism o$ the mother goddess one notes that the "womb# is generally synonymous with the
"thigh# or "lap!# Dhen ancient relieves depict the god or king on the lap o$ the great mother, they re$er to the primeval union, in which the $ather o$ the gods resides within the goddess’ protective enclosure!

+n +ssyrian tribute to +ssurbanipal reads1 "+ meek babe art thou, +ssurbanipal, whose seat is on the lap o$ the Oueen o$ /inevah KIshtarL!#3:4 Thus the Sanskrit yoni# the $emale enclosure and dwelling o$ the great $ather, may be translated either "lap# or "womb!# The 9atin word $or "thigh#— fe"en# fe"inis—means "that which engenders!#3:: + similar connection occurs in >gypt, where ?hepesh, "thigh,# means the womb o$ /ut housing .siris or <e! 'any gods—in -indu, %reek, and >uropean myth—are thus "born $rom the thigh,# like the >gyptian ?heprer who
"brought himsel$ into being upon the thigh o$ the divine mother!#G22

This overlapping symbolism o$ womb, lap, and thigh will be met more than once in the $ollowing sections!

Wom* and !osmos

To identi$y the mother goddess as the band o$ the enclosed sun

is to eAuate the goddess with Saturn ’s (osmos, the revolving company o$ the gods! The goddess /ut is "the representation o$ the cosmos,# states =ianko$$! G26 Thus while the >gyptian khut signi$ies the "circle o$ glory# $ormed by the secondary gods, *hut also means the mother goddess! +nd though
the shenit are the "princes# in the divine circle, the goddess is Shentit6 both words derive $rom the shen# the bond o$ the (osmos!

*0. T#$ ManBC#ild on t#$ la2 o' t#$ )ot#$ -odd$(( The religious te ts con$irm the eAuation! "-e is the one who cometh $orth this day $rom the primeval womb o$ them Kthe
secondary godsL who were be$ore <e,# reads the !ook of the .ead G2@ "I have come $orth between the thighs o$ the company o$ the gods!#G23 Dhat the !ook of the .ead calls "divine beings o$ the Thigh# G2G means the celestial assembly, the secondary

gods who collectively $orm the womb o$ cosmic genesis! 0ut the interrelated symbolism does not stop here! >very >gyptian priest knew that the mother goddess was the revolving egg housing the central sun! Indeed, the hieroglyphic image o$ an egg at the end o$ the divine name means "goddess!# .$ .siris the goddess Isis declares1 "-is seed is within my womb, I have molded the shape o$ the god within the egg as my son who is at the head o$ the >nnead!# G25 The god within the womb is the god within the egg, who is the god ruling the >nnead Hcircle o$ godsI! 0y the same eAuation the womb becomes the garment or belt girdling the sun1 the deceased king prays that he may be girt by the goddess Tait,G28 or announces that "'y kilt which is on me is -athor!# G27 In the case o$ the goddess /eith the womb becomes the shield! HThe shield is the hieroglyph $or /eith!I G24 Though the symbols o$ the primeval enclosure di$$er, each is presented as a $orm o$ the great mother, whose entire character answers to the visible Saturnian band !

The +ermaphrodite
In the %reat 'agical =apyrus o$ =aris, dated around the $irst hal$ o$ the $ourth century +!D!, appears the .racle o$ ?ronos! The recommended prayer invokes ?ronos as "9ord o$ the Dorld, ,irst ,ather,# but also bestows on the god the peculiar title "'an-Doman!#G2: ?ronos is Saturn, the primeval sun! To what aspect o$ the god did this title re$erE In Saturn the primal male and $emale principles unite, yielding the her"aphrodite# or androgyne ,ew o$ the preeminent
deities o$ antiAuity are $ree o$ this duality! The Sumerian +nu, /inurta, Tammu*, and >nkiB the -ebrew >lB the -indu Vishnu, 0rahma, and ShivaB the Iranian QurvanB the 'e ican Ouet*alcoatl—all reveal a $emale dimension! Their spouse is never wholly separated $rom their own body!

The >gyptians esteemed +tum as "that great -e-She,#G62 while celebrating +men as the "%lorious 'other o$ gods and men!#G66 The >gyptian word $or this primeval unity is Mut-tef# or "'other-,ather!# ,rom what has been established in the there can be little doubt as to the concrete meaning o$ central sun and its enclosure, considered as the male and $emale parents united in a single personality1 the great $ather’s body was also the god’s spouse# the womb o$ heaven!
previous pages concerning the symbolism o$ the enclosed sun the Mut-tef The word signi$ied the organi*ed (osmos, G6@ the

This duality $inds e pression in the >gyptian term khat, which may be translated either "body# or "womb!# The man-child
-orus, who dwells in the womb o$ -athor, is *henti-*hati# at once "the dweller in the body# and "the dweller in the womb!# The :itany of Re proclaims that "the khat KbodyL o$ <e is the great /ut,# the mother goddess!G63

>gyptian artists showed the body o$ .siris $orming the circle o$ the Tuat# the abode o$ .siris or <e!G6G 0ut every student o$ >gyptian religion knows that the Tuat# house o$ rest, was the womb o$ /ut! The hermaphrodite, then, personi$ies the original (osmos, which means Saturn and his visible dwelling ! %! S! ,aber, in his comprehensive study o$ ancient ritual, notes that the great $ather H "the Intelligent 0eing#I "was
sometimes esteemed the animating Soul and sometimes the husband o$ the &niverse, while the 5niverse was so"eti"es reckoned the body and so"eti"es the wife of the ,ntelligent !eing( and, as the one theory supposed a union as per$ect as that o$ the soul and body in one man, so the other produced a similar union by blending together the husband and wi$e into one hermaphrodite!# G65

Dith ,aber’s assessment it is impossible to disagree, so long as one remembers that to the ancients, the "universe# H(osmosI meant
Saturn’s home, not a boundless e panse! That Saturn’s (osmos acAuired a dual character as the god’s "body# and as his "spouse# is su$$icient to e plain the primordial ,ather-'other!

The hermaphrodite or androgyne, >liade tells us, is "the distinguishing sign o$ the original totality Ki!e!, the +llL!# Its customary $orm is "spherical,# he notes!G68 De thus arrive at the $ollowing eAuation1 !and of the enclosed sun @ +os"os >island# egg# cord# girdle# shield# circle of the gods? @ body of the great father @ wo"b of the great "other

8. T#$ Hol, Land
+ncient ritual the world over conceived the terrestrial ruler as the incarnation o$ the &niversal 'onarch! 0y the same principle each local city or kingdom became a transcript o$ the god-king ’s primeval domain! The sancti$ied
territory on earth was laid out according to a cos"ic plan, revealed in remote times!

.n this priority o$ the cosmic dwelling all maCor traditions concur! + celestial Sumer and +kkad preceded the organi*ation o$ the actual 'esopotamian kingdoms! +nd such settlements as >ridu, >rech, 0abylon, and 9agash took their names $rom a heavenly city occupied by the central sun! >very >gyptian town—-eliopolis, -erakleopolis, 'emphis, +bydos, Thebes, -ermopolis—mirrored a prototype, a "city in which the sun shone $orth in the beginning!# So did >gypt as a whole, according to the ritual, reproduce the
dwelling gathered together and uni$ied by the creator!

-ebrew tradition knew a heavenly Jerusalem which gave its name to the terrestrial cityB and what the -ebrews claimed o$ their city, the 'uslims claimed o$ 'ecca! The (hinese declared their kingdom to be a copy o$ the celestial empire, and each capital city imitated the same plan! In unison, diverse traditions o$ the /ear >ast, >urope, +sia, and the +mericas recall a -oly 9and par e-cellence#
$ounded and ruled by the creator himsel$! ,rom this Saturnian kingdom every nation took instruction in the ideals o$ kingship and in the proper organi*ation o$ the sacred domain!

T#$ Mot#$ Land
,n the creation "yth the great god raised a circular plot of 2earth3 fro" the cos"ic waters The enclosure was Saturn0s paradise<the kingdo" of heaven<appearing as a vast wheel or throne turning about the stationary god

Saturn,s #arthG67
In seeming re$erence to the $ertile soil around us, the 9atin poet Virgil celebrates the "mother o$ harvests# and "the
mighty mother o$ men!# 0ut he gives the great goddess o$ $ertility an intriguing title1 "Saturn’s >arth!#

Dhy Saturn0s >arthE The curiosity increases when one notices that the Sumerian +n, >nki, and /inurta—all identi$ied as Saturn— rule "in the Ekur # The translators render Ekur as "earth!#G64 So also did (hinese astronomy deem Saturn the planet o$ the "earth,#G6: while the =hoenician Saturn is said to have dwelt "in the centre o$ the earth!# The >gyptian "earth god# is Seb Hor %ebI! That is, writes 0udge, "the earth $ormed his body and was called the Phouse o$ Seb! G@2 P"
0ut i$ Seb’s body was the earth, why did the %reek historian =lutarch translate Seb as ?ronos HSaturnIE G@6

Dhat connection o$ the planet Saturn and the "earth# might have Custi$ied this identityE .$ course the common >nglish
translation, "earth,# naturally suggests to the modern mind our planet suspended in space! 0ut to the ancients no such detached view was possible! They knew only a terrestrial region# however large or small! In archaic ritual, the terms which e perts translate as "earth# mean literally "land,# "place,# "province#B and the only region which the ancients considered worthy o$ sancti$ication as the "land# was their own uni$ied state or nation—all else belonging to the "barbarians!#

0ut every sacred "land# organi*ed around a religious-political centre proclaimed itsel$ a copy o$ the pri"eval dwelling in heaven!
Thus the >gyptian ta# o$ten rendered as "earth,# re$ers $irst and $oremost to the heavenly province o$ the creator—the ta ab H"pure land#I, ta nefer H"beauti$ul land#I, ta sheta H"mysterious land#I, ta ankhtet H"land o$ li$e#I, or ta ur H"great land#I! Such terms are synonymous with ta Tuat# the "land o$ the Tuat## the cosmic dwelling o$ .siris or <e! In naming terrestrial >gypt ta# the >gyptians gave their homeland the name o$ the cosmic "place# par e-cellence

Ta signi$ies the cosmic dwelling "gathered together# by the creator! That the >gyptians conceived the ta as the "body o$ Seb#
corresponds with everything we have learned o$ the primeval enclosure! .$ eAual signi$icance is Seb’s hieroglyphic symbol, the egg

! The myths say that the egg o$ Seb is that $rom which the sun $irst shone $orth Hi!e!, it is the same as the revolving egg o$ +tum, the egg o$ the (osmosI! This so-called "world egg# has no connection with our planet! /or did the Sumerian Ekur# "earth,# denote our planet! +s observed by Jensen, 9angdon, and others, the Ekur appears as the celestial home o$ the creator! G@@ +ke SCoberg and >! 0ergmann state the identity bluntly! G@3 The Sumerians knew this celestial domain as the ki#—the place# or "the land#—invoked as ki-sikil-la# the "pure land# or "pure place,# and ki-gal# "great

The Sumerian ki was the +ssyrian Esara# the supreme "place!# <ather than $amiliar geography, the term re$ers to the created land
o$ cos"ic beginnings! Thus Esara# according to Jensen, was used with special re$erence to "the earth as it appeared at the creation #G@5 >Auivalent is the "celestial land# o$ -indu myth, G@8 or the "pure land# o$ the 0uddhists!G@7 /o greater mistake could be made than to seek a geographical location o$ this lost land!

+ncient cosmology locates the primordial "place,# not "down here,# but at the celestial pole, the centre and summit! In
>gyptian thought, states (lark, the celestial pole is "that place# or "the great city!# -ere dwells the "'aster o$ the =rimeval =lace!# G@4 Dhen the god in the +offin Te-ts proclaims, "I am the creator who sits in the supreme place,# the re$erence is to the polar abode, (lark tells us!G@: Iranian astronomy drew on the same tradition when it designated the celestial pole as $ah# which means simply "the place,# the dwelling o$ "the %reat .ne in the 'iddle o$ the Sky!# G32

In Iranian cosmology it is Saturn who occupies the polar $ah# "place#—Cust as it is Saturn who, in the $orm o$ the polar +n,
rules the Sumerian "pure place!# -ence, one could properly call this domain "Saturn’s 9and,# or "Saturn’s =rovince!# +nd this simple relationship enables us to understand why the ancients, who regarded their own sacred territory as a duplication o$ the celestial dwelling, e tolled the $ertile soil as "Saturn’s >arth!#

The #gyptian Paradise
+ clari$ication o$ the >gyptian concept will help to illuminate the general tradition! .ne o$ the $eatures o$ the >gyptian ta# "land,# which has encouraged its identi$ication with our earth is its mythical character as a garden or $ield o$
abundance! To reside in the ta is to live in the %arden o$ -etep! 'any descriptions o$ this primeval domain do indeed sound very much like a terrestrial paradise! The land is $illed with wheat or barley, and the inhabitants drink o$ beer and cool waters! In the !ook of the .ead# the deceased king announces, "I know the names o$ the domains, the districts and the streams within the %arden o$ -etep ! ! ! there is given to me the abundance ! ! !# G36 The Pyra"id Te-ts depict the deceased king drinking oil and wine and living o$$ "the bread o$ eternity# and "the beer o$ everlastingness!#G3@

The >gyptians deemed the meadow o$ peace and plenty at once the ancestral land and the future home o$ those yet to
pass beyond! 'any writers, o$ course, recogni*e the %arden o$ -etep as an early—perhaps the earliest—mythical e pression o$ the lost paradise! Its underlying nature, however, has yet to be penetrated by the conventional schools!

To anyone willing to consider the entire conte t o$ >gyptian evidence, it should be clear that the primeval land produced by the creator and imbued with over$lowing abundance was celestial! Those who attain the %arden o$ -etep reach the heaven o$ the creator! The deceased king in the Pyra"id Te-ts goes "to see his $ather .siris!# -e
announces1 "I have gone to the great island in the midst o$ the Sekhtet 1etepet K%arden o$ -etepetL on which the swallow-gods alightB the swallows are the Imperishable Stars ! ! ! I will eat o$ what you eat! I will drink o$ what you drink, and you will give satiety to me at the pole ! ! ! Fou shall set me to be a magistrate among the ?hu, the Imperishable Stars in the north o$ the sky, who rule over o$$erings and protect the reaped corn, who cause this to go down to the chie$est o$ the $ood-spirits who are in the sky!# G33

9et us analy*e this important te t, which combines several >gyptian interpretations o$ the celestial garden! +s used above, the term 1etepet signi$ies "abundance# or "$ood o$$erings!# so that the %arden o$ -etepet is the %arden o$
+bundance or %arden o$ ,ood .$$erings in heaven! -etepet possesses a root sense o$ "gathering together# or "uniting# Hmuch like te"t# "collecting,# "gathering together#I, a meaning which is vital to the symbolism as a whole!

1etepet is, o$ course, inseparable $rom hetep# "rest,# "standing in one place!# The %arden o$ -etepet is the %arden o$ -etep! .ne
can reasonably speak o$ the %arden as the dwelling o$ rest and abundance Hi!e!, "peace and plenty#I, gathered together by the creator! The symbolism is, as I shall attempt to show, much deeper than standard interpretations would suggest!

In the midst o$ the celestial garden is the "great island,# whose inhabitants—the swallow-gods—are the %khe"u-Seku
H"never-corrupting# onesI, here translated as "the Imperishable Stars!# The >gyptians also called these divinities %khe"u-5rtu H"never-resting# onesI, conventionally identi$ied as circumpolar stars who, revolving around the polar a is, never sink beneath the hori*on! 0ut the $oregoing te t identi$ies these gods as more than "stars# Hin the modern sense o$ the wordI! They are the *hu H"words o$ power# or "light spirits#I, which erupted directly $rom the creator! There is a vast body of evidence to show that these secondary light gods were the"selves the abundant "food# or "offerings# of the celestial garden and that this is what the above hy"n "eans when it speaks of the "food-spirits #

The $lowing beer Hor wineI and the $ield o$ grain Hwheat, barley, cornI are, in $act, indistinguishable $rom the primeval sea o$ words Hsecondary godsI which sprang $rom the creator and which the great god gathered together to $orm the enclosure o$ the primeval island—his own "body!# .n the "great island in the midst o$ the %arden o$
-etepet# the $iery particles H*hu# %khe"u-5rtuI "alighted,# collectively $orming the enclosure! I$, in one myth, the god’s shining "words# congealed into the island, in another, the isle was produced $rom the luminous "grain o$ heaven!# The "words of power## the "grain## and the "co"pany of the gods# represented interrelated "ythical interpretations of the pri"eval "atter e/ected by the creator In the imagination o$ the >gyptians the creator collected the grain $rom the celestial $ield Hsometimes called the Sekhet-Sasa or ",ield o$ ,ire#I, and produced the enclosure as the "granary o$ the gods#—the house o$ abundance which every king hoped to

attain upon death! The grain served as the "dough# $rom which the creator $ashioned his dwellingB and it is this crucial relationship which e plains the interconnected meanings o$ the >gyptian term paut or pautti—signi$ying at once the "primeval matter# Hcompany o$ godsI and "dough# or "bread!# The creator organi*ed the company o$ gods Hthe grainI into the revolving (osmos, conceived as a celestial land o$ abundance!

pri"eval "atter @ creative 2words3 @ secondary gods @ grain of heaven >dough# bread? In their ceremonies the >gyptians reenacted the creation on a microcosmic scale by $ashioning ritual dough cakes used in o$$erings to the dead! These cakes o$ paut symboli*ed the created "land# or "earth,# produced $rom the
over$lowing grain o$ heaven! Thus, while the >gyptian ta means "land,# ta also means "bread# or "cakes!# Such interrelated terminology pervades the >gyptian language! + review o$ this usage reveals two consistent principles1

6! The lesser gods Hchildren, servants, assistantsI coincide with the "dough#—the beer and grain which erupted $rom the
creator! H=rior to uni$ication as the "land,# or (osmos, the $iery particles compose the sea o$ (haos and thus may be termed "$iends# or "demons# o$ darkness!I

@! The organi*ed dwelling H"land,# "city,# "place,# "domain#I coincides with the "granary# and the molded "cake# or "bread# o$

-ere are a $ew o$ the many e amples1 The "children# o$ the great god are the pert# "things which appear#B but pert also means "grain!# The te ts describe the beer and
grain Hthe childrenI as pert er kheru# "appearing at Kor asL the words# o$ the creator! Thus, while akhib means "to speak,# akhabu signi$ies "grain,# and the inhabitants o$ the heavenly dwelling are the %khabiu

Similarly, seru means at once "grain# and "princes# or "chie$s#B both uses are inseparable $rom ser# "to command,# and serui#
"$lame!# =roperly understood the "grain# and the "princes# re$er to the same $iery material mythically perceived as the creator’s $laming "commands!#

Though heA signi$ies the "ale’ or "beer# spit out by the creator, it also means "to command!# I$ aut is "radiance# or "glory# Hcompare khuI, the same word signi$ies "abundance!# 0ut aut derives $rom au# "children!# The
abundant wheat and barley—i!e!, the light spirits who glori$y the creator—are brought $orth as the god’s own o$$spring!

1enu means the "servants# o$ the great god, who "go round about# H hennuiIB but henu also denotes "abundance!# The lush growth o$
the celestial abode is the hen# but the same word signi$ies the "glory# or "maCesty# o$ the ruling divinity! ,rom the notion that the celestial lights "glori$y# the creator, it is a very short step to the idea that they "praise " him or "sing prayers# to him! Thus hen means also "to praise!#

+ccordingly, the word tebhu means "abundance# but also "prayers!# H.ne should not attempt to distinguish the "prayers# $rom
the praying godsB those who glori$y the great god are the glory!I

So also does sene" mean, at once, "abundance# and "to pray,# "adore!# Dhile "grain# is shert# the related term sherriu signi$ies the "little gods!# )enkhu means "abundance,# but the same word denotes the inhabitants o$ the celestial land! %hau means "$ood# but also the dwellers in the "land!# 1etepet means "abundance,# while the hetepetiu are the secondary gods! *hefa is "$ood,# but the *heftiu are the "$iends# o$ (haos
Heventually organi*ed into the uni$ied dwellingI!

!etu means the "grain# or "barley# o$ heaven, but also the "demons!# Just as the secondary gods compose the "limbs# or "members# o$ the central sun, so does the grain! +n >gyptian term $or
"grain# is atpet# mani$estly derived $rom at# "limb,# and pet# "heaven!# The grain becomes the "limbs o$ heaven# Hor o$ the -eaven 'anI!

Thus nepu signi$ies "limb# or "$lesh,# while neper means "grain!# The primeval abode is &epert# i!e!, the land $ormed $rom the grain! %athered together by the creator, the grain becomes the enclosure o$ the primeval land—the "granary# or the
"bread# o$ the gods Hsymboli*ed by the dough cakes employed in the rites o$ the deadI! Thus, while shen H , I denotes the "bond# or "cord# in which the great god dwells, shena means at once "granary# and "body# Hthe god’s body encompasses the grainI! Shenti also means "granary,# but the same word signi$ies "garment!# HThe garment—belt, girdle, collar—is the organi*ed band o$ grain!I Symboli*ing this celestial enclosure are the shens# or sacri$icial cakes!

=eA is a name o$ the celestial landB and the great god’s garment HNlandI is peAt 0ut peAt also means the "cake# o$ the gods!

Similarly, sesher is the god’s garment, while seshert denotes the cake or bread o$ heaven! 4efenu is a name o$ the god’s dwelling, while Aefen signi$ies the sacred "cake!# &es means both "grain# and "$ire!# HThe $ield o$ grain is the $ield o$ $ire!I In the rites the grain is $ashioned into the nest or sacri$icial
cake! 0ut nest also denotes the "throne# o$ the creator! H(reator’s throne N primeval landBI

The benet are light-spirits who accompany the creator! -elping to e plain the term is the related word bennut# signi$ying the "matter#
or "$luid# which erupted $rom the solitary god! This primeval matter $orms the sacred cake, $or "cake# or "bread# is bennu !ener# a name o$ the created land, derives $rom the same root!

The "$ood-spirits# gathered together to $orm the primeval enclosure are the "builders# o$ the god’s home! Thus, the "beer# which
$lows $rom the creator is aAet# but aAet also denotes a "builder# or "mason#—i!e!, one o$ the aAetu who $ashion the celestial dwelling!

The language repeats the same connections again and again1 6! secondary light gods N celestial abundance Hgrain, beer, etc!I @! uni$ied dwelling o$ god N celestial abundance Hgrain, land, body, garment, beer, etc!I gathered into organi*ed $orm, i!e!, as "cake# or "bread!# It is clear that, in >gyptian ritual, the sacred cakes meant much more than mere "bread!# The cakes were symbols o$
the great god and his creation—the %arden o$ +bundance! The celestial prototype o$ the cake was the island o$ beginnings, which the creator organi*ed $rom a previously chaotic sea o$ "beer and grain!# That the >gyptians conceived the uni$ied "land# or celestial "bread# as the body o$ the creator is crucial to the symbolismB in eating the cake, or in drinking the sancti$ied beer, the initiates symbolically enCoyed the abundance o$ the primeval age, or, what is the same thing, they consumed the body o$ the creator! HI shall not distract $rom the present discussion by elaborating parallels in later religious symbolism!I

The interrelated terminology identi$ies the primeval ta# "land,# with the enclosure of the central sun ! The >gyptians knew that the primeval garden lay within the circle o$ the +ten! H "Thou makest thy creations in thy great +ten,# reads the 9itany o$ <e!IG3G Thus the >gyptians denoted the garden o$ <e by combining the +ten glyph with the glyph $or "garden#1 !

The signi$icance o$ such imagery seems to have escaped mythologists1 the lost "ho"eland# of global lore was the
original dwelling of the sun-god .$ the >gyptian han or "homeland,# <eymond writes1 "The Sun-%od was believed to operate $rom his birthplace ! ! ! In its essential nature the primeval sacred domain was the very place $rom which the <adiance issued $irst!# G35 This "sacred domain# was the island o$ ta# the celestial earth!

>gyptian sources term the created domain &eter-ta—the "-oly 9and# or "%od’s >arth!# -ere occurred the primordial dawn!
That is, it was $rom /eter-ta that the stationary sun shone $orth! + hymn to +men-<e, $or e ample, invokes the sun-god as the "0eauti$ul ,ace, who comest KshinesL $rom /eter-ta!#G38 /o wonder that >gyptologists con$use this -oly 9and with the terrestrial east—the place o$ the solar sunriseM

The e act counterpart o$ the >gyptian &eter-ta is the Sumerian .il"un# the "clear and radiant# dwelling o$ the gods, ruled by the &niversal 'onarch >nki! Dilmun, according to Sumerian hymns, is "the place where the sun rises!# G37 +nd many thousands o$ miles $rom 'esopotamia the natives o$ -awaii recall an ancestral land, Tahiti &a# "our peace$ul motherland1 the tranAuil land o$ Dawn!#G34 So also did the -indus, =ersians, (hinese, and many +merican Indian tribes conceive the lost paradise as the place o$ the "sunrise!#G3:

The World Wheel
That Saturn, the primeval sun, $irst shed its light $rom the circle o$ the created "earth# will e plain why the celestial
land o$ten appears as a great wheel revolving around stationary sun! It may be called alternately the "world wheel,# "world mill,# or "chariot!# +nd this turning wheel o$ the -oly 9and is consistently represented by the signs



-indu descriptions o$ the cosmic wheel a$$irm that the ancient sun stands at the centre, as the +hakravartin or
"wheel-turner!# ,rom the stationary pivot o$ the wheel, the &niversal 'onarch "directs the movement without participating in it himsel$,# states %uenon!GG2

.n the 0uddhist iconography o$ the world wheel, (oomaraswamy writes1 "-e whose seat is on the loti$orm nave or
navel o$ the wheel, and himsel$ unmoving sets and keeps it spinning, is the ruler o$ the world, o$ all that is natured and e tended in the

middle region, between the essential nave and the natural $elly!# GG6

The organi*ed "world# lies within the ever-turning rim ! GG@ The 0uddhists regard this sacred domain as both an ancestral paradise and "the situation o$ the %oal,# the heaven reached by the deceased! 0uddhist myths say that a plot o$ "land# congealed out o$ the cosmic waters to $orm a band around the great $ather, becoming
the "golden wheel#1 "The sur$ace o$ these waters, Cust as in the 0rahmanical cosmology and in %enesis, is stirred by the dawn wind o$ creation! The $oam o$ the waters solidi$ies to $orm the golden circle H *ancana-"andalaI or P9and o$ %old’ H*ancana-bhu"iI, the same as -suan-tsang’s Pgolden wheel’ and representing Pthe $oundations o$ the earth’ ! ! ! The sur$ace o$ the 9and o$ %old is the <ound o$ the Dorld!#GG3

That the world wheel stood at the stationary pole is con$irmed by the 0uddhist account o$ the primeval "wheel
king#—owner o$ a "wheel whose stead$astness was the measure o$ his $itness to rule!# -e was "a universal king,# "a righteous king

!I The myth states not only that the revolving wheel remained in a stationary position, but that a $all $rom its $i ed place would mean the death o$ the ruler! "I$ the (elestial Dheel o$ a Dheel-turning king shall sink down, shall slip down $rom its place, that king has not much time to live ! ! !# GGG That is, o$ course, e actly what happened1 the wheel $ell, the &niversal 'onarch died, and the world was thrown into con$usion!
ruling in righteousness, lord o$ the $our Auarters o$ the earth!# HThe $our Auarters were the $our divisions o$ the wheel

.ne is reminded o$ the Qoroastrian world wheel called the Spihr! This ever-turning wheel was the "body# o$
Qurvan, or Time, the planet Saturn! Throughout the primordial epoch, the wheel o$ the Spihr remained in one spotB and its $all coincided with the collapse o$ the prosperous age!GG5

In many myths Saturn’s earth-wheel acAuires the poetic $orm o$ an enormous mill churning out abundance! +n old Icelandic
tradition, $or e ample, knew the mill as the $abulous possession o$ +mlodhior ,rodhi under whose rule mankind enCoyed peace and prosperity! <ecruited by ,rodhi to work the mill were two giant maidens, who day and night turned the massive wheel, grinding out gold and happiness! 0ut like all $abled wheels, ,rodhi’s mill eventually broke down, causing the death o$ the great monarch!

+s shown by de Santillana and von Dechend, ,rodhi was the planet Saturn! GG8 The authors Hwhose work is titled
1a"let0s MillI review widespread traditions o$ the cosmic mill—$rom Iceland to ,inland to India to %reece—$inding many une pected connections with the same remote planet! H/ot once, however, do the two writers wonder whether the tradition o$ the Saturnian wheel may have originated in the actual observation o$ a band around the planet!I

+s the possession o$ the &niversal 'onarch, the mill lies in the $arthest north and is regularly identi$ied with the "pole# or "a is# o$ the world! The ,innish *alevala locates the mill Hhere called the Sa"poI on a great rock in "/orth ,arm,# the
polar garden o$ plenty! The hero Ilmarinen1

! ! ! $orged the Sampo skill$ully1 on one side a grain mill, on the second side a salt mill, in the third a money Ki!e!, goldL mill! Then the Sampo ground away, the lid o$ many colours went round and round!GG7 This cosmic mill, too, broke down, bringing wholesale disorder! +nd i$ the ,innish Sa"po is a late and $anci$ul version o$ the mill, the linguists now recogni*e the Sa"po0s connection with the older ska"bha o$ -indu ritual!GG4 In the %tharva
Veda the Ska"bha Hmeaning "pole#I appears as the "golden embryo# and the "$rame o$ creation,# a mill-like edi$ice "which poured $orth the gold within the world!# The Vedic hymn eAuates the mill H Ska"bhaI with the whole creation! The body o$ the Ska"bha houses the li$e elements and the godsB it is the "ancient one# or "great monster,# whose veins are the $our Auarters o$ the world Hi!e!,

I! That the cosmic mill is at once the &niversal 'onarch ’s body and the created paradise will immediately e plain why, in the general tradition, the collapse o$ the great wheel coincides with the death o$ the god-king and the sinking o$ the lost land into the waters o$ the +byss! /othing so con$uses the underlying theme as the habit, begun long ago, o$ conceiving the primordial wheel, or island o$ "earth,# in terrestrial terms! (ould the landscape $amiliar to the ancients have produced the many interrelated images o$ the
turning wheelE

The -ne.Wheeled !hariot
The great god sits enthroned within the celestial earth as in a one-wheeled chariot! Thus, in Scandinavian rock carvings the symbol —the universal sign o$ the world wheel—may either appear alone or as the wheel o$ a celestial wagon! +ll ancient sun-gods seem to own such a wheel or chariot! The one-wheeled chariot o$ the -indu Surya clearly answers to the same

cosmic $orm as "the high-wheeled chariot# o$ the Iranian 'ithra! GG:

+n early $orm was the $amous sun wheel o$ the

0abylonian Shamash!

*1. T#$ ;#$$l o' S#a)a(#+ #$ld in 2la"$ b, a "o d

*5. T i2tol$)!( idin- on a (in-l$ ;#$$l.

*6. T#$ ;#$$l o' IAion.

*:. H$b $; Ya#;$# on a (in-l$ ;#$$l. %reek art depicts the great $ather Dionysus seated upon a one-wheeled chariot, much like that o$ the old god Triptolemos! In the %strono"ica o$ -yginus one $inds Triptolemos remembered as "the $irst o$ all to use a single wheel!# G52 +rgive tradition held that the $ather o$ Triptolemos was Trochilos, "he o$ the wheel,# whom some identi$ied as the inventor o$ the $irst chariot! The %reeks o$ (hios knew the primeval god %yrapsios, "he o$ the round wheel!# G56 .bviously, none o$ these wheels or wheel gods can be separated $rom the $amous wheel o$ I ion, set loose in a celestial con$lagration! The -ebrew Fahweh similarly sits upon a single wheel! Dhile modern commentators o$$er competing interpretations o$ the cosmic wheel—the chariot o$ the gods— $ew stop to notice the link with Saturn! (ook, $or e ample, a$ter a prolonged study o$ ancient wheel symbolism, acknowledges ?ronos HSaturnI as the old wheel or "disk# bearer, but is not inclined to draw any conclusions $rom this! G5@ The "inventor# o$ the wheel, or "chariot,# was the now-distant planet! This is what the (hinese tell us when they report that the godking -uang-ti, who is identi$ied with the planet Saturn, was the $irst to use the wheeled chariot! In more than one o$ the illustrations presented here the cosmic wheel serves as the throne o$ the ruling god! 9’.range calls this "the throne chariot,# noting many e amples in the ancient /ear >ast!G53 .ne o$ the divinities to sit upon such a chariot Hor wheel-throneI is the -ebrew Fahweh, whose seat is "the wheel o$ the throne o$ his glory!# G5G HThe god’s revolving throne is the circle o$ "glory#—that is, his own "halo!#I

I$ later art showed the god on the wheeled seat, the original moti$ has the god in it, $or the throne revolves around the god -ere,
$or e ample, is a verse $rom the >gyptian !ook of the .ead# revealing a little noticed aspect o$ the cosmic throne1 ". my Seat, . my Throne, come ye to me, and go ye round about me, . ye gods! I am a sah Kluminous bodyL, there$ore let me rise up KshineL among those who $ollow Kgo aroundL the great god! G55 Dhen the deceased king attains the celestial throne he stands within the revolving circle o$ the gods, the "$ollowers# o$ the central sun! The >d$u te ts call this the "throne-o$-gods,# $or the divine asse"bly itself for"s the wheel of the throne G58

*<. T#$ C$lti" -od o' t#$ ;#$$l.

.>. An-loBSaAon S$at$ + ;it# ;#$$l. Denoted by the throne or wheel-throne is the plot o$ ta# "land,# which $irst emerged $rom the cosmic sea! The creator
brought $orth the revolving circle o$ earth as his "primeval seat!# <eymond writes1 "The >arth was caused to emerge $rom /un by virtue o$ the radiance o$ the Sun-%od who was believed to dry up the water around his primeval seat!# G57 This plot o$ created "earth# was the han or "homeland,# which the te ts call neset# the "throne!#G54

The implications reach $ar beyond >gypt and bear directly on the wide-ranging myths o$ cosmic chariots and primeval mills noted above! Dhat one usually regards as two separate themes—the "chariot o$ the sun# and the
"world wheel#—converge in a single image1 the wheel o$ Saturn, the primeval sun! That the ancients denoted the "sun wheel# and the created "earth# by one and the same sign

was no coincidence!

The !ity of +eaven
The Saturn myth tells us not only that the planet-god ruled the -oly 9and as the $irst king but that he $ounded the $irst city! Saturn’s "city# means "Saturn’s >arth!# The great god lives $i ed in the middle o$ the sky ! ! ! dweller in the city!G5: This is the pronouncement o$ the >gyptian +offin Te-ts The cosmic city is the =rimeval =lace1 "I have come to this city, the
region o$ the P,irst Time’ to be ! ! ! a dweller in Pthis land!’ G82 " Thus the >gyptians invoke a celestial 'emphis, "the divine emerging primeval island#B a celestial Thebes, "the island emerging in /un which $irst came into being#B a celestial -ermonthes, "the high ground which grew out o$ /un,# or "the egg which originated in the beginning# G86B a celestial >lephantine, the "city in the midst o$ the waters,# or the "throne o$ <e#G8@B and a celestial +bydos, the ta-ur or "%reat H=rimevalI 9and!#G83

The integrated symbolism—though at times comple —never departs $rom the underlying idea o$ an enclosure around the central sun! The imagery concerns "the original state o$ the world,# rather than a terrestrial city, states (lark! G8G Depicted is the city o$ the "dawn# or o$ the "sun’s coming $orth!# The tradition is universal! 'ention >rech and historians naturally think o$ the
ancient city in southern 'esopotamia! 0ut the >rech invoked in the ritual is no terrestrial habitation! It is1

>rech, the handiwork o$ the gods, The great wall touching the sky, The lo$ty dwelling place established by +nu!G85 The creator +n H+nuI—who is the planet Saturn—dwelt in the uru-ul-la# "the city o$ $ormer times#—not a city on earth but the embryo o$ the (osmos, according to Van DiCk! G88 <uling $rom the "midst o$ heaven,# +n shines as "the hero o$ the sacred city on high!#G87 This is the "city $ounded by +n ! ! ! =lace where the great gods dine, $illed with radiance and awe ! ! !# G84 The hymns call it "the great city,# and "the place where the sun rises #G8:

+ll 'esopotamian traditions describe the celestial city as the original garden o$ abundance —"the dais o$ plenty ! ! !
the pure place ! ! ! Its heart like a distant shrine ! ! ! Its $easts $low with $at and milk, are rich with abundance!# G72

Thus did the Sumerians recall the lost land o$ Dilmun as "the primeval city#1 Dilmun, the city thou hast $ounded ! ! ! 9o, thy city drinks water in abundance! 9o, Dilmun drinks water in abundance!G76 >gyptian and 'esopotamian descriptions o$ the cosmic city make clear that this habitation was the same enclosure as the lost paradise, and the identity persists in -ebrew and 'uslim thought, which continually associates +dam’s paradise with a cos"ic Berusale" The light o$ the Jerusalem above was provided by %od himsel$! "+nd the building o$ the wall o$ it was o$ Casper1 and the city was pure $old, like unto glass!# G7@ .ne o$ the =salms glori$ies the celestial Jerusalem as "Sublime in elevation in the uttermost north ! ! ! the (ity o$ the ?ing!# G73 The heavenly city lay at the cosmic centreB it was the $irst thing created by %odB and it was surrounded by the primeval sea! The image, observes ,aber, is "plainly borrowed $rom the garden o$ >den!# The -ebrews also preserved the tradition o$ a primordial city o$ Tyre, similarly identi$ied with >den! G7G In >*ekiel we read1 ". Tyre, you have said, PI am per$ect in beauty!’ Four borders are in the heart o$ the seas ! ! ! Fou were in >den, the garden o$ %odB every precious stone was your covering!#G75 This eAuation o$ the cosmic city and the original paradise $inds numerous parallels in other traditions! The =ersian vara $ashioned by +hura 'a*da is at once the $irst city and the lost paradise! G78 The "all-containing city o$ 0rahma# at the pole merges into the paradisal plain o$ IlaB G77 the Imperial (ity o$ the (hinese Shang-ti coincides with the mythical paradise o$ ?wen-lunBG74 while the 'e ican lost city o$ +*tlan H"surrounded by waters#I and the 'ayan lost city o$ Tula
Hthe "enclosure# in the seaI both appear as gardens o$ abundance!G7:

+ coherent pattern uni$ies what are o$ten assumed to be unrelated myths and symbols1 the created "earth,# the lost
paradise, the wheel o$ the sun, the revolving throne, and the cosmic city! Dhile the mythical $ormulations vary, all point to the same band housing the central sun!

Surely it is o$ signi$icance that, while these images are o$ten dissociated in later myths, they constantly overlap in the earliest versions! The +*tecs may have $orgotten that the lost city was the throne o$ the creatorB and perhaps many %reek cults no longer remembered that the Island o$ the 0lessed was the turning wheel o$ the sun, but such connections are central to the world’s oldest cosmologies! The interrelationships are clearly evident in the image o$ the mother goddess, who unites in a single personality the varied aspects o$ the celestial earth1 paradise, wheel, throne, and city! The >gyptian great mother—whether called Isis, /ut, -athor, 'ut, or /eith —is nebt en neter ta# "the 9ady o$ the
-oly 9and# or "the 9ady o$ %od’s >arth!# The "island o$ earth,# according to the Pyra"id Te-ts# lies "between the thighs o$ /ut!# G42 I$ one permits the >gyptian concept to illuminate later symbolism o$ the "mother earth# one sees that the supposed distinction between earth goddesses and sky goddesses lacks $oundation! "%od’s >arth# means Saturn’s >arth, and this "other land, circumscribed by the womb o$ the goddess, is the enclosure o$ the central sun


/or can one $ail to notice that the hieroglyph $or the goddess /ut

—"the holy abode—"is the $orm o$ a wheel and an obvious prototype o$ the "world wheels# so common to >astern symbolism! Isis, in the classical age, was also symboli*ed by a wheel!G46 'esopotamian cults represented the goddess Ishtar, "the womb,# by a wheel! The -indu goddess <ta is the "wheel o$ law#
controlling the cosmic cycle, while the goddess Ila personi$ies the chakra or world wheel! The name o$ the (eltic goddess +rianrhod means "silver wheel!# .ne is reminded also o$ the iyn wheel o$ +phrodite and the wheels o$ Tyche, /emesis, and ,ortuna, all o$ which appear to re$lect a common idea! +s the stable, ever-turning circle o$ the (osmos, the goddess eventually became the abstract "wheel o$ 'other /ature!#G4@

+nd when one reali*es that the wheel served as the great $ather ’s revolving throne it can come as no surprise to discover
that, in the archaic terminology, "throne# and "goddess# are synonymous! "The seated great mother,# states /eumann, "is the original $orm o$ the

.*. T#$ -odd$(( N$)$(i(+ ;it# ;#$$l o' 'at$. Penthroned goddess,’ and also o$ the throne itsel$! +s mother and earth woman the %reat 'other is the Pthrone’ pure and simple ! ! !
The king comes to power by Pmounting the throne’ and so takes his place on the lap o$ the %reat %oddess, the earth—he becomes her son!#G43

In the -indu kingship rites reviewed by -ocart, "the king is made to sit on a throne which represents the womb!# G4G 0ut the identity o$ the throne and womb is as old as human language1 the >gyptian hieroglyph $or Isis, the womb o$ heaven, is a simple throne !

0ut the same mother goddess encloses the cosmic city! The determinative o$ "city# in the >gyptian hieroglyphs is simply the sign o$ the "holy abode# , the goddess /ut! The Pyra"id Te-ts invoke the goddess, "in this your name o$
Psettlements,’ ! ! ! in this your name o$ P(ity!’ G45 " while the !ook of the .ead e tols the great mother as "9ady o$ terrors, lo$ty o$ walls!#G48

The >gyptian city-goddess $inds a close parallel in the 0abylonian goddess &ra-a*aga, whose name means "brilliant town!#G47 Tyro, the mother goddess o$ the Tyrians, gave the %reeks their word tyrsis# "walled city!# G44 To enter the celestial city is to $ind shelter in the primeval womb! Thus the re$uge o$ Delphi is "the womb# and
Jerusalem "the city o$ the heavenly womb!#G4:

In the /ew Testament H0ook o$ <evelationI one $inds a $ascinating eAuation o$ primeval goddess and primeval city! In his vision, John beholds "the great whore that sitteth upon many waters1 Dith whom the kings o$ the earth have
committed $ornication ! ! ! and upon her $orehead was a name written, P'FST><F, 0+0F9./ T-> %<>+T, T-> '.T->< ., -+<9.TS +/D +0.'I/+TI./S ., T-> >+<T-!# Dho was this "mother o$ harlots#E The angel e plains1 "+nd the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings o$ the earth!# G:2 The language points to the ancient rites o$ kingship, in which every local ruler took as his consort the city HwombI on the cosmic waters!

In ranging over the myths and symbols o$ the created earth, paradise, wheel, throne, and city, one thus remains in the shadow o$ a single mother goddess, who contains within her womb the $irst organi*ed domain in heaven, the island o$ Saturn’s (osmos !

The #n'losure as Prototype

In dealing with the myths and symbols o$ the -oly 9and one must reckon with the distinction—not always spelled out in ancient literature—between the celestial prototype and the terrestrial copy! >very sacred kingdom or city derives its character $rom the primeval dwelling, so that whatever was said o$ the enclosure above was also said o$ the imitative $orm constructed by men! ",rom the concordant testimony o$ all the traditions,# writes %uenon, "a conclusion emerges very clearly1 the a$$irmation that there e ists a P-oly 9and’ par e cellence, prototype G:6 o$ all other P-oly 9ands,’ the spiritual centre to which all other centres are

Through identi$ication, the sacred history o$ the race or nation merges with the history o$ the gods, $or each organi*ed community viewed itsel$ as a duplication o$ the celestial "race!# >ach line o$ historical kings leads back to a
$irst king who is not a man, but Saturn, the supreme power o$ heavenB in the same way, the race as a whole traces its ancestry to a generation o$ gods or semidivine beings who inhabited the "earth# raised in the creation! 0y this universal tendency, Saturn’s paradise becomes the ancestral land, the place where history began! Does not every nation claim that its ancestors descended $rom a race o$ gods, who occupied a happy garden at the centre and summitE

It was with the utmost seriousness that the ancients laid out their $irst political settlements, taking the cosmic habitation as the prescribed plan The purpose was to establish Saturn’s kingdom on earth, repeating the creator’s de$eat o$ (haos
and $ounding a central authority whose power e tended to a protective "border# separating the kingdom o$ light $rom the powers o$ darkness and disorgani*ation Hthe "barbarians#I!

+ccordingly, the $irst sacred cities were organi*ed as circular enclosures around the ruling lord! <itual reAuirements superseded practical considerations, and even when geography and growth prevented or distorted the purely circular $orm, the sacred city was still conceived as a revolving enclosure! Symbolically, every >gyptian city lay
within the shield or protective border o$ /ut Hthe "%reat =rotectoress#I! The 0abylonian map shows the land as a circle around a centre! "-ere,# concludes >liade, "the earthly abode is the counterpart H"ehretI o$ the heavenly abode!#G:@

-ebrew thought repeatedly insists that the terrestrial Jerusalem was but a likeness o$ the city $irst constructed by %od! "+ celestial Jerusalem was created by %od be$ore the city was built by the hand o$ man ! ! ! The heavenly Jerusalem kindled the inspiration o$ all the -ebrew prophets,# observes >liade! G:3 The distinction between the local and the primordial city receives emphatic statement in the Syriac +pocalypse o$ 0aruch, when %od asks, "Dost thou think that this is that
city o$ which I said1 P.n the palms o$ my hands have I graven thee’E This building now built in your midst is not that which is revealed with me, that which was prepared be$orehand here $rom the time when I took counsel to make =aradise ! ! !# G:G H+gain,

note the eAuation o$ the city—Jerusalem and paradise!I >Aually clear is the primacy o$ the archetypal city in -induism, according to >liade! "+ll the Indian royal cities, even
the modern ones, are built a$ter the mythical model o$ the celestial city, where, in the age o$ gold H in illo te"poreI, the &niversal Sovereign dwelt ! ! ! Thus, $or e ample, the palace $ortress o$ Sigiriya, in (eylon, is built a$ter the model o$ the celestial city +lakamanda and is Phard o$ ascent $or human beings’"G:5

Symbolically, each -indu settlement stood within the "andala or "circle,# delineating a consecrated space magically protected $rom the invading $orces o$ disintegration! G:8 The sancti$ied area, observes Tucci, "by the line o$ de$ense which
circumscribes it, represents protection $rom the mysterious $orces that menace the sacred purity o$ the spot ! ! !# This protective circle is "above all, a map o$ the cosmos!#G:7

+s documented by 9’.range, the circle around a centre was the ideal $orm o$ sacred cities in the /ear >ast, as typi$ied by the
residential cities o$ DarabCird and ,iru*abad, whose circular $orm served as a precedent $or the "<ound (ity# o$ 0aghdad! The ideal pattern derived $rom the ancient conception o$ the (osmos, states 9’.range! G:4

The same symbolism attaches to the <oman "undusa trench dug around the spot on which a new city was to be built! The enclosure served as a protective bond, ordaining the city as a renewal o$ the primeval homeland! G:: In the old documents the <oman cities were the urbes# $rom orbis# "round!#522 The consistent pattern o$ the sacred territory shows the in$luence o$ a universal prototype! Fet $ew researchers take the prototype seriously! Dhen the creation myths speak o$ a primordial -eliopolis, >rech, or Jerusalem, the analysts think only o$ the terrestrial city! .ne can, with $ar greater assurance, insist that the local habitation
never produces, on its own, a cosmic myth o$ any kind!

In >gypt, it is the primeval sun who rules the original -eliopolis, 'emphis, Thebes, -erakleopolis, Cust as it is the primeval sun who governs as the $irst king o$ >gypt as a whole! The city and kingdom repeat, on di$$erent scales, the sa"e history and this $act alone is su$$icient to show that the "history# is not local but universal! I$ the myths say that

>gypt was "gathered together# $rom the primeval matter, $orming an island around the sun, they say the same o$ the sacred city, whatever its name!526

That the ancients o$ten $orgot the distinction between their own city or kingdom and the celestial prototype was a natural result o$ the inseparable bond between the two! The local habitation inherited the mythical character o$ the celestial, so that the divergent actual histories o$ ancient nations lead back to one universal history! It is in this sense that one must understand the legends o$ the $irst kings and primeval generations! 'any >gyptian te ts, $or e ample, re$er to a remote time in which the land was ruled by the "$ollowers o$ -orus!# +n
inscription o$ a ?ing <ano$er HCust prior to the 'iddle ?ingdomI recalls "the time o$ your H$oreI$athers, the kings, ,ollowers o$ -orus!# + te t o$ Thutmose I speaks o$ great $ame the like o$ which was not "seen in the annals o$ the ancestors since the ,ollowers o$ -orus!# The Turin =apyrus places this primeval generation prior to the $irst historical king, 'enes! 52@

Did these mythical "ancestors# actually rule terrestrial >gyptE In truth the ",ollowers o$ -orus# means, not a generation o$
mortals, but the assembly o$ the gods! The "ancestors# were the light-spirits o$ the celestial city, encircling and protecting the central sun! Just as the myths translate the &niversal 'onarch into the $irst king o$ >gypt, so also do they e press the god-king’s companions as a primeval race $rom which all >gyptian nobility might claim descent! >very -oly 9and on our earth was assimilated to the same celestial kingdom and every race to the same generation o$ gods!

The World "avel
Through identi$ication with Saturn’s dwelling, each terrestrial kingdom or city o$ antiAuity distinguished itsel$ as the 'iddle
=lace, the centre $rom which history took its start! Symbolically each local -oly 9and became the o"phalos or "navel o$ the world!#

Thus, the mythic navel constitutes a global moti$ o$ archaic symbolism! +s documented in the separate studies o$ <oscher and 'uller,523 the ancient cities o$ 0abylon and /ineveh Has well as 0aghdadI, Jerusalem, -ebron 0ethel, Shechem, and the entire land o$ =alestineB numerous %reek cities Hincluding +thensIB the 'uslim city o$ 'eccaB and countless other cities o$ +sia and >urope were styled "the navel# or "the centre o$ the earth!# Just as the >gyptians conceived their land as the "middle-earth# H%guipteI! the (hinese proclaimed their empire to be the "?ingdom o$ the 'iddle!#52G >arly Japanese sources call Japan the centre o$ the earth—or the "middle kingdom o$ the reed plain,# while the 'ongolians regard their home as "the 'iddle =lace!# 525 =eoples o$ northern Siberia know the Fenisei as "the centre o$ the world,#528 Ireland was once the kingdom o$ the Mide or "'iddle!#527 In $araway >aster Island the natives speak o$ their land as the "navel!#524 +nd in the +mericas, the Quni call Hor once calledI their town "the 'iddle =lace#B the Inca city o$ (u*co signi$ied "the navel o$ the earth# 52:B so also did the (hickasaw o$ 'ississippi regard their territory as "the centre o$ the earth!#562 The reader may respond1 isn’t it per$ectly natural that a people, seeing other lands and nations distributed around them, would
come to regard their own as the "centre#E This is, o$ course, a common e planation o$ the universal habit! .n closer e amination, however, it becomes clear that the concept o$ the world navel re$lects something more than narrow vision or tribal arrogance!

The acknowledged religious centre o$ the %reeks was Delphi, on the steep slopes o$ 'ount =arnassus! -ere was located the o"phalos H"navel#I, revered as the Seat o$ +pollo and "the centre o$ the earth!# 0ut among the %reeks, Delphi was
not alone in claiming distinction as the o"phalos Similar claims were made $or world navels in the =eloponnesus, at >lis, at Thessaly, and at (rete! 0oth the +etolians and >pirotes were called o"phalians or "people o$ the navel!#566

'any competing seats o$ +pollo appear as the o"phalos# according to <oscher!56@ <ather than suggest narrowmindedness, such repeated claims con$irm a consistent memory1 $rom high antiAuity the idea must have been passed down that +pollo’s throne occupied the "centre!# +ll local shrines certainly shared this tradition! 0ut one must not
mistake the imitation $or the original! Just as one might say o$ +pollo’s statue, "This is the god +pollo,# without intending a literal identi$ication, so could the cult worshippers say o$ the local shrine, "This is the throne o$ +pollo at the earth navel!# That the statement comes $rom more than one locality only rein$orces the general tradition! The truth was observed by D! T! Darren long ago when he declared Delphi to be "a memorial shrine, an attempted copy o$ the great original!# 563

(learly, the "great original#—the god’s primeval home—was not o$ our earth! +pollo, the polar sun, was not the only god to
occupy this centre! In 'e ico, a /ahuatl hymn e tols the god .meteotl as1

'other o$ the %ods, ,ather o$ the %ods, the old %od distended in the navel o$ the earth, engaged in the enclosure o$ turAuoise -e who dwells in waters the colour o$ the bluebird!56G

+ 0abylonian hymn located the god >a at the "centre o$ the earth#1 The path o$ >a was in >ridu, teeming with $ertility! -is seat HthereI is the centre o$ the earthB his couch is the bed o$ the primeval mother!565 Similarly, the >gyptian .siris "sits in Cudgement on the =rimeval 'ound, which is in the middle o$ the world,# states (lark! 568 In the ancient account o$ Sanchuniathon, the great god >l H?ronosRSaturnI acAuires supremacy "in a certain place
in the center of the earth #567

The earth navel# in the original tradition# is the inaccessible dwelling at the cos"ic su""it which is why the
-indus could say o$ the $ire god +gni, 564 "-e is the head and summit o$ the sky, the centre K/abhi, navelL o$ the earth!# -ebrew and 'uslim thought constantly identi$ies the throne o$ Fahweh and +llah with the "navel o$ the earth,# but this navel is above# $or the 'uslim te t states o$ the *a0ba# or earth navel1 "?now that the centre o$ the earth, according to a tradition on the authority o$ the =rophet, is the ?a’ba1 it has the signi$icance o$ the navel o$ the earth, because o$ its rising above the level o$ the earth!#56:

+nother source relates, "Tradition says1 the polestar proves the ?a’ba is the highest situated territoryB $or it lies over against the centre o$ heaven!#5@2 0oth Jerusalem and 'ecca, as earth navels, lie at the cosmic summit! "The centre o$ the earth and
the pole o$ heaven, both are intimately connected with the throne,# observes Densinck!5@6

Similarly, %nostic traditions surveyed by Jung consider the polar region both "the seat o$ the highest gods# and "the navel o$ the world!#5@@ That the %reek o"phalos received the appellation "a is# indicates an obvious connection with the pole!5@3 In all o$ these traditions, o$ course, one has to contend with the con$usion between the celestial earth and what we call "earth# today! It can hardly be doubted that ancient races eventually came to use the phrase "world navel# in connection with
the terrestrial landscape! The original concept o$ the navel, however, is not complicated by ambiguous meanings o$ the "earth!# In the original tradition, the created earth is the navel, pure and simpleB Saturn’s (osmos appeared as a central enclosure or "navel# o$ dry ground rising $rom the primordial waters! So it is not surprising to $ind that the symbol o$ the navel was the enclosed sun , the sign o$ the world wheel! "The concentric circles or the dot-in-circle denoted, in the 'editerranean area, the omphalos, the navel o$ the earth,# states 0utterworth! 5@G HThus, in organi*ing their sacred cities in the $orm o$ a wheel the ancients e pressed the cities’ character as "navel!#

The enclosed sun , according to /eumann, served as "the li$e symbol o$ the womb-navel-centre!#5@5 It would be di$$icult to improve upon this de$inition! To reside within the li$e-containing navel is to dwell in the wo"b of the
"other goddess# $or the o"phalos# as discerned by &no -olmberg, is "the representative o$ the %reat 'other# not only in classical symbolism but in -indu and +ltaic ritual also!5@8

-ence Delphi, the %reek o"phalos signi$ies "the womb!#5@7 The spouse o$ -ercules is .mphale, the $emale personi$ication o$ the o"phalos 5@4 In the same way, -indu ritual constantly identi$ies the mystic yoni or "womb# with the navel1 +gni is "born $rom the yoni or navel o$ the earth,#5@: while 0rahma is the "navel-born!#532 Such symbolism connects the $amous navel with the primeval enclosure! Saturn ’s band, marking out the stable,
revolving island which appeared in the cosmic waters, came to be remembered as the cosmic centre—where mythical history began!

The -'ean
'any ancient traditions describe a circular ocean or river girdling the "earth!# The gods, according to the /orse creation legend, "made the vast ocean, in the midst o$ which they $i ed the earth, the ocean encircling it as a ring!#536 0y the %reek .keanos, "the whole earth is bound!#53@ The 0abylonians said o$ the nether river, "all earth it encloses!#533 -ebrew and +rabic cosmologies, according to Densinck, hold that "the whole o$ the
earth is round and the ocean surrounds it like a collar!#53G

In spite o$ the widespread belie$, certain classical writers grew skeptical! .$ the $amous ocean-stream the historian -erodotus announced1 ",or my part, I cannot but laugh when I see numbers o$ persons drawing maps o$ the world
without reason to guide themB making, as they do, the .cean-stream to run all round the earth!# 535

.r again1 "The boundaries o$ >urope are Auite unknown, and there is not a man who can say whether any sea girds it round either on the north or on the east!# 538 Such was the inevitable conclusion o$ historians and philosophers, once the "world# or
"earth# lost its original cosmic meaning and passed into a $igure o$ geography! >ven today conventional treatments o$ the mythical ocean perpetuate the misunderstanding!

The cynics overlooked a most signi$icant point1 originally, the ocean encircled the creator as a girdle1 .keanos was no terrestrial river, but the "belt# around the cosmic deity! 537 The "land# which the ocean enclosed was the dwelling o$ the gods!
-esiod, $or e ample, in his description o$ the shield o$ -ercules Han acknowledged $igure o$ the (osmosI identi$ies the ocean as the rim o$ the shield, enclosing a celestial paradise!

The shield was a wonder to see, "$or its whole orb was a-shimmer with enamel and white ivory and electrum, and it glowed
with shining gold!# Dithin the shield’s protective enclosure dwelt the great god and the lesser divinities1 "There also was the abode o$ the gods, pure .lympus, and their assembly, and in$inite riches were spread around in the gathering o$ the deathless gods!# The inhabitants o$ this circular land above celebrated a continual $estival, $or here grew grapes and corn in abundance! "+nd around the rim,# writes -esiod, .cean was $lowing, with a $ull stream as it seemed, and enclosed all the cunning work o$ the shield!# 534

+s in the case o$ the world navel, the imagery makes sense only when one understands the created "earth# as the
dwelling o$ the great god himsel$!

>gyptian sources remove all possible doubt as to the celestial character o$ the encircling stream! The +offin Te-ts say o$ the ,ather o$ the %ods1 "the river around him is abla*e with light!# 53: The same circular river is called a lake o$ $ire! <e appears as a"i-"er-nesert# "he who is in his $iery lake#B while the throne o$ -orus is the "9ake o$ Double ,ire!# 5G2 +ctually, the >gyptian ocean or lake is simply the Tuat, the dwelling o$ .siris or <e1 5G6 "This is the lake which is in
the Tuat ! ! ! This lake is $illed with barley Ki!e!, grain, abundanceL! The water o$ the lake is $ire!# 5G@

(ontaining the $iery waters o$ the +byss, the celestial river or lake encircled the "world!# The Pyra"id Te-ts invoke1 The %reat (ircle, in your name o$ "%reat Surround,# an enveloping ring, in the "<ing that encircles the .utermost 9ands, + %reat (ircle in the %reat <ound o$ the Surrounding .cean!5G3 In the >gyptian symbolism this watery circle is the band o$ the enclosed sun the band which circumscribed the outermost limit o$ the cosmic dwelling! The "ocean# in the above te t is the Shen-ur# or "the great Shen!# In the
>gyptian language the shen bond or cord H , I signi$ies at once the band o$ properly term this circle o$ water "the river o$ the cosmic bond# or "the ocean o$ the cord!#

the %ten and "ocean# or "river!# .ne can

=ointing to the same interrelationships is the >gyptian word nut /ut, the goddess, is the $emale personi$ication o$ the
(osmos or shen bondB but nut also denotes "stream,# "river,# "sea!# The encircling river, as the border o$ the "-oly abode# HnutI, thus gives rise to the phrase "the ocean, the border o$ /ut!# 5GG That nut $urther means "cord# and "city# only con$irms the integrated symbolism!

In none o$ this symbolism is there any suggestion o$ a terrestrial ocean! +s detailed by <eymond, the primeval waters $orm
an enclosure around the resting place of the great god "perhaps resembling the channel which was made around sacred places later on!#5G5 >ncircled by the celestial river, the province o$ beginning becomes the "island in the stream,#5G8 or the "pool!# HSee, $or e ample, the "pool o$ -ermopolis#B the celestial +bydos was the "pool o$ 'aati!#I 5G7

The mythical "waters# are inseparable $rom the primeval matter or company o$ gods which e ploded $rom the creator,
subseAuently to be gathered into the circle o$ glory H khutI! The radiant gods—or "=rimeval .nes#—revolved around the border o$ the cosmic ocean or lake, $or the >gyptians, according to <eymond, "imagined that, a$ter the phases o$ the primary creation were completed, these =rimeval .nes lived in the vicinity o$ the pool ! ! ! Their resting place, however, is portrayed as o$ the most primitive appearance1 the bare edges of the pool #5G4 The gods occupy the border and revolve around it, as con$irmed by the !ook of the .ead( "P-ail,’ say these gods who dwell in their companies and who go round about the TurAuoise =ool!#5G:

/ot in >gypt alone does the cosmic ocean $orm the band o$ the enclosed sun description o$ the >ngur or "river# around the motionless lord >nki1

! -ere is a Sumerian

Thou <iver, creatress o$ all things, Dhen the great gods dug thee, on thy bank they placed mercy! Dithin thee >a, ?ing o$ the +psu, built his abode! They gave thee the ,lood, the uneAualled! ,ire, rage, splendour, and terror ! ! ! . great <iver, $ar-$amed <iver ! ! !552 These are the waters o$ the cosmic sea +psu—"the waters which are $orever collected together in the deep,#556 corresponding to the >gyptian dwelling gathered together by the creator! The oldest image o$ this encircling river or ocean is the ancient Sumerian sign $or *is Hthe all, the complete land, the (osmosI1 ! The band in this sign, according to Jeremias, represents the encircling ocean, the same river that is depicted encircling the "earth# H(osmosI in the 0abylonian world map!55@ 9ike the >gyptian ocean the revolving stream $orms the border o$ the celestial land! +s the womb o$ primeval birth, the Sumerian Engur# "<iver,# provides a close parallel to the >gyptian goddess /ut! Indeed,
like /ut, the Sumero-0abylonian river goddess was conceived as the uni$ying cord! The waters o$ Engur H+psuI compose the tarkullu# "rope,# or the "arkasu# "band,# bond,# holding together the created (osmos! 553 9ike the >gyptians, the Sumero-

0abylonians recalled the enclosure o$ the cosmic ocean as that which gave birth to the primeval sun! The god who "illuminates the interior o$ the +psu# is /inurta, the planet Saturn!55G

8I. T#$ En"lo($d S!nBC o(( The /our Rivers of Paradise
"+nd a river went out o$ >den to water the gardenB and $rom thence it was parted, and became into $our heads!# 555 So reads the 0ook o$ %enesis! The $our rivers o$ +dam ’s paradise, according to many -ebrew and early (hristian accounts, $lowed in
opposite directions, spreading to the $our corners o$ the world!558

The tradition is apparently universal! The /avaho Indian narration o$ the "+ge o$ 0eginnings# speaks o$ an ancestral
land $rom which the inhabitants were driven by a great catastrophe! +mong the occupants o$ this remote home, some say, were ",irst 'an# and ",irst Doman!# 'ost interesting is the means by which the land was watered1 "In its centre was a spring $rom which $our streams $lowed, one to each o$ the cardinal points ! ! !#557

The (hinese paradise o$ ?wen-lun, adorned with pearls, Cade, and precious stones, lay at the centre and *enith o$ the world! In this happy abode stood a central $ountain $rom which $lowed "in opposite directions554 the $our great rivers o$ the world!#55: ,our rivers appear also in the -indu Rig Veda( "the noblest, the most wonder$ul work o$ this magni$icent one KIndraL, is that o$ having $illed the bed o$ the $our rivers with water as sweet as honey!# 582 The Vishnu Purana identi$ies the $our streams with the
paradise o$ 0rahma at the world summit! They, too, $low in $our directions! 586

Iranian myth recalls $our streams issuing $rom the central $ount +rdvi Sura and radiating in the $our directions! Similarly, the ?almucks o$ Siberia describe a primordial sea o$ li$e and $ertility, with $our rivers $lowing "toward
the $our di$$erent points o$ the compass!#58@

The tradition is repeated by many other nations! The 'andaeans o$ IraA enumerate $our great rivers $lowing $rom the north!583 Just as the 0abylonians recalled "the land o$ the $our rivers,#58G the >gyptians knew ",our /iles,# $lowing to the $our Auarters! 585 The home o$ the %reek goddess (alypso, in the "navel o$ the sea,# possessed a central
$ountain sending $orth "$our streams, $lowing each in opposite directions!#588

In the Scandinavian Edda# the world’s waters originate in the $our streams $lowing $rom the spring -vergelmir in the land o$ the gods,587 while Slavic tradition recalls $our streams issuing $rom under the magic stone +latuir in the island paradise o$ 0onyan!584 0rinton $inds the $our mystic rivers among the Siou , +*tecs, and 'aya, Cust as ,ornander discovers them in =olynesian myth!58: The lost land o$ the $our rivers presents a particularly enigmatic theme $or conventional mythology because $ew, i$ any, o$ the nations possessing the memory can point to any convincing geographical source o$ the imagery! Dhen the 0abylonians invoke Ishtar as "9ady, Oueen o$ the land o$ the ,our <ivers o$ >rech,# 572 or when an >gyptian te t at Dendera celebrates the ,our /iles at >lephantine, one might e pect the $amiliar landscape to e plain the usage! 0ut wherever the mythical $our rivers appear, they possess the character o$ an "ideal# land, in
contrast to actual geography!

The reason $or this disparity between the mythical and terrestrial landscapes is that the four rivers flowed# not on our
earth# but through the four Auarters of the polar "ho"eland # To what aspect o$ Saturn’s kingdom might the mythical rivers re$erE

,or every dominant mythical theme there are corresponding signs Hthough this truth is still to be acknowledged by most authoritiesI! The signs o$ the $our rivers are the sun-cross and the enclosed sun-cross , the latter sign illuminating the $ormer by showing that the $our streams belong to the primeval enclosure! Issuing $rom the polar centre Hi!e!, the central sunI, the $our rivers $low to the $our corners o$ Saturn’s >arth! The sign o$ the enclosed sun-cross
"the four radii

, observes (irlot, "e presses the original .neness Hsymboli*ed by the centreI,# and

are the sa"e as the four rivers which well up fro" the fons vitae ! ! !#576

0ut i$ one myth identi$ies the arms o$ the sun-cross as $our paradisal rivers, there are other interpretations o$ the cross as well, $or this primal image produced a wide-ranging and coherent symbolism, as I shall now attempt to show!

T#$ C o(( oad(

)ro" Saturn# the central sun# flowed four pri"ary paths of light ,n the "yths these appear as four rivers# four winds# four strea"s of arrows# or four children # assistants# or light-spirits bearing the Saturnian seed Hthe life ele"entsI
through the four Auarters of the celestial kingdo"

The sun-cross
1oly :and

and enclosed sun-cross

, depicting the four life-bearing strea"s# thus serve as universal signs of the

The modern world is accustomed to think o$ "the $our Auarters# in terrestrial terms! Today we conceive north, east, west, and
south only in relationship to our own position or to a $i ed geographical re$erence point! (hicago is "west# o$ /ew Fork and "east# o$ .maha, and to the modern mind the "$our corners o$ the world# only serves as a vague metaphor $or "the entire globe!#

To the ancients, however, "the ,our (orners o$ the Dorld# possessed e plicit meaningB originally, the phrase re$erred not to
geography but to cos"ography# the "map# o$ the celestial kingdom, laid out in the polar heaven! .ne o$ the $ew scholars to recogni*e this Auality o$ the mythical "$our corners# was .’/eill1 "It results $rom any $ull study o$ the myths, symbolism, and nomenclature o$ the ,our Ouarters that these directions were viewed in the strict orthodo y o$ heavens mythology, not as the /S>D o$ every spot whatever, but $our heavens-divisions spread out around the pole!#57@

The sun-cross

, as the symbol o$ the $our Auarters, belongs to the central sun! In sacred cosmography the central position o$ the sun-god becomes the "$i$th# direction! To understand such language, it is convenient to think o$ the mythical "directions# Hor arms o$ the crossI as "otions or flows of energy ,rom the great god the elements o$ li$e $low in $our directions! The god himsel$, who embodies all the elements, is "$irm,# "stead$ast, or "resting#B his fifth "otion is that o$ rotation while standing in one place! The directions can also be conceived as regions( the central H$i$thI region and the $our Auarters spaced around it! This is why the =ythagoreans regarded the number $ive as a representative o$ the $i ed world a is! 573 The =ythagorean idea clearly corresponds with the older -indu symbolism o$ the directions! In addition to the standard $our directions, -indu doctrine knows a $i$th, called the "$i ed direction,# the polar centre!57G In (hina, too, the pole is the immovable $i$th direction, the "central palace# around which the cardinal points are spaced!575 +nd in 'e ico, /ahuatl symbolism asserts that "$ive is the number o$ the centre!#578 In the "ideal# kingdom o$ heaven the &niversal 'onarch stands at the centre, and all the elements o$ li$e—$ire, water, air, and seed
—$low $rom the god-king in $our brilliant streams! .$ten interpreted as $our sons o$ the creator, the streams mark out the $our Auarters o$ the cosmic isle, or "earth!#

9et us consider $irst the >gyptian symbolism o$ the directional streams! +ccording to the >gyptian creation te ts, the great god, standing alone, brought $orth as his own "speech# the primeval matter—or sea o$ "words#—which
congealed into an enclosure! The >gyptians associate this pouring out o$ the seed or li$e elements with $our luminous streams $lowing $rom the central sun! The $our emanations are the $our "sons# o$ +tum or the ,our Sons o$ -orus, each identi$ied with a Auarter o$ the heavenly kingdom!577 Importantly, the >gyptians term these paths o$ light the ",our *hu#1 they are the "words o$ power#—streams o$ creative "speech# coursing through the $our divisions o$ organi*ed space!

The Pyra"id Te-ts call these "the $our blustering winds which are about you!# 574 The ,our Sons o$ -orus "send the $our winds!# In one source the $our winds issue $rom the mouth o$ +men! 57: In the !ook of the .ead they are "the $our bla*ing $lames which are made $or Kor asL the *hu Kwords o$ powerL,#542 while the +offin Te-ts invoke them as the "$our gods who are power$ul
and strong, who bring the water!#546

The >gyptians also interpreted the $our paths o$ light as "arrows# launched by the creator toward the $our Auarters! HIn
hieroglyphs, the arrow means "sha$t o$ light!#I It was an ancient practice o$ the >gyptian king, on assuming the throne, to release an arrow, in each o$ the $our directions, 54@ thus reenacting the creation, or organi*ation o$ the celestial kingdom! The arrow is sat# which means "to shoot,# but also "to pour out#B $or the $our arrows launched by the king signi$ied the waters o$ li$e originally "poured out# by the creator, whom the king personi$ied! Sat also means "to sow# or "to scatter seed abroad#B which is to say, the $our streams carried to the $our corners the creative seed o$ abundance! 543 0y launching the $our arrows the local king proclaimed himsel$ the &niversal 'onarch and sancti$ied his kingdom as a duplication o$ the primeval abode!

In >gypt the cross—as the symbol o$ the $our directional streams—possesses two important meanings! The $orm , un# signi$ies "coming to li$e,# $or the directional streams shone $orth with the daily birth o$ the central sun Hi!e!, with the

setting o$ the solar orbI! In the $orm


I, a"i# the cross means "to be in# or "to be enclosed by#—in re$erence to the !

uni$ied space enclosed within the womb o$ the mother goddess

Dhen certain >gyptologists $irst encountered the symbol o$ the goddess /ut , they saw in it "a pictorial symbol o$ primitive >den divided by the $our-$old river!# 54G That conclusion would gain little credence among modern >gyptologists, yet it is much closer to the truth than the bland e planations currently in $ashion! The $our streams o$ li$e, emanating $rom the creator, coursed through the womb o$ /ut, the -oly 9and! Thus the deceased implores the goddess, "%ive me the water and the wind which are in thee!#545
548 +nother symbol o$ the "holy abode# is the sign showing a cross o$ arrows superimposed upon a shield! The glyph is precisely eAuivalent to the symbol o$ /ut , $or /ut, the %reat =rotectoress, was the cosmic shield, and the $our streams o$ li$e, enclosed within the womb o$ /ut, were the same as the sha$ts or arrows o$ light launched toward the $our corners!

The land o$ the $our rivers was that which the creator gathered together $rom the sea o$ words, his own emanation! The hieroglyphic symbol $or "to collect, gather together# and $or "the uni$ied land# is , depicting the

primeval enclosure HshenI divided into Auarters by a cross o$ two $lails! That the $lail sign , in the >gyptian language, is read *hu# eAuates the $lail-cross with the $our streams o$ li$e Hkhu# "words o$ power#I radiating $rom the central sun! There is, in other words, a level o$ >gyptian symbolism that the specialists have yet to penetrate! Standard treatments o$ the >gyptian -oly 9and say little or nothing o$ the directional streams, though these powers are vital to the symbolism as a whole! +nd one can be certain that the paths o$ light and li$e have nothing to do with an ill-de$ined "$our Auarters# o$ our earth, where they are conventionally located! The $our winds, or $our rivers, or $our pathways,
or $our sha$ts o$ light HarrowsI belonged to the lost land in heaven, and only through symbolic assimilation to this cosmic dwelling did the terrestrial habitation share in the imagery!

+ comparison o$ >gyptian cross symbolism with that o$ other lands reveals numerous parallels! The oldest 'esopotamian image o$ divinity was the sun-cross , symbol o$ the creator +n, the planet Saturn! +n, like his counterparts around the world, "brought $orth and begat the $our$old wind# within the womb o$ Tiamat, the cosmic sea!547 The cult worshippers o$ /inurta HSaturnI also represented their god by the cross! -ence, the cunei$orm ideograms $or the $our$old saru# "wind,# and $or "ehu# "storm wind#—both o$ which belong to Saturn—take the $orm o$ a cross H$igs! @@ and @3I! The 0abylonian Saturn inaugurates the day, "coming $orth in splendour,# and this coming $orth o$ Saturn means
the coming $orth o$ the $our winds Has in >gyptI, $or the +kkadian umum denotes both "day# and "wind,# Cust as the Sumerian signs &D and &%, both used $or "day,# occur also in the sense o$ "wind!# 544 HThe ancient -ebrew e pression "until the day blows# conveys the same identity!I

... Bab,lonian saru) %;ind.&

./. Id$o- a) 'o mehu) o %(to ) ;ind.& Saturn’s $our winds mark out the Auarters or directions o$ the (osmos, Saturn’s kingdom! (osmological te ts speak o$ the "$urious wind ! ! ! commanding the directions#154: the Sumerian i" and +kkadian saru# "wind,# also signi$y "region Hor AuarterI o$

+s in >gypt, the 'esopotamian $our winds coincide with the $our rivers o$ li$e! Instead o$ the simple sign , some images show $our streams o$ water radiating $rom the central sun H$ig! @GI5:6 The best-known 'esopotamian $igure o$ these streams is the $amous "sun wheel# o$ Shamash Ha god also identi$ied as SaturnI! =ortrayed are $our rays o$ light and $our rivers $lowing $rom the central god to the border o$ the wheel H$ig! 65I!

.0. 3a4 M,"$na$an 'o!

iv$ ( (,)bolC 3b4 Fo! iv$ ( (,)bol+ T o,C 3"4 Bab,lonian i)a-$ 2 $($ntin- t#$ a )( o' t#$ (!nB" o(( a( 'o! iv$ (.

-ro*ny tentatively suggests that Shamash’s cross was a sign $or "settlement!#5:@ Dith this suggestion one is compelled to agree, $or the $irst settlements, organi*ed $or a ritual purpose, imitated the heavenly abode! >ach sacred territory
became "the land o$ the $our rivers# and each ruler "the king o$ the $our Auarters!#

%eographical limitations did not prevent the +ssyro-0abylonian priests $rom assimilating the map o$ their land to
the Auartered circle o$ the pri"eval kingdom! Thus a te t reproduced by Virolleaud locates the land o$ +kkad, >lam, Subartu, and +murru within the $our$old enclosure o$ the sun the cosmic paradise!#5:G

!5:3 ">very land,# states Jeremias, "has its Pparadise,’ which corresponds with

The land o$ the sun-cross

lay within the primeval circle, and this $act will e plain why the 0abylonian sign I also denoted "the interior# or "the enclosed space!# 5:5 The terminology , I, "to be in,# "to be enclosed by!# To dwell in the land o$ the

o$ the $our kibrati or "world Auarters# Hi!e!,

o$$ers a $ascinating parallel to the >gyptian a"i H
$our rivers is to occupy the Saturnian enclosure!

The same overlapping interpretations o$ the $our streams occur in -indu symbolism! -ere the cross and the circle, according to one observer, represent "the traditional abode o$ their primeval ancestors ! ! ! +nd let us ask what better
picture or more signi$icant characters in the complicated alphabet o$ symbolism could have been selected $or the purpose than a circle and a cross—the one to denote a region o$ absolute purity and perpetual $elicity, the other those $our perennial streams that divided and watered the several Auarters o$ it!#5:7

The -indu -oly 9and lies within the world wheel, turned by the stationary sun at the centre! The spokes o$ the wheel, delimiting the $our Auarters, "have their $oundation in the single centre which is Surya Kthe sunL,# notes +grawala! 5:4

In the ritual o$ the Satapatha !rah"ana the spokes o$ the wheel

become "arrows# launched in the $our directions and carrying the li$e elements to the $our corners! The arrows sent in one direction "are $ire,# those in another "are the waters,# those in another "are wind,# and those in another "are the herbs!# 5:: The Paippalada or ?ashmirian %rtharva Veda terms the latter $low o$ arrows "$ood!# The idea seems to be that o$ abundance or "plenty# radiating $rom the heart o$ the (osmos Hand thus answering to the $our >gyptian arrows KsatL transmitting the seed o$ abundance to the outermost limits o$ the kingdomI! The -indus symboli*ed these sha$ts o$ light by setting a$ire the spokes o$ the sacred wheel!822

.1. Hind! " o((. + pictorial image o$ the $our streams occurs on ancient -indu coins depicting the arms o$ the sun-cross as arrows directed toward the $our corners H$ig! @5I! >very ancient Indian settlement re$lected the primeval map o$ the (osmos, its uni$ied domain lying within the sacred circle and its $our primary streets answering to the celestial crossroads! The settlement ’s organi*ation
reenacted the creation! +s noted by D! 'uller, the -indu sacred city "duplicates the (osmos in wood, brick and stone1 its a es Knorth-southB east-westL demarcate the $our Auarters o$ the universe!#826

'uller $inds the same concept o$ the Auartered kingdom in (eylon, 0urma, (ambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam! >ach sacred habitation appears as "the celestial city o$ the king# and each ruler as the wheel-king! "State and nation represent a
Auartered universe K(osmosL,# writes 'uller! >very image o$ the sacred "settlement# re$lects the image o$ the "world#—the circle and cross!82@

In (hina, the emperor stands symbolically at the pole, while ranged around him are the powers o$ the cardinal points!823 The cosmic centre is ch0ien# $rom which, to use Jung’s phraseology, "the $our emanations go $orth, like the heavenly $orces e tending through space!#82G +t the ch0ien# the centre, the $our she or world Auarters converge!825 The ideal celestial organi*ation $inds e pression in the ancient (hinese hieroglyph ! The sign, according to (! -ent*e, denotes the contree suburbaine or settlement around a centre!828 Is this not once more the primeval "place#
sustained by the outward $low o$ "li$e# Hor "arrows#I $rom the central godE

9’.range, in his studies o$ cosmic symbolism in the /ear >ast, notes that the great residential cities o$ >kbatana, DarabCird, and
,iru*abad were patterned a$ter the wheel o$ the (osmos, with the king appearing at the intersection o$ the crossroads! "Dall and $osse are traced mathematically with the compass, as an image o$ the heavens, a proCection o$ the upper hemisphere on earth! The two a is streets, one running north-south and the other east-west, divide the city into $our Auadrants which re$lect the $our Auarters o$ the world! +t the very point o$ intersection, in the very a is o$ the world wheel, the palace is situated, here sits the king, PThe + is and =ole o$ the Dorld,’ PThe ?ing o$ the $our Ouadrants o$ the Dorld’ ! ! !#827

To this city o$ the wheel also corresponds the imagery o$ Jerusalem and =alestine! The terrestrial city and -oly 9and, in more
than one medieval map, appear in the ideal $orm o$ a Auartered circle , $or such was the image o$ the >den paradise, with its $our directional streams! +nd this is why Solomon and -e*ekiah, in constructing works $or the distribution o$ Jerusalem’s waters, sought to imitate the $our rivers o$ paradise—even to the point o$ naming one stream %ihon Ha river o$ >denI and declaring that $rom beneath the temple these streams $lowed out over the whole world!824

The ancient >truscans, $ollowed by the <omans, looked to the same image o$ the $our$old (osmos in laying out the plan o$ the sacred city! The surveyors, according to D! 'uller, sought to map out the "terrestrial image o$ a
celestial prototype,# and their division o$ the land into $our regions—the Ro"a Auadrata—"re$lects a power$ul cosmological model1 the Auartered earth o$ the <oman world image!#82:

It is surely signi$icant that all o$ the key $eatures o$ the sun-cross and the enclosed sun-cross reviewed above occur also in the +mericas! .$ten the parallels are stunning! The .maha Indians, $or e ample, invoke the
"+ged .ne#1

! ! ! seated with assured per"anency and endurance#

,n the centre where converged the paths# There, e posed to the violence o$ the four winds# you sat, =ossessed with power to receive supplications, +ged .ne ! ! !862 To reside at the intersection o$ the celestial crossroads is to "sit# HrestI at the cosmic centre, the abode o$ "permanency# and "endurance!# This "centre# is also the place where the "$our winds# meet, $or the $our winds and heavenly pathways are synonymous! 0urland relates that the symbol o$ the 'e ican god Siuhtechuhtli—the ".ld, .ld .ne,# the lord o$ the central $ire at
the pole—was "a white cross o$ the ,our Directions in the black background o$ the night!# 866

The Inca FupanAui, writes /uttall, "raised a temple in (u*co to the (reator who, superior to the sun Ksolar orbL, could rest and
light the world $rom one spot!# This central sun was represented by a cross!86@

Indeed, the sun-cross is a symbol o$ the primeval god throughout the +mericas—$rom the Inca o$ =eru to the >skimos o$ +laska! Dherever the /ew Dorld symbolism can be e amined in su$$icient detail, one $inds that the cross possessed the same signi$icance as in the .ld Dorld! The best authorities tell us the native +merican sun-cross depicts the "$our winds#—conceived as visible, even violent
$lows o$ li$e and energy $rom a central or stationary god! HThat is, the winds are Cust the opposite o$ the incongruous abstractions to which they have been reduced by so many mythologists!I The $our winds are the "breath# o$ the sun-god Has in ancient >gyptI, bearing the seed o$ li$e $rom the centre to the $our corners! Thus the 'ayan ,k means at once "wind,# "breath,# and "li$e!# 9ike the >gyptian streams o$ sat it is "the causer o$ germination!#863

In 'e ico, Ouet*alcoatl, god o$ the ,our 'otions, # was represented by the sun-cross, and this symbol e plains his title,
"9ord o$ the $our winds!# +ccording to /uttall, the cross "had a deeper meaning than has been reali*ed, $or it represents li$e-giving breath carrying with it the seeds o$ the $our vital elements, emanating $rom the central lord o$ li$e, KandL spreading to the $our Auarters ! ! !#86G

+lso noted by /uttall is the use o$ the cross in (opan, where it "is associated with a $igure in repose# occupying the
Middle# and $our pu$$s o$ breath or air, laden with li$e-seeds, emanating $rom this!#865

Just as the >gyptians personi$ied the $our emanations as $our "sons# o$ the central god, so did the 'e icans! ,rom the
supreme god .meteotl issued the $our Te*catlipocas, "the primordial $orces which were to generate the history o$ the world!# The $our sons corresponded to the $our Auarters o$ the world!868

.5. 8a iation( o' t#$ $n"lo($d (!nB" o(( in t#$ Mi((i((i22i 8all$,.

.6. A a2a#o (i-n o' t#$ 'o! ;ind(. The same powers—central god and $our emissions—were represented by the $ive Tlalocs, who, like the 'ayan 0acabs and (hacs, "were set at $our cardinal points and at the centre o$ the heavens!# 867 ,rom his dwelling at the world summit Tlaloc sent $orth the waters o$ the $our Auarters, o$ten symboli*ed Has in >gypt and IndiaI by $our vases! The gods who transmitted the waters to the $our corners were the same as the gods o$ the $our winds!864

0ut there is an even more striking parallel with .ld Dorld symbolism1 the $our streams o$ light and li$e were interpreted as arrows coursing in the $our directions! In the /ahuatl language the word tona"itl means at once a "ray or sha$t o$ light# and "the shining arrow!# +ccording to the chronicler I tlil ochitl, it was a native custom, on consecrating a new territory 86:,
"to shoot with ut"ost force four arrows in the direction of the four regions of the world # Thus did the priests sancti$y the land as a renewal o$ the primeval kingdom, in e act accord with the ancient >gyptian practiceM

(onsistent with the global iconography o$ the central sun, the +merican Indians revered the sun-cross enclosed sun-cross


as emblems o$ the uni$ied domain, the -oly 9and! +mong the 'e icans "the cross and the circle# are a "native symbol $or Pan integral state,’" writes /uttall! Illustrating this symbolism is the $amous 'e ican (alendar Dheel, displaying $our principal and $our secondary rays Hor "arrows#I, signi$ying the $our Auarters and their $our subdivisions! This wheel o$ Time, states /uttall,8@2 portrays the ideal habitation, and the prototype lay in heaven, not on earth! The wheel is "as clearly an image o$ the nocturnal heaven as it is o$ a vast territorial state which once e isted in the valley o$ 'e ico, and had been established as a reproduction upon earth o$ the harmonious order and $i ed laws which apparently governed the heavens!# 8@6 ,rom the center o$ the ancient Inca city o$ (u*co, $our roads radiated in the $our directions! +t the intersection o$ the crossroads rested a golden vase $rom which a $ountain $lowed! Thus did the $our roads imitate the $our paths or streams transporting the waters o$ li$e to the $our Auarters! The 'ayan !ook of +hila" !ala" o$$ers the $ollowing map o$ northern Fucatan18@@ <oys reports that this map—adapting actual geography to the primordial ideal —"is $airly typical in 'aya documents!#8@3 -ere again is the Ro"a Auadrata# the celestial Jerusalem, or >gyptian &eter ta# the -oly 9and! The Delaware sacred te t called the 'alu" 8lu" records the primeval dwelling o$ the %reat Spirit by the image This was the nation’s ancestral homeland, they say!8@G !

+ group o$ anthropologists, on e amining the 'alu" 8lu"# reported that the $our points on the circle "indicate the $our Auarters o$ the earth!# 0y "earth# they obviously meant the terrestrial landscape! 0ut i$ the Auartered circle re$ers to our earth, 8@5 then the dot inside certainly is not the sun, in spite o$ the stead$ast opinion o$ solar mythologists!

.:. Co()olo-i"al )a2 o' no t#$ n Y!"atan. In this case, the e perts possessed the answer without recogni*ing it! The te t itsel$ identi$ies the sign with "the
place where the %reat Spirit stayed!# To this statement the commentators add1 "(oncentric circles or a circle with a dot in the centre means divine or hallowed!#8@8 (ombining the two statements one obtains a clear-cut de$inition o$ the sign as "the divine or hallowed place where the %reat Spirit stayed!# Denoted is the Auartered, pri"eval land, o$ which the terrestrial -oly 9and was but a symbol!

+s a $inal e ample, I note that the sun-cross and the li$e-giving streams are recalled even in -awaiian myth! -ere the creator Teave is the ",ather-'other# $rom whom "li$e coursed to the $our directions o$ the world!# 8@7 ,rom the cosmic centre and *enith, Teave organi*ed the celestial "kingdom# with his "fla"ing cross of shining white light## "the $irst and $oremost (ross o$ %od!# 8@4 The "=rimordial 9ord o$ the Sun# HTeaveI transmitted the li$e elements to the $our corners
through the agency o$ $our assistant gods " ! ! ! The blood o$ li$e pulsated $rom the in$inite and coursed to the north, east, south, west, via the ,our Sacred -earts o$ %od, the deities Tane, Tanaoroa, Tu, <ono!#8@:

The widespread traditions o$ the primordial kingdom and the $our li$e-streams re$lect a consistent memory! .n every continent one $inds a compulsion to organi*e the native land a$ter a cosmic original, de$ined by the

enclosed sun-cross

! The $ocus is the primeval ground occupied by the great $ather—whose home is the

"earth# brought $orth in the creation legend! 0y superimposing the map o$ Saturn’s >arth onto the local landscape, the ancients consecrated their native territory as a likeness, or a renewal, o$ the celestial abode!

The /our.eyed or /our.fa'ed God
In the ancient >gyptian -eb-Sed $estival, the king ascends to the throne o$ .siris, where he is dei$ied as the great god’s successor! To certi$y his authority as &niversal 'onarch, he launches $our arrows toward the $our corners, then assumes
his throne, turning to the $our cardinal points in succession!832

0y $acing the $our directions the king repeats the $eat o$ the great godB $or the &niversal 'onarch, occupying the stead$ast centre Hor $i$th regionI, ceaselessly turned round about, sending his rays o$ li$e through the $our divisions o$ uni$ied space! The classical historian Diodorus tells us that when the name .siris is translated into %reek it means "manyeyed#—"and properly soB $or in shedding his rays in every direction he surveys with many eyes, as it were, all land and sea!# To .siris, -erodotus compares the %reek Dionysus—a god who, in the !acchic 1y"n# shines "like a star, with a $iery eye in every ray!#836

!y facing the four directions and by sending forth the four directional strea"s# the 5niversal Monarch beco"es the god of four faces or four eyes "-omage to thee, . thou who hast $our $aces,# reads a line o$ the Pyra"id Te-ts 83@ .siris, as the <am o$ 'endes, is the god o$ "$our $aces on one neck!#833 The -indu %tharva Veda speaks o$ the "$our heavenly directions, having the wind as lord, upon which the sun looks out!# 83G This, o$ course, can only be the central sun, who is 0rahma, a god o$ four faces The myths also attribute $our $aces to Shiva! 835 The central sun =raCapati takes the $orm o$ the $our-eyed, $our-$aced, and $our-armed Vivvakarman, the "all maker!# 838 +gni, too, $aces "in all directions,#837 as does ?rishna!834 (hinese myths recall a $our-eyed sage named Ts’ang (hieh, a legendary inventor o$ writing Hi!e!, the &niversal 'onarchI! 83: The old %reek god +rgos, in the %igi"ios o$ -esiod, looks "this way and that with $our eyes!# 8G2 'acrobius tells us the great god Janus was sometimes represented with $our $aces, in allusion to the $our Auarters o$ the (osmos!8G6 +mong the Tarahumara in /orth +merica, the cross represented the god -ikuli, "the $our-$aced god who sees all things!#8G@ The "(entral 9ord# o$ 'e ican ritual, represented by the cross, is "-e who looks in $our directions!# 8G3 There can no longer be any doubt that the $our-eyed or $our-$aced god is Saturn, $or the sun-planet appears in 0abylonian myth as >a HSumerian >nkiI—a god o$ four eyes that "behold all things!#8GG The =hoenician >l—Saturn— has $our eyes, as does the .rphic ?ronos HSaturnI! The (hinese Fellow >mperor -uang-ti—identi$ied as Saturn—is also $our-eyed!8G5 The $our-eyes, or $our $aces, become intelligible only in connection with the $ive regions—the polar centre and the $our divisions ranged around it!

The /oundation Stone
Residing at the i""ovable centre of the +os"os# Saturn was the stone or rock of foundation# the prototype of the cornerstone >situated where the four corners "eet
stone appeared to sustain the world wheel at its "four corners# synony"ous with the "four pillars of the world #

? The four bea"s of light which radiated fro" the Saturnian , so that# in "any "yths# the life-bearing strea"s are

In the mystic traditions reviewed by 'anly =! -all H'asonic, -ermetic, Oabalistic, <osicrucian, etc!I, the planet Saturn looms as the elementary power o$ creation! The planet-god "was always worshipped under the symbol o$
the base or $ooting, inasmuch as he was considered to be the substructure upholding creation,# states -all! 8G8

The writer is, o$ course, thinking in metaphysical terms, and when he speaks o$ "creation# he doubtless means
something much di$$erent $rom the "creation# discussed in the $oregoing sections! Fet his summary, when stripped o$ metaphysics and solar terminology, accurately conveys an age-old idea1 "The solar syste" Kread1 (osmosL was organi*ed by $orces operating inward $rom the great ring o$ the Saturnian sphereB and since the beginning o$ all things was under the control o$ Saturn, the most reasonable in$erence is that the $irst $orms o$ worship were dedicated to him in his peculiar symbol—the stone! Thus the intrinsic

nature o$ Saturn is synonymous with that spiritual rock which is the enduring $oundation o$ the Solar te"ple Kread1 dwelling o$ the central sunL!#8G7

In the earlier symbolism o$ the ,oundation Stone, there is no hint o$ solar associations, and the stone is not a
"spiritual KinvisibleL rock,# but the shining center around which the created earth, or (osmos, congealed!

The >gyptians knew the ,oundation Stone as the 0enben! ,rank$ort writes that the "$irst piece o$ solid matter
actually created by +tum in the primeval ocean ! ! ! 8G4 was a stone, the 0enbenB and it had originated $rom a drop o$ the seed o$ +tum which $ell into the primeval ocean!# 'ore precisely, one should say that +tum was the seed and the seed was the 0enben stone—the $irst thing to stabili*e at the cosmic centre! "Thou K+tumL didst shine $orth as 0enben,# recalls a Pyra"id Te-t# in connection with the $irst phases o$ creation!8G:

+tum, or <e, is the "%reat Seed,# and this aspect o$ the god is conveyed by the term ben H$rom which the word !enben was
producedI1 ben signi$ies "to beget!# 0ut the same word means "to go round#1 the 0enben is the stead$ast seed-stone# which, turning round about, moved the wheel o$ the (osmos!

,rom +tum, the 0enben, $lowed the $our streams o$ li$e, demarcating the $our Auarters or corners o$ the cosmic dwelling! It is thus vital that ben signi$ies "corner,# while the hieroglyphic sign $or "corner# is !852 Since the stone o$ $oundation lay at the center# the "corner# o$ the ben cannot have originally meant the corner o$ a sAuare or rectangular edi$ice—
even i$ later generations came to conceive it as such! Denoted is one o$ the $our "Auarters# converging on the central stone


This meaning is suggested by another sign
into $our Auarters or corners

, apt# signi$ying "division o$ the holy abode!# The sacred edi$ice is divided

de$ined by the angles o$ the ben ! +lso relevant here are the sign ses , "to divide,# and the common sign o$ "the holy abode# , nut The "$our corners# meet at the 0enben H+tumI, the ,oundation Stone! "%o to the streamings o$ the /ile Kthat is, the heavenly watersL and there you will $ind a stone that has a spirit,# stated an old alchemical source!856 (learly, the tradition re$ers to the ,oundation Stone, the central source o$ the $our streams radiating li$e to the inhabitants o$ the celestial kingdom! This Auality o$ the central sun persists in -ebrew and 'uslim imagery o$ +dam, the -eaven 'an! The /assenes esteemed +dam as the "rock# and "cornerstone!#85@ Drites Jung1 "The stone is indeed o$ supreme importance,
because it $ul$ills the $unction o$ +dam ?admon as the Pcapital stone,’ $rom which all the upper and lower hosts in the work o$ creation are brought into being!#853

The theosophic 9ohar declares, "The world did not come into being until %od took a certain stone, which is called the $oundation
stone, and cast it into the abyss so that it held $ast there, and $rom it the world was planted! This is the central point o$ the universe, and on this point stands the -oly o$ -olies!#85G

=atai summari*ed the tradition1 "In the middle o$ the Temple and constituting the $loor o$ the -oly o$ -olies, was a huge native
rock which was adorned by Jewish legends with all the peculiar $eatures o$ an .mphalos, + /avel o$ the >arth! This rock, called in -ebrew Ebhen Shetiyyah# the Stone o$ ,oundation, was the $irst solid Ki!e!, stable, stationaryL thing created, and was placed by %od amidst the as yet boundless $luid o$ the primeval waters! 9egend has it that Cust as the body o$ an embryo is built up in its mother’s womb $rom the navel, so %od built up the earth concentrically around this Stone!#855

Is this not the same account as that recorded by the >gyptians, who say that +tum, the masculine ,oundation Stone, came to rest at the cosmic centre, and that the created "land# or "earth#—the womb o$ the mother goddess—
congealed around the central godE

-ebrew and 'uslim traditions locate the ,oundation Stone in the paradise o$ >den! The +rabic term $or the stone is es-Sakra#—the <ock!# Thus the 'osAue o$ .mar—known as *ubbat es-Sakra# "Dome o$ the <ock#—bears on its western $acade the inscription1 "The <ock o$ the Temple—$rom the %arden o$ >den!#858 The legends relate that the ,oundation Stone conceals beneath it all the world’s waters and winds1 "+ll sweet water comes $rom under the -oly <ock,# notes DensinckB
"therea$ter it spreads over the earth!# + 'uslim te t states that "all rivers and clouds and vapours and winds come $rom under the -oly <ock in Jerusalem!#857 This can only mean that the $our rivers o$ >den, which water "the whole earth,# have their origin in, or under, the ,oundation Stone!

Though the stone belongs to the centre, it is, like the >gyptian 0enben, a cornerstone# $or one reads in Isaiah,
"There$ore thus saith the 9ord %od, 0ehold I lay in Qion Ki!e!, JerusalemL $or a $oundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure $oundation!#854 The center is the intersection o$ the four corners


That the ,oundation Stone stood at the source o$ the $our directional paths is the consistent theme in all o$ the ancient architectural plans reviewed by D! 'uller—$rom >urope to Southeast +sia! Dhen the <oman augur marked out the $our directions o$ the sacred city he sat upon a stone—which denoted the center# the intersection o$ the north-south and east-west a es!85: H.ne naturally thinks also o$ the lapis niger or black stone o$ the <oman ,orum,
signi$ying the centre o$ the world!I

The map o$ ancient Ireland shows $our provinces—(onnaught, &lster, 9einster, and 'unster—surrounding the central province o$ 'ide H"the 'iddle#I, where was situated the %ill na-Mircann# the "Stone o$ the Divisions!#882 This basic pattern occurs also in the original plan o$ /imwegen in the /etherlands1 at the intersection o$ the "$our streets o$ the world# stood a great blue stone!886 + similar stone stood at the symbolic centre o$ 9eiden, $rom which $our main streets radiated in $our directions!88@ +t the center o$ the sacred -indu dwelling, where the directional paths meet, stood the ,oundation Stone, considered as the $i ed point $rom which creation began! 883 In Thailand the ,oundation Stone o$ the royal palace, lying at the intersection o$ the crossroads, was the "corner-stone o$ the land!#88G /or can one ignore the identity o$ the ,oundation Stone and the planet Saturn! +rabic thought o$ten identi$ies the ,oundation Stone o$ >denRJerusalem with the sacred stone o$ the ?a ’ba in 'ecca!885 HTradition says that +dam himsel$ sat upon the ?a’ba stone, and that "$orty years be$ore +llah created the heavens and earth the ?a’ba was a dry spot $loating on the water and $rom it the world has been spread out!# 888 It is reported that in the pre-Islamic period the statue o$ a god -ubal stood inside the ?a ’ba above the opening o$ a well! The well symboli*ed the central source o$ the
world’s waters, and 1ubal was the planet Saturn

In the tradition reconstructed by -ildegard 9ewy, the statue o$ -ubal $illed the same purpose as the stone! Dhen the stone was removed "a statue o$ the planet Saturn K-ubalL had served in its place as the visible symbol o$ the planetary
god to whom the ?a’ba was dedicated#!887

0ut the 'eccan stone, as a$$irmed by numerous accounts, symboli*ed the very rock which the -ebrews called Ebhen Shetiyyah—the ,oundation Stone!884 The 'ohammedans, writes 9ewy, "were $ully aware o$ the $unctions o$ the sacred
stone o$ 'ecca and Jerusalem! The sacred stone o$ Jerusalem represented the same god KSaturnL as the 0lack Stone o$ 'ecca#! 88:

The ,oundation Stone is thus an indispensable ingredient in the symbolism o$ the $our li$e-bearing streams! The stone denotes Saturn in his character as the stead$ast support o$ the turning (osmos and the source o$ the radiating li$e elements!

The /our Pillars of +eaven
There is an aspect o$ the $our streams which seems to de$y nature and reason1 they are called "pillars!# The >gyptian ,our Sons o$ -orus appear as $our supports holding alo$t the womb o$ heaven H/utI! 0ut the standard analysis o$ the $our pillar-gods, by dispersing them to an inde$inable "$our corners# o$ our earth, deprives
them o$ their concrete aspect as life-strea"s flowing fro" the central sun Dhen the great god identi$ies the ,our Sons o$ -orus as the spirits who "have sprung $rom my body and who shall be with me in the $orm o$ everlasting Cudges ! ! ! ,# it is clear that the $our powers occupy a particular place 872 Thus the Pyra"id Te-ts locate +tum-<e at "the place o$ the $our pillars,#876 and this "place# is doubtless the womb o$ /ut, the -oly +bode ! The four strea"s are conceived as four pillars radiating fro" the i""ovable )oundation Stone to sustain Saturn0s +os"os at four cardinal points

The -indu Satapatha !rah"ana# in setting $orth the ritual o$ the world wheel, e tols the great god Vishnu with the words1 ". Vishnu, with beams o$ light thou didst hold $ast the earth on all sides!# 87@ The $our primary rays o$ the -indu central sun constitute the pillars o$ the celestial dwelling
which means both a ray o$ light and a $i ed support!I

! HThe connection is implicit in the >nglish word bea"#

So also do the $our winds serve as pillars! The >thiopic !ook of Enoch reads1 "I saw the treasures o$ all the winds1 I saw how -e had $urnished with them the whole creation and the $irm $oundations o$ the earth! 873 +nd I saw the corner stone o$ the

earth1 I saw the $our winds ! ! ! 1 these are the pillars o$ the earth!# In architectural representations o$ >den’s $our rivers, they too appear as pillars!87G The 'ayan 0acabs, who personi$y the $our directional streams, are the four props of heaven Similarly, in -awaiian myth, the li$e elements radiate to the $our corners o$ heaven by means o$ the $our spirits, Tane, <ono, Tanaoroa and Tucalled "the ,our 'ale Pillars o$ (reation!#875

.n our earth no one has ever seen a beam o$ light, a wind, or a river serving as a pillar, yet this is the e traordinary $unction o$ the $our paths o$ light and li$e $lowing $rom the creator! +s spokes o$ the world wheel , the streams appeared to "pillar apart# and to steady the revolving enclosure!

Symmetri'al #la*orations of the Sun.!ross
In the course o$ many centuries the sun-cross o$ten acAuired comple and symmetrical associations, as schools o$ myth and theology combined various interpretations o$ the $our streams in $ormal systems! These evolved systems o$ten identi$y each Auarter o$ sacred space with an element, colour, season, or representative animal! +n early e ample o$ this tendency is the assignment o$ a di$$erent substance to each o$ the $our paradisal rivers! Dhile 'arco =olo Courneyed to the court o$ ?ublai ?han he was told the legend o$ an old ruler called the Sheikh o$ the 'ountain! The sheikh was distinguished $or his possession o$ the world ’s most beauti$ul garden,
containing the best $ruits o$ the earth! Through the garden passed $our conduits, one $lowing with wine, one with milk, one with honey, and one with water! The sheikh proclaimed his garden to be paradise! 878

-indu literature describes the $our rivers o$ paradise as $lowing respectively with milk, butter, honey, and wine!877 Similarly, Strabo relates the report o$ (alamus that the $irst race o$ men enCoyed a bliss$ul land in which "corn o$ all sorts abounded as plenti$ully as dust does at presentB and the $ountains poured $orth streams, some o$ water, some
o$ milk, some o$ honey, some o$ wine, and some o$ oil!#874

In a corresponding manner each river receives a di$$erent color The $our rivers o$ the (hinese polar paradise ?wen-lun possess a remarkable $eature1 one is blue, another white, another red, and another black! 87: >ach o$ the -indu $our rivers has its special colour!842 The ?almucks o$ Siberia describe a primordial sea $rom which $our rivers $lowed "toward
the di$$erent points o$ the compass,# each issuing $rom the mouth o$ a di$$erent animal and identi$ied with di$$erent colours1 "The eastern river contains silver sand, the southern blue Cewel sand, the western red Cewel sand and the northern gold sand!# 846

In developing the symbolism o$ the terrestrial kingdom, the ancients borrowed $rom the imagery o$ the celestial, assigning a di$$erent colour, element, or season to each geographical "cardinal point!# .$ course the celestial
prototype, the sun-cross , does not itsel$ suggest which terrestrial direction should be associated with "$ire# and which with "air,# or whether one special direction should be linked with "blue# and another with "red!# Thus there seems to be no single pattern o$ the symbolism $rom one land to another!

0ut the tendency toward such $ormali*ation was universal! 0oth the 'e icans and the Quni identi$ied the $our directions with respective colours and "elements# Hair, water, $ire, earthI, though the speci$ic relationship di$$ered, as indicated

The 'aya, on the other hand, connected the east with red, the north with white, the west with black, and the south with yellow! Throughout /orth +merica, according to +le ander, the directional gods were associated with respective colours, though there "is no uni$ormity in the distribution o$ the colours to the several regions!# 843 0uddhist symbolism shows $our rays radiating $rom the heads o$ 'akasukha to the $our corners, each ray associated with a colour,84G while the (hinese developed the $ollowing associations o$ the directions1

Taken alone, these varied connections tell us little, $or such developments are largely a matter o$ local innovation! Dhat is important $or our analysis is the unanimity with which the ancients conceived their land as $our Auarters around a centre, identi$ying the Auarters with the primal li$e elements which all traditions describe $lowing $rom the central sun in radiant streams! 'oreover, there is one aspect o$ the elaborated symbolism o$ the $our Auarters which deserves closer attention —namely, the connection of the planet Saturn with the centre around which the four "ele"ents# or colors or seasons are ranged In
the speci$ic associations o$ the (hinese directions indicated above one recogni*es no correspondence with a "general tradition!# ,or e ample, the (hinese identi$ication o$ the center with the element "earth# or with the color yellow $ails to coincide with any worldwide pattern! Surely it is signi$icant, however, that in (hina the center, the element "earth,# and the colour yellow all belong uniAuely to the planet Saturn—a startling $act which agrees with the eAually startling placement o$ Saturn at the pole, the cosmic centre in (hinese thought!845 Saturn is -uang-ti, the Cellow >mperor, his residence the +entral =alace $rom which the $our directions radiate!

This character o$ Saturn prevails in the (hinese symbolism o$ the $ive visible planets! Saturn is placed at the centre, while 'ercury, Venus, 'ars, and Jupiter are spaced at the "$our corners# around Saturn! /othing in the present
orbits o$ the planets would suggest Saturn’s location at the centre o$ this system! In $act, as the outermost visible planet, Saturn would seem the least worthy o$ such distinction!

0ut originally, Saturn was the polar sun, the central source o$ the directional streams, and it was only to be e pected that the other $our planets, like the $our seasons, $our colours, or $our elements, came to symboli*e the powers o$ the $our Auarters, their symbolic location possibly being decided by the element with which each planet was identi$ied! +s to the "center,# Saturn could be the only choice! The order was1

This cosmological system receives e tensive treatment by 9eopold de Saussure! 848 To the (hinese, he reports, Saturn corresponded to the sacred centre, around which the cardinal points rangedB symbolism o$ the terrestrial centre mirrored the symbolism o$ the celestial pole! The other $our planets were eAuated with the $our seasons, elements, and colours, the entire system having its origin in the concept o$ the $our divisions o$ heaven, to which the polar centre, Saturn’s domain, was added as the "$i$th!# Dhat is even more e traordinary, the location o$ Saturn at the polar centre—with the $our Auarters dispersed around him—was not uniAue to (hina! De Saussure $inds the same system in Iran! Iranian cosmology connects the $ive planets with $ive regions o$ space, the centre being $i ed at the celestial pole! Placed at the pole was *evan#
the planet Saturn# precisely duplicating the station of the +hinese Saturn -ere is the system1

The reader will note that the directional connections o$ the $our peripheral planets do not correspond to the connections in the (hinese system! Dhat is vital is Saturn ’s central station as the source o$ the $our emanations! "The
planet that the (hinese consider as the symbol o$ the emperor Ki!e!, SaturnL is associated, in Iran, with the %reat .ne in the 'iddle o$ -eaven, which is to say, with the celestial poleB it bears the name ! ! ! o$ ?evan and it is precisely identi$ied by the translators with Saturn!#847

+$ter reviewing the stunning concordance o$ the (hinese and Iranian symbolism, de Saussure concluded that the Iranian system must have been borrowed $rom the (hinese! 9ater, however, $ollowing correspondence with the Iranian scholar Junker, de Saussure changed his opinionB $or Junker pointed out that the same idea—the polar centre surrounded by $our heavens-divisions—prevailed in the older 0abylonian and -indu systems! There$ore, concluded de Saussure, "the division o$ the universe into a central region and $our peripheral divisions KandL the
assimilation o$ the terrestrial sovereign to the celestial pole ! ! ! occurs not only in (hinese cosmology—which is particularly rational, symmetrical and well preserved—but also in 0abylonian, Vedic K-induL and Iranian cosmologies!# 844

'ost surprising o$ all, however, was the discovery by de Saussure and Junker that when the principles o$ the $ive regions are applied to the oldest enumeration o$ the sun, moon, and planets in 0abylonia, Saturn acAuires the central HpolarI station!84: "In the most ancient 0abylonian series Ko$ planetsL based on the number $ive,# states de Saussure, "the planet Saturn is placed, as in (hina, in the middle!# 8:2 The polar Saturn, presiding over the central region and surrounded by the powers o$ the $our Auarters, thus occurs in the earliest $ormal astronomy! To summari*e1 The imagery o$ the Auartered kingdom centers on the sign o$ the sun-cross , depicting Saturn sending the seed o$ li$e in the $our directions! +ncient mythmakers interpreted the radiating streams as $our beams o$ light, $our winds, $our rivers, $our paths o$ arrows, or $our pillars o$ the (osmos !

0ut the heaven-dividing streams eventually passed into an e panded symbolism, relating each direction to an element, season, colour, or planet! In such elaborate and symmetrical renderings o$ the Auartered kingdom, one recogni*es the arbitrary in$luence o$ innovation! 0ut the root idea remains consistent $rom one land to another, and when such symbolism is subCect to scrutiny, Saturn looms at the cosmic centre—the "$i$th region,# the
immovable pole around which the directional elements, seasons, planets, etc! are ranged!

8II. T$)2l$+ C o;n+ 8a($+ E,$+ and Ci "!la S$ 2$nt
+ primary thesis o$ this book is that the Saturnian con$iguration provoked many di$$erent symbols, whose underlying relationship to a single cosmic $orm too o$ten goes unnoticed! Dhen the ancients laid out the sacred city they sought to establish a likeness o$ the cosmic dwelling, a circle around a $i ed centre! +nd in organi*ing the $irst kingdoms, uni$ying once-separate territories, the $ounders $ollowed the same celestial plan! There was only one dwelling o$ the great god, but this dwelling inspired imitative $orms o$ varying scale and
varying ritual $unctions! +t root the creator’s home is simply "the place,# "the land,# "the holy abode,# or "the enclosure!# .nly with the construction o$ imitative cities does the god’s residence become "the cosmic city!# +nd only a$ter the organi*ation o$ imitative terrestrial kingdo"s can one meaning$ully term the heavenly abode a "celestial kingdom!#

Dhat the smallest city and grandest empire have in common is an identical relationship to the Saturnian enclosure! Distinctions o$ scale "down here# do not alter the $act that the celestial city and kingdom are absolutely synonymous! In addition to the images o$ the Saturnian band reviewed in the $oregoing sections, several others reAuire attention!

T#$ T$)2l$
9ike the ancient city and kingdom, the terrestrial shrine copies Saturn’s dwelling! HSaturn, as we have seen, $ounded the
"$irst# temple!I Though the local temple acAuired its own special $unctions and attributes, the ritual leaves no doubt that the cos"ic "house,# "shrine,# and "chamber# mean the same thing as the "city o$ heaven!#

Sumerian te ts describe the cosmic city o$ >ridu as1 The house built o$ silver, adorned with lapis la*uli ! ! ! The abyss Kcosmic oceanL, the shrine o$ the goodness o$ >nki, be$itting the divine decrees, >ridu, the pure house having been built!8:6 (onversely, the celestial temple is called "the primeval city# Hthe very title o$ many Sumerian cities themselvesI, and the
hymns say o$ the ?es temple1

Indeed it is a city, indeed it is a city, who know its interiorE8:@ The ?es temple is indeed a city, who knows its interiorE >nki, the Sumerian Saturn, erects his temple or "sea house# as the crowning act of creation( +$ter the water o$ creation has been decreed, +$ter the name hegal H+bundanceI, born o$ heaven, 9ike the plant and herb had clothed the land, The lord o$ the abyss, the ?ing >nki, >nki, the lord who decrees the $ates, 0uilt his house o$ silver and lapis la*uli1 Its silver and lapis la*uli, like sparkling light! The $ather $ashioned $ittingly in the abyss!8:3 This is the "$ar-$amed house built in the bosom Kheart, centreL o$ the /ether sea!# 8:G The cosmic dwelling becomes the "%ood temple built on a good place ! ! ! $loating in the sky ! ! ! heaven’s midst!# 8:5 It is said to "$loat like a cloud in the midst o$ the

In constructing the earthbound copy o$ the temple above, states Jastrow, the 0abylonians strove to make both the e terior and interior "resplendent with brilliant colouring—Pbrilliant as the sun!’# 8:7 The purpose is clear1 to imbue the local
temple with a lustre matching that o$ the prototype! Symbolically, the local temple takes on the radiance o$ the celestial, becoming the "house o$ light,# "house o$ the brilliant precinct,# or "lo$ty and brilliant wall#B "the house o$ great splendour,# "the beauti$ul house,# "the brilliant house!#8:4

To deal with the Sumero-0abylonian imagery in its own terms one must understand the cosmic temple not only as the god’s house—but more! The te"ple fashioned in the abyss is the created 2earth # The Sumerian >kur, the house o$ >nlil on
the cosmic sea +psu, means both "temple# and "earth# H"land,# "place#I! 8::

%ragg con$irms the identity o$ the cosmic temple and the created "earth# when he notes "the cosmic dimensions o$ the temple! It $ills the whole world!#722 The Sumerians celebrated the god’s shrine as the "pure place, earth of %n# Hthat is,
Saturn0s EarthI!726

Throughout the previous sections I have contended that Saturn ’s dwelling produced the original myth o$ the lost paradise!
That the great god’s house enclosed the cosmic land o$ $ertility and abundance is the straight$orward declaration o$ the Sumerian temple hymns! HThough some o$ the lines in the $ollowing Auotes are broken, one cannot $ail to discern the consistent themeI1

-ouse, 'ountain, like herbs and plants beauti$ully blooming ! ! ! your interior is plentitude!72@ The temple is builtB its abundance is goodM The ?es temple is builtB its abundance is goodM723 -ouse with well-$ormed Cars, set up under heaven ! ! ! H,ull o$I the abundance o$ the midst o$ the sea ! ! ! >mah, the house o$ Sara, the $aith$ul man has enlarged $or you H&mmaI in plenty ! ! ! HDithI good $ortune it is e panding, HitsI ! ! ! abundance and well-being ! ! !72G -ouse ! ! ! $rom your midst HcomesI plenty, Four treasury HisI a mountain o$ abundance ! ! !725 Four interior is the place where the sun rises# endowed with abundance, $ar-reaching ! ! !728 -ouse with the great me’s o$ ?ulaba ! ! ! , HitsI ! ! ! has made the temple $lourish, Dell grown $resh $ruit, marvellous, $illed with ripeness, Descending $rom the midst o$ heaven ! ! !727 .ne sees that the temple stands at the cosmic "midst# or centre! ,rom its interior shines the primeval sun, It houses the
$lourishing celestial garden!

The chamber o$ the great god, according to Sumerian creation myths, was that in which dwelt the original generation o$ "men# Hi!e!, the company o$ gods to whom all races traced their ancestry and $rom which each race took its nameI!
The chamber was the prototype o$ >den, the ancestral birthplace!

In the Sumerian myth o$ the primordial hero Tagtug occurs a lively description o$ the god ’s chamber as a celestial
garden! .ccupying the house o$ abundance are the +nunnaki, the great god’s companions! +nd here came into being the $irst generation o$ "'ankind#1

The abundance o$ the goddess o$ $locks and o$ the %rain %oddess, The +nunnaki in "the holy chamber# +te and were not $illed ! ! ! The +nunnaki in "the holy chamber# Drank and were not $illed! In the holy park, $or their Hthe god’sI bene$it, 'ankind with the soul o$ li$e came into being! Then >nki said to >nlil1 ",ather >nlil, $locks and grain In "the holy chamber# have been made plenti$ul! In "the holy chamber# mightily shall they bring $orth!# 0y the incantation o$ >nki and >nlil ,locks and grain in "the holy chamber# brought $orth!

=asture they provided $or them abundantly, ,or the %rain-goddess they prepared a house ! ! !724 The $lowering o$ the celestial garden is a widespread theme which I touched on brie$ly in the earlier discussion o$ the >gyptian creation and which I intend to e plore at greater length in a subseAuent volume! It is surely worthy o$ note, however, that the great god’s "chamber# is the same as the "holy park# in which "'ankind# was brought

I$ one reads the above lines in the light o$ the >gyptian symbolism—which eAuates the $irst generation o$ gods HmenI with the "abundance# erupting $rom the creator—the Sumerian myth takes on greater meaning than might otherwise be
evident! Immediately a$ter the statement, "'ankind with the soul o$ li$e came into being,# >nki declares that "$locks and grain in Pthe holy chamber’ have been made plenti$ul!# The pri"eval generation was the sa"e thing as the overflowing abundance# both re$erring to the luminous debris which erupted $rom the creator as "speech!# Thus the "$locks and grain# o$ the celestial garden, according to the Sumerian te t, are brought $orth "by the incantation Ki!e!, speechL o$ >nki and >nlil# Htwo competing $igures o$ the single creatorI! To my knowledge, such close parallels between the >gyptian and 'esopotamian creation accounts have never received adeAuate attention by comparative mythologists!

The blossoming chamber o$ the Sumerian creation also $inds a counterpart in a -awaiian genesis myth, reproduced by 9einani 'elville1 'an descended $rom the Sacred Shrine o$ The ?ing who created the heavens! The Shrine o$ the ?ing o$ -eaven who caused that distant realm to bloom and $lower1 The (onsecrated <ealm o$ Teave, the Dorld o$ Teave!72: 0oth the -awaiian and Sumerian sources place the genesis o$ the race in the great god ’s shrine or chamber, likened
to a $lowering garden! Just as the Sumerian chamber or temple corresponds to the "earth,# so does the -awaiian sacred shrine answer to "the Dorld o$ Teave!#

The #gyptian Temple
+s in 'esopotamia, >gyptian sources portray the primeval temple as the visible dwelling o$ the sun-god1 'ay I shine like <e in his divine splendour in the temple!762 -omage to thee K.siris /uL, . thou who art within the divine shrine, who shinest with rays o$ light and sendest $orth radiance $rom thysel$!766 ! ! ! >very god shall ! ! ! reCoice at the li$e o$ =tah when he maketh his appearance $rom the great temple o$ the +ged .ne which is in +nnu!76@ Thou art the ruler o$ all the gods and thou hast Coy o$ heart within the shrine!763 The great god’s shrine, house, or temple is the band o$ "glory,# the %ten
+ten,# states a +offin Te-t

1 "Four pavilion is enlarged in the interior o$ the

Dhen the >gyptians laid the $oundation o$ a temple, they consecrated the enclosed ground as "the primeval
territory o$ the domain o$ the sun-god!# >ach temple became a miniature o$ the cosmic habitation $ounded in the creation! Thus the >gyptians viewed the >d$u temple as "the veritable descendant o$ the mythical temple that was created at the dawn o$ this world ! ! ! ,#765 <eymond tells us!768 The $oundation ground became "the 0lessed Territory $rom the time o$ the =rimeval .nes ! ! ! , the -interland o$ the =rimeval Dater!#767 This was the =rovince o$ the 0eginning, "the 0lessed 1o"eland #764

In -ebrew cosmology, reports Densinck, "the sanctuary is the type and representation o$ (osmos and =aradise and as such a
power diametrically opposed to (haos!#76:

,rom the very spot o$ the -ebrew temple "the $irst ray o$ light issued and illuminated the whole world!# Indeed, the temple was the "whole world,# according to a 'idrash1 "The temple corresponds to the whole world!# 7@2 Tradition states that the primordial light was "not identical with the light o$ the sun, moon and stars,# but lit up the temple $rom its centre and radiated out through the windows!7@6 The cosmic temple, in other words, was the lost land o$ the "dawn# or $irst "sunrise!#

Temple and Wom*

/othing is more basic to the imagery o$ the temple than its identity as the cosmic womb! /eumann observes1
"Just as the temple is ! ! ! a symbol o$ the %reat %oddess as house and shelter, so the temple gate is the entrance into the goddessB it is her womb, and the innumerable entrance and threshold rites o$ mankind are e pressions o$ this numinous $eminine place!# 7@@ Throughout the /ear >ast, states +llegro, "the temple was designed with a large measure o$ uni$ormity# and this sacred abode is "now recogni*able as a microcosm o$ the womb!#7@3

/ot in one land, but in every segment o$ the world, the sacred te ts con$irm this identity o$ temple and womb! The >gyptian great god resides within the womb o$ the goddess as in a "house# or "chamber!# The goddess -athor is "the house o$ -orus!#7@G The name o$ Isis means chamber, house, abode, etc!, and the >gyptians claimed she was the house in which -orus came into being! 7@5 /ut is "the good house,#7@8 and /eith the house o$ .siris,7@7 while the name o$ /ephthys means "9ady o$ the -ouse!# The identity stands out in this hymn to <e1 "I am e alted like the holy god who dwelleth in the %reat Temple, and the gods
reCoice when they see me in my beauti$ul coming $orth $rom the body K khat# wombL o$ /ut, when my mother /ut giveth birth to me!#7@4 To shine as the "sun# within the cosmic temple is to come $orth within the womb o$ /ut, "the good house!#

+mong the >gyptians, notes Sethe, "house# served as a poetic e pression $or the womb!7@: (learly, this "poetic e pression#
originated as a radical identity in the ritual! Just as the goddess’ titles denominate her the "house# or "temple# o$ the great god, so does the temple receive the character o$ the goddess! =tah’s temple at 'emphis is the "mistress o$ li$e,# 732 and an inscription in ?ing Seti I’s $unerary temple states, "I am thy temple, thy mother, $orever and $orever!# 736 The -oly (hamber $rom which <e shines $orth is, according to =ianko$$, "The -oly (hamber o$ the /etherworld KTuatL, the womb o$ divine birth!#73@

Throughout 'esopotamia, one discovers the same $eatures o$ the temple! -ere, too, the cosmic "house# appears as the womb o$ primeval genesis! &rukug is "the shrine which causes the seed to come $orth,# 733 while the temple o$ +ruru is "the procreative womb o$ >mah#73G and the temple o$ 9il*ag "the house o$ e alted seed!#735 The 'esopotamian temple or chamber thus gives birth to the god! Tammu*, the man-child, is "the o$$spring o$ the house#738 and 'arduk the "(hild o$ the holy chamber!#737 In the 0abylonian creation epic we read1 In the chamber o$ $ate, the abode o$ destinies, + god was engendered, most able and wisest o$ gods! In the heart o$ the +psu was 'arduk created!734 "Fou have taken my seed into the womb, have given birth to me in the shrine,# declares ?ing %udea to the goddess %atumdug! 73: .ne can compare the Sumerian te t1 "In the great house he has begotten me!#7G2 +s in >gypt, the gate o$ a sanctuary is conceived as the entrance to the womb o$ the goddess! 7G6 -ence, Sargon styles one o$ the gates o$ his palace
!elit ilani# "mistress o$ the gods!#7G@

The !ro0n
+mong all ancient races the crown, wreath, or headband signi$ied religious and political authority! Fet this world-wide $unction o$ the crown re$lects no sel$-evident $act o$ human nature or o$ the e ternal world! Dhat was the source o$ the crown’s numinous powersE The symbols o$ kingship have their origin in the &niversal 'onarch, the ancestor o$ kings and "$ounder# o$ the
kingship ritual! 9egends o$ the great god say that, when he established his kingdom, he wore as a crown his "circle o$ glory# Hhalo, auraI! 0e$ore >gyptian rulers ever donned the Dhite (rown, the crown o$ the great $ather .siris shed its light at the cosmic centre1 "-is crown clove the sky and consorted with the stars!# 7G3 The primordial sun, reports =liny, "established civili*ation and $irst triumphantly crowned heaven with his glowing circle!# 7GG In the ritual o$ the 'andaeans it was the ",irst 'an# who wore as a crown the "circle o$ radiance, light and glory!# 7G5 .ne could hardly make a greater mistake than to assume, with so

many modern scholars, that the crowns worn by gods are simply proCections onto the heaven order o$ the crowns worn by terrestrial kings! Divorced $rom the crown o$ the &niversal 'onarch, the headdress o$ the local king becomes a meaningless arti$act! Dhatever powers the crown may possess, they derive $rom the cosmic prototype! ,undamentally, the crown is an enclosing band The most important component o$ the >gyptian crown was the gold headband, while the great god was "'aster o$ the -ead-0and!# 7G8 The Sumerian word $or crown, uku# means "great band!#7G7 In the classical etymologies reviewed by .nians the "crown# possesses the concrete meaning o$ a "circle# or "band# enclosing a
god or a man!7G4

Dhen the >gyptian priests placed the sacred band on the head o$ the king, deeming him the regent o$ the sungod <e, they were guided by the image o$ the great god himsel$, whose hieroglyphic was , showing the sungod in the circle o$ the %ten Thus, in the Theban ritual, the gods -orus and Set say to the new king, "I will give thee a li$e like
unto that o$ <e, years even as the years o$ Tem,# and "I will establish the crown upon thy head even like the %ten on the head of %"en-Re 37G:

The great god not only wears the crown o$ glory, he dwells in it -e "appears in the Dhite (rown#752 or "comes $orth $rom the Very %reat (rown!#756 In the !ook of the .ead one $inds "the divine being who dwelleth in the ne""es crown#!75@ 'ore speci$ically, the god’s crown is his spouse—the womb-goddess who emanated $rom the god, yet gave birth to him! . <ed crown, . Inu Kthe crownL, . %reat .ne ! ! ! . Inu, thou hast come $orth $rom meB +nd I have come $orth $rom thee!753 To wear the crown is to reside within the wombB or conversely, to be born in the womb is to wear the crown! 75G It is in this sense that one must understand the statement o$ the +offin Te-ts that the god is "born# in the crown or that the king is "the son o$ the white crown!# 755 The same identi$ication o$ crown and womb e plains the statement that .siris $irst shone $orth "$ully crowned $rom his mothers womb!# 758 Does not the sign
the cosmic wombE

depict the "$ully crowned# god within

"I am he who is girt about with his girdle and who cometh $orth $rom the goddess o$ the &reret crown!# 757 This statement $rom the !ook of the .ead concurs with numerous other re$erences in >gyptian te ts, eAuating the crown with the mother goddess! In the Pyra"id Te-ts we read1 "I know my mother, I have not $orgotten my mother, the white crown!# 754 The same te ts say o$ the king1 "thy mother is the %reat Dild (ow, living in /ekeb, the white crown, the <oyal -eaddress!# 75: +ccordingly, the >gyptians esteemed the goddess Isis as "the (rown o$ <e--orus#782 and the goddess Te$nut as the "diadem o$ <e!#786 The identity o$ goddess and crown, has, in $act, been $ully acknowledged by (lark and ,rank$ort, among others!78@ Fet ,rank$ort’s e planation amounts to this1 "The goddess is simply the personi$ication o$ the power o$ royalty ! ! ! and hence is immanent in the crown!# 783 The statement tacitly assumes that the local crown came $irst Hwho knows whyI and that the great goddess, personi$ying an abstract "power o$ royalty,# came to be identi$ied with the crown si"ply
because the crown was a sy"bol of royal power

0ut the relationship o$ the crown and womb amounts to a radical identityB both take their character $rom the same visible band! Ignored by ,rank$ort is the e plicit eAuation o$ both the goddess and the crown with the circle o$ the

That the god dwells in the crown means that the crown is the god ’s house or temple—what the >gyptians called "the
temple o$ the Dhite (rown!# Speaking o$ the headgear o$ Sumer and >gypt, 9evy notes that "in each case it bears a relation to the monuments! It Kthe crownL may, in $act, be considered as itsel$ a little sanctuary!# 78G 0ut what was the source o$ this une pected identityE Sumerian temple hymns repeatedly invoke the cos"ic temple as the great god’s crown! The temple o$ >Aaduda is the "(rown o$ the high plain#785 and Sippar the "Sanctuary o$ heaven, star o$ heaven, crown# borne by /ingal!#788 The ?es temple becomes the "%reat, true temple, reaching the sky, temple, great crown# reaching the sky ! ! !#787

The same identity prevails elsewhere! -ent*e, observing that the 'e ican Ouet*alcoatl wears his temple as a crown, reports that such symbolism pervades early (hinese bron*es! .ne notes also the "world house# worn as a
crown by the $amous Diana o$ >phesus! 9ike the sacred abode o$ all great gods the latter crown-temple has $our doors $acing in $our directions!784

Since the cosmic temple is the same thing as the cosmic city, one should not be surprised to $ind that the city also appears as the crown! In the !ook of the .ead occurs a description o$ "<e when at the beginning he rose in the city o$ Suten-henen K-eracleopolisL, crowned like a king in his rising!# 78: The evidence suggests that the city Hor kingdomI in which <e $irst shone $orth was the very circle o$ glory which he wore as a crown—and this is why, in the symbols and , the >gyptians combined the hetch-crown and tesher-crown with the symbol o$ the

goddess /ut

, the "city# or "holy land!# In accord with this identity the 0abylonian hymn proclaims, "0orsippa Kthe cosmic

cityL is thy crown!#772

.$ten the crown takes the $orm o$ a city wall! The most $amous e ample, perhaps, is the crown o$ Tyche o$ +ntioch, which corresponds to the turreted wall o$ the city! 776 (oncerning the goddess o$ the city-crown, Suhr writes1 " ! ! ! the whole city wall, in a diminutive version, was placed on her head, beginning with +starte and continuing with +phrodite o$ %reek and <oman times!77@ Fet why the crown was assimilated to the city wall remains une plained by modern researchers—and will continue to remain a pu**le until scholars acknowledge the concrete $orm o$ the mother goddess, city, and crown as a single band o$ light around the great god!

The 1ase
'ythmaking imagination also e pressed the Saturnian band as a vase or receptacle housing the sun-god and his waters o$ li$e1 all the waters o$ the world, according to ancient belie$, originated in the solitary god! +s a symbol o$ the all-containing receptacle above, the round vessel became a popular $igure o$ the mother goddess! " ! ! ! The great goddess as divine water Car is the mistress o$ the upper waters!# observes /eumann! 773 %! >lliot Smith notices the close connection o$ the mother goddess with the vase1 "The idea o$ the 'other =ot is
$ound not only in 0abylonia, >gypt, India, and the >astern 'editerranean, but wherever the in$luence o$ these ancient civili*ations made itsel$ $elt! It is widespread among the (eltic-speaking peoples ! ! ! It became also a witch’s cauldron, the magic cup, the -oly %rail, the $ont in which a child is reborn in the $aith, the vessel o$ water here being interpreted in the earliest sense as the uterus or the organ o$ birth!#77G

.<. T#$ -odd$(( N!t a( t#$ $volvin- ;at$ "ontain$ The vase, in the >gyptian hieroglyphs, denotes the celestial goddess /ut and the $emale principle in general! 775 +n interesting >gyptian illustration depicts /ut, bearing the cosmic vessel on her head, and spinning around with su$$icient speed to cause drops o$ water to $ly outward Hsee $ig! @:I! The mother goddess is the revolving water container in heaven! Sumero-0abylonian cylinder seals show the puri$ying waters o$ the +psu descending $rom a vase, regarded as the mother womb! The vase is in "the heaven o$
+nu,# called "the place o$ the $lowing $orth o$ the waters which open the womb!#778

The same symbolism o$ the vase prevails in (hina, according to -ent*e Hwho relates the symbolism o$ the $eminine container to a global traditionI!777 The Quni address the sacred pot as "the 'other,#774 while a =eruvian Car covered with breasts on all sides obviously e presses the identical theme!77: Thus does the sun-god dwell in the vase# renewing his birth each "day#1 "I have come $orth $rom my d/enit-Car, and I will appear in the morning,# reads an >gyptian Pyra"id Te-t 742 HI remind the reader that archaic "day# means our "night!#I To the same
symbolism belongs the -indu Vasishtha who is "born $rom the Car# 746 and is obviously akin to the Iranian ,ravashi ?humbya, "the son o$ the Car!#74@ 'uslim tradition echoes this theme in declaring that the soul o$ 'ohammed pree isted in a vase o$ light in the world o$ spirits!743 The (hinese alchemist Dei =o-Fang says1 "The True 'an living in a deep abyss, $loats about the centre o$ the round vessel!#74G The mother vase housing the manchild appears even in 'e ico H$ig! 36I!745

+mong the 'ayans, writes /uttall, the vase symboli*ed "the divine essence o$ light and li$e proceeding $rom Pthe -eart o$ -eaven!’748 " +ppropriately they designated the symbolic vase as the "navel or centre,# 747 a characteri*ation which agrees with /eumann’s interpretation o$ the vase as the "centre $rom which the universe is nourished!#744 The vase denotes, in other words, the celestial earth, the original land o$ abundance! Dhile the >gyptian priests o$ =tah claimed the primeval land to have been $ashioned by =tah on his potter ’s wheel, the hymns also e tol "the

pottery which =tah moulded#74: in clear re$erence to the same primordial enclosure1 the subCect is the realm o$ the ancestors, where the resurrected dead receive "the $resh water in a /ar which =tah has $ashioned!#7:2

/>. T#$ )ot#$ -odd$(( a( ;at$ "ontain$ . 8a($ ' o) T o,+ 'o! t# (t at!).

/*. ManB"#ild in va($. F o) M$Ai"o+ 8i$nna Cod$A -ere is the declaration o$ "the potter# in the Pyra"id Te-ts Has translated by ,aulknerI1 "I am your potter upon earth ! ! ! I have
come and have brought to you this mansion o$ yours which I built $or you on that night when you were born, on the day o$ your birthplaceB it is a beer-Car HsicMI!#7:6 'ost instructive is ,aulkner’s parenthetical "sicM# $ollowing the phrase "beer-Car#—as i$ to suggest that the scribe su$$ered a lapse o$ reason1 what could a beer Car have to do with the great god’s "mansion# and "birthplace#E +mong the >gyptians beer symboli*ed $ertility and abundance $lowing $rom on high! The ritual "beer-Car# was the primeval land—the dwelling which congealed around the great $ather and Has the cosmic wombI "gave birth# to him! The same te ts in which the above lines appear locate the potter god in "this Island o$ >arth!# Vessel, temple, earth, and womb denote the same celestial enclosure!

The #ye
.ne o$ the most mysterious symbols which have come down to us is the solitary and all-seeing >ye! In ancient >gypt, where the most complete in$ormation is available, the symbol pervades the monuments and the sacred te ts o$ all periods! "The >ye is the key to the religion,# states (lark! 7:@ Fet no archaic sign has been less understood than the mystic >ye1 "The >ye is the commonest symbol in >gyptian thought and the strangest to us!#7:3 Is the >ye, as almost uni$ormly asserted, the solar orbE /owhere is the weakness o$ solar mythology more apparent than in its handling o$ this pu**ling symbol! .ne >gyptologist a$ter another, by $ollowing the solar interpretation, passes over in silence the many enigmatic particulars o$ eye symbolism! To my knowledge the only well-known authority to reCect categorically the solar interpretation is <udolph +nthes! +$ter devoting e tensive research to the >ye o$ <e, +nthes concludes that the >ye "apparently never was the sun!#7:G Fet +nthes, seeking an answer in the heavens as they appear to us today, does not begin to unravel the interconnected symbolism o$ the >ye! Strictly speaking the >gyptian >ye is neither a "sun# nor a "star,# but the circle or enclosure $ashioned by the creator as his
celestial home! The great god resides in the >ye as the pupil! .ne o$ the most common names o$ the >ye in >gypt is 5tchat# hieroglyphically rendered as

! The &tchat hieroglyph combines three closely related signs1 6I

, meaning

"to see# and also "to $orm, $ashion, create#B @I , "to $ashion, encircle#B and 3I is the created enclosure# the bond around the primeval sun! in peace Ke" hetep# "at rest#L into the divine &tchat!#7:7

, "cord, to bind, to encircle!# The all-seeing >ye

Thus the god has his home in the &tchat H>yeI1 "I am in the &tchat!#7:5 "I am he who dwelleth in the &tchat!#7:8 ">nter thou

+ +offin Te-t reads, "I am -orus in his >ye,#7:4 while the -arris 'agical =apyrus states, "I am Shu under the $orm o$ <e, seated in the middle o$ his $ather’s eye!# 7:: In the !ook of the .ead one $inds1 "I am the pure one in his eye#B 422 "I am he who
dwelleth in the middle o$ his own >ye!#426

Thus does the great god reside in the enclosure o$ the >ye as the "pupil!# "=raise be to thee, . <a, > alted Sekhem, aged
one o$ the pupil o$ the &tchat K>yeL!# 42@ "I am in the &tchat ! ! ! I sit in K e"# "as#L the pupil o$ the eye ! ! ! B# 423 "%od-the-pupil-o$whose-eye-is-terrible is thy name ! ! !#

Dhen the te ts speak o$ "the >ye o$ P<e who is in his %ten##42G one recogni*es that the >ye is the %ten# $or the >gyptians treated
the >ye sign and the %ten sign as interchangeable symbols! Just as the %ten constituted the protective enclosure, so did the >ye1 ". .siris /u, the >ye o$ -orus protecteth thee, it keepeth thee in sa$ety ! ! !# 425 " ! ! ! -e is -orus encircled with the protection o$ his >ye ! ! !# 428 "'y re$uge is my >ye, my protection is my >ye ! ! !# 427 "I am the dweller in the >yeB no evil or calamitous things be$all me!#424

Such re$erences surely indicate that the >ye is not the sun or the sun-god, but the goddess# in whose protective womb
the sun-god dwells! +s a matter o$ $act, though >gyptian ritual presents the goddess under many names, all pri"ary figures of the goddess receive the appellation 2Eye of Re # This includes, among others, Isis, -athor, /ut, Sekhet, Iusaaset, 'ehurt, 0ast, Te$nut— and o$ course, the goddess &tchat H">ye#I!42:

"The comple meshes o$ eye symbolism,# states (lark, "are woven all around the >gyptian %oddess and she cannot be understood or compared with other goddesses until they are unravelled!# 462 Fet, while (lark notes several interesting associations o$ the >ye and goddess he $ails to discern the >ye’s root character# as the protective enclosure! .nly the direct identity o$ the >ye and cosmic womb will e plain its conte t in the ritual1 "The child who is in the eye o$ -orus, hath been presented to thee ! ! !#466 "I am he whose being has been moulded in his eye!# 46@ -orus is said to " ! ! ! rear
and nourish the multitudes through that &niAue >ye, Mistress of the .ivine +o"pany and 9ady o$ the &niverse K+ll, (osmosL!#463

The very goddesses whom the te ts depict as the >ye o$ the primeval sun are also called the "house,# as we should
e pect! +s to the identity o$ the >ye and the temple, >gyptian sources leave no room $or debate Hthough I know o$ no >gyptologist to observe the connectionI! The temple o$ ?arnak is "the healthy eye o$ the 9ord o$ +ll,# 46G a striking parallel to the Sumerian temple as the "-ouse, eye o$ the land!#465

In the !ook of the Pylons <e hearkens back to the remote age when "I was in the temple o$ my eye,# 468 while the !ook of the
.ead speaks o$ the son o$ .siris residing "within the temple o$ his

/.. T#$ $,$ o' t#$ $(tin- -od. >ye in +nnu!#467 >lsewhere one $inds the primeval sun coming $orth "in the sanctuary o$ my eye!#464 .$ course no one who automatically thinks "sun# when reading "eye# is likely to re$lect on the overlapping symbols o$ the
eye as a band or enclosure /or can one so trained meaning$ully e plain why, throughout >gyptian ritual, the eye appears in conCunction with the crown In the >gyptian mystery play, the king is commanded, "take thou thine eye, whole to thy $ace,# and the command is carried out by placing the crown upon the king—$or the crown, as "the symbol and seat o$ royal power ! ! ! is called the eye o$ -orus!#46:

The Pyra"id Te-ts say, "-orus has given you his eye that you may take possession o$ the 5rert-(rown!#4@2 ". king, stand up, don the eye o$ -orus ! ! ! that you may go $orth in it, that the gods may see you clad in it!# 4@6 +s to the identity o$ >ye and crown one could not ask $or more e plicit statements than these1 "I wear the white crown, the eye o$ -orus!# 4@@ ". .siris the
king, I make $irm the eye o$ -orus on your head—a headband!# 4@3 "I give you the crown o$ &pper >gypt, the eye which went up $rom your head!#4@G HThe circle o$ glory issued $rom the central sun!I

I$ the god wears the >ye as a crown, so also does he take the >ye as a throne, and this relationship o$ the >ye and throne helps to e plain the hieroglyph $or .siris, in which the two symbols appear together ! 0ut to conventional schools the combination makes little sense! In 0udge ’s opinion, $or e ample, there is no clear basis $or the
assimilation o$ the two signs, and "the di$$iculty is hardly likely to be cleared up!# 4@5

Fet to anyone aware o$ the interrelated images o$ the %ten throne

, the .siris hieroglyph will pose no mystery! The

is the symbol o$ Isis Hi!e!, Isis is the throneI, but the same goddess appears as "the eye#—so that .siris sits enthroned within the circle o$ the >ye! Indeed, the >gyptian language says as much when it terms the throne ast utchat—"the throne o$ the >ye!# +nd the !ook of the .ead brings the >ye and throne into connection with the crown and egg1 "I am the lord o$ the crown! I am in the >ye, my egg ! ! ! 'y seat is on my throne! I sit in Ke"# "as#L the pupil o$ the eye!# 4@8 Though the in$luence o$ the >ye was $elt $ar beyond >gypt, it is the integrated >gyptian imagery that throws light on later developments o$ the symbol! Dhile the te ts sometimes speak o$ "two eyes# Hsee the section on the cosmic twinsI, $undamentally there is only one >ye o$ the great god! "I am <e who wept $or himsel$ in his single eye,# 4@7 states the +offin Te-ts The single >ye o$ <e or -orus is paralleled by the "clear-seeing eye# o$ the Sumerian >nki, 4@4 the single eyes o$ the /orse .din,4@: the Iranian +hura 'a*da,432 and the 'e ican Tlaloc,436 the "ageless eye o$ all-seeing Qeus,#43@ and the
"one-eye o$ heaven# belonging to the Japanese +ma no 'a-hitotsu!433

The >gyptian >ye o$ -orus, in the !ook of the .ead# is that which "shineth with splendours on the $orehead o$ <e!# 43G .ne can easily understand how subseAuent generations, possessing only conceptions rather than perceptions to guide them,
gave the great god increasingly human $orm, translating the central >ye into the legendary "third eye,# which in -indu representations appears as little more than a decorative Cewel! The single eye o$ the (yclops belongs to the same class o$ images! I$ the eye is not centered on the $orehead, it may be located on the breast, as in the case o$ the -indu demon ?abandha, slain by <ama, 435 and the

headless man encountered by ,ionn, .isin, and (aoilte in (eltic myth! 438 HThe pupil o$ the >ye o$ -eaven!I

is the -eart

Surely one cannot properly evaluate the $anci$ul one-eyed giants o$ the classical and medieval age without $irst taking into account the celestial >ye—which le$t a mighty imprint on the earliest ritual! 437 The (yclops, or "wheel-eyed# giant, corresponds in many ways to the god .din, o$ /orse mythology! .din’s all-piercing eye is also "a giant wheel!#434 In ancient cosmology nothing is more e plicit than such imagery o$ the enclosed sun! I$ the
e perts have $ailed to unravel the mystery o$ the >ye or >ye-wheel , the $ailure is not due to a lack the habit o$ the researchers, who, $rom the start, e cluded the enclosure $rom the mythological investigation!

o$ evidence but to

The !ir'ular Serpent

//. Sat! n a( Mit# ai" D! van 3Ti)$4+ ;it# "$nt al $,$. 3P!2il o' $,$E#$a t o' #$av$n. It would be Auite impossible, within the limited space permitted here, to review all the interconnections uni$ying the imagery o$ the Saturnian band! ,or every instance previously cited, many others have been le$t out simply to avoid e cessive monotony! +s a $inal e ample o$ overlapping imagery, I shall cite the case o$ the circular serpent! +ll o$ the Saturnian gods —+tum-<e, +n, Fama, -uang-ti, Ouet*alcoatl, ?ronos—reside within the $old o$ a serpent Hdragon, $ish, crocodile, etc!I! 0ut this symbol cannot be evaluated in isolation $rom the celestial earths, eggs, wheels, temples, crowns, and eyes which $ill the ancient le icon! In the general mystic tradition, reports (irlot, "the dragon, the serpent or the $ish biting its tail, is a representative o$ time!# 43: ,ather Time, o$ course, is Saturn! Thus the %reeks placed in the hands o$ (hronos a snake which $ormed a ring by holding its tail in its mouth, 4G2 and this circular serpent is clearly that which the -indus called ?ali H "Time#I!
The Qoroastrians represented Qurvan H"Time#I by an enclosing serpent! + serpent encircles a /ahuatl calendar wheel Hwheel o$ timeI published by (lavigero!4G6 .n the $amous 'e ican calendar stone twin serpents $orm a single enclosure around the

stone!4G@ The >gyptians associated the circular serpent with +tum Hgod o$ TimeI, identi$ying the serpent with the cosmic waters erupting $rom the creator1 "I am the out$low o$ the =rimeval ,lood, he who emerged $rom the waters,# the serpent

The water serpent, issuing $rom +tum, constituted an aspect o$ the creator, eventually $orming a coil around

I bent right around, I was encircled in my coils, .ne who made a place $or himsel$ in the midst o$ his coils! -is utterance was what came $orth $rom his mouth!4GG Dhy the re$erence to the "utterance# o$ the god in association with the appearance o$ the serpent-coilE The reason is that the
serpent, embodying the "out$low# o$ erupting waters, was himsel$ a mani$estation o$ the creator’s speech!

In the +offin Te-t# the great god, or 'aster o$ the +ll H(osmosI, recalls the original age "while I was still in the midst o$ the serpent coil!#4G5 +nd the king hopes to attain this very enclosure1 "The ?ing lies down in your coil, the ?ing sits in your circle#
proclaims a Pyra"id Te-t 4G8

(an this serpent be anything other than the band o$ the enclosed sun

E The sun-god <e, while deemed a"i khet# "dweller in the $iery circle,# is also a"i-he"-f# "dweller in his $iery serpent!# Do not the circle and the serpent mean the same
thingE The hieroglyphs o$$er conclusive evidence! Though the common pictograph o$ <e is <e by the glyph , showing the serpent as the band around the pri"eval sun

, the >gyptians also denoted

This direct identi$ication o$ the serpent and the circle o$ the %ten enables us to test the coherence o$ %ten symbolism as a
whole! ,or i$ the serpent denoted the band o$ the enclosed sun

one should $ind1

6! That the serpent was the circle o$ the mother goddess and de$ined the limits o$ the +ll Hi!e!, the cord, egg, shield, or belt o$ Saturn’s (osmosI! @! That the serpent enclosed the world-wheel, city, throne, earth-navel and celestial ocean! 3! That the same serpent $ormed the wall o$ the cosmic temple, encircled the god-king as a crown, enclosed the celestial waters as a vase, and de$ined the circle o$ the all-seeing >ye!

/0. E-,2tian and Ma,an v$ (ion( o' t#$ "i "!la ($ 2$nt a( ;at$ "ontain$ . Throughout all o$ ancient >gypt the circular serpent was the symbol o$ the great mother! In the hieroglyphs, the &raeus serpent, o$ten used in conCunction with an egg, means "goddess!# "The goddess &atchet cometh unto thee in the $orm o$ the living &raeus, to anoint thy head ! ! ! ,# reads the !ook of the .ead 4G7 + ?arnak temple inscription states that the goddess 'ut, in the $orm o$ a serpent, encircled "her $ather <e and gave birth to him as ?honsu!#4G4 In the same way the 0abylonians knew the great goddess as "the mother python o$ heaven!#4G: The (osmos, according to Jeremias, was represented as the womb o$ the "shining Tiamat,# the enclosing serpent or dragon o$ the primeval sea!452 So also did the -indus, (retans, (elts, %reeks, <omans, and 'e icans represent the mother goddess as a serpent or dragon!456 It is the same thing to say that the circular serpent enclosed Saturn’s (osmos! In the >gyptian language the "coil# $ormed
by the serpent is literally "the cord# or "the band,# indicated by the hieroglyphs and ! The serpent itsel$ which the creator stretched round about, gathering the primeval waters or primeval matter into an organi*ed enclosure!

was the rope

/1. Ci "!la d a-on in Ha o2ollo+ Sele'ta hieroglyphi'a 3*1<64

/5. T#$ al"#$)i(t "i "!la d a-on

/6. M$Ai"an "i "!la ($ 2$nt bitin- it( tail

/:. Ci "!la ($ 2$nt )oti' on t#$ int$ io o' a 'ood ba(in ' o) SiF,atFi in t#$ So!t#B@$(t$ n Unit$d Stat$(

/<aGb. T;o C#in$($ v$ (ion( o' t#$ "i "!la d a-on.

/<b. T#$ d a-on $n"lo($( t#$ "$nt al (!n.

0>. Hind! "i "!la ($ 2$nt+ $n"lo(in- t#$ *indu) o "$nt al (!n

0*. Ala(Fa "i "!la ($ 2$nt+ indi"atin- "lo($ $lation(#i2 to $n"lo($d (!n In Sumero-0abylonian imagery, too, a circular serpent—called "the rope o$ the great god#—encloses the original (osmos!45@ The serpent-rope is "the bond o$ the +ll# held by >nki or /inurta HSaturnI! 0ut the cord is synonymous with the cosmic egg and girdle, and this conCunction o$ Saturnian symbols makes particularly interesting the statement o$ the %reek philosopher >picurus to >piphanius1 " ! ! ! the +ll was $rom the
beginning like an egg# and the pneu"a KDorld SoulL in serpent wise around the egg was then a tight band as a wreath or belt around the universe #453 The .rphics called this serpent (hronos, describing it as the bond >peirata? o$ the (osmos! The serpentbond "lies around the (osmos,# proclaimed the =ythagoreans! 45G It was thus an ancient custom to display images o$ the

cosmic egg encircled by a vast serpent! +ll the evidence in the $oregoing sections indicates that this circle o$ the (osmos was the "earth# or "place#
$ashioned in the creation! -ence, the serpent who circumscribes the organi*ed +ll is the same serpent whom the ancients depicted encircling the created "world!#

In the %nostic work Pistis Sophia# .ur 9ord states, "The outer darkness is a great serpent, the tail o$ which is in its mouth, and it is outside the whole world!#455 +s shown by 0udge, the idea had its roots in >gypt, where the world-encircling serpent was +pepi, "a serpent with his tail in his mouth!#458 -orapollo reports that when the >gyptians wished to depict the "world,# they painted a serpent!457 The 0abylonian Esharra# the circle o$ created "earth,# is identi$ied as the primordial beast Tiamat 454, the world-enclosing serpentdragon which the -ebrews called Tehom and the 'uslims the "'ysterious Serpent!# 45: To the -indus it was the $abulous serpent /aga that enclosed the world in its $olds! Scandinavian myth knew the serpent 'idgard, the
'eltu"spanner# or "Stretcher-round-the-Dorld!#482

+ll ancient cosmologies which speak o$ a world-encircling serpent say that its body $ormed the river or ocean shielding the organi*ed earth $rom (haos! The serpent, dragon, or crocodile, in the >gyptian system, thus denotes the celestial watercourse! H-ence, the primeval serpent encircling +tum not only emerges $rom the cosmic seaB it is itsel$ "the out$low o$ the =rimeval ,lood!#I486 Sumero-0abylonian cosmology knows "the river o$ the girdle o$ the great god—"a world-encircling ocean which is also called "the river o$ the snake #48@ +ccording to -ebrew and +rabic thought, states Densinck, "The whole o$ the earth is
round and the ocean surrounds it like a collar! .ther authors compare the circle o$ the ocean around the earth with a wreath, a ring, or with the halo round the moon! The co""onest i"age of the ocean# however# is that of a serpent #483 Thus the $amous 9eviathan

"grips his tail between his teeth and $orms a ring around the ocean!# 48G

The Scandinavian 'idgard serpent occupied the same circular sea, biting his tail! 485 The %reek .keanos, the boundary o$ the world, was the serpent (hronos! 488 >ven the +*tecs knew "the sea as a circumambient %reat Serpent!#487 /or can one ignore the identical serpent enclosing, or $orming, the great god’s throne! 'uslim legends recall a brilliant serpent around the throne o$ +llah1 "Then +llah surrounded it by a serpent ! ! ! this serpent wound itsel$ around the throne!# 484 The same serpent, in -ebrew accounts, wound itsel$ around the cosmic throne-wheel o$ Solomon1 "+nd a silver dragon
was on the machinery o$ the throne!#48: " ! ! ! +nd a silver serpent bore the wheel o$ the throne!#472

.ne remembers also the serpentine wheeled seats o$ such %reek $igures as Triptolemos and Demeter! 476 The seat o$ the 'ayan god +nhel is a serpent, 47@ much like the snake-seat o$ the primordial pair recalled by the 'i*tecs!473 Just as the >gyptian serpent-dragon Set becomes the throne o$ .siris, so do the parallel $igures o$ Tiamat and 9eviathan become the thrones o$ 'arduk and Fahweh in 0abylonian and -ebrew imagery! 47G So also is the te"ple likened to the circular serpent! Sumerian hymns describe the cosmic temple "in heaven like a dragon gleaming!#475 This dragon-like abode answers to the 0abylonian sanctuary o$ >a, represented by a serpent or $ish!478 0elonging to the same class are the &raei who $orm the walls o$ the heavenly dwelling o$ .siris, 477 the serpentine temples or dracontia o$ +bury,474 the "Iguana -ouse# o$ 'ayan ritual,47: and the girdling snake o$ the %reek +chis, which surrounded the te"enos or inner shrine o$ the gods!442 The 'uslims declare that at the $ounding o$ the Sacred -ouse o$ the ?a’ba, a serpent with a "glittering appearance# wrapped itsel$ around the wall "so that its tail approached its

The great $ather’s dwelling was the encircling serpent or dragon—issuing $rom the cosmic sea! +nd it matters not whether the
abode be termed a "temple# or a "city,# $or the cosmic city was eAually tied to the imagery o$ the circular serpent, as con$irmed by >gyptian illustrations o$ a serpent encircling the district o$ -ermopolisB 44@ the -ebrew imagery o$ 9eviathan surrounding

the primeval, celestial JerusalemB and the serpentine enclosure o$ the Teutonic +sgard, the city o$ the gods! +lways we encounter the same serpent, glittering in the light and marking out the primordial enclosure! In the case o$ the >gyptian >ye and crown the identity with the &raeus serpent is spelled out with uncanny boldness! >gyptian hymns locate the enclosing &raeus on the "brow’ o$ the great god, and this circular serpent is at once the band of
the single Eye and the circle of the crown(

-e has come to you, . /T-(rownB -e has come to you, . ,iery Serpent ! ! ! . %reat (rown ! ! ! Ikhet the Serpent has
adorned you ! ! ! because you are -orus encircled with the protection o$ his eye! 443

. ?ing, the dread o$ you is the intact >ye o$ -orus, the Dhite (rown, the serpent-goddess who is in /ekheb!44G To wear the crown is to wear the ,iery Serpent, which, in turn, is to reside within the enclosure or "protection# o$
the >ye! Though o$$ering no e planation, (lark recogni*es the identity o$ these cosmic images1 "The >ye is elevated as the de$ensive cobra which—on the pattern o$ the earthly pharaohs—encircled the brows o$ the -igh %od,# he writes! 445

0.. T#$ "i "!la ($ 2$nt $n"i "lin- H$ )o2oli( The connection immediately e plains why the Sumerian Mus-crown, conceived as a golden band, was "the great
dragon #448

Though the circular serpent appears in many guises, at root there is only one such creature, $or its diverse $orms —as the (osmos, "earth,# temple, city, throne, crown, and >ye—are simply the di$$erent mythical $ormulations o$ the circumpolar

These unnatural roles o$ the circular serpent—which mythologists tend to regard as the most irrational and un$athomable aspects o$ ancient symbolism—actually provide one o$ the most signi$icant uni$ying threads!

n Summary2 A !oherent %o'trine

Saturn’s primordial home was a simple enclosure, a dwelling universally recorded by the sign ! 'ythmaking imagination e pressed the enclosure in many ways, and it is the very variety o$ $ormulations which testi$ies to the band ’s
overwhelming impact on the ancient world!

To deal meaning$ully with this imagery one must admit the in$luence o$ a celestial order vastly di$$erent $rom that $amiliar to us today! De customarily think o$ "myth# as the opposite o$ "reality!# Fet the consistency o$ the testimony
suggests that the mythical view, passed down to us through sacred signs, monuments, and literature, connects us with a very real world con$ronted by the $irst mythmakers!

The present heavens e plain neither the ancient rites o$ kingship nor the array o$ astral symbols which grew up around the king—who was conceived as the human incarnation o$ the ruling divinity in heaven! +lways, the ritual and symbol re$er to an age di$$erent $rom our own, an age when Saturn, the central sun, ruled $rom the celestial pole, encircled by his band o$ "glory!# Saturn’s band was the primeval (osmos, viewed as the planet-god’s own consort, the womb on the cosmic waters! The myths
alternately depict the band as a revolving island in the sky, a cord o$ rope $orming the boundary o$ Saturn’s domain, a shining egg, a shield, and the creator’s collar, belt, or girdle!

This was the "earth# which Hin the universal creation legendI the great god raised $rom the celestial sea! In mythical history it
became the ancestral land o$ peace and plenty—+dam’s paradise! Saturn’s kingdom possessed the $orm o$ a great wheelB it was the creator’s revolving throne, the celestial city, the lost navel or 'iddle =lace, where Hcosmic, mythicalI history took its start! +round the border o$ the heavenly "land# $lowed a circular river or ocean!

The same band was Saturn’s revolving temple, which he wore as a crown and in which he dwelt as the pupil o$ the all-seeing
>ye! +s the cosmic vase, the band housed Saturn’s waters o$ li$e!

+nd $inally, Saturn’s band appears in the guise o$ a shining serpent wrapped around the central sun and denoted by the >gyptian sign ! Divorced $rom the archetypal enclosure the various symbols Htemples, crowns, thrones, wheels, etc!I appear as isolated $orms o$ uncertain origin! De simply take them as "$acts!# Dhy, then, were these $orms systematically related in
language, art, ritual, and mythE It is not a Auestion o$ later generations recklessly Coining unrelated images! The $urther back we go the greater the unity! The best evidence o$ the harmonious vision comes $rom the oldest sources o$ ancient >gypt and 'esopotamia! -ere we $ind the central sun wearing the cosmic city and temple as a crownB taking as his throne the eye o$ heaven, the holy land, or the vase o$ upper watersB shining in the centre o$ an egg called the "earth#B and encircled by a river which $orms the wall o$ the temple but also the circle o$ the gods! In each case we $ind that the symbol re$ers directly to the womb o$ the mother goddess enclosing the great $ather Saturn!

In reviewing this imagery o$ the enclosure one con$ronts many dominant moti$s o$ ancient religion! Dhatever the mythical $ormulation o$ the band, the hymns celebrate its presence at the polar centre! Fet who can locate a source o$ the imagery in today’s tranAuil heavensE Dhere is this revolving river o$ "splendour and terror#E Dhere is the city o$
"the Dhite Dall,# the "clear and radiant# holy land, the temple "like a dragon gleaming,# the "throne o$ light,# the "golden# egg, or the "$iery# serpentE

I$ the te ts present alternative versions o$ the band, they never Auestion its e istence in primeval times! It is the archaic reality concealed within a massive body o$ myths and symbols, all pointing to the signs images o$ Saturn, the polar sun! and as

8III. T#$ Co()i" Mo!ntain
To the i"ages of the enclosed sun and enclosed sun-cross ancient "yths add the cos"ic "ountain<a colu"n of light rising along the world a-is and visually appearing to hold aloft the great god0s ho"e The signs of the Saturnian "ountain are and !

Throughout the world one encounters the story o$ a shining peak which once rose to the centre o$ heaven! Though this cosmic mountain appears under many di$$erent names, accounts $rom every section o$ the world tell much the same story! The >gyptians knew the great column as the =rimeval -ill, the 0abylonians as the Dorld 'ountain! The mount passed into -induism as the cosmic 'eru, into Iranian myth as -era-0ere*aiti, and into (hinese myth and astrology as ?wen-9un! 'e ican cosmology gave it the name (olhuacan! Its most $amiliar representatives were .lympus and Qion! 0ut does not .lympus re$er to the well-known peak in 'acedonia, and Qion to the small hill in =alestineE In truth the mythical .lympus and the mythical Qion are the same mountainB only their terrestrial representations di$$er! Dhen the ancients sancti$ied a $amiliar hill, giving it the name o$ the primeval mount, they sought to characteri*e their own land as a duplication o$ the "homeland!# The local mountain took its mythical attributes $rom the
cos"ic peak! +lways the sacred mount rises "higher than any mountain on earth,# attaining the polar centre and $unctioning as the cosmic a is!

9egends o$ the heaven-sustaining peak say that the creator—the central sun—ruled his kingdom $rom the mountaintop, where stood the original paradise with its $our li$e-bearing streams!

+ccording to the long-standing belie$ o$ >gyptologists, the sun-god rises over the eastern hori*on each morning and sinks below the western hori*on each evening! In widely accepted translations o$ the te ts, one repeatedly $inds such wording as "hori*on $rom which <e goes $orth,#447 "Thou living Soul who comest $orth $rom the hori*on,# 444 or "<e riseth in his hori*on!#44: 0ut i$ the >gyptian light god truly rises $rom the hori*on then surely it is not Saturn, the stead$ast polar sun! + closer look at the terminology is needed! +s I have already observed, the words which the translators render as "rise# Hpert# uben# unI mean literally "to appear,# "to shine,# "to send $orth light,# etc! The conventional choice o$ the word "rise#
$ollows $rom the belie$ that the hymns describe the solar orb emerging in the east!

0ut what about the word "hori*on,# which occurs with such $reAuency in the standard translationsE The >gyptian term $or the
place o$ the sun’s coming $orth is khut# whose literal sense is anything but "hori*on!# 4:2

The hieroglyph $or khut


I combines two signs—the <e or %ten sign and the sign $or "mountain# ! HI take up the latter sign in the section on the cle$t peak!I Its literal meaning, as noted by <enou$, is "'ount o$ %lory# and "there is no reason why we
should continue to use the misleading term hori*on!# 9iterally, the great god does not "rise $rom the horizon## but "shines in the 'ount o$ %lory!# To what did the >gyptians re$er by such languageE

The hymns speak not o$ the present world order, but the $ormer, when the creator took as his seat the pillar o$ the (osmos! +n inscription o$ the ?arnak temple e tols the khut or 'ount o$ %lory as "the venerable hill o$ pri"eval beginning #4:6 -earkening to the same age, the >d$u te ts recall "the ,irst .ccasion in the 1igh 1ill at the beginning o$ (oming Into > istence!#4:@ In the Pyra"id Te-ts we read, "I am the =rimeval -ill o$ the land in the midst o$ the sea, whose hand no earthlings have grasped!#4:3 HThe reader will now recogni*e the "midst o$ the sea# as the polar "heart,# "navel,# or "centre# o$
the cosmic waters!I

The myths and liturgies o$ the 'ount o$ %lory H=rimeval -illI relate that the creator raised the mount $rom the Sea o$ (haos! States ,rank$ort1 "Dithin the e panse o$ the primeval waters he created dry land, the =rimeval -ill, which
became the centre o$ the earth, or at least the place round which the earth solidi$ied! 9ocal traditions di$$er as regards the detailsB but everywhere the site o$ creation, the $irst land to emerge $rom chaos, was thought to have been charged with vital power! +nd each god counting as (reator was made to have some connection with this -ill!#4:G

I$ ,rank$ort’s summary is accurate, then the =rimeval -ill is directly related to the enclosure o$ earth which the creator gathered
together as a stable dwelling—the (osmos!

To discern the connection o$ the mount and enclosure we must return once more to the legends o$ +tum! The te ts o$ all periods agree that in the beginning +tum, or ?hepera, $loated alone in the +byss without a resting place! The god recalls the original epoch1 ! ! ! Dhen I was alone in the waters ! ! ! be$ore I had $ound anywhere to stand or sit, be$ore -eliopolis Kthe celestial earthL had been $ounded that I might be there, be$ore a perch had been $ormed $or me to sit on ! ! !4:5 "I $ound no place where I could stand,# states the god in a similar account! 4:8 In the hieroglyph $or "to stand,# HahaI the key sign

, conveying the meaning "to support,# "stability!# Dhich is to say that in the beginning the god wandered without a stable

, signi$ying the primordial pedestal o$ the great god! It was a common >gyptian practice to place the emblems o$ the creator upon the
support This was "be$ore a perch had been $ormed $or me to sit on!# The glyph $or "perch# is

perch sign

, $or the perch or pedestal means the same thing as "mountain!# Thus .siris, enthroned upon the =rimeval -ill, is "like an e alted one upon thy pedestal,# 4:7 while +nup, "the god who is on his mountain,# is also "the god who is
on his pedestal!#4:4

It seems that the creation accounts re$er to a time be$ore the appearance o$ the great mountain or perch! =rior to the emergence o$ this $oundation occurs the central act o$ creation, recalled in numerous accounts1 the bringing $orth o$ the khu—"brilliant lights,# "words o$ power#—the $iery "waters# which erupted directly $rom the creator and came to be
recalled as radiant "speech!#

+ literal translation o$ one te t yields the $ollowing1 I could $ind no place to stand I uttered the incantation KkhutL with my heart! I laid the $oundation o$ 'aa! I produced all the aru Kthe "guardians# o$ the deep, the assemblyL! I was alone! I had not spit in the $orm o$ Shu! I had not poured out Te$nut! /o other worked with me! I laid a $oundation with my own heart ! ! ! I poured out Hseed, waterI in the $orm o$ Shu! I emitted Hseed, waterI in the $orm o$ Te$nut!4:: The language indicates that the creator, originally alone, "uttered# or poured out $rom his "heart# the watery mass H khu#
khutI in which the primordial $oundation was laid! That this $oundation is identi$ied with the gods Maa or Shu is crucial1 $or Maa and Shu signify the cos"ic pillar holding aloft the central sun

That the pillar o$ Shu was born $rom the khu or khut emitted by +tum is the e plicit statement o$ the (o$$in Te ts, where Shu

I am li$e, the 9ord o$ years, living $or ever, 9ord o$ eternity the eldest one that +tum made in Kor $romL his ?hu in giving birth to Shu!:22 .r again, Shu announces1 ! ! ! I came into being in the limbs o$ the Sel$-(reator! -e $ormed me in KwithL his heart and he created me in his ?hu!:26

The >gyptian priests clearly know that the Shu-pillar, $ormed in the $iery abyss, was the same thing as the
"perch,# or "pedestal# upon which the heart o$ heaven eventually $ound "rest!# Thus, while one +offin Te-t reads, "I am raised alo$t on my standard H , "perch#I above yonder places o$ the +byss,# :2@ another states, "I am high in the $orm o$ -orus ! ! ! -e has established my heart on his great standard! I do not $all on account o$ Shu!# :23 The "$oundation o$ 'aa,# cited above, re$ers to the same mountain or pillar! + common glyph $or maa is , the very image used to designate the =rimeval -ill! .$ten the glyph is simply read as the "pedestal# o$ the great god! In its root meaning, "aa or "aat denotes "the stable, enduring $oundation,# the source o$ cosmic regularity! HIt is the a le o$ the (osmos!I Thus the creator, resting upon the a le-pillar, is he who "rests upon 'aat!#

In the >gyptian language, the concept "support# or "$oundation# merges with "mountain# or "hill!# The word thes# $or
e ample, means "support,# "to bear, li$t up!# but also "mountain!# The reason is that the only mountain with which the ritual is concerned is the pri"eval

0/. T#$ (olita , E,$ !2on t#$ 2 i)o dial %P$ "#.& mountain, the $oundation o$ the (osmos! "'ay I endure in the sky like a Kor theL mountain, like a KtheL support,# reads a
Pyra"id Te-t :2G

The cosmic pillar, according to the creation accounts, originated in the seed or water o$ li$e $lowing $rom the creator +tum1 the very khu or khut which congealed into the circle of "glory# took for" also as the heaven-sustaining colu"n
Indeed, one $inds that in much o$ the symbolism, the enclosure and the mount are inseparable—the enclosure being considered as the hollow summit o$ the mount! HSee belowI

To understand the >gyptian hieroglyph $or the 'ount o$ %lory H khut, I, one must consider the $ull range o$ meanings attached to the terms khu and khut In their most elementary sense the words re$er to the fiery essence or luminous
matter which e ploded $rom the creator! ,rom this root meaning are derived a number o$ interrelated hieroglyphic terms!

Dhen written

, khu is o$ten translated "soul# or "spirit!# The re$erence is not to invisible powers but to $laming debris, conceived as the erupting substance o$ the creator and personi$ied in the ritual as the light-spirits o$ the abyss!

Thus, when written with the determinative


I, khut means "$ire!#

0ut the mythmakers interpreted the same erupting debris as visible "speech# or "words# uttered by the creator! -ence
khu H I the $iery, watery mass!

means "words o$ power# while khut H

I denotes the "creative incantation# which produced

In $ashioning the (osmos or celestial earth the creator gathered the sea o$ "words# into a circle o$ "glory,# sometimes
denoted by the sign Hkhu# o$ten written god’s encircling "aura# or "halo!#


I! This is the enclosure o$ the +ten

, the great

0ut the most common symbol o$ the creator’s "glory# Hkhu# khutI is the sign , depicting not only an enclosure but vertical streams o$ light ascending the world a is! It is no coincidence, then, that this very khu sign also denotes
Shu# the light-pillar $ormed in the primordial sea! The radiant column, as proclaimed in the te ts, was "poured out# by the creator +tum!

.$ precisely the same signi$icance is the khut sign

, the "'ount o$ %lory,# or more speci$ically, "the mount and enclosure o$ the khu # 0ecause the glyph is regularly used in the sense o$ "the place $rom which the sun shines $orth,# >gyptologists as a whole overlook all the interconnected meanings o$ the glyph and simply translate it as "the hori*on!# 0ut as we have seen, "the

place $rom which the sun shines $orth# means the circumpolar enclosure, not the eastern hori*on! In the >gyptian language it is impossible to separate the polar "place par e-cellence# $rom the cosmic mountain!

To this celestial peak the >gyptians continually looked back in their myths and rites! .n behal$ o$ the deceased king the priests poured a heap o$ sand on the $loor inside the pyramid, placing atop the sand a statue o$ the king and reciting a prayer which began1 <ise upon it, this land which came $orth as Kor $romL +tum,the spittle which came $orth as Kor $romL ?heprer,
assume your $orm upon it, rise high upon it!:25

The sand represented the =rimeval -ill, which the >gyptians o$ten depicted by a $light o$ stairs, or , leading to the centre and summit o$ heaven! I$ +tum, or <e, shone $rom the summit o$ the hill, so did .siris1
".siris sits in Cudgement in a palace in the =rimeval 'ound, which is in the centre o$ the world,# writes (lark! :28

"-ail, . .siris, thou hast received thy sceptre and the place whereon thou art to rest, and thy steps are under thee,# reads the !ook of the .ead :27 The hill was the $i ed resting place o$ the central sun, its summit the supreme obCect o$ ascension symbolism! The king beseeches the great god1 " ! ! ! 'ay I be established upon my resting place like the 9ord o$ 9i$e!#:24 The obvious >gyptian monuments to the mount so conceived are the great pyramids, which render in stone the ancient idea o$ a stairway to and support o$ the heavenly dwelling! The steps signi$y the primeval $oundation laid by the creator! In all >gyptian symbols o$ the mount one $inds the same general signi$icance! +lways, it is the stable pillar
supporting the resting god!

.ne o$ the most $amous representations o$ the =rimeval -ill is the obelisk ! The small pyramidion on top o$ the obelisk denoted the !enben stone H,oundation StoneI, the Seed o$ +tum, the central sun! HThe same $orm crowned the

00. E-,2tian R$ ato2 t#$ (t$2(. +tum-?hepri, thou wert high as the -ill Thou didst shine $orth as 0enben!:2: To the modern mind it may seem peculiar that the $oundation stone should lie at the summit rather than the base o$ the cosmic hill! 0ut when one reali*es that the summit was the $i ed centre o$ the turning (osmos the idea takes on a remarkable logic! +tum, the stone o$ the $oundation, was the ",irm -eart o$ the Sky,# resting upon a
stationary support1

The %reat %od lives, $i ed in the middle o$ the sky upon his support!:62 So reads a +offin Te-t# in obvious re$erence to +tum or <e, whom (lark terms "the arbiter o$ destiny perched on the top o$ the
world pole!#:66 "pedestal!#

Thus the obelisk , the symbol o$ +tum resting on the cosmic pillar, came to be employed as an ideograph $or the >gyptian word "en# signi$ying "stability# and "to rest in one place!# Men also means "mountain# and Derived $rom the same root is the >gyptian word "ena or Menat# the celestial "mooring post!# The >gyptians conceived the
stationary pillar as the stake to which the lights o$ the revolving assembly were bound! The cosmic mountain is the Mena-uret# the

! HThe rope drawn around the neck o$ the con$iguration con$irms the close connection o$ the pillar and cosmic bondI!:6@
"%reat 'ooring =ost,# symboli*ed by the sign

It seems more than a little likely that the >gyptian Mena-uret was the very pillar $rom which the 'uslims derived the
"inaret# the lo$ty tower attached to the 'uslim mosAue, and designated 4utb# the "pole# or "a is!#

Dhile in many myths the mount is personi$ied as a secondary divinity HShu, 'aaI holding alo$t the creator, the hill may also appear as the trunk or lower limbs o$ the creator himsel$! +tum, as suggested by several sources cited above, is inseparable $rom the mount on which he rests! The great god =tah merges with the god Tatunen, a personi$ication o$ the =rimeval -ill, so that the !ook of the .ead can say "Thy beauties are like unto the pillar o$ the god
Ptah #:63

The glyph $or the great god +n is

, meaning "pillar!#

+ $amous >gyptian emblem o$ the pillar was the Tet

, the special symbol o$ .siris! The Tet sign denotes the support o$ the (osmos! "The idea o$ the Tet column,# writes (lark, "is that it stands $irmly upright!# :6G In the ritual these emblems serve as "world pillars holding up the sky and so guaranteeing ! ! ! the world in which the king’s authority holds good!#:65 Tet means "stability,# "permanence!# It is the pedestal o$ .siris, the "resting heart# or "motionless heart!# Signi$icantly, many >gyptian illustrations o$ the Tet-column include a pair o$ human eyes at the top H$ig! 656aI, emphasi*ing that the column was Has >gyptologists o$ten observeI the trunk or backbone o$ .siris himsel$! In other words, the Egyptians viewed the cos"ic "ountain as the great god0s own spinal colu"n -ence the sign , depicting the pillar o$ the khu Hor o$ ShuI as vertical streams o$ light, also means "back# or "backbone!# The word aat, signi$ying the
primeval "perch# or "pedestal# o$ the creator, possesses the additional meaning o$ "backbone!#

=ertaining to the same symbolism is the pillar sign

, read as sept# "to be provided with!# -elping to e plain the sign is the root sep or sepa# "stability,# o$ten written with the determinative "spinal column!#:68 So too, while the word thes
re$ers to the primordial "pillar,# "prop,# or "mountain,# thes can also mean "backbone!#

01. T$t+ t#$ %(tabl$& 2illa o' t#$ Co()o(. Through e tension o$ the symbolism in a di$$erent direction, the cosmic mountain became the creator ’s "sta$$# or
"sceptre!# Te ts and relie$s depict the great god’s sceptre as the support o$ heaven or o$ the god himsel$! :67

The theme may not always be recogni*ed by conventional schools, however! + previously cited hymn $rom the
!ook of the .ead proclaims to .siris, "Thou has received thy sceptre and the place whereon thou art to rest and the steps are under thee!#:64 ,ew have stopped to think that the sceptre signi$ies the same "resting place# as the stepsB both re$er to the column o$ the (osmos! Thus, in the sign

the sceptre holds alo$t the glyph $or "heaven#


+ spell o$ the +offin Te-ts reads, "I am the guardian o$ this great prop which separates the earth $rom the sky!# :6: 0ut another spell declares, " ! ! ! That staff which separated sky and earth is in my hand!# :@2! .$ten the sceptre is in the $orm o$ a lotus, or papyrus holding alo$t the great god!:@6 Dhatever the particular symbolism o$ the cosmic mountain, all sources agree on one point1 the revolving %ten
for"s the hollow su""it of the peak To shine in the %ten is to shine "in the midst# or "in the interior# o$ the khut , the 'ount o$ %lory! The god occupies "the enclosure o$ the -igh -ill!# ". very high mountainM I hold mysel$ in thy enclosure,# proclaims the king!:@@

+ literal translation o$ >gyptian te ts will yield1 . you in your egg, shining in your +ten, growing bright in your 'ount o$ %lory! :@3 %row bright and diminish at your desire ! ! ! Fou send $orth light every day $rom the middle o$ the 'ount o$ %lory! :@G Fou shine in the 'ount o$ %lory! The +ten receives praise, resting in the mountain and giving li$e to the world!:@5 -omage to you, . you shining in the +ten, 9iving .ne coming $orth in the 'ount o$ %lory! :@8 . <e in the 'ount o$ %lory!:@7 <e shines in the 'ount o$ %lory!:@4 The .siris /u is at rest in the 'ount o$ %lory!:@: Fou shine in the 'ount o$ %lory day by day!:32 +gain and again the same terminology occurs! The sun-god does not rise $rom the mount, but shines in it! I know
this claim may not be welcomed by those e perts who have built their entire interpretation o$ >gyptian cosmic symbolism around the rising and setting solar orb! 0ut having reviewed all o$ the primary >gyptian sources I have yet to $ind an early te t which, when translated literally, suggests that the sun-god Hduring his reignI ever leaves the cosmic peak! Though he sails in a ship, as we shall see, only the ship moves, revolving round the stationary god! +nd though the te ts describe a peak o$ the right and o$ the le$t, they are two peaks o$ a singular mount!

The widely respected >gyptologist D! <! ?ristensen tells us that $undamentally there was only one "hori*on#
Hi!e!, khut# 'ount o$ %loryI! The two "hori*ons# were "viewed as essentially identicalB what applied to one held true $or the other too! That they were geographically separated could not obliterate the impression! In mythical cosmography they o$ten assume one another’s $unctions! The place where the light sets is also called the place where it rises ! ! !#:36

To what cosmic idea did the >gyptians re$er in order to speak o$ the sun rising and setting on the same mountainE ?ristensen assumes that while sacred cosmology united the two mountains, they were "geographically
separated!# -olding to the solar interpretation, one could hardly believe anything else!

The problem does not lie with the te ts, but with the solar interpretation, which looks $or imagery o$ a rising and setting sun where there is none! The >gyptian sun-god "comes out# H"grows bright#I and "goes in# H"diminishes#I e"
hetep# "while standing in one place!# That "place# is the enclosure o$ the stationary summit!

The universal signs o$ the sun on the mountaintop are hieroglyph


! To the $ormer corresponds the >gyptian

denoting khut# the 'ount o$ %lory, or Shu# the divine personi$ication o$ the 'ount, but also serving as the determinative o$ "spinal column!# .ther >gyptian illustrations depict the disk o$ the %ten supported by the Tet-column, or resting over the obelisk Has was customary in the earliest $orms o$ the obeliskI, :3@ or raised alo$t by the divine sceptre! The consistent theme is that the enclosure and the 'ount are inseparable! In the hieroglyphs, the simple $orm o$ the "ena-uret or %reat 'ooring =ost is , but the larger illustrations o$$er a more detailed portrait o$ the binding post! + papyrus, $or e ample, shows the goddess -athor amid the celestial garden, wearing the Menat symbol!:33 -ere the $orm is 1

, the >gyptian sign o$ the $our

The post, or "pillar o$ the cord H(osmosI,# appears to sustain a circle enclosing the image li$e-bearing streams HunI!

(lari$ication o$ the mooring-post symbol is provided by a +offin Te-t# in which the "+ll-9ord# Hruler o$ the (osmosI looks
back to the primordial age and the "$our good deeds which my own heart did $or me in the midst o$ the serpent-coil Kcord, bond, (osmosL ! ! ! I did $our good deeds within the portal o$ the 'ount o$ %lory! I made the $our winds that every man might breathe thereo$!#:3G

Does not the above image o$ the %reat 'ooring =ost answer directly to these linesE .n the 'ount o$ %lory stands the garden o$ abundance, animated by the li$e elements radiating in luminous streams $rom the central sun—the great god’s "heart!# .$ the >gyptian paradise, 'assey writes, "The general tradition is that this paradise was a primeval place o$ birth and that it was in the north, upon the su""it of a "ount now inaccessible to the living anywhere on earth #:35 This paradisal enclosure at the summit was the cosmic city—and every sacred city—be it -eliopolis, Thebes, 'emphis, 0usiris, or +bydos—mirrored the history o$ the prototype, symbolically resting atop the =rimeval -ill! .$ the deceased king, the +offin Te-ts announce1 +nnubis is mind$ul o$ you in 0usiris, your soul reCoices in +bydos where your body is happy K e" hetep# at restL on
the -igh -ill!:38

Dhen the deceased ruler enters the city o$ the god-king, he returns to the -oly 9and, the celestial earth at the summit o$ the polar mountain! .siris, the "god on the top o$ the steps K=rimeval -illL,#:37 is the universal lord "in possession o$ a seat, his heart being at peace Kem hetep, "at rest#L on the 'ountain o$ the /ecropolis Kcity o$ the ancestorsL# :34 +men-<e is the "dweller in Thebes, the great god who appeareth in the 'ount o$ %lory!# :3: The name o$ +bydos—%btu—signi$ies the "mountain o$ the heart!# In the same way every temple, as a symbol o$ the Saturnian enclosure, magically rested on the =rimeval -ill!
">ach and every temple was supposed to stand on it,# writes ,rank$ort! "This thought is applied even to temples built Auite late in the history o$ >gypt!#:G2 Surely the temple builders knew that they were not constructing the local dwelling on the actual =rimeval -illB but in imbuing the temple with the "ythical Aualities o$ the original dwelling, the architects gave concrete $orm to an ideal de$ined in the beginning! Dhen -atshepsut identi$ies the ?arnak temple as the "'ount o$ %lory upon earth, the venerable hill o$ primeval beginning,#:G6 she connects the local edi$ice with the central hill o$ creation, the mount on which the

house o$ the sun-god originally stood! States ,rank$ort1 "The Aueen, by beauti$ying ?arnak, honoured the centre $rom which the creation took its start ! ! ! The identity o$
the temples with the =rimeval -ill amounts to a sharing o$ essential Auality and is e pressed in their names and in their architectural arrangements by means o$ ramps or steps! >ach temple rose $rom its entrance through its successive courts and halls to the -oly o$ -olies, which was thus situated at a point noticeably higher than the entrance! There the statue, barge or $etish o$ the god was kept, resting upon the =rimeval -ill!#:G@

In all basic details, the >gyptian symbolism o$ the =rimeval -ill corresponds to the cosmic images , ! The 'ount $orms in the cosmic sea, stretching upward along the world a is to hold alo$t the central sun! The hollow summit o$ the 'ount is the circle o$ the %ten# within whose enclosure the sun "grown bright# and "diminishes# with
the cycle o$ night and day! This 'ount o$ %lory is the site o$ the original paradise, the city or temple o$ the &niversal 'onarch!

+ review o$ similar imagery in other lands will show the in$luence o$ a world-wide tradition!

I have argued that the >gyptian +tum, the solitary god in the deep, is the very $igure whom 0abylonian astronomy identi$ies as the planet Saturn! +tum, "the ,irm -eart o$ the Sky,# stands "$i ed in the middle o$ the sky upon his

-ere, on the other hand, is a broken Sumerian re$erence to /inurash, or /inurta, the planet Saturn1 Dhom the "god o$ the steady star# upon a foundation To ! ! ! cause to repose in years o$ plenty!:G3 Saturn, $ounder o$ the %olden +ge, was the stationary light "upon a $oundation,# e actly as the >gyptian +tum!
+ccordingly, 0abylonian astronomical te ts give Saturn the name *aainu# the %reek kiun# "pillar!#

Dhat was this $oundation or pillar o$ SaturnE It was the "mountain o$ the an-ki K(osmosL,# $ormed—like the >gyptian
counterpart—amid the waters o$ (haos! " ! ! ! .$ the hill which I, the hero, have heaped up,# proclaims /inurta, "let its name be -ursag KmountainL!#:GG This cosmic peak, whose "$oundation is laid in the pure abyss,# the 0abylonians denominated "the mountain o$ the world!#:G5 /inurta "scaled the mountain and scattered seed $ar and wide# :G8 Cust as +tum, resting upon the =rimeval -ill, radiated the seed o$ li$e in all directions!

"-ere, in the (haldean .lympus,# writes Sayce, "the gods were imagined to have been bornB its summit was hidden by the clouds,
and the starry $irmament seemed to rest upon it!#:G7

In what portion o$ the sky did the ancient 'esopotamians locate the hillE Several te ts, as normally translated, identi$y the 'ount as "the place where the sun rises,# seeming to $i the peak in the east! (oncerning the -ursag raised by /inurta, a hymn reads1 Incantation—. Sun-god, $rom the great mountain is thy risingB $rom the great mountain, the mountain o$ the ravine, is thy risingB $rom the holy mound, the place o$ destinies, is thy rising!:G4 The te ts also connect the lost land o$ Dilmun with a cosmic mountain, a peak which appears to be the same as the -ursag, $or it is "the mountain o$ Dilmun, the place where the sun rises!# :G: The temple hymns employ the same terminology in describing the *ur H"mountain#I as *ur-d-utu-e’-a# "the mountain where the sun rises!# In the Epic of
$ilga"esh# the hero Courneys to the 'ashu 'ountain upon which the vault o$ heaven rests! Through its gate the sun comes $orth! :52

'esopotamian relie$s show the sun-god standing upon a cle$t peak virtually identical to the >gyptian "mountain# symbol H$ig! 82I! Dith the rarest e ceptions, authorities identi$y the image with the solar orb rising over an eastern hill! (ertain writers, in $act, believe that the entire character o$ the mythical 'ount can be e plained by the simple e perience o$ native races viewing the eastern sunrise! Jacobsen, $or e ample, urges that we understand the -ursag as "the range o$ mountains bordering the 'esopotamian plain on the east! +s seen on the eastern hori*on, its shining peaks
towering $rom earth up into heaven, the hursag appears indeed to belong eAually to both o$ these cosmic entities, and the epithet ! ! ! Po$ both heaven and earth,’ is there$ore as $orce$ul as it is apt!#:56

0ut there is a curious $eature o$ the great column1 the "ount fro" which the !abylonian sun-god "rises# is the sa"e "ount
on which it "sets # The singular hill is "the mountain o$ the night K"sunset#L, the mountain o$ the sunrise, the "ountain of the centre!#:5@

Through the gate o$ the 'ashu 'ountain attained by %ilgamesh the sun-god Shamash comes $orth! 0ut the keepers o$ this mountain-gate are those who "guard Shamash at the rising and setting o$ the sun!#:53 Similarly, in connection with a hymn to the ",ire-god,# containing enigmatic re$erences to "the mountain o$ the sun-set# and
"the mountain o$ the sunrise,# Sayce writes1 "De must consider the poet to have looked upon the mountain behind which the sun rose and set as one and the sa"e #:5G

Dere the Sumero-0abylonian races oblivious the geographical realitiesE .ne remembers ?ristensen’s observation that the >gyptian
sun-god rises and sets upon a singular khut or "'ount o$ %lory!# Is this seeming con$usion o$ east and west due to the abandon o$ the mythmakers, or to a modern misunderstanding o$ ancient cosmologyE

.ne can begin to resolve the dilemma by comprehending the primeval mount ’s title as "the mountain o$ the centre!#
The mount is the pivot# $or the +ssyro-0abylonians gave it the title "the a is o$ heaven#—a designation which leads 9enormant to describe the mount as "the column which Coined the heavens and the earth and served as an a is to the celestial vault!# :55 This, o$ course, creates a con$lict with the apparent solar imagery o$ the peak! 0ecause the "sun#-god shines $rom the mountain, 9enormant seeks a compromise between the polar and the eastern locations1 " ! ! ! The mountain which acted as a pivot to the starry heavens was to the northeast ! ! !# &n$ortunately, the compromise $ails to e plain either trait o$ the mountain1 the 0abylonian sunrise does not occur to the northeast, :58 and in no sense could the northeast appear as a cosmic a is! .ne $aces the very parado observed by 0utterworth when he speaks o$ the "ambiguity between the =ole and the Sun!#:57

The entire di$$iculty vanishes when one recalls1 - that the Sumero-0abylonian sun-god does not literally rise, but "comes $orth# or "grows bright!# - that the sun-god comes $orth at the polar centre or heart o$ heaven! - that the sun-god is Saturn! These principles permit us to see that what conventional interpretations must regard as $latly contradictory aspects o$ the world mountain actually reveal a harmonious idea! The subCect is "the mountain o$ the centre# at whose
summit shines the stationary sun! The god "comes out# and "goes in# on the mountaintop, through the "gate# or "door# or "window# o$ the polar enclosureB but he accomplishes this without moving $rom his $i ed abode!

The 0abylonian sun-god, observed Darren, comes $orth $rom "the true summit o$ the >arth, the /orthern =ole!#:54

It is, in $act, impossible to comprehend 0abylonian cosmology apart $rom the polar character o$ the great 'ount! .bviously, to ascend the world mountain is to attain the world su""it# and the summit is, as many writers have noted,
the polar dwelling o$ +n, the "midst# or "heart# o$ heaven!

In all ancient cosmologies the centre and summit meet at the celestial pole, and the Sumero-0abylonian world view is no e ception! The 0abylonian "=ole-star,# states <obert 0rown, "is seated in maCesty on the summit o$ the northern heights!#:5: .ne o$ the names o$ the pole is .ugga HSemitic SaAuI, which means "high# and is connected with the idea "to rise up,# "to come to the top!# :82 The ruling polar god is thus the commander o$ the su""it# which can only be the summit o$
the world mountain! The "Judge o$ -eaven K+nuL in the centre is bound# Hi!e!, he is enclosed within the bondI! +nd "in the (entre he $i ed the Qenith#:86 that is, he raised the world mountain, the primeval $oundation! 9ike the >gyptian Mena-uret# the Sumerian mount becomes the "binding post# or "mooring post# HDI'!%+9I o$ the turning (osmos!

The god on the cosmic mountain was the planet Saturn, "the pillar!# +nu atop the "illustrious 'ound,# Shamash on the
"mountain o$ the world,# /inurta at the summit o$ -ursag, Tammu* on the "Shepherd’s -ill o$ +rallu, and >nki ruling the >kur H"mountain house#I, or the "mountain o$ Dilmun#—all point to the planet Saturn, the primeval sun upon the column o$ the (osmos

! Dith this cosmic mountain the Sumerians identi$ied every city and every temple! +s in >gypt, th e 'ount and
enclosure always appear together, the 'ount serving as the heavenly abode’s support! .$ >nki’s temple, the hymns record, "The holy $oundation made with skill rises $rom the nether-sea!# :8@ (on$irming this union o$ the cosmic temple and 'ount are the titles o$ the sacred dwellings—"The -ouse, ,oundation o$ the %n-ki H(osmosI#B "-ouse, the mountain o$ the (osmos#B "-ouse o$ the 'ountain#B "Temple whose plat$orm is suspended $rom heaven’s midst ! ! ! growing up like a mountain!#

In the same manner the hymns e tol the local city as a duplication o$ the celestial prototype! The earthbound >ridu received its name $rom >nki ’s city above, the cosmic >ridu $ashioned in the waters o$ the +psu "like a holy highland# or "like a mountain!# The city o$ /ina*u was the "mountain, pure place!# :83 Indeed the entire land o$ +kkad was symbolically linked with the great mountain and portrayed as the centre o$ the world!:8G

I$ the symbols o$ the enclosed sun are and , the symbols o$ the 'ount and enclosure are and ! The basic images occur throughout 'esopotamia! Depicted is the inaccessible paradise, a circular plain situated atop the mountain o$ the world and watered by $our rivers $lowing in $our directions! Thus the +ssyrians called the world mountain "the land Kor mountainL o$ the $our rivers!# 'assey recogni*ed this as "the mythical 'ount o$ the =ole and the $our rivers o$ $our Auarters, which arose in =aradise!# :85 Fet neither 'assey nor the more conventional authorities seem to have perceived that the mountain-paradise corresponds in every way to the simple images ! /or has any writer given su$$icient attention to the e traordinary parallel between the >gyptian and 'esopotamian images o$ the cosmic mountain! and

"In all the legends o$ India,# states 9enormant, "the origin o$ humanity is placed on 'ount 'eru, the residence o$ the gods and the column which unites the sky to the earth!# :88 ,or the -indus, 'eru was the prototype o$ the sacred hill! +s the +ryans spread through India they named many local peaks "'eru,# deeming each a copy o$ the primeval mount!:87 The original 'eru was the polar mountain, its summit the Auartered enclosure o$ the celestial paradise ! -indu sources describe the mount as a cosmic pillar $i ed in the middle o$ the plain Jambu-dwipa, or rising in the midst o$ the cosmic sea! .n the summit o$ this "golden mountain# or "Jewelled =eak# lies the heavenly city o$ 0rahma, and around the peak lie the cardinal points and intermediate Auarters! :84 Toward each o$ the $our Auarters o$ the mountain paradise $lows an outlet o$ the central water source, the celestial %anges!:8:

'eru reaches the centre o$ heaven, and around its summit the stars revolve! :72 The mount, states 9enormant, is "at once the north =ole and the centre o$ the habitable earth!# :76 The "world navel# means the zenith -indu ritual commemorates the cosmic pillar through the sacri$icial stake or post! In the Satapatha !rah"ana# the
priest raises the sacred stake HyupaI with the words1 "Dith thy crest thou hast touched the skyB with thy middle thou hast $illed the airB with thy $oot thou hast steadied the earth!# :7@ The cosmic pillar was the $oundation o$ heaven1 "=rop thou the skyM $ill the airM stand $irm on the earth!#:73 "+ stay art thouM Do thou make $irm the skyM# :7G

This "$irm# or "stable# support corresponds in every way to the primordial $oundation o$ >gyptian and 'esopotamian cosmologies!
The Satapatha !rah"ana locates the post in the centre o$ the sacri$ice shed HSadasI, itsel$ a symbol o$ the (osmos! The participants in the ritual $orm a circle around the post and touch it with the words, "-ere is stability ! ! ! -ere is Coy!# :75

The cosmic post, >liade in$orms us, was the a is o$ the world! 0y mystically ascending the celestial pillar the sacri$icer attained the cosmic centre and summit!:78 The Indian world pillar, whether considered as a cosmic mountain H MeruI or as a pole or stake reaching $rom earth to
heaven, is that which sustains the central sun! 0uddhist iconography reviewed by (oomaraswamy depicts the wheel o$ the "sun# raised upon a cosmic column called "the pillar o$ $ire!# :77 To the solar mythologists the pillar can only be in the east, the direction o$ sunrise! Fet (oomaraswamy writes1 "The wheel is supported by a column, the %-is of the 5niverse #:74 The "sun,# in other words, means not the wandering solar orb, but the 0uddha or 0rahma—the "true sun# which "a$ter having risen thence upwards ! ! ! rises and sets no more! It remains alone in the centre!# :7:

The Indian pillar—re$lecting the cosmic images

and —serves at once as the $oundation o$ the (osmos and the a le o$ the revolving wheel above! That the a-le is the pillar is con$irmed in the Rig Veda( " ! ! ! by the a le o$ his wheeled-car indeed, by his abilities, he pillars apart -eaven and >arth!# :42 <esting atop the a le-pillar, the great god appears as the "unmoved mover# o$ the revolving wheel!:46 Thus the "a le-born# 0uddha resides at the centre or nave o$ the wheel, imparting motion to the turning circum$erence while
himsel$ remaining motionless! The wheel, in turn, rests upon "a universal ground# or $oundation, a lotus-like pillar! "The pillar e tends $rom >arth to -eavenB it is the a is o$ the &niverse,# states (oomaraswamy! :4@ 0uddhist art and architecture give numerous and elaborate e pressions to the idea, but reduced to its $undamentals, it is simply the polar "sun#-

wheel sustained by the cosmic mountain


3apan) !hina) ran) Si*eria
Dith the a is-mountain o$ Indian thought we can bracket closely related e amples $rom neighbouring lands1 + title o$ the Indian 'eru was SuMeru# the "e cellent# 'eru, a name which 0uddhism carried into (hina as Siumi, and to
Japan as Shumi! >ven the relatively late (hinese commentary the :i-*hi locates 'ount Siumi in the "middle# o$ the (osmos, i!e!, at the pole!:43 The Japanese 'ount Shumi was, according to -epburn, "a 0uddhist $abulous mountain o$ wonder$ul height, $orming the a is o$ every &niverse, and the centre around which all the heavenly bodies revolve!# :4G

The most common name o$ the polar mountain in (hina is *wen-lun (alled the world’s highest mountain, ?wen-lun stood at "the centre o$ the earth!#:45 .n its summit lay a shining circular plain, recalled as a celestial homeland whose "sparkling $ountains and purling streams contain the $ar-$amed ambrosia!# :48 The paradise, notes Darren, possesses "a living
$ountain $rom which $low in opposite directions the $our great rivers o$ the world!#:47

/amed "the =earl 'ountain,# ?wen-9un rises to the celestial pole, the abode o$ the $irst king Shang-ti! :44 +round it revolve the visible heavens!:4: ?wen-lun is "described as a stupendous heaven-sustaining mountain, marking the centre or pole!# ::2 It is the "%reat =eak o$ =er$ect -armony,# whose summit displays Shang-ti’s palace, named Tsze-wei# "a celestial space around the /!

Distinct $rom ?wen-lun, but representing the same idea, is the (hinese 'ount ?ulkun, designated as the "?ing
o$ the 'ountains, the summit o$ the earth, the supporter o$ heaven and the a is which touches the pole!#::@

The true nature o$ the cosmic mount is evident in the (hinese symbolism o$ the king post! 'ystic traditions de$ined the centre post o$ a roo$ Hor the top o$ such a postI as the *i The chie$ upright H*iI o$ the local dwelling

symboli*ed the Tai-*i or "%reat ?i# in heaven, the central support o$ the turning (osmos! The "%reat ?i# was the god-king Shang-ti, dwelling upon the summit o$ the polar mount ?wen-lun!::3

The Iranian counterpart o$ 'eru was the cosmic mountain -era 0ere*aiti, raised by +hura 'a*da! In the 9end
%vesta this "bright mountain# appears as "the $irst mountain that rose up out o$ the earth!# ::G

,rom this cosmic mountain the sun shone $orth each day! "&pM rise up and roll alongM thou swi$t-horsed sun, above -era 0ere*aiti, and produce light $or the world ! ! !# ::5 HDarmesteter’s translation seems to suggest a solar chariot ascending in the east to
pass swi$tly over the sky!I +ccording to the !undahish the "light rises up $rom -era 0ere*aiti!#::8

Does the mountain, then, lie to the geographic eastE It does not! The sun atop the mount is 'ithra, "the lord o$
wide pastures, ! ! ! sleepless, and ever awakeB $rom whom the 'aker +hura 'a*da has built up a dwelling on the -era-0ere*aiti, the bright "ountain around which the "any stars revolve# where come neither night nor darkness, no cold wind and no hot wind, no death$ul sickness, no uncleanness made by the Daevas, and the clouds cannot reach up unto the -era-0ere*aiti!# ::7

The polar character o$ the mount was not lost on 9enormant, who wrote1 "9ike the 'eru o$ the Indians, -era-bere*aiti is the pole and centre o$ the world, the $i ed point around which the sun and the planets per$orm their revolutions!# ::4 Through the paradise at the *enith $lowed the $our directional riversB and here was +hura 'a*da ’s "shining# abode, the "house o$

So pro$oundly in$luenced were the Iranians by this primordial mountain that one encounters the same cosmic hill under numerous names! +s reported by 9enormant, all the groups embodied by the race, "desiring to have their
own -era-0ere*aiti,# le$t commemorative sacred mountains in one location a$ter another! 6222

Dhen the 9end %vesta speaks o$ "'ount &s-hindu, that stands in the middle o$ the sea,# 6226 one recogni*es the same central mountain! The !undahish describes the cosmic peak as "that which, being o$ ruby, o$ the substance o$ the sky, is in the midst o$ the wide $ormed ocean!#622@ Is this not the character o$ every =rimeval -ill, rising to the centre o$ the cosmic seaE The Iranians also called the cosmic mountain Taera Hor TerakI! In the Pahlavi Te-ts Taera appears as the "(entre o$ the Dorld!#6223 +nd again, the central mount is the a is, $or the 9end %vesta depicts the "holy <asnu# resting "upon the Taera
o$ the height -araiti, around which the stars, the moon and the sun revolve!#622G

.n the cosmic mount lay the birthplace o$ the $irst ancestor! In the "centre o$ the earth# %ayomarth was born "radiant and tall,# ruling upon the great hill as "king o$ the mountain!# 6225 This world centre was the paradise +iran-veC, the Iranian >den, and %ayomarth was the "$irst man!# The most distinctive characteristic o$ this paradise was the great peak ?adad-iDaitik, termed "the (entre o$ the >arth!# +nd where was this primordial mountain at the centre o$ the worldE It is identi$ied as "the peak o$ Cudgement# atop -era 0ere*aiti!6228

Thus could the 'anichaeans say with assurance, "The =rimeval 'an comes, then, $rom the world o$ the =ole Star!#6227

+mong +ltaic races one $inds a well-preserved memory o$ the cosmic pillar! "The conception o$ a sky-supporting pillar reaches back among the +ltaic race to a comparatively early period,# states &no -olmberg! 6224 The consensus holds that the column rose to the stationary celestial pole! +mong many tribes it was "the golden pillar!# The ?irghis, 0ashkirs,
and other Siberian Tatar tribes recall it as "the iron pillar!# To the Teleuts it was "the lone post# and to the Tungus-.rotshons, "the golden post!#622:

Siberian myths describe the pillar as a great mountain, which the 'ongols and ?almucks call Sumur or Sumer and the 0uriats Sumbur Hclosely related to the -indu 'eru or SumeruI! "In whatever $orm this mountain is imagined, it
is connected always with the cosmography o$ these peoples, $orming its centre ! ! ! +s $ar back as can be traced it has been a cosmological belie$!#

"Dhere, then, is the summit o$ this earth-mountainE# asks &no -olmberg! "De might suppose it to be at the summit o$ -eaven,
directly above us ! ! ! It was not, however, envisaged thus, but instead its peak rises to the sky at the /orth Star where the a is o$ the sky is situated, and where, on the peak, the dwelling o$ the .ver-god and his Pgolden throne’ are situated! To this idea points also the assumption, met everywhere in +sia, that the world mountain is in the north!#6262

Siberian creation myths relate that the "high %od# &lgen, at the creation o$ the world, sat atop a "golden mountain!# 6266 The Siberians conceived the a le-pillar as the centre post to which the revolving celestial bodies were bound! Just as >gyptian
te ts termed the pillar the "%reat 'ooring =ost# and the Sumerians denominated it the "binding post,# +ltaic races gave it the name "mighty tethering post!# /omads o$ (entral +sia claim that their use o$ a post $or tethering o$ their steeds imitates the gods, who

$astened their horses to the heavens post! (ertain Siberian Tatar tribes describe the cosmic pillar as a "golden horse post# raised in $ront o$ the gods’ dwelling!626@

+ltaic and ,inno-&gric tribes commemorated the world pillar through the sacri$icial pillars erected in the centre o$ the village or as the centre-pole o$ the tent! The ritual post o$ the 9apps was Veralden Tshould—"the pillar o$ the
world#—and represented the lo$ty polar column!6263 &no -olmberg reports that the wood post which supports the centre o$ the +ltaic shaman’s tent duplicates the cosmic character o$ the primeval pillar upholding heaven! In the magical rites the shaman ascends this post to reach the navel and summit o$ the world!

"In the middle o$ the world stands a pillar o$ birch wood, say the Fakuts!# 626G The sacred pole, -olmberg reports, stood $or the mountain o$ the navel! 9ike so many other races, the ,inns identi$y the navel with the summit, $or they recall the origin o$ $ire1 .ver there at the navel o$ heaven .n the peak o$ the $amous mountain!6265 .n the cosmic mountain appeared the "$irst man,# radiating light! +ltaic and ,inno-&gric races as a whole regard this centre
—the "stillest place#—as the site o$ the lost paradise, watered by $our rivers, each associated with a di$$erent colour! -ere, they claim, the "sun# never set beneath the hori*on, and here the original race enCoyed a perpetual spring! 6268

Gree'e and Rome
Dhen the %reeks speak o$ 'ount .lympus as the home o$ the gods, one customarily thinks o$ the $amous 'acedonian peak, the highest mountain in %reece! Fet numerous peaks in %reece and +sia 'inor competed $or the title ".lympus!# +rcadia and Thessaly had their own .lympus, as did 9aconia! 'ountains in +ttica, in >uboea, and in
Skyros are still called .lympus today! ,our di$$erent peaks o$ 'ount Ida bore the name, while there was another .lympus in %alatia, another in 9ydia, another in 9ycia, another in (elicia! So also did 9esbos and (yprus possess a sacred .lympus!

,or an e planation o$ the many locations one must look to the cosmic prototype! >ach hill entitled .lympus commemorated the original resting place o$ the great $ather ?ronos Hlater QeusI, Cust as the hill which the <omans called the (apitoline symboli*ed the "'ount o$ Saturn!#6267 Dionysius o$ -alicarnassus thus reports a complete assimilation o$ the (apitoline or Saturnian hill and the %reek .lympus or 'ount ?ronos! 6264 0oth hills signi$ied the primordial mount on which the old god Saturn $ounded his celestial residence! The mythical .lympus, which gave its name to so many sacred peaks, was the "wholly-shining# summit, the
"aetherial# height or "burning sky!# The author o$ the =latonic >pinomis re$ers to .lympus as "the (osmos!# 626:

=lato tells us that .lympus was the o"phalos or navel o$ the earth, 62@2 a $act o$ vital signi$icance, since the %reeks knew the o"phalos as the "a is!# 'oreover, the tradition o$ .lympus cannot be divorced $rom that o$ Ida, another mythical mountain possessing more than one locali*ation! That 'ount Ida bore the name .lympus and, like .lympus, was said to rise into the aether#62@6 reveals the underlying identity o$ the two heaven’s pillars! Ida was the birthplace1 In the centre of the Sea is the Dhite Isle o$ Qeus There is 'ount Ida, and our race’s cradle!62@@ So declares +eneas! To anyone aware o$ the general tradition, this mountain in the middle o$ the sea can only be the primeval hill, the cosmic peak to which every race on earth traces its ancestry! +lso conceived as the centre o$ the world was the $amous 'ount =arnassus, $rom which, according to local myths, the human race descended! .n the slope o$ =arnassus stood Delphi, +pollo ’s popular shrine, esteemed as "the
navel!# 0ut here too we must look beyond the commemorative terrestrial mount to comprehend its symbolism! The mythical =arnassus is doubtless the same as the Sanskrit =arnasa, which the -indu Puranas call Meru# the polar mountain!

.ne o$ those to perceive the %reek sacred mountain as the copy o$ the cosmic mount was Darren, who concluded1 ".lympus was simply the +tlantean pillar Kthe "pillar o$ heaven#L pictured as a lo$ty mountain, and supporting the sky
at its northern =ole! In $act, many writers now a$$irm that the .lympus o$ %reek mythology was simply the north polar PDorldmountain’ o$ the +siatic nations!# 62@3 0ut the point is only rarely acknowledged today, and most treatments o$ the

subCect still ask the 'acedonian mount to e plain its own mythical image!

Western Semiti'

'ount Qion, the site o$ the ancient -ebrew temple, is a small hill in Jerusalem, between the Tyropoeon and ?edron valleys! The -ebrews $reAuently call Jerusalem itsel$ "Qion!# 0ut in the "last days,# according to Isaiah H@1@I, Qion "shall be e alted above the hills!# This will be the new Jerusalem! The 0ook
o$ <evelation, in re$erence to "a new heaven and a new earth,# implies a trans$ormation o$ the mount1 "K+n angelL carried me away in the spirit to a great and high "ountain# and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out o$ heaven!# The verse suggests that in the order to come the celestial city will rest on a mountain reaching to heaven! 62@G

The concrete image o$ the new Jerusalem, however, is supplied by the memory o$ the pri"ordial Jerusalem, $ounded at the
creation! This was the mount on which Fahweh, or >l, stood in the beginning! ,rom the available evidence, one observes the $ollowing characteristics o$ the cosmic Qion!

6! The "ountain stood at the navel of the world 62@5 Thus, in the "creation,# %od $ashioned the "earth# around Qion!62@8 @! The "ountaintop was the world su""it +mong the -ebrews, states Densinck, "the sanctuary KQionL has been considered as the highest mountain or the highest territory o$ the earth!# This is, Densinck adds, "the $irst character o$ the navel!# 62@7 H>very navel marks the centre and summit!I Through assimilation with the cosmic Qion, the local hill acAuires the imagery o$ the original! %reat is the 9ord, and greatly to be praised in the city o$ our %od, in the mountain o$ his holiness! 0eauti$ul $or situation, the Coy o$ the whole earth, is mount Qion!62@4 The phrase "beauti$ul $or situation# Hyepeh nopI has the concrete meaning o$ "towering superb# H%aster’s rendering o$ the phraseI!62@: /eedless to say, the small hill in terrestrial Jerusalem did not supply this image! 3! 9ion lies in the farthest north 't! Qion, thou "$ar reaches o$ the /orth,# an emperor’s citadel!6232 -ere the cosmic Qion is identi$ied with the celestial Qaphon, the 'ount o$ (ongregation in the uttermost north! This is the mount $rom which 9uci$er was cast down1 ,or thou K9uci$erL hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will e alt my throne above the stars o$ %od1 , will sit also upon the "ount of the congregation# in the sides of the north KQaphonL! I will ascend above the heights o$ cloudsB
I will be like the most -igh!6236

Thus does %od Has >l, the 'ost -ighI reside on a great northern mountain, reaching the stars! (li$$ord tells us that "Qaphon’s meaning seems to be practically Pheavens!# 623@ That Qion was synonymous with this cosmic mountain in the $ar north links the modest hill in Jerusalem with the polar mountain o$ global mythology! G! $od appears as a radiant light atop 9ion .ut o$ Qion, the per$ection o$ beauty, %od hath shined! .ur %od shall come, and shall not keep silence1 a $ire shall devour be$ore him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about him!6233 5! The pri"eval te"ple >or city? rests on 9ion " ! ! ! The habitation o$ Fahweh on Qion is the earthly counterpart o$ the glorious mansion which, in traditional popular lore, the
divine overlord is said to have built $or himsel$ on the supernal hill o$ the gods,# writes %aster! 623G

8! $od resides "in# the cos"ic 9ion The enclosure o$ %od’s dwelling Htemple, cityI is inseparable $rom the mountain on which it rests! Thus can the =salm employ the phrase, "in the city o$ our %od, in the mountain o$ his holiness!# 6235 %od’s "dwelling place in Qion#6238 is the enclosure o$ the summit! 7! 9ion is the site of %da"0s paradise# the land of the four rivers To the prince o$ Tyre Hclearly the cosmic, not the terrestrial cityI the 9ord declares1 Thou hast been in >den, the garden o$ %odB every precious stone was thy covering ! ! ! Thou wast upon the holy
"ountain of $od6 thou hast walked up and down in the midst o$ the stones o$ $ire!6237

In these lines the prince o$ the cosmic city appears in the character o$ +dam, enthroned amid the $iery stones o$ >den! To occupy the primeval garden is to abide upon "the holy mountain o$ %od!#6234 The point is noted by Densinck1 "=aradise really consists o$ a mountain higher than any mountain on earth ! ! ! =aradise is also considered as a navel!# 623: That the mountain surpassed all terrestrial peaks simply means that it was cosmic, as was the paradise at the summit! These characteristics o$ the heaven’s peak in -ebrew tradition $ind additional con$irmation in the closely related cosmic
mountain o$ (anaanite myth! Qaphon in the $ar north appears repeatedly in the te ts as the resting place o$ the high god 0aal! "There are striking similarities between the mountain spn KQaphonL in the &garitic te ts and 'ount Qion in the -ebrew 0ible,# writes (li$$ord! ".n both the deity dwells in his temple $rom which he e ercises his ruleB thunder and lightning are $reAuently his means o$ disclosureB the mountain ! ! ! is impregnableB it is connected with $ertilityB and it is a cosmic centre!# 62G2

/oteworthy is "the mythic and cosmic dimension o$ the pillar or mountain! That is, it Coins the upper and lower worldB in it is contained a super abundance o$ li$e, o$ waterB it is the throne o$ the deity!# 62G6 Just as the -ebrew Fahweh dwells in Qion, so
does the (anaanite high god 0aal dwell in the cosmic Qaphon1

,n the "idst o$ my mountain, divine Qaphon, In the holy place, the mountain o$ my heritage, In the chosen spot, on the hill o$ victory!62G@ 0aal is enthroned, yea HhisI seat is the mountain ! ! ! ,n the "idst o$ his mountain, divine Qaphon ! ! ! -is head is wonder$ul!62G3 It must be this cosmic hill depicted in a =hoenician ivory, reproduced by (li$$ord! The ivory Hdated to the $irst millenium 0!(!I shows a mountain personi$ied as a male deity! The mountain-god holds in his hand a vase $rom which $our streams $low in opposite directions 62GG! Issuing $rom the summit o$ the mount, the $our rivers provide a distinct parallel to the $our rivers o$ other traditions!

The Ameri'as
"The ancient 'e icans,# writes Darren, "conceived o$ the cradle o$ the human race as situated in the $arthest /orth, upon the highest
o$ mountains, cloud-surrounded, the residence o$ the god Tlaloc! Thence come the rains and all streams, $or Tlaloc is the god o$ the water! The $irst man Ouet*alcoatl, a$ter having ruled as king o$ the %olden +ge o$ 'e ico, returned by divine direction to the primeval =aradise in the /orth HTlapallanI and partook o$ the draught o$ immortality! The stupendous terraced pyramid-temple o$ (holula was a copy and symbol o$ the sacred =aradise mountain o$ +*tec tradition, which was described as standing Pin the +entre of the Middle-country ’#62G5

(alled +olhuacan# Tlaloc’s mountain was the site o$ the mythical homeland +t*lan, the "Dhite 'ountain# $rom which, according to the myths, the 'e icans descended! 62G8 <esting on the summit o$ (olhuacan was the temple o$ 'i coatl, "the god o$ the =ole Star!#62G7 Though 'e ican myths abound with re$erences to the primordial "centre,# one notes that Has stated by SeCourneI "the centre ! ! ! is also the point where heaven and earth meet,# 62G4 i!e!, it is "the world’s highest point,# the summit o$ the
world mountain!

+s an indication o$ the close correspondence between the 'e ican paradisal mountain and that o$ other races, I cite the $ollowing 'i tec account o$ divine origins! The account relates that "the $ather and mother o$ all the gods#
constructed a mansion upon a great hill while the world yet lay "in deep obscurity1#

! ! ! Dhen all was chaos and con$usion, the earth was covered with water, there was only mud and slime on the sur$ace o$ the earth! +t that time ! ! ! there became visible a god who had the name 6-Deer and the surname Snake o$ the 9ion and a goddess, very genteel and beauti$ul, whose name was also 6-Deer and whose surname was Snake o$ the Tiger! These two gods are said to have been the beginning

o$ all other gods ! ! ! +s soon as these two gods became visible on earth, in human $orm, the accounts o$ our people relate that with their power and wisdom they made and established a large stone on which they built a very sumptuous mansion, constructed with the $inest workmanship which was their seat and residence on earth ! ! ! This large stone and the mansion were on a very high hill, near the village o$ +poala ! ! ! This large stone was named "the-place-where-the-heavens-were!# +nd there they remained many centuries in complete tranAuillity and contentment, as in a pleasant and delight$ul place ! ! ! The poem goes on to describe the planting o$ a garden o$ abundance on the mountaintop with— $lowers and roses and trees and $ruit and many herbs and in this way began the 'i tec kingdom!62G: -ere we have the god .ne H "6-Deer#I appearing in the primeval waters and taking as his spouse the great mother! The
appearance o$ the primal pair coincides with the $ashioning o$ a mansion atop "a very high hill!# That this was the cosmic mountain is clear $rom the re$erence to the "large stone# o$ $oundation atop the hill1 its name was "the-place-where-the-heavens-were# Hit was not o$ our earthI! Dith its garden o$ plenty, this home o$ the 'i tec pair o$$ered "complete tranAuillity and contentment!# H(ompare the >gyptian garden o$ 1etep# whose very name conveys the dual meaning "rest# and "abundance!#I

+ll nations look back to the god .ne as the $irst king and to the $irst generation o$ gods as the "ancestors!# Thus
the poem concludes1 "in this way began the 'i tec kingdom!#

+ central mountain, identi$ied with "the earth’s navel,# appears also in the myths o$ the =ima o$ the southwestern &nited States! ,rom this mountain the world was populated! 6252 The .maha commemorate the great rock which Dakanda summoned $rom the waters, at the beginning o$ the world1 the great white rock, Standing and reaching as high as the heavens, enwrapped in mist! Verily as high as the heavens ! ! !6256 "The Indians, like the Semites,# states +le ander, "conceived the world to be a mountain, rising $rom the waste o$ cosmic waters, and
arched by the celestial dome!#625@

The aborigines o$ %uiana know the great mountain <oraima, "ever-$ertile source o$ streams!# Surrounding this peak, the
natives say, is "a magic circle!# .n the same mountain they recall an enormous serpent "which could entwine a hundred people in its $olds!#6253

In the >skimo tradition, the upper or netherworld lies beyond a great mountain around which the celestial dome revolves! The land above this a-is-"ountain is said to resemble our earth!625G 9ike other races, the +merican Indians represented the cosmic 'ount by the centre-post o$ the sacred dwelling! =erhaps the most interesting version occurs in the Delaware symbolism o$ the "0ig -ouse,# a ritual dwelling known to
represent the primeval creation! +top the centre-post o$ the 0ig -ouse stood the e$$igy o$ the creator god %icelemukaong! "The post on which his $ace appears represents him in his aspect as centre post o$ the universe, the supporter o$ the whole structure o$ creation,# writes 'uller!6255 The connection o$ this king-post with the %reat 0ear 6258 proves its polar character, while the

creator at the summit is without doubt the supreme polar god!

A !olle'tive &emory
The myths and symbols o$ the cosmic mountain constitute a collective memory shared by all mankind! The 'ount universally appears as the inaccessible height, attaining the centre o$ heaven! +round its summit revolves the circle o$ the (osmos! In all principal accounts the 'ount appears as the ancestral homeland—the lost paradise with its $our rivers! ,rom one section o$ the world to another the ancients represented the primeval hill through sacred posts and pillars—the centre-posts o$ temples and other holy dwellings, or the $ree-standing columns holding alo$t various emblems o$ the
great god and his enclosure!

The pillar o$ light appearing to support the planet-god was "the earth’s highest mountain!# The god on the mountaintop
seemed to occupy the summit o$ the terrestrial landscape, yet also appeared literally as the pivot around which all the heavenly bodies turned!

In other words, one can speak o$ the great $ather as ruling "on our earth# without reducing him to mere human
proportions! The same $igure ruled as the central sun!

It is to the cosmic mountain that one must re$er in order to make sense o$ the commemorative hill or sacred column! Fet the priority o$ the cosmic peak is only rarely admitted by the e perts! Dere the %reeks so unsophisticated as to believe that ?ronos—acknowledged to be the planet Saturn— sat
enthroned on a local .lympusE Did the -ebrews truly believe that Fahweh, at the creation, actually stood on the mound o$ earth which we now call QionE HThe truth is that in the age o$ epic poetry and $able, when the chroniclers con$used the cosmic .lympus and Qion with their local representations, most educated men stopped believing the myths!I

The memory o$ the cos"ic mountain e isted prior to the naming o$ sacred hills on our earth or the $ashioning o$ symbolic
representations! Indeed, the point should go without saying! Dhile %reek mythologists like to think that the 'acedonian .lympus gave rise to myths o$ the .lympic home o$ the gods, surely no one would suggest that the towering obelisks, iron posts, or minarets were $ashioned before men conceived the great god resting on such a support! The cosmic myth precedes and gives meaning to the symbol! 9ocal mountain and sacred pillar share the same role as characteri*ations o$ a cosmic prototype!

Divorced $rom the prototype the symbol will always appear as an e pression o$ gross ignorance! + good illustration o$ this is (ook’s e planation o$ the %ermanic sacred pillar Irminsaul, "the pillar o$ heaven!# To the primitive, (ook
tells us, "the sky stands in need o$ a visible support! >arly man was in $act haunted by a very de$inite dread that it might collapse on him!#

"-ow that belie$ arose, we can only surmise! It may be that in the dim past, when the ancestors o$ these tribes developed out o$
hunters into herdsmen and emerged $rom the $orest on to the open plain, they missed the big tree that seemed to support the sky HPheaven-reaching’ as -omer calls itI! +nd in the absence o$ the mighty prop there was nothing to guarantee the sa$ety o$ their roo$ Kthe skyL!#

"/ow early man was a practical person! -is roo$ being insecure, he proceeded to shore it up!#6257 .ne observer a$ter another con$uses the symbol with the prototype! (an one credibly suggest that primitives raised the sacred post because "they missed the big tree that seemed to support the sky#E (ould the most ignorant savages have
believed that the very piece o$ wood be$ore them sustained the entire heavens so that a $ew blows o$ an a would bring down the sun, moon, and starsE

+ $ew comparative mythologists, noting the sacred mountain ’s connection with the world a is, seek to understand it as an
astronomical metaphor1 the ancients must have been so impressed by the visual revolution o$ the heavens around a central point—the celestial pole—that they conceived a great column supporting heaven at its pivot and constituting the $i ed a le o$ the universe! These writers see the mountain as a primitive $iction employed to e plain the regular and harmonious motions o$ the heavens!

0ut in the ancient world view, the cosmic a is-pillar belongs to an integrated vision and cannot be separated $rom other central themes! I$ the 'ount was no more than a colour$ul metaphor $or the cosmic a is, in what metaphor did the polar sun originateE Dhy was this stationary light called SaturnE +nd why do the hymns incessantly invoke a shining band around the god, or $our primary rays o$ light radiating $rom this central sunE To e plain the cosmic mount as an analogy drawn by primitive imagination, one must, in similar terms, account $or the entire range o$ moti$s attached to the signs and , the world-wide images o$ the mountain! Such a task would reAuire abstractions $ar beyond any to which the ancients were accustomed! Dhile modern man looks $or an e planation o$ the myths in the present heavens, the mythmakers themselves repeatedly tell us that they speak o$ a vanished world order! The cosmic mountain is the Pri"eval -illB the garden at the

summit is the lost paradiseB and the central sun ruling the enclosure is the banished god-king! The entire drama set $orth in archaic ritual takes place in a previous age, separated $rom our own by overwhelming catastrophes Ha subCect which must be reserved $or treatment in a separate volumeI!

Dhen the ancient priests invoke the "'ount o$ %lory,# the "Jewelled =eak,# the "pillar o$ $ire,# or the "golden mountain# they
a$$irm the 'ount as a visible and power$ul apparition!

'oreover, one need only consider the diverse mythical $orms o$ the 'ount to discover a symbolism o$ such breadth and coherence as to re$ute any appeal to abstractions!

The &ount of &as'uline Po0er
Mythical history presents the cos"ic "ountain as the "asculine power of the heavens# i"planting the lu"inous
"seed# >Saturn? within the wo"b of the "other goddess The goddess# personifying the band around the central sun# thus beco"es the ""istress of the "ountain #

I$ the >gyptian +tum or <e is the %reat Seed, the 'esopotamian /inurta, or /ingirsu, is "the li$e giving Seed!#6254 The ritual declares the primal seed to have been generated by the world pillar! "'y king /ingirsu ! ! ! , trusty lord, Seed spawned by the %reat 'ountain,# reads a Sumerian hymn! 625: In the same vein the >gyptians conceived <e the "Seed#
o$ the cosmic mountain Shu!

The mountain is the generative pillar and the great goddess its Aueen! &pon $orming the great column in the waters o$ ?ur,
/inurta addresses his wi$e /inmah Ha $orm o$ /inhursagI1

There$ore on the hill which I, the hero, have heaped up, 9et its name be -ursag HmountainI, and thou be its Aueen!6282 Similarly, Ishtar, the "womb,# is the spouse on the mountain1 . supreme mistress o$ the mountain o$ the universe!6286 The concrete meaning o$ the goddess’ title will be observed in a (anaanite $ragment re$erring to Ishtar and 'ount =isaisa1 the mount cohabits with the goddess!628@ The world mountain takes the $orm o$ the Ithyphallus, observes Jeremias! 6283 >gyptian ritual invokes the mother goddess as the "Spouse on the 'ountain,#628G while the great $ather becomes %n"ut-f "the pillar o$ his mother!#6285

That the great goddess, as mistress or Aueen o$ the mountain, actually cohabits with it may not always be e plicitly spelled out, though the relationship is o$ten e plicit in the symbolism o$ the 'ount itsel$! The phallic dimension o$ the cosmic pillar is very clear in the >gyptian obelisk , symbol o$ the =rimeval -ill supporting the 0enben stone or "Seed# o$ +tum! +ccording to <ouge, "+ comparative study o$ these little monuments proves that the obelisk
was revered because it was the symbol o$ +men the generator ! ! ! The obelisk passes insensibly $rom its ordinary $orm to that o$ the phallus!#6288

The >gyptian and 'esopotamian conceptions o$ the world mountain as masculine power accord with -indu symbolism o$ the cosmic mount 'eru, deemed the male principle o$ the universe! 6287 'eru was, in $act, the $amed linga" or phallus o$ Shiva, e tending upward along the "a is o$ the universe!# 6284 <e$lecting this idea is the phrase
"the virile mountain,# employed by the %tharva Veda 628:

The "heavenly pillar# on which the Japanese pair I*angi and I*anami stood in the beginning 6272 was, according to the respected
authority -irata, at once the world a is and the lingam!6276

" ! ! ! >very mountain was deemed the phallus o$ the Dorld, and every phallus or cone was an image o$ the holy mountain,# observes

The phallic character o$ many sacred pillars is so widely acknowledged as to reAuire little argument! 6273 Indeed, certain scholars are so impressed by this attribute o$ sacred pillars that they seek to build an entire interpretation o$ ancient ritual around the theme1 every pillar and every related symbol becomes an e pression o$ a primitive preoccupation with human reproduction—and nothing else!

05. C $tan Mi(t $(( o' t#$ Mo!ntain Fet in each instance, one sees the prevailing theme o$ the cos"ic mountain! It is one thing to admit the masculine attribute o$
the pillar Hamong other attributesI, but Auite another thing to assert, as some do, that the pillar was initially nothing more than a masculine emblem! The cosmic mountain came $irst, and it was Auite natural that the ancients, re$lecting on the mountain’s relation to

I, interpreted the entire con$iguration in masculine-$eminine terms! ,aber, a$ter reviewing the global image o$ the holy mountain, concludes that in each case the mountain had on its summit a mystic circle given the name o$ the mother goddess and called "the (ircle o$ the Dorld!# The "sun#-god, states ,aber,
the enclosed sun at the summit H resides within this enclosure as husband o$ the great mother, while the mountain itsel$ is the organ o$ universal generation! H&nnoticed

by ,aber, however, is the connection o$ this universal cosmology with the sign


Those who assert the absolute priority o$ phallicism not only $orget that the sacred pillar was cosmic $rom the start Hi!e!, it was not a mere phallic emblem gradually enlarged to cosmic dimensionsI, but must gloss over the many independent attributes o$ the pillar and enclosure! HIt would be absurd, $or e ample, to argue that the mythical lost paradise—watered by $our rivers running to the $our corners—was the product o$ primitive phallicism!I .ne interpretation o$ the polar con$iguration overlaps with another! 0ut only the prototype e plains the symbol!627G

The !osmi' &ountain Personified
The cos"ic "ountain often takes the "ythical for" of a great giant supporting the central sun or holding aloft the wo"b of the +os"os 8n other occasions the Mount beco"es the lower li"bs of the great god hi"self .$ the heaven-sustaining giant, there is no more popular $igure than the %reek +tlas! In modern imagination +tlas is the lonely god bearing our earth on his shoulders! 0ut -esiod surely speaks $or the original version when he writes1 "+nd +tlas through hard constraint upholds the wide heaven with unwearying head and arms, standing at the borders o$ the earth, be$ore the clear-voiced -esperides!# 6275 =indar has +tlas "bearing up against heaven’s weight,# 6278 while .vid speaks o$ "strong +tlas who wears heaven on his shoulders!# 6277 HThe reader will recall that "heaven# means "the

The usual view is that the -esperides, in whose company -esiod places +tlas, occupy a mysterious region either in 9ibya or in the $ar west! 0ut +pollodorus, describing the eleventh labour o$ -ercules, relates that the golden apples guarded by the -esperides "were not, as some have said, in 9ibya, but on +tlas, among the -yperboreans!# 6274 This, o$ course, places +tlas in the $ar north, as noted by ,ra*er!627: Dhen +pollodorus uses the phrase "on +tlas,# he re$ers to +tlas as the "ountain on which -era planted the garden o$ the gods!6242 The mythical 'ount +tlas and heaven-sustaining god were synonymous, the myths declaring that =erseus petri$ied +tlas into the mountain!6246 Since there is a range o$ mountains in northwest +$rica called +tlas many writers assume this to be the subCect o$ the myth, but +pollodorus ’ location o$ the mount and garden
among the $ar-northern -yperboreans speaks $or a Auite di$$erent idea!

To $ind the original character o$ +tlas, one must consult the global tradition, $or this heaven-sustaining god has many counterparts around the world! In India numerous gods appear as personi$ications o$ the world mountain! +gni is a "supporting column,# or the "pillar o$ li$e,#624@ a god who "upholds the sky by his e$$icacious spells,#6243 and serves as the "a le# o$ the cosmic wheel or
chariot!624G "+gni is represented as the a is o$ the &niverse, e tending as a pillar between >arth and -eaven,# states (oomaraswamy! 6245

(losely related is Indra, he "who is vast and sel$-sustained like a mountain, the radiant and $ormidable Indra!# 6248 "0e thou Cust
hereB be not moved awayB like a mountain, not unsteadyB . Indra, stand thou $i ed Cust hereB here do thou maintain royalty!# 6247

.$ Vishnu, -indu ritual declares, "Thou proppedst asunder those two worlds, . Vishnu!# 6244 Savitar is the a is-pillar o$ the world wheel1 "+ll immortal things rest upon him as on the a le end o$ a chariot!# 624: +nd the 5panishads sing o$ =raCapati
"0y him the heavens are strong and earth is stead$ast, by him light’s realm and sky-vault are supported!# 62:2

-indu traditions o$ the heaven-sustaining god $ind a parallel in the cosmic image o$ the 0uddha as "the golden
mountain!# 0uddhist iconography presents the 0uddha either as a pillar o$ $ire or as the central sun atop such a pillar, which was the "a is o$ the &niverse!#62:6

+mong +ltaic races the central pillar o$ten receives personi$ication as a towering $igure supporting the heavens! The celestial column becomes "the 'an-=illar o$ ,ire,#62:@ or "the iron pillar man!#62:3 The ,innish supreme polar god was &kko, invoked in the *alevala with the words ". &kko, god on high, supporter o$ the whole skyM#62:G 'ithraic shrines depict 'ithras in the $orm o$ +tlas, supporting the vault o$ heaven! ",rom the moment o$ his birth
'ithras held the globe as *os"ocrator Hruler o$ the (osmosI,# states (umont! "+tlas served to stress both the signi$icance o$ 'ithras’ task as bearer o$ the heavens and the power derived $rom this Cunction!# 62:5 The %ermanic -eimdall represented the turning a le-post o$ the heavens62:8 while the name o$ the Semitic god >l has $or its primitive sense "a column!#

In /orth +merica, the divinity widely recogni*ed in legend and myth by diverse Indian tribes was 'anabo*ho, who "resides upon an immense piece o$ ice in the /orthern .cean,# directing the cosmic movements! .ne o$ the $orms o$ 'anabo*ho was Ta-ren-ya-wa-go, "the holder o$ the -eavens!# 62:7 The assimilation o$ the great god to the cosmic mountain on which he rests will e plain why, in the language o$ ancient astronomy, Saturn is the "pillar!# The
connection bears on an enigmatic re$erence to Saturn in the .ld Testament! The prophet +mos charges Israel with having "borne the tabernacle o$ your 'oloch and (hiun, your images, the star o$ your god!# 62:4 The term +hiun re$ers to the "pillar# or "pedestal# o$ the star-god worshipped by the Israelites in the desert! It is the name o$ the planet Saturn and traces back to the 0abylonian *aiun# also Saturn—the "steady star upon a $oundation!# =lutarch gives the title *iun to the >gyptian +nup, the "god who is on his pole!# *iun# states 'assey, "denotes the highest point, at the centre, and is applied to the $ounding o$ the world! The na"e was assigned to Saturn as the god in the highest #62::

Saturn, the -eaven 'an, thus acAuires the $orm o$ a cosmic giant, whose vast trunk is the mountain o$ the world! The sign offers us a picture of the *os"ocrator# the all-containing being e"bracing the "ale and fe"ale powers and supporting the +os"os 'oreover, this connection o$ the supreme god to the cosmic pillar provides a $urther re$utation o$ the common view which has the god, as our sun, leave the "ountain each "orning and soar across the sky to sink below the western
hori*on! It is the mountain that gives the god his identity as the supporter o$ the heavens! (ould one reasonably call the mount the god’s lower li"bs i$ the sun were Coined to the mount only at the moment o$ sunriseE The true light god does not move, but remains $i ed at the summit!

The Single Leg
Reflecting the assi"ilation of the great god to the cos"ic "ountain is the repeated characterization of the Mount as the god0s single "leg # The ancient 'ayans knew no greater god than -uracan, "the -eart o$ -eaven!# In the Popul Vuh# the sacred book o$ the Ouiche 'aya, -uracan presides over the creation, bringing $orth the $irst dawn! 6622 The name 1uracan means literally ".ne-9eg!#
%oet* and 'orley render his name as "$lash o$ a leg or the lightning!#6626

Did the single leg o$ -uracan derive $rom a bolt o$ lightningE De can answer the Auestion by looking at other one-legged gods, o$ which world mythology presents a surprising number! -uracan ’s counterpart in /ahuatl ritual
was the polar god Te*catlipoca, who also possessed a single leg! +nd the same people worshipped -uit*ilopochtli1

=ortentous one, who inhabits the region o$ clouds, you have but one $oot!662@ Similarly, the 9illooet Indians o$ 0ritish (olumbia recall an old thunder god who stood on one leg!6623 9ooking beyond the +mericas one $inds that the natives o$ +ustralia remember a one-legged god Turunbulun, who also possessed a single eye 662G This peculiarity, in turn, reminds one o$ the ominous $igure met by .wein in the +rthurian legend1 coming to a clearing in the $orest, .wein encountered a large mound on which stood a black, one-eyed# one-legged giant 6625 The (eltic Sol stood on one $oot all day! 6628 The +$rican Dachoga tell o$ the old god 'rule who resided on earth $or a time be$ore departing because o$ human unkindnessB the god had only one leg! 6627 .’/eill notes that a bron*e statue o$ a (abirean god o$ the 'edici larariu" stood on one $oot!6624 <ussian myth presents the demonic Verlioka as a one-eyed and one-legged $igure!662: So also was the (hinese primeval god ?’uei one-$ooted!6662 That more than one o$ these $igures possesses a single eye in addition to one leg is surely the key to a solution! The (yclopean eye answered to the enclosed polar sun , which the myths place on the world pillar Does not the latter image o$$er us the simplest and most direct e planation o$ the one-eyed, one-legged godE !

The decisive evidence comes $rom >gypt and India! In language which >gyptologists rarely attempt to comprehend, >gyptian te ts speak o$ the "leg# or "thigh# o$ .siris, Set, or =tah! Dhile the $emale "thigh# was the lap HwombI
o$ the great mother, >gyptian te ts similarly show that the "asculine "thigh# or "leg# was the cosmic mountain! Dhile numerous te ts depict the god shining over the 9ight 'ountain, the god .siris is said to "shine above the 9eg o$ heaven!# 6666 "-ail, 9eg o$ $ire, who comest $orth $rom +khekhu# proclaims the !ook of the .ead 666@

The >gyptian sept# written with the mountain symbol

, means "provide with!# 0ut sept also means "leg!# 'assey’s conclusion must be our own1 "The leg or thigh was an >gyptian $igure o$ the pole, as we $ind it in Pthe leg o$ =tah’ ! ! ! -ence, Pabove the leg’ is eAuivalent to Pover the pole!’#6663 ?ees tells us that the leg o$ Set, $rom which the "/ile# was said to $low, represented the pole!666G The one-legged god appears to be represented in the >gyptian hieroglyph ab determinative , $or the

seems to depict a $igure turning round while standing on one leg! +t least this is the motion

suggested by the word’s sense "to go round!# That ab H

I also means "heart# suggests that the one-legged god is the stationary but ever-turning heart of heaven—the >gyptian counterpart o$ the one-legged 'ayan god -uracan, the "-eart o$ -eaven!# De can test this interpretation against -indu symbolism! -indu legends say that the old god 'anu, the "king o$ men# Hthe $irst man and the $irst kingI, "did arduous penance $or ten thousand years#—all the while " poised on one leg #6665 The great $ather Shiva not only endured "heavy penances on 'ount -imavant,# but "stood on one $oot $or a thousand years!# 6668 In the 5panishads one reads that the "0rahman is only one-$ooted!#6667 The great god’s one $oot rein$orces the principle o$ "rest#, "'editation,# or "penance!# + case in point is the archaic $igure o$ +Ca >kapad, called the "one-$ooted# support o$ the (osmos!6664 +grawala tells us that "ekapad or one-$ooted denotes the absence o$
motion!# The one-$ooted god "was devoid o$ any motion and represented the principle o$ +bsolute Static <est!# 666:

.n the meaning o$ the great god’s single leg, (oomaraswamy and /ivedita write1 "The earliest o$ male anthropomorphic gods
is said to have been =ole-star, and there is a touch o$ humour in the way he is portrayed up and down the pages o$ ancient mythology! The =ole-star, it seems, $rom his solitary position at the ape o$ the stellar system gave rise to the notion o$ a god who was one$ooted ! ! ! Thus the Rig-Veda contains numerous re$erences to +Ca->kapad—a name that may be translated either the .ne-$ooted %oat or the 0irthless .ne-$ooted .ne!#66@2

The -indus knew the celestial pole as .hruva-lok or "place o$ Dhruva Hthe "$irm# godI! 66@6 In the !hagavata-purana# one reads that Dhruva, god o$ the pole, in pro$ound meditation, "maintained himsel$ upright on one $oot, motionless as a stake #66@@ HIn truth, the one leg o$ the motionless Dhruva was a "stake#—the central pillar or mountain o$ the world!I That the polar god rules the world while standing on one leg throws light on the Siamese ritual in which the king, in imitation o$ the &niversal 'onarch, and in order to prove his $itness $or holding supreme authority, stood on one leg!66@3 .ne thinks o$ the %reek puri$ication rites which reAuired initiates to stand on one $oot only!66@G The practice o$ praying on one leg occurs also in old Jewish rites in Jerusalem and among 'uslim dervishes and -indu hermits!66@5 It would be useless to seek a "natural# e planation $or the practice, $or the prototype
does not lie in what we call the natural world today! >mulated is the $eat o$ the &niversal 'onarch or $irst ancestor, conceived as the Ideal 'an! "-e who has one $oot has out-stripped them that have two,# states the Rig Veda 66@8 The statement derives meaning

$rom the supremacy o$ the one-legged polar god, who, while standing $i ed at the cosmic centre yet moved the turning heavens! The great god’s single "leg# means the world mountain!66@7

The Serpent4%ragon
The serpent fills "ore than one role in the "yths of beginnings 'hile the circular serpent denotes the Saturnian enclosure# there is also a "asculine serpent who serves as the foundation or pillar + comparison o$ global traditions indicates that while many legends locate the celestial "earth# on the cosmic
mountain, this enclosure may also appear as the crown o$ an erect serpent! In the beginning, according to a creation myth o$ southeastern 0orneo, there was only the sky and the sea, "in which swam a great serpent upon whose head was a crown o$ gold set with a shining stone! ,rom the sky-world the deity threw earth upon the serpent’s head, thus building an island in the midst o$ the seaB and this island became the world!#66@4

The 0attak o$ Sumatra say that in the "primeval ocean swam or lay a great serpent on whose head the heavenly maiden spread
a hand$ul o$ earth ! ! ! and thus she $ormed the world!#66@:

In -indu myth the gigantic serpent Shesha sustains the "world# on his head,6632 as do the -ebrew 9eviathan and the 'uslim cosmic serpents! +mong the 0uriats o$ Siberia, the tradition prevails that the mighty &lgen created a giant $ish amid the cosmic waters to support the "world!#6636 Is there an underlying consistency between these myths and other myths which depict the celestial earth as the summit o$ the world mountainE Dhat is the connection o$ the serpentRdragon and the a is-pillarE .$ course, it is easy to imagine that a stream o$ ice or debris stretching between the >arth and Saturn would, be$ore the latter orb attained stability at the polar centre, take on a twisting, serpentine appearance! +nd, in $act, the cosmic mountain in many creation epics is presented as a churning, serpentine column rising along the world a is and $inally achieving stability! HI intend to e plore this churning mountain in a subseAuent volumeI! -ere is a $act which linguists and comparative mythologists overlook1 in several lands the word $or "mountain# is
the same as the word $or "serpent# or "dragon,# though our natural world o$$ers no basis $or the eAuivalence! In 'e ico, /ahuatl can means "serpent# but also "mountain,#663@ so that one might term the polar 'ount (olhua can a cosmic "serpent-mountain!# "Serpent-'ountain# is indeed the title o$ the 'e ican primeval hill (oatepelt!6633

The >gyptian Set is the primordial serpent or dragon, but set also means "mountain!# The mythical 'ountain o$ Set, in $act, is the acknowledged >gyptian counterpart o$ the -ebrew Qaphon in "the $arthest reaches o$ the north!# 663G +nd like the 'e icans, the >gyptians knew the "Serpent 'ountain,# a $igure o$ the pole, according to 'assey! 6635 The ancient Sumerian dragon in the cosmic sea was the *ur# playing a prominent role in the creation myth, but kur also possessed the meaning "mountainB# indeed, "the sign used $or it is actually a pictograph representing a mountain!# 6638 The %reek
!oreas is the primeval serpent raised $rom the waters o$ (haos, but etymologists connect the serpent-god’s name with a primitive bora# "mountain!#

"+mong primitive peoples,# writes Suhr, "there are signs o$ the column in the $orm o$ a python or dragon riding $rom the level o$ the earth to the clouds!#6637 Suhr notes several (hinese paintings "in which a dragon is represented as rising $rom the water o$ the
earth!#6634 "+ dragon ascending $rom the earth to the clouds can serve as the whirling column—which no doubt accounts $or so many dragons on pillars!#663: In northern +ustralia ceremonies o$ the 'urngin commemorate with a central pole the great python who "rises up $rom a pool# and "towers up to the level o$ the clouds ! ! !# The python was the central pillar o$ heaven! 66G2

.nly the identity o$ the world pillar and erect serpentRdragon can e plain the primitive habit o$ decorating commemorative pillars with scales! The sha$t o$ early Jupiter columns "was o$ten patterned with scales,# notes (ook!66G6 In both >gypt and 'esopotamia images o$ sacred mountains reveal a scaled pattern! Since the great god o$ten unites with the 'ount in such a way that it becomes his lower limbs, we need look no $urther $or an e planation o$ the great $ather’s universal serpentine character1 the erect serpentRdragon $ormed the god’s
pillar-like trunk! Describing /ingirsu as "like heaven his tremendous si*e,# a Sumerian te t calls this creator god a ",lood-demon Ki!e!, dragonL by his lower limbs!#66G@ "Four hinderparts are the (elestial Serpent,# declares the >gyptian Pyra"id Te-ts 66G3 The

idea is vividly e pressed by the illustration o$ the +$rican god +mmon reproduced by (ook1 the head and shoulders o$ the god melt into a pillar-trunk $ormed by the body o$ a serpent 66GG H$ig! G7I! 0abylonian cylinder seals show the high god wearing a robe or dress in the $orm o$ a mountain! 66G5 Typically, the mountain-dress is covered with scales, identi$ying it with the serpentRdragon! Serpentine lower limbs o$ divine $igures are, o$ course, common to the art o$ many peoples! Indeed it would be useless to attempt a review o$ all the creator gods Coined with the serpentRdragon, since no prominent $igure o$ the great $ather appears to have escaped this identi$ication, even i$ at times subdued! The unanswered Auestion is, DhyE The last thing suggested Hto usI by slithering serpents is the idea o$ a creatorM Fet the prototypical identity o$ the erect serpentRdragon and the cosmic mountain gives striking coherence to the symbolism and places the world-wide union o$ creator and serpent above grotesAue and ine plicable coincidence!

06. A))on+ ;it# ($ 2$ntin$ t !nF. +n eAually bi*arre $eature o$ the mythic serpent is its phallic powers, as documented by (rawley, -artland, 0ri$$ault, >liade, and others! -ere is >liade ’s summary o$ the theme1 ">ven today it is said in the +bru**i that the serpent
copulates with all women! The %reeks and <omans also believed it! +le ander the %reat’s mother, .lympia, played with snakes! The $amous +ratus o$ Sicyon was said to be a son o$ +esculapius because, according to =ausanias, his mother conceived him o$ a serpent! Suetonius and Dio (assius tell how the mother o$ +ugustus conceived $rom the embrace o$ a serpent in +pollo’s temple! + similar legend was current about the elder Scipio! In %ermany, ,rance, =ortugal and elsewhere, women used to be a$raid that a snake would slip into their mouths when they were asleep, and they would become pregnant, particularly during menstruation! In India, when women wanted to have children, they adored a cobra! +ll over the >ast it was believed that woman’s $irst se ual contact was with a snake, at puberty or during menstruation! The ?omati tribe in the 'ysore province o$ India uses snakes made o$ stone in a rite to bring about the $ertility o$ women! (laudius +elianus declares that the -ebrews believed that snakes mated with unmarried girlsB and we also $ind this belie$ in Japan! + =ersian tradition says that a$ter the $irst woman had been seduced by the serpent she immediately began to menstruate! +nd it was said by the rabbis that menstruation was the result o$ >ve’s relations with the serpent in the %arden o$ >den! In +byssinia it was thought that girls were in danger o$ being raped by snakes until they were married! .ne +lgerian story tells how a snake escaped when no one was looking and raped all the unmarried girls in a house! Similar traditions are to be $ound among the 'andi -ottentots o$ >ast +$rica, in Sierra 9eone and elsewhere!# 66G8

/o e tent o$ conventional rationali*ation could hope to e plain this pervasive superstition! The supposed masculine power o$ serpents echoes an age-old tradition, whose original subCect was the cos"ic serpent, not the
lowly serpents o$ our earth! The impregnating serpent was a creature o$ myth, his phallic power deriving $rom his identity with the engendering mountain o$ the world! The primeval serpent, o$ten regarded as the male organ o$ the great $ather himsel$, rose along the world a is! That this archetypal memory produced reverberations in global $olklore $or thousands o$ years attests to the dramatic power o$ the original e perience!

The Stream of Life
The cos"ic "ountain also found e-pression as a strea" of wind or water either descending fro" the polar abode or
ascending the world a-is fro" "below # %s a strea" of air it was the life-giving "breath# of the great father# often called the "&orth 'ind # %s a river it was the central strea" in which the ancients believed all the waters of the world to originate<or a well # fountain# or spring channeling the waters of the deep upward along the world a-is to be dispersed in four strea"s flowing to the four corners

of the celestial abode


(oreas and the +yper*oreans. The =elasgian 0oreas or .phion is an archaic, serpentine god whom pre--ellenic %reeks
apparently revered as the $ather o$ creation! %raves reconstructs the $ragments o$ the myth1

"In the beginning, >urynome, the %oddess o$ +ll Things, rose naked $rom (haos, but $ound nothing substantial $or her $eet to rest
upon and there$ore divided the sea $rom the sky, dancing lonely upon its waves! She danced towards the south, and the wind set in motion behind her something new and apart with which to begin a work o$ creation! Dheeling about, she caught hold o$ this north wind, rubbed it between her hands and beholdM the great serpent .phion! >urynome danced to warm hersel$, wildly, until .phion, grown lust$ul, coiled about those divine limbs and moved to couple with her! /ow the /orth Dind, who is called 0oreas, $ertili*esB which is why mares o$ten turn their hindAuarters to the wind and breed $oals without aid o$ a stallion! So >urynome was likewise got with child!#66G7

+s to the origins o$ 0oreas, %raves can only say that he "is the serpent demiurge o$ -ebrew and >gyptian myth,# $rom
whom the =elasgians claimed to have descended! 0ut Auestions come immediately to mind! Dhy was 0oreas, the Pelor or "prodigious serpent,# called the "/orth Dind#E Dhy was this wind, like the erect serpent, believed to bring about conceptionE

0oreas, the /orth Dind, $igures in a long-standing debate concerning the -yperboreans, the servants o$ boreal
+pollo! +ncient chroniclers unanimously agree that the 1yperboreans lived beyond or above 0oreas, taking this to mean "beyond the /orth Dind,# or in the $arthest north! 0ut certain modern etymologists contend that the classical interpretation rests on a con$usion o$ terms1 these critics connect 0oreas and the -yperboreans not with the "/orth Dind,# but with a primitive %reek word, bora# meaning "mountain!# 0ora is the name o$ a mountain in 'acedonia, the highest peak between the -aliakmon and + ios rivers! &nder this modern interpretation 0oreas is simply "the wind o$ the mountain!#

0y such reasoning boreal +pollo becomes the god o$ a local peak, and +pollo’s servants Hthe -yperboreansI become either divine
assistants above this mount or human worshippers beyond the mount! The classical identi$ication o$ 0oreas and the -yperboreans with the utmost north loses its long-standing validity! 66G4

Fet to accept the primitive identity o$ 0oreas with the bora or "mountain# does not reAuire one to concede that 0ora or
0oreas originated in re$erence to a Macedonian peak! I$ we $ocus on prototypes rather than local geography we see that 0oreas pertained to both the "mountain# and the "/orth Dind#—but the original re$erence was cosmic! The "/orth Dind# was the luminous "breath# o$ the polar god, stretching along the world a isB and this very stream received mythical interpretation as the world mountain Hthe true 0ora in heavenI!

The "orth Wind Shu. + widely overlooked $act is that the world’s oldest ritual designates the celestial pillar as "the breath o$

The >gyptians, as previously observed, personi$ied the 'ount o$ %lory as the heaven-sustaining giant Shu! Fet >gyptologists as a whole rarely think o$ the god in such concrete terms! 0udge writes1 "Shu was a god who was
connected with the heat and dryness o$ sunlight and with the dry atmosphere which e ists between the earth and the sky!# 66G: It is hard to imagine any link between "the dry atmosphere# and the god whom the >gyptians regularly depicted as a cosmic pillar holding alo$t the goddess /ut, the womb o$ heaven!

0ut 0udge remarks, almost incidentally, that Shu "was a personi$ication o$ the wind o$ the /orth!# .r again1 "-e was certainly, like his $ather Tem, thought to be the cool wind o$ the /orth!# 6652 0udge’s language seems to describe a transitory bree*e
$rom 9ower >gypt! I$ the god personi$ied such an ephemeral $orce, why did he receive e plicit representation as the pillar o$ the heavensE The answer is that the "/orth Dind# did not re$er to a terrestrial bree*e but to the visible "breath# o$ +tum, the "$irm -eart o$ the Sky# at the celestial pole! 'ore than once the !ook of the .ead speaks o$ "the north wind which cometh $orth $rom Tem K+tumL!#6656 "I have come to protect thee, .siris, with the /orth Dind which cometh $orth $rom Tem,# states one hymn! 665@

>lsewhere the wind issues $rom +tum-<e in conCunction with the mother goddess1 "9et me snu$$ the air which
cometh $orth $rom thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh $orth $rom thy mother K/utL!# 6653

The te ts leave no doubt that this "wind# or "breath,# descending $rom +tum Hor <eI, was the light pillar Shu1 " ! ! ! -e
breatheth and the god Shu cometh into being,# states one hymn! 665G "Thou art established upon that which emanateth $rom thy e istence,# states another! 6655 "Thou hast emitted Shu and he hath come $orth $rom thy mouth!# 6658 .ne te t describes the god as "a great column o$ air# holding alo$t the womb o$ /ut! 6657 In the Pyra"id Te-ts the "north wind# is described as "smoke# and said to "li$t up# the god-king!6654 (learly, the >gyptians conceived the stream o$ breath as a visible pillar

<ather than "air# I should call this li$e-bearing breath "ether!# Dhile many sources describe the wind descending $rom the mouth or
nostrils o$ +tum or <e, others view it as rising $rom "below# to vivi$y the god and his company o$ celestial spirits! ". thou <e, who dwellest in thy divine shrine, draw thou into thysel$ the winds, inhale the /orth Dind!# 665: This wind is the "sweet air $or thy nose!#6682 "The sweet wind o$ the /orth is $or thy heart!# 6686 The deceased king aspires to attain the cosmic domain o$ the great god1 "I will take $or mysel$ my breath o$ li$e ! ! ! I will snu$$ the wind $or mysel$, I will have abundance o$ the north wind, I will be content among the gods!#668@

+ctually, the >gyptians le$t $or us a very e pressive image o$ this li$e-bearing ether in the hieroglyph , depicting luminous streams o$ khu# "glory,# rising to the enclosed sun! +nd the relationship o$ Shu, the heavens pillar, to this appears as the deter"inative in the name o$ Shu ! Shu, the pillar bearing alo$t the womb o$ the mother goddess, was no terrestrial bree*e, but rather the visible /orth Dind $lowing in a brilliant stream between our earth and Saturn’s (osmos!
stream is beyond dispute! ,or the hieroglyph

This very connection o$ the polar mount and the breath o$ li$e prevails also in 'esopotamia! .ne te t states that the cosmic mountain on which the Sumerian /ingirsu HSaturnI resides is the dwelling place of the &orth 'ind( To the mountain where the /orth Dind dwells,
I K/ingirsuL have set my $oot! The man o$ immense strength, the /orth Dind, ,rom the mountain, the pure place,

Dill blow the wind straight towards you!6683 The te t calls this /orth Dind "the breath o$ li$e to the people!# The Sumerians personi$ied the cosmic mountain as the giant >nlil H "the great mountain#I, a striking counterpart to the
>gyptian pillar-god Shu! 9ike Shu, >nlil is the "Dind o$ the /etherworld 'ountain#—that is, he personi$ies at once the cosmic hill and the breath o$ the creator! "0etween heaven and earth the Sumerians recogni*ed a substance which they called lil Kin >nlilL, a word whose appro imate meaning is wind Hair, breath, spiritI,# states ?ramer! 668G >nlil thus represents the ethereal column

Coining heaven and earth! +nd the -indu +gni, the pillar o$ heaven, was the same stream o$ air, or "smoke#1 "-e H+gniI as a pillar o$ smoke upholds the heavens!#6685 The Rig Veda says, "+gni, even as it were a builder, hath li$ted up on high his splendour# Hcompare Shu
holding alo$t the circle o$ khu# "glory#I! "-is smoke, yea, holdeth up the sky ! ! ! a standard as it were the pillar o$ sacri$ice, $irmly planted and duly chrismed!#6688

The 5panishads thus declare1 "The 0reath-o$-9i$e is a pillar!# 6687 0oth the -ebrews and 'uslims claimed that the created earth rested on "the wind,#6684 that is, the primeval wind and the primeval foundation were one and the same thing! De return, then, to the %reek 0oreas! In e ploring the Auestion o$ 0oreas and the -yperboreans, can one ignore the archaic identity o$ the cosmic mountain and /orth DindE .nce we acknowledge this identity, the Auestion as to whether 0oreas received his name $rom the /orth Dind or $rom the bora H"mountain#I becomes meaningless1 the
/orth Dind was the mountain! +nd 0oreas’ serpentine $orm corresponds to the original $orm o$ the 'ount in both 'esopotamia and >gypt! 'oreover, the myth o$ 0oreas impregnating the mother goddess—which gave rise to the later belie$ that the wind brings about conception668:—agrees with the universal character o$ the cosmic pillar1 it is the engendering mountain o$ heaven!

The River of Life. +ncient ritual also celebrates a stream o$ water either descending $rom on high or welling up $rom the deep as a
central $ount, spring, or well bringing li$e to the celestial abode!

In >gypt the heaven-sustaining giant Shu—the ethereal pillar o$ the /orth Dind—also represents the descending or ascending river! Shu is the "waterway,# while the polar god "is established upon the watery supports o$ the god
Shu!# >gyptian creation tales describe the pillar-god as the emission o$ the polar +tum or <e! Shu is "poured# or "spit# $rom the mouth o$ the ruling divinity! "Dhat $lowed $rom thee became Shu,# 6672 states a hymn to +men-<e!6676 "Fou are the eldest son o$ +tum, his $irst-bornB +tum has spat you $rom his mouth in your name o$ Shu!#667@

"Thou hast emitted Shu, and he hath come $orth $rom thy mouth ! ! ! -e hath become a god, and he hath brought $or thee every good
thingB he hath toiled $or thee, and he hath emitted $or thee in his name o$ Shu, the royal double! -e hath laboured $or thee in these things, and he beareth up $or thee heaven with his hands in his name o$ Shu, the body o$ the sky!# 6673

The "toiling# +tlas-like pillar bearing the heavens was the watery "emission# o$ the creator! In the phrase "Thou hast emitted Shu,#
the >gyptian word translated as "emitted# is ashesh# which means both "pouring out# and "supporting,# as noted by 0udge1 "It is di$$icult to reconcile these totally di$$erent meanings unless we remember that it is that which Tem, or <e-Tem has poured out which supports the heavens wherein shines the Sun-god! That which Tem, or <e-Tem has poured out is the light, and the light was declared to be the prop o$ the sky!# 667G Fet, while recogni*ing this connection o$ the heavens pillar with the "waters# and "light# poured out by the creator, 0udge has no concrete image with which to link the integrated concepts!

The cosmic river, "poured out# $rom the receptacle o$ the mother womb, was not only the world mountain but also the single leg
o$ the great god! Thus, in the >gyptian glyph we see the vase resting on the leg o$ heaven, as we should e pect! +nd the !ook of the .ead appropriately Cu taposes the leg with the river o$ light1 ". thou leg in the /orthern Sky, and in that most conspicuous but inaccessible Stream!#6675 descending stream was the legM

I$ one re$ers the imagery to the cosmic original

, one sees that the

The >gyptian river o$ the pillar, the celestial /ile, compares with the heavenly >uphrates invoked in 'esopotamian ritual! ,or the 0abylonians knew "the pure >uphrates# as the "great mountain# >nlil1 Dith water which the lord K>aL has guided $rom the great mountain K>nlilL, Dater which down the pure >uphrates he has guided, The product o$ the apsu# $or the purpose o$ lustration!6678 >nlil, the world mountain personi$ied, is thus "the man o$ the river o$ the netherworld, the man devouring river,#6677 and, as noted by Van 0uren, "the e pression Pto set $or the mountain’ signi$ied to depart this li$e by crossing the river o$ death!# 6674 Dhile some traditions describe a descending pillar-stream, others depict it as an upward-$lowing current! +nd o$ten it is both!
In a Sumerian myth, >nlil says to his wi$e1

"The Pwater’ o$ my king, let it go toward heaven, let it go toward earth ! ! !#667: The -indu Rig Veda has the waters passing "upwards and downwards#—like the stream o$ ether which +ristotle describes as a constantly moving "river# Coining heaven and earth and composed o$ "ascending and descending vapours!# 6642 +n ancient (hinese philosopher, Fang -iung, states that "the ether emanates and rises, and its splendorous essence $loats above, and rolls in a sinuous current which has been named the heaven-<iver or torrent, and the vaporous stream or pure <iver!# 6646 -aving noted that the >gyptians recorded the ethereal stream by the hieroglyph , symbol o$ the pillar-god Shu, we

thus $ind most relevant the ancient (hinese hieroglyph $or "ether# ! This concrete image sharply contrasts with the popular de$inition o$ the mythical ether as an i"aginary substance filling the entire heavens The ether was the
$iery, pillar-like river $lowing along the world a is!

The #den./ountain. That all the world’s waters originate in a central source is a belie$ $ound among all ancient peoples! The
e planation lies not in geography but in cos"ography—the map o$ the celestial earth Viewed as an upward-$lowing current the heavenly river becomes the $ountain, spring, or well whose waters are dispersed in $our streams $lowing to the $our corners o$ the

circular plain on the mountaintop


,rom the perspective o$ the cosmic dwelling, the $ount rises $rom below, or "the deep!# This very idea occurs in the
imagery o$ >den! In the %enesis account two statements concern the waters o$ the primitive paradise1

0ut there went up a mist $rom the earth, and watered the whole $ace o$ the ground! H%en! @18I +nd a river went out $rom >den to water the gardenB and $rom thence it was parted, and became into $our heads! H%en! @162I +ccording to the general consensus o$ authorities, the second re$erence ampli$ies the $irst, indicating that a central source "watered the whole $ace o$ the ground# through $our headstreams!664@ The word conventionally translated as "mist,# observes %aster, "is really a technical term Hborrowed ultimately $rom SumerianI meaning an upsurge o$ subterranean waters!# 6643 De can reasonably connect this channel o$ water $rom below with the "$ountain o$ li$e# which a =salm locates in the dwelling o$ %od1 "+nd thou shalt make them drink o$ the river o$ thy pleasures! ,or with thee is the $ountain o$ li$e1 in thy light shall we see light!# 664G %aster calls this the "paradisiacal $ountain!#6645 0ut whether the li$e-bearing waters appear as "upsurge,# "river,# or "$ountain,# one receives the impression o$ a central
source rising $rom below and $lowing outward in $our streams! %aster $inds a prototype o$ the upsurge in an .ld 0abylonian creation myth according to which, at $irst, "all land was sea, and in the midst o$ that sea was a spring which served as a pipe!# 6648 The same passage is noted by 0utterworth, who suggests that the pipe or "well# rose along the cosmic a is!6647 Dhen one

relates this evidence to the concrete 'esopotamian imagery o$ $our rivers radiating $rom the central sun the connection with the cosmic image becomes clear!

That the 0abylonian and -ebrew channels o$ water are dispersed in $our streams suggests a %ermanic parallel —the spring -vergelmer, the "navel o$ the waters,# $rom whence all rivers $low! 6644 The Edda declares that $our streams issue
$rom this central $ount watering +saheim, the home o$ the gods, while -indu te ts describe a $our$old headspring o$ all waters at "the (entre o$ -eaven!#664: The Iranian <ealm o$ the 0lest is watered by $our streams issuing $rom the central fountain +rdvi Sura, while the central fount o$ the (hinese ?wen-lun disperses its waters in $our streams, watering the garden at the summit!66:2

It does not take a great deal o$ imagination to see that the paradisal $ountain, sending $orth the elements o$ li$e in the primordial birthplace—or place o$ rebirth—is the legendary "$ountain o$ youth# or "$ountain o$ immortality!# =robably the earliest prototype o$ these $ountains is the >gyptian pillar-god Shu, bearing the waters and breath o$ li$e along the world a is! To breathe the /orth Dind o$ Shu or drink o$ the polar waters is to enCoy rebirth in the domain o$ beginnings, the land o$ immortality and perpetual youth! This breath or water Has the $our Dinds or ,our /iles o$ heavenI courses out $rom the central $ount and through the womb o$ /ut, the -oly 9and which every king sought to attain upon death!66:6

The King of the &ountain
The $ew mythologists who discuss the cosmic mount at all tell us that it is a metaphor $or the world a is1 the a is o$ the turning heavens is like a mountain reaching $rom earth to the celestial pole Hor pole starIB by imagining a great pillar
as the support and a le o$ the universe Hsay these mythologistsI, the ancients possessed a simple e planation $or the observed motions o$ the heavenly bodies!

To evaluate this interpretation o$ the mythical mountain one must ask how well it accounts $or all aspects o$ the tradition! In the myths the 'ount appears as a column o$ light, o$ten constituting the &niversal 'onarch ’s lower
limbs or single "leg!# &nited to the pillar, the god-king becomes the heaven-sustaining giant!

The myths also e press the 'ount as a cosmic serpent, whose body $orms the serpentine trunk o$ the great $ather! In many traditions the pillar appears as the vertical stream o$ li$e—the ether, wind, breath, or waters either coursing down the world a is or rising along the a is to be dispersed in $our streams animating the celestial kingdom! Saturn, the central sun, enthroned within the polar enclosure, ruled $rom the mountaintop! =erhaps we can best Cudge the metaphorical e planation o$ the cosmic hill by placing ourselves in the position o$ an ancient observer and assuming that he looked out upon the same heavens which we see today! .ur observer, noticing that the stars o$ the circumpolar region slowly swing around a central point, reali*es that a line $rom that polar pivot through the earth serves as an invisible a le around which the sun, the moon, and all the stars revolve! Starting $rom this perception, what conCectures must our observer add in order to evolve the mythical view outlined in the previous pagesE ,irst, he must decide, in contradiction o$ his observations, that the a is is not an

invisible column but a veritable pillar o$ $ire and light! -e must conclude also that a stationary sun rests Hor once restedI atop the shining pillar—again in contrast to actual observation! -e must identi$y this central sun not with the bla*ing solar orb but rather with the planet Saturn—though this remote and unimpressive planet today never approaches the polar region! ,urther, it must occur to our observer that Saturn, as king o$ the mountain, resides Hor once residedI within a great band, divided by $our primary streams! +nd $inally, in a series o$ baseless speculations, he must conclude that in primeval times Saturn ruled at the summit as the creator# the first king# and the first "an# presiding over a paradise o$ unlimited abundance!

(an one realistically propose that such a progression o$ thought could $ollow $rom a mere metaphor $or the world a isE To arrive at the complete mythical image o$ the cosmic mountain H , I our hypothetical observer must not only heap one conCecture upon another, but repudiate direct observation at each stage .$ what value
—religious, psychological, or otherwise—is a $iction which $latly contradicts the phenomena it is intended to e plainE

(ynics may say that primitives are capable o$ conCuring any $orce imaginable to e plain something they do not understand! 0ut the hypothetical case be$ore us does not reAuire the primitive simply to invent e planations $or things observedB it reAuires him to deny i""ediate e-perience and yet to compose a grandiose vision su$$iciently persuasive to
acAuire hypnotic power over the ancient world! .$ course the mass o$ available evidence argues against any such inventiveness on the part o$ early man!

Fet these di$$iculties vanish once we $ree ourselves $rom the doctrine o$ cosmic uni$ormity and consider whether our primitive observer may have actually witnessed the strange $orces which ancient records describe in such detail! The polar mountain is only one ingredient in an integrated cosmology which seems to have prevailed over the entire ancient world! 'ay not the mythical 'ount, the central sun, the polar enclosure and crossroads—$ocusing on the celestial image speak $or powers which were "really there#E

I7. T#$ C $("$nt
.ur investigation up to this point covers $ive primary images o$ the Saturnian con$iguration1 the enclosed sun , the sun-cross cross and pillar
terrestrial observers!

, the enclosed sun-cross

, the enclosed sun and pillar

, and the enclosed sun-

! I have contended that these symbols realistically depict Saturn ’s actual appearance to the

.$ course, one $aces a special di$$icult in attempting to prove that the sacred signs denoted a visible apparition! .ne can show that a coherent, global symbolism developed around the cosmic image B but how can one really prove that this con$iguration was more than the invention o$ an ancient cult—perhaps the e traordinary product o$ an advanced race whose abstract uni$ication o$ discordant cosmic powers gained world-wide distributionE There is a speci$ic category o$ evidence, I believe, which removes any possible appeal to abstractions! I re$er to the symbolism o$ the crescent ! In the detailed sources le$t us by the oldest civili*ations the symbolic crescent—which all men automatically identi$y with our moon—plays a vastly greater role than generally perceived! 0ut in none o$ the primary sources can one actually identi$y the crescent with the body we call
"moon# todayM

I$ there was any single turning point in my inAuiry it was the reali*ation that the crescent with which ancient ritual
deals is inseparable fro" the band of the enclosed sun crescent as the lower half of the band

! The key is the image

Hor the simpli$ied

I showing the

It was this connection—occurring in both >gypt and 'esopotamia—that convinced me o$ the band ’s reality and
led me to e plore more deeply its various mythical $ormulations!

The crescent in the sign

suggests that Saturn’s band received illumination $rom the solar orb in such a way as to present terrestrial observers with two semicircles o$ light and shadow! The concept o$ a hal$-illuminated band immediately places in a new perspective the universal image 1 is it possible that the $amous sun-in-crescent represented not a contrived "conCunction# o$ the solar orb and new moon Hthe
conventional e planationI, but rather the primeval sun Saturn resting over the illuminated portion o$ his polar enclosureE (ertainly the overlapping images


imply that the enclosed sun and sun-in-crescent pertain to a single astral

con$iguration! Dhen .’/eill claimed that the sign symboli*ed the celestial pole, he took the sign as a kind o$ metaphor—an ancient means o$ representing the revolution o$ the circumpolar stars around a $i ed centre! .thers have identi$ied the band as the illusory atmospheric halo which occasionally surrounds the solar orb, while still others e plain the band as an abstract "circle o$ the sky!# 0ut the connection o$ the band with a crescent would suggest a more
tangible character!

+s a test o$ this possibility several Auestions reAuire e amination1 - Is Saturn, the primeval sun, associated with a crescentE - Is there a consistent connection o$ the crescent and the band o$ the enclosed sun E - Is the crescent eAuated with the circle o$ the mother goddessE - Does the -oly 9and or celestial earth rest within the embrace o$ the crescentE - Does a crescent occupy the summit o$ the cosmic mountainE

The !res'ent and Saturn

It is well known that in classical mythology Saturn Hor ?ronosI wields a curved harpe or sickle by which he establishes his primeval rule, and most authorities would concur with ?erenyi in identi$ying the sickle as the "image o$ the new moon#66:@ 0ut why should Saturn possess the "new moon# as his weaponE The connection appears to be very old, $or it occurs also in ancient 0abylonia! /inurta, the planet Saturn, hold in his hands a weapon called S+<-&<-&-S+<-%+Q, and also 0+0-0+-/&-I9-9+! The $irst name o$ /inurta’s weapon means "who governs the (osmos and who massacres the (osmos,# while the second name means "hurricane
which spares nothing!#

The astonishing $act is this1 these names o$ Saturn’s weapon are the very epithets o$ the 0abylonian Sin, the crescent "'oon!#66:3 That is, the crescent o$ Sin is the "weapon# Hsickle, swordI with which Saturn $ounded and destroyed the primeval

0ut there is another peculiarity also1 though always identi$ied by scholars as the lunar sphere, Sin is never presented as a "hal$-moon,# "three Auarters moon# or "$ull moon!# -e is simply 5dsar "the crescent!# +nd however incongruous
the relationship might appear today, 0abylonian art continually presents Sin as the lower half of the enclosed sun-cross

0:. 8a io!( M$(o2ota)ian v$ (ion( o' t#$ (!nBinB" $("$nt. Did this relationship o$ the Sin-crescent to Saturn and his enclosure originate in a hapha*ard combination o$ once independent symbols—or in a $undamental eAuationE The connection between Sin and +nu Hthe planet SaturnI amounts to an "identity,# according to Jensen!66:G <awlinson says the same thing1 the 0abylonians regarded Sin—the crescent—as an aspect o$ the planet Saturn!66:5 Jeremias states the eAuation uneAuivocally1 Sin N Saturn!66:8 Dhen one considers the relationship o$ the Sin-crescent to the sign , the nature o$ the identity becomes clear! The Sin-crescent is part o$ the circular dwelling or "body# o$ Saturn! Thus the te ts invoke Sin as the protective ra"part of the +os"os—a "high de$ensive wall,#66:7 or a1 %olden sanctuary, which in the land is magni$icentM 9uminous sanctuary which in the land is elevatedM66:4 +s Saturn’s emanation, Sin is synonymous with the great god’s circle o$ "glory# HhaloIB and this $act gives stunning signi$icance to
what must otherwise be regarded as a purely esoteric statement o$ +ssyro-0abylonian astronomical te ts1 "Saturn stands in the halo o$ Sin,# the te ts proclaim Hnot once but several timesI!66:: (rescent and enclosure are one!

Do not these evidences strongly suggest that the ancients perceived a literal band around Saturn and that this Saturnian dwelling or "halo# displayed a crescentE +nother piece o$ evidence is noteworthy! The 0abylonians represented the circle o$ Saturn ’s (osmos Hthe circle o$ ! I$ my contention is correct, the crescent o$ Sin was simply the brightly illuminated hal$ o$ this circle HassemblyI! So it is o$ no small signi$icance that 0abylonian symbolism also represented the
the godsI by the sign

assembly by the sign the image!

! /eedless to say, the heavens $amiliar to us today o$$er no conceivable source o$

0<. S!nBinB" $("$nt+ on t#$ U BNa))! (t$l$ ' o) U .

1>. Ha;aiian " o(( d$(i-n (#o;in- alt$ nat$ 2o(ition( o' t#$ " $("$nt a o!nd t#$ "$nt al (!n

1*. A)$ i"an Indian )o!nd(+ "onv$,in- t#$ i)a-$ o' t#$ $volvin- " $("$nt. Such identities point emphatically to an underlying relation o$ the ancient signs and ! Dhile the $ormer depicts the entire Saturnian enclosure, the latter portrays only the brightly illuminated portion o$ the band—so that one might appropriately speak o$ Saturn’s "crescent-enclosure# and schematically render the idea this way 1 ! It should be stressed, however, that the common location o$ the crescent beneath the central sun is not its only placement in ancient symbolism! +t times the crescent appears to stand on end H or I, while at other times it is inverted above the sun ! .$ course, this is e actly what we should e pect—$or i$ the crescent was the illuminated portion o$ a circumpolar band then that crescent must have appeared to revolve around the band with every $ull rotation o$ our planet upon its a is! .ne could thus render the daily rotation o$ the crescent schematically1 !

+s we shall see, there is a distinctive relationship o$ this revolving crescent to the phases o$ the archaic "day# and
" night#—as well as to many other aspects o$ ancient cosmography! 0ut let us take the present line o$ inAuiry a little $urther! Does the eAuation o$ the crescent and enclosure occur also in >gyptE The >gyptians Has previously observedI called the enclosure %ten#

! HIn the course o$ time this symbol evolved into the simpli$ied $orm enclosed sun dropped outI It is the latter $orm that generally prevails in later >gyptian art!I
recorded by the hieroglyph

, with the

In numerous representations o$ the %ten a crescent for"s the lower half of the enclosure In $ig 5@, I o$$er an imposing
e ample $rom the tomb o$ <amesses VI, showing the +ten resting within a crescent and $lanked by $our male $igures, two right and two le$t!

1.. T#$ E-,2tian " $("$ntB$n"lo(! $. The hieroglyphic $orm o$ the crescent-enclosure is , a $orm which progressively developed into the images , , , , as the artists gradually e panded and $lattened the crescent into a larger receptacle supporting the enclosure! This image o$ the %ten and crescent seems to have generated great con$usion among >gyptologists! .ne o$ the gods associated
with the crescent-enclosure is ?hensu, whom all authorities identi$y as the moon! 0ut the god’s image remains enigmatic, $or 0udge writes1 "-e wears on his head the lunar disk in a crescent, or the solar disk with a uraeus, or the solar disk with the plumes and 6@22 uraeus!# Did the >gyptians have di$$iculty deciding whether the god was the sun or the moonE

1/. T# $$ ill!(t ation( o' t#$ E-,2tian -od K#$n(!+ (#o;in- t#$ 2 o- $((iv$ $nla -$)$nt o' t#$ At$n9(
" $("$nt b, E-,2tian a ti(t(.

Dhen 0udge calls the sign

a "lunar disk in a crescent,# he avoids any association o$ the sign with the sun! 0ut on the $ollowing page he writes o$ ?hensu1 ".n his head rest the lunar crescent and disk! In this $orm he represents both the sun at sunrise and the new "oon #6@26 >ither the >gyptians possessed a remarkable indi$$erence concerning the astral character o$ their gods, or scholars have misunderstood the symbolism! 0y putting aside all a priori verdicts one discerns a root consistency in the >gyptian image o$ the crescent-enclosure! In >gyptian ritual, the crescent is not the moon but a semi-circle "embracing# the central sun ! Very early the >gyptians personi$ied

the crescent-enclosure as the divinity +h, +h, +ah, or +ahu, denoted by the glyph or , and always translated "moon!# The word ah# however, also means "to embrace#—a concept devoid o$ meaning in connection with our moon,
but charged with meaning when re$erred to the band Hor the illuminated portion o$ the bandI enclosing the central sun! +h $urther

signi$ies the de$ensive rampart protecting the sun-god1 and the same crescent-enclosure is worn by the great god as his
signi$ies "to de$end against# and "collar!# That is, like the 0abylonian "moon#-god Sin, the >gyptian ah "collar!# +gain, such interrelationships can only appear absurd when considered as aspects o$ our moon!

10. A#+ -od o' t#$ " $("$ntB$n"lo(! $. The only 2"oon3 invoked in early Egyptian ritual is that which houses the central sun (hapter 9SV o$ the !ook of
the .ead# bearing the title "The (hapter o$ +o"ing )orth by .ay and o$ %aining the 'astery over >nemies,# begins, "-ail HthouI who shinest $rom the 'oon K+hL and who sendest $orth light there$rom!# 6@2@ "In several chapters the sun is spoken o$ as shining in or $rom the moon,# notes <enou$!6@23

.ne version o$ the +offin Te-ts reads1 "%oing $orth into the day and living a$ter death! . you Sole .ne who rises Kcomes $orthL in the moon, . you Sole .ne who shines in the moon!# 6@2G The "moon# is the dwelling o$ the solitary god, and the nature o$ this dwelling is accurately communicated to us in the ancient signs and ! <ecalling that the 0abylonians related the crescent o$ Sin to the circle o$ the gods , one wonders whether a similar relationship occurs in >gypt! The >gyptian assembly is the paut—a term which re$ers at once to the company
o$ gods, the limbs o$ .siris or <e, and the grain or bread o$ heaven! Though the %ten sign

may serve as the determinative

o$ paut, the most common hieroglyph $or paut is

, the inverted crescent-enclosureM

.ne thus $inds a striking correspondence between the >gyptian and 'esopotamian symbolism o$ the crescent— a symbolism which takes on coherence only when one sees the crescent as the illuminated hal$ o$ the polar enclosure ! 0y no e tent o$ rationali*ation can one accommodate the imagery to the sun and moon $amiliar to us today! Indeed the di$$iculty is recogni*ed by 0utterworth in his e amination o$ the sun-in-crescent ! 6@25 The crescent "is not the natural luminary o$ heaven,# writes 0utterworth, "$or it has its hollow side turned towards the Psun!’#
The point is worth emphasi*ing! The crescent o$ our moon always faces the solar orb, but in the early symbolism o$ the sun and crescent such a relationship rarely i$ ever occurs!/o matter what the position o$ the crescent around the sun H , , , or I, the sun stands within the "embrace# o$ the crescent, giving rise to what 0ri$$ault deems an "astronomically incongruous# image!6@28 0ut the image appears discordant only i$ we Cudge it against the present heavens! The primeval sun, states 0utterworth, is "contained in the hollow o$ the recumbent crescent moon! This is the sun that is always in the zenith #6@27 Hi!e!, it is not the body we call "sun# todayI!

11. Hind! (,llabl$ OM+ t#$ " $ativ$ ;o d

15. P#o$ni"ian (!nBinB" $("$nt

The !res'ent and Wom*
I$ the crescent revered in antiAuity denoted the illuminated hal$ o$ Saturn ’s enclosure, then it must be synonymous with
the cosmic womb—the mother goddess!

That numerous goddesses, in later times, came to be associated with our moon is a $act so thoroughly documented that
we need not belabor the evidence here! Fet the reasons $or this association are by no means clear! ",rom the beginning,# states %! >! Smith, reviewing the early counterparts o$ the >gyptian -athor, "all goddesses—and especially this most primitive stratum o$ $ertility deities—were $or obvious reasons intimately associated with the moon!#6@24

+nd what are the "obvious# reasons $or the connection o$ the goddess with the moonE It is, Smith claims, "the cyclical periodicity
o$ the moon which suggested the analogy with the similar physiological periodicity o$ women ! ! !# +lso, "The in$luence o$ the moon upon dew and the tides, perhaps, suggested its controlling power over water and emphasi*ed the li$e-giving $unction which its association with women had already suggested!#6@2: These reasons are neither obvious nor adeAuate!

Dhat reAuires e planation is the crescent-goddesses’ elementary character as a receptacle housing the central sun That the
>gyptian goddess -athor was represented by a crescent or "lunette# does not alter the $act that her very name means "the dwelling o$ -orus!# Similarly, Isis, also represented by a crescent, was the temple chamber or throne enclosing .siris! The 0abylonian Ishtar, whose symbol was the crescent, was the "womb# housing the man-child Tammu*! This very aspect o$ the crescent is e plicit in the title o$ the "moon#-divinity Sin, who is called the "mother womb, begetter o$ all things!# 6@62

It can hardly be doubted that the Saturnian crescent eventually became con$used with our moon! The con$usion is most noticeable in the case o$ the %reek Selene and 9atin 9una, whose names were assigned to the lunar sphere! 0ut neither the names nor the imagery o$ Selene and 9una originated in connection with our moon! Dithin the
sphere o$ 9una "Sol is hidden like a $ire!# -elios dwells as the impregnating seed within the womb o$ Selene! 6@66 "+ccording to these ancient ideas,# writes Jung, "the moon is a vessel o$ the sun1 she is a universal receptacle o$ the sun in particular!# 6@6@ ,or an

e planation o$ this imagery one must look to the $ormer celestial order! 9ong be$ore the %reeks named the solar orb -elios, they knew -elios as the planet Saturn—Cust as Sol primitively signi$ied the same planet! Selene and 9una derive their mythical character $rom Saturn’s enclosure, and the signs and o$$er a literal portrait o$ the ancient mother goddess!

!res'ent and &otherland
There is a $urther implication1 the "moon# must mean the same thing as the created "earth# watered by the $our rivers o$ li$e!
Though it is di$$icult to imagine a less likely identity in conventional terms, here is ,aber’s conclusion concerning the moon and earth in global mythology1 "The $emale divinity, however apparently multiplied according the genius o$ polytheism, ultimately resolve themselves into one, who is accounted the great universal mother both o$ gods and men, and this single deity is pronounced to be alike the Moon in the fir"a"ent and the all-productive Earth #6@63

,aber gives $ar too many e amples than can be cited here! In each case the goddess "was astronomically the 'oon,# but "her mystic circle is declared to be the circle o$ the Dorld!# 6@6G The goddess Isis, reports ,aber, "was declared to be eAually
the moon and the earth1 and she is at the same time unanimously determined by the ancient theologists to be one with (eres,

=roserpine, 'inerva, Venus, Diane, Juno, <hea, (ybele, Jana, +tergatis ! ! ! Hetc!I! These again are said to be mutually the same with each other1 and i$ we descend to particulars, we still $ind them indi$$erently identi$ied with the >arth and the 'oon!# 6@65

Dhat might our earth Has perceived by the ancients, not by modern astronomyI have in common with the lunar sphere to promote this seemingly irrational identityE The Auestion is raised by 0ri$$ault1 "There is not, in $act, an
earth-goddess who is not at the same time a moon-goddess! +ll >arth 'others, as 0acho$en remarked Plead a double li$e, as >arth and as 'oon!’#6@68 The identity prevails not only in the advanced civili*ations but among primitive races also! The 'aori identi$y the "moon# H-ine, or "the Doman#I with the earth! So do (aribbean natives—and this identity corresponds with the overlapping personalities o$ the "moon# and "earth# among the 'e icans, (haldaeans, (hinese, -indu, %reeks, and northern >uropean races!

0ri$$ault con$esses the irrationality o$ the eAuation1 "The %reeks e pressly called the moon Pa heavenly earth’ and Pa part o$
the earth!’ That persistent identi$ication o$ the moon with the earth would be unintelligible in peoples ignorant o$ modern astronomical conceptions, let alone in uncultured races such as the (aribs and the =olynesians! Dhen the earth is conceived as a huge, solid, immovable sur$ace contrasting in every respect with the wandering sphere or disc o$ the moon in the heavens, there appears to be no i"aginable ground for assi"ilating the one to the other The identification cannot arise fro" any analogy in appearance or function #6@67

0ri$$ault proposes to resolve the dilemma by positing an intimate connection o$ "the moon and earth with women and
their $unctions!# -e suggests that the divini*ed $emale came $irst and her attributes were, through analogy, trans$erred at once to the moon and the earth!6@64 0ut that such indirect reasoning on the part o$ ancient man should lead to an identi$ication

so universal and so $undamental is not easy to believe! +ctually, no rationali*ation o$ this identity is necessary! In the archaic world order, the crescent and earth Hland, provinceI were identical! The circle o$ the "moon# Hcrescent-enclosureI was the island o$ beginnings— Saturn0s Earth The mythical
"moon,# as ,aber observes, was "what some call Pa terrestrial heaven’ or Pparadise,’ and others a Pheavenly earth’ ! ! ! it is described as wearing the semblance o$ a floating island ! ! !#6@6: This "island o$ the 'oon# contained "within its sphere the >lysian $ields or =aradise,# which came to be known as "the paradise o$ the moon!#

There e ists, in $act, a most appropriate 'esopotamian symbol o$ this paradise, though it has yet to receive the serious attention o$ the e perts! It is the sign , repeated again and again on 'esopotamian cylinder seals! The sign depicts the Auartered earth, the celestial "land o$ the $our rivers!# That this paradisal earth lies within the embrace
o$ a vast crescent may appear $oolish to modern critics, but is strictly consistent with numerous independent traditions eAuating the primeval "earth# and "moon!#6@@2

The !res'ent and &ount
In all ancient myths o$ the lost paradise, the land o$ peace and plenty rests upon a cosmic pillar —"earth’s highest
mountain!# .ne o$ the peculiarities o$ the 'ount is that it possesses two peaks, rising to the right and le$t o$ the central column!

The >gyptian 'ount o$ %lory H*hutI reveals two peaks between which rests the %ten or enclosed sun ! Depicted by this sign are "the two great mountains on which <e appears!# 6@@6 +nd what is most interesting about the >gyptian symbol o$ the cle$t peak is that it $inds strikingly similar parallels in other lands! The 'esopotamian sungod rests upon a twin-peaked world mountain o$ identical $orm H$ig! 82I, and the same dual mount occurs also in 'e ico—here too revealing the sun-god between the two peaks H$ig! 86I!

5>. A((, oBBab,lonian S#a)a(# (tandin- b$t;$$n t#$ t;o 2$aF(

5*. 3a4 M$Ai"an t;in 2$aF(+ ;it# "$nt al (ta''C 3b4 C$nt al (!n b$t;$$n t;o 2$aF( The Delaware Indians recall a primeval land —"the Talega country,# where long ago "all kept peace with each other!# The
pictograph o$ the lost land is

an e traordinary counterpart to the >gyptian 'ount o$ %lory


In -ebrew and 'uslim thought "the mountain o$ paradise is a double one,# observes Densinck! 6@@@ To the -ebrews Sinai, -oreb, >bol, and %ere*im were all conceived as images o$ a twin-peaked mountain, states Jeremias! 6@@3 In the primeval Tyre HparadiseI, according to the description o$ /onnus, a "double rock# rises $rom the ocean! In its centre is an olive Hthe central sunI which automatically emits $ire, setting it in a perpetual bla*e! 6@@G The Syrian and -ittite great gods stand eAually balanced upon two mountains! 6@@5 In the beginning, according to a central +siatic legend related by &no -olmberg, "there was only water, $rom which the two great mountains emerged!# 6@@8 ,rom the central mount o$ -indu cosmology rise two secondary peaks to the right and le$t! 6@@7 .$ course, the twin pillars o$ -ercules point to the same idea! The ancient concept o$ a cle$t summit le$t a deep imprint in ancient architecture, according to Vincent Scully, author o$ the book The Earth# the Te"ple and the $ods In (rete, "a clearly de$ined pattern o$ landscape use can be recogni*ed at
every palace site,# Scully writes! "'ore than this, each palace makes use, as $ar as possible, o$ the same landscape elements! These are as $ollows1 $irst, an enclosed valley o$ varying si*e in which the palace is setB I should like to call this the P/atural 'egaron’B second, a gently mounded or conical hill in a is with the palace to north or south, and lastly a higher, double-peaked or cleft "ountain some distance beyond the hill but on the same a is! The mountain may have other characteristics o$ great sculptural $orce ! ! ! but the double peaks or notched cleft see" essential to it ! ! ! It $orms in all cases a climactic shape which has the Auality o$ causing the observer’s eye to come to rest in its cup ! ! ! +ll the landscape elements listed above are present at ?nossos, =haistos, 'allia, and %ournia, and in each case they themselves—and this point must be stressed—are the basic architecture o$ the palace comple ! 6@@4

The same pattern occurs repeatedly throughout %reece and +sia 'inor, according to Scully! + good e ample is the siting o$ the citadel o$ Troy, which looks out across the isle o$ Imbross to the more distant isle o$ Samothrace $rom which rises Hdirectly "beyond the long low mound o$ Imbross#I the "double peaks# o$ =hengari!6@@: In what ritual notion did this common architectural reAuirement originateE The name o$ Samothrace ’s sacred
mountain o$$ers a vital clue1 Phengari is the "'ountain o$ the 'oon!# The title is not incidental, $or the "'ountain o$ the 'oon#—in more than one land—is the very title o$ the =rimeval -ill, the pillar o$ the (osmosM Thus, the "Dhite Island# o$ -indu myth is distinguished by the presence o$ a primordial mountain rising to the "moon!# 'ount +rarat, which ,aber connects with the paradisal hill, is denominated :aban# "the mountain o$ the 'oon!# So too does the crescent moon rest on the summit o$ the -indu 'eru! ,aber writes1 "+t the head o$ the /ile, according to the Indian geographers, is the 'eru o$ the southern hemisphere1 this is also a mountain o$ the 'oon ! ! ! +t the source o$ the <hine, the <hone, the =o and the Danube, all o$ which were holy rivers, is what may be styled Pthe 'eru o$ the west’1 here again we have a mountain o$ the 'oon, $or +lpan is but a variation o$ :aban# and Jura or Ira or <he denotes Pthe 'oon’ eAually in the (eltic and the 0abylonian dialects! 9ebanon, at the head o$ the sacred river Jordan, was another lunar mountain ! ! ! +nd even in the island o$ 0orneo, the peak at the head o$ its largest river is known by the title o$ Pthe mountain o$ the 'oon!’"6@32

+n early prototype o$ such mountains, ,aber contends, is the vast summit o$ the -imalaya, $rom which the %anges $lows! The -indus deemed this towering mass +handrasichara# the "mountain o$ the 'oon,# while two small
hillocks o$ this lo$ty region receive the title So"agiri# the "'ountains o$ the 'oon!#6@36

+t work is the cosmic image o$ a crescent moon resting upon a great mountain and thereby $orming a cleft
summit! " ! ! ! The $igure presented to their imagination, would be a conical peak terminating in two points $ormed by the two horns o$ the crescent!#6@3@ (onsistent with the universal sun-in-crescent , the great $ather himsel$ stands midway

between the peaks o$ the right and le$t, states ,aber!6@33 .ne thus derives the images and as the simplest renderings o$ the "'ountain o$ the (rescent!# >very student o$ ancient symbolism, o$ course, will recogni*e these as images o$ global distribution, presented in an in$inite number o$ variations!

5.. Bab,lonian 2illa $d " $("$nt(

5/. Saba$an alta + ;it# 2illa $d (!nBinB" $("$nt.

50. Hittit$ " $("$ntB$n"lo(! $ on (!22o t

51. Pilla $d " $("$nt+ ' o) P$ !

Surely one cannot ignore this general symbolism o$ the cosmic mountain in attempting to understand the common mountain image ! This pictograph, I suggest, simply adapts the pri"al crescent to its "ythical
interpretation as two peaks Dhich is to say, the >gyptian

crescent enclosure below the central sun

Hor the later I re$ers to the same cosmic $orm as the ! In $act, 0udge says as much when he calls the latter sign an image o$ "the sun at sunrise#— ! HI shall subseAuently show that by picturing the crescent as opposed to the alternative positions H , , the ancients denoted the archaic signi$ied the cle$t summit o$ a single mountain is $orce$ully

$or this is precisely the purported meaning o$ the sign "day,# the period o$ Saturn’s greatest brilliance!I

That the two peaks o$ the >gyptian *hut

indicated by the "mountain-sceptre# o$ <e, showing the dual mount as the top o$ a single column ! +s observed by many authorities, the sceptre represented the pillar o$ heaven! This particular $orm closely parallels the early
"mountain# hieroglyph , which passed into the image , identi$ying the cle$t peak with the solitary god’s original "perch# or "pedestal!#6@3G The "pedestal,# as we have seen, was also called the pillar o$ Shu, which the hieroglyphs record by the sign

! -ere too a single column branches into two secondary supports! HIn $ollowing sections the reader and with the underlying cosmic $orm I!

will $ind numerous evidences connecting the images

The >gyptian hieroglyphs also employ the mountain sign
representations this con$iguration, too, appears as the summit o$ a central pillar

, appearing to show three peaksB and in early

! There can be little doubt that the threepeaked mount pertains to the same idea as the two$old summit! The middle peak appears to indicate a simple e tension o$ the central column! The great god, who stands between the peaks o$ the right and le$t, becomes himsel$ a part o$ the mount on which he rests!

This development $inds illustration in the -indu symbolism o$ 'ount 'eru, the mountain o$ the crescent moon! 'eru, despite its crescent peak, is the tricutadri# or mountain o$ three summits! Similarly, the -indu "Dhite Island# or
lost paradise is deemed "the three-peaked land!#6@35

(ompare .lympus in the %reek poem1 ,rom .lympus, the summit ,rom the three peaks o$ -eaven!6@38 The basis o$ this symbolism, according to ,aber, is the great god, "standing upright# in the midst o$ the cle$t so as to
present the image o$ a central mountain "terminating in three points $ormed by the two horns o$ the crescent and its centrical mast Kthe great godL!#6@37

+ccordingly, the primal -indu image

passes into the later

, which $orms the crest o$ the -indu trident ! To this

—the symbol o$ the cosmic column! The trident, in other words, originated in the cle$t "'ountain o$ the 'oon# image answers the >gyptian three-peaked column !

.$ the three-peaked mount much more could be said, but at the cost o$ distracting $rom the more basic theme— the two-$old summit! It is my contention that the myths o$ the split peak originated in the prehistoric perception o$ a vast crescent seeming to constitute the summit o$ a cosmic column rested the sun ! Dithin the cup o$ the crescent ! +nd i$ we

! 'oreover the crescent was itsel$ simply the illuminated hal$ o$ a circular band

include the $our rivers o$ li$e we arrive at the $orm as the complete image o$ the Saturnian con$iguration! -ave the ancients preserved $or us a literal rendering o$ this ideaE .ne could not ask $or a more accurate representation than that provided by the cylinder seals o$ ancient
6@34 'esopotamia, which o$$ers us the symbol ! The circular paradise on the mountaintop, watered by the $our rivers, lay within the primeval "moon# Ho$ which our lunar crescent is but a pale emblemI!

Surely the remarkable correspondence o$ myth and symbol concerning this celestial con$iguration Ha con$iguration which $latly contradicts the present arrangement o$ the heavensI suggests that something more than primitive $ancy is at work! I$ the thesis outlined here is correct, then a single celestial apparition gave rise to these interrelated images1 , , , , , , , , , , , , !

The crescent is a central ingredient in the symbolism, and its presence implies a tangible band so illuminated as to display two halves, one bright, the other more subdued!

T#$ H$av$nl, T;in(
Saturn0s enclosure united two se"icircles of light and shadow# distinguished by a revolving crescent ,n the
bright and dark divisions of the enclosure the ancients perceived the cos"ic twins# the "two faces# of the 5niversal Monarch

In the human domain, one o$ every eighty-si births involves twins! 0ut among the gods, the abnormal is the rule! The great $ather is either born o$ or raised by twins, while also giving birth to twins! +nd the great god himsel$ commonly appears in dual $orm! =revailing astronomical e planations o$ the celestial twins identi$y them as a circle o$ day and night, or as the evening and morning star, or as the sun and moon! The constellation %emini became the *odiacal representative o$ the celestial twins, though it is almost universally agreed that the mythical pair e isted long be$ore the naming o$ such star groups!

Who Were the %ios'uri$

=rivileged as the starting point o$ countless treatises on the twins are the %reek Dioscuri Hthe two sons o$ QeusI, (astor and =olydeuces! In a battle with their cousins Idas and 9ynceus Hsons o$ +phareusI (astor $ell mortally wounded! Dhile his brother gasped $or breath, =olydeuces beseeched Qeus1 "0id me also die, . ?ing, with this my

Qeus answered the prayer by granting that the two brothers spend alternate days above and below the earth !
=indar records Qeus’s promise1 " ! ! ! I$ thou contendest $or thy brother, and art minded to have an eAual share with him in all things, then mayest thou breathe $or hal$ thy time beneath the earth, and $or hal$ thy time in the golden homes o$ heaven!# 6@3:

(ook’s e planation o$ the reward is simple enough1 the brothers represented the day and night sky, revolving round our earth! Their
alternating position provides "a simple but graphic e pression o$ the obvious $act that the divine sky is hal$ dark, hal$ bright!# 6@G2 Supporting this interpretation is the remark o$ =hilon the Jew concerning the habit o$ mythologists1 "They bisected the sky theoretically into hemispheres, one above, the other below, the earth, and called them Dioskoroi, adding a marvelous tale about their li$e on alternate days!# 6@G6

Several centuries a$ter =hilon, Joannes the 9ydian Hliving in the si th century +!D!I repeated the theory1 "The
philosophers declare that the Dioskoroi are the hemisphere below, and the hemisphere above, the earthB they take it in turns to die, according to the myth, because turn and turn about they pass beneath our $eet!# 6@G@ .bserving that semicircles were sacred to the Dioscuri, (ook concludes that the two brothers personi$y two halves o$ a celestial circle —"the animate Sky!#6@G3 This, o$ course, would not preclude the ancients $rom employing the sun and moon or the morning and evening star as symbols o$ the light and dark hemispheres1 "These are but secondary modes o$ denoting the great primary contrast between Day and /ight,# states (ook!6@GG

.$ the celestial twins one could pursue e ample upon e ample in classical myth alone1 +pollo and +rtemis, Qetes and (alais, Qerhus and +mphion, -ercules and Iphicles, .tus and >phialtes, =elias and /eleus, to name a $ew! +nd these $igures o$ the celestial twins are simply a small segment o$ the vastly larger Indo->uropean pattern reviewed by Dalker!6@G5

55. T#$ Latin t;in -od =an!(+ ;#o($ (in-l$ #at )$an( %Co()o(.& +lso, one must place alongside the twins the comparable two-headed or two-faced god! -ere we meet Janus, whom the Italians knew as the "most ancient o$ gods,# and whom they regularly depicted with two $aces, looking in opposite directions H $ig! 88I! Janus, according to (ook, personi$ied the vault o$ heaven, his two $aces signi$ying the two aspects o$ the sky Hday and nightI1
Janus "was originally the divine Sky! The divine Sky is bright by day and dark by night! 0eing, there$ore, o$ a two-$old or twin character, Janus was naturally represented as a double-$aced god!#6@G8

Janus, as the twin-god par e-cellence gives us the title Banifor"# applied to any two-headed or two-$aced deity Ho$ which the ancient world provides innumerable instancesI! I give as an e ample a specimen $rom >truria H $ig! 88I, depicting a Jani$orm head
wearing a petasos or broad-brimmed hat Ho$ten associated with -ermesI! This compares with the "broad-brimmed hat# worn by .din, +ttis, and others! +ccording to >isler, whose opinion is shared by (ook, the hat symboli*ed, simply, "the sky# so that the two $aces together correspond to the entire circle o$ the hat Hheaven, skyI! 6@G7

The (la'5 and White T0ins
Though not all twins are black and white, many are, and it is this very dichotomy which (ook notices in several %reek e amples! In certain instances one twin appears on a white horse and the other on a black!6@G4 This aspect o$ the twins appears to be universal! In his character as a twin-god the 'e ican Ouet*alcoatl unites with 'ictlantecuhtli, the two divinities appearing back to back, one black, the other white! 6@G: The Quni represented their twin war gods by black and white masks! The black and white +svins o$ -indu myth are an obvious parallel! -indu philosophers, states +grawala, divided the cosmic wheel into two halves, one black and one white, which they personi$ied as twin sisters $orming "a circle HchakraI revolving in eternal time!#6@52 In 'elanesia, states >liade, "one constantly comes across the myth o$ the two brothers, one bright, the other dull!#6@56

.$ten the twins struggle with each other Hsometimes one is "good# and the other "evil#I, a $eature which complements the
black-white and rising-setting aspect o$ the Dioscuri! (hinese myth describes two brothers named .peh and Schichin at constant war!6@5@ The &garitic twins 'ot and +liyan Auarrel, as do the (eltic %wyn and %wythur! 6@53 <emus dies at the

hand o$ <omulus! +crisius and =roetus Auarrel while in the womb o$ their mother! Jacob and >sau do the same! The /orth +merican Indian mother goddess +wehai conceived twins who battled while yet in the womb! There can be little doubt that the (hinese yin and yang Hprimordial $orces o$ light and darknessI or the 'anichaean primal pair o$ good and evil bore a close relationship to this general tradition o$ the cosmic twins! The black and white aspect o$ the twins appears to be consistent with (ook ’s theory o$ a revolving heavenly sphere
divided into contending hemispheres o$ light and darkness! 0ut there are other $eatures o$ the twins which $it less com$ortably into (ook’s model! Dhy were the twins so o$ten conceived as two pri"eval rulers Hor two aspects o$ the &niversal 'onarch, the $ounder o$ civili*ationIE

The Dioscuri bore a distinct relationship to the twins <omulus and <emus, the legendary founders o$ <ome! There
seems to have been a general tradition o$ dual kingship, $or Cust as the Dioscuri, in early Doric days, $ound personi$ication in two kings o$ Sparta, the 9atin <omulus and <emus appear as royal twins, reigning with eAual rights! <epresentations o$ <omulus and <emus o$ten assimilate the pair to the Dioscuri!6@5G

The Auestion is whether something as abstract as a boundless "sky# could have provoked the idea o$ a primeval pair
ruling in e$$ect as a single king! The twins, as in the case o$ Janus, attach themselves to the &niversal 'onarch as his two $aces, looking in opposite directions! (ook, o$ course, recogni*es this, but he conceives Janus, the primeval god-king, not in concrete terms, but as an open e panse—the "sky!#

Das this the true identity o$ JanusE .ne notes with considerable interest the statement o$ Joannes the 9ydian1
".ur own =hiladelphia still preserves a trace o$ the ancient belie$! .n the $irst day o$ the month Hsc! JanuaryI there goes in procession no less a personage than Janus himsel$, dressed up in a two-$aced mask, and the people call hi" Saturnus# identifying hi" with *ronos #6@55

To (ook this identity o$ Janus and Saturn must result $rom an ancient con$usion, but to us it accurately re$lects the archaic doctrine! Janus, as the "most ancient indigenous god o$ Italy# H-erodian’s phraseI, 6@58 is the great $ather, whom the star-worshippers o$ many lands recogni*ed as the planet Saturn! +lso crucial is the relationship o$ the celestial pair to the cos"ic pillar 'any ancient representations o$ the twins or twingod place the two heads atop the sacred pole! +s $or the Jani$orm type in %reece, (ook cites instances in which "the double $ace is set on a pillar or post!#6@57 .ne $inds similar portrayals o$ the two-$aced god in (hina, northern >urope, Siberia, India,

the +mericas, and elsewhere! To one who conceives the post as nothing more than a venerated piece o$ wood, the connection between it and the two-$aced god will mean nothing! 0ut to one who sees the sacred post as the emblem o$ the =rimeval -ill, the placement is charged with meaning1 the cosmic twins occupied the summit o$ the central mountain! .$ the male deities worshipped by the /avaho, states +le ander, the most important are the twins /ayane*gani and Thobad*istshini, who bring to an end the primeval +ge o$ %iants! "Their home is on a mountain in the centre o$ the
/avaho country!# "The legend o$ the heaven-growing rock, li$ting twins to the skies, occurs more than once in (ali$ornia!# 6@54

-ere are two aspects o$ the celestial twins which do not readily $it (ook ’s e planation o$ the pair! The twins are two
$aces or two aspects o$ Saturn, the &niversal 'onarchB and they sit upon the cosmic mountain! +re these accidental attributes o$ the twins or do they pertain to an integrated imageE

It is surprising that (ook, while giving meticulous attention to classical testimony, gives no attention to the more ancient prototype o$ the Dioscuri and the Jani$orm god! The most complete evidence comes $rom ancient >gypt, whose ritual and art provide an incisive portrait o$ the twins!

56. T#$ t;in -od Ho !(BS$t. .$ the black and white brothers the world knows no older e ample than the >gyptian pair -orus and Set! In $ig! 87 the heads o$ -orus and Set appear upon one body, looking to the right and le$t! The black head o$ Set contrasts sharply with the
light head o$ -orus, emphasi*ing the pair’s role as "the two opponent gods!#

(losely related to -orus and Set are the twins Isis and /ephthys, o$ten portrayed back to back ! H$ig! 87I! The
>gyptian pairs Shu and Te$nut, Thoth and 'aat, Sekhet and /eith all reveal a similar underlying character!

In the !ook of the .ead the pictograph o$ the two "portions# o$ -orus and Set is the sign , the band o$ the %ten 6@5: The clear implication is that the sun-god’s enclosure possesses two twin-like divisions, one light, the other dark! 'oreover, i$ the circle o$ the %ten is hal$ light, hal$ dark, surely one cannot ignore the related sign , the crescent-enclosure, which appears to provide a literal illustration o$ the two realms o$ -orus and Set! In the same way, the >gyptian shen bond
and /ephthys!

stood not only $or the sun-god’s enclosure H%tenI but $or the twins Isis

Together Isis and /ephthys, the back-to-back twins, $ormed the protective "border# or "boundary# o$ the +ll, the
(osmos! Dhile the >gyptian tcher means "boundary,# "limit,# tehera means "protective rampart# and tcherti the two halves o$ the boundary or rampart! The two Tcherti are Isis and /ephthys!

>gyptian cosmology reveals the coherent image o$ a bisected enclosure revolving around the central sun! Two interrelated
aspects o$ the twins stand out1

6! In one sense the twins are simply the light and dark halves o$ the enclosure—a characteristic most pronounced in the pair -orus and Set! @! 0ut the two$old enclosure revolved around the stationary light god, and by its revolution, the illuminated crescent—the "$ace# o$ the great god—marked out the respective divisions o$ the "right and le$t# H , I and "above and below# H , I!In their primary personality, the twins Isis and /ephthys represented these counterpoised positions o$ the crescent, and hence two divisions o$ the celestial kingdom! HIn standard translations, the divisions o$ the le$t and right are usually rendered as "east# and "west,# con$using cosmography Hthe map o$ the (osmosI
with the local geography, while the "above# and "below# are translated "heaven# and "earth,# leading to a di$$erent but eAually troublesome con$usionI!

This interpretation o$ the cosmic twins coincides with (ook’s in identi$ying the pair with a celestial circle, hal$ dark and
hal$ light! Distinguishing this view $rom (ook’s, however, is the proposed nature o$ the circle! Did the two$old circle mean the abstract "sky,# or a concrete band Hwith crescent

I enclosing the central sunE

+ reAuirement o$ the interpretation set $orth here is that the sun-god stand between the twins and that the circle o$ the
twins revolve around hi" .$ course, i$ the twins re$er to the open "sky# and the sun-god means the solar orb, it would be meaningless—in $act a contradiction—to place the god in the centre o$ the circle Hi!e!, between the semicircles o$ day and nightI or to speak o$ the twins revolving around the sun-god!

The >gyptians’ great god wears the enclosure o$ the %ten as a "girdle!# %ccording to the Pyra"id Te-ts this gar"ent is the circle
of the celestial twins( "I am girt with the girdle o$ -orus, I am clad with the garment o$ Thoth, Isis is be$ore me and /ephthys is behind me!#6@82 Such language occurs repeatedly in early >gyptian sources! In the !ook of the .ead# the king asks, "'ay I see -orus ! ! ! , with the god Thoth and the goddess 'aat, one on each side o$ him!# 6@86 In the +offin Te-ts +tum declares o$ the twins Shu and Te$nut1 "I was between these two, the one being in $ront o$ me, the other behind me!# 6@8@ "The two mistresses o$ 0uto accompany you to the right and le$t!#6@83 The Pyra"id Te-ts announce that the "two great and mighty >nneads ! ! ! set Shu $or you on your east Kle$tL side and Te$nut on your west KrightL side!# 6@8G The king proclaims, "/eith is behind me, and Selket is be$ore me!#6@85 Thus the &niversal 'onarch gives "Cudgement in the heavens between the two (ontestants K-orus and SetL!#6@88

The light and dark halves o$ the enclosure—in perpetual revolution, or "con$lict#—are balanced by the great god! "I am
the girdle o$ the robe o$ the god /u ! ! ! which uniteth the two $ighting deities who dwell in my body K khat# wombL!#6@87 "I am the god who keepeth opposition in eAuipoise as his >gg circleth round!#6@84

Dith a little imagination one might possibly conceive the open sky as a black and white sphere revolving around our earth, but such a circle could in no sense appear as a twofold band around a central sun It is here, in short,
that (ook’s e planation o$ the twins appears to break down!

The >gyptian twins signi$y two divisions o$ the %ten ! There is only one enclosure o$ the sun, yet by virtue i$ its portions o$ light and shadow it becomes the "two$old circle# or, as o$ten translated, "the two circles!# +nd this "double#
band is the womb o$ the mother goddess, giving birth to the central sun! + +offin Te-t thus celebrates "the two rings which have given birth to the gods!#6@8: The re$erence is to the two$old enclosure o$ Isis and /ephthys! "-e was conceived in Isis and begotten in /ephthys,# states the !ook of the .ead 6@72 The same source declares1 "I was conceived by the goddess Sekhet, and the goddess /eith gave birth to me!#6@76

+ccordingly, the +offin Te-ts say1 ! ! ! Four two "others who are in /ekheb Kthe celestial provinceL shall come to you ! ! !6@7@ .h you two who conceived <e, you shall bear me who am in the egg!6@73 The Pyra"id Te-ts reveal the same notion o$ a two$old womb1 ! ! ! The two great ladies KIsis and /ephthysL bore you!6@7G 'y mother is Isis, my nurse is /ephthys!6@75 The ?ing was conceived by Sakhmet, and it is She*metet who bore the ?ing!6@78 The two goddesses were not merely twins, but the two halves o$ a single womb! These two divisions may appear either as the two thighs o$ /ut H"<e shines between the thighs o$ /ut#I6@77 or as the thighs o$ Isis and /ephthys! To attain the primeval womb "the ?ing ascends upon the thighs o$ Isis, the ?ing climbs upon the thighs o$ /ephthys!# 6@74 That the two-$old enclosure was something more than an ill-de$ined "sky# is proved by the enclosure’s various symbolic $orms! The
$act is that every "ythical for"ulation of the Saturnian band >asse"bly# holy land# te"ple# city# eye# serpent# etc ? is specifically portrayed as a twofold circle# whose two divisions are the cos"ic twins

-ere are a $ew e amples $rom the >gyptian system1 The T0o Assem*lies2 >gyptian te ts identi$y the circle o$ the gods as the "Two (onclaves# or "Two >nneads#1 ! ! ! Fou stand in the (onclaves o$ the 'ount o$ %lory ! ! ! the Two >nneads come to you bowing!6@7: The sky is strong and /ut Cubilates when she sees what +tum has done, while he sat among the Two >nneads!6@42 I have given you vindication in the Two (onclaves!6@46 'y lips are the two >nneads1 I am the %reat Dord!6@4@ This two$old circle o$ the gods $orms at once the "body# o$ the great god and the "womb# o$ the great mother1 -ail, ?hepera ! ! ! the two-$old company o$ the gods is thy body! Kkhat# "body,# may also be translated "womb#L!6@43 I am a great one, the son o$ a great one! I issue $rom between the thighs o$ the Two >nneads!6@4G

I have come $orth between the KtwoL thighs o$ the company o$ the gods!6@45 It was a crescent which divided the circular assembly into two portions, $or the hieroglyphic symbol o$ paut# "company o$ the gods,# is the crescent-enclosure ! The T0o Lands2 The celestial ">gypt,# $ounded and ruled by the &niversal 'onarch, possessed two divisions, alternately termed
"the right and le$t# or "the above and below!# The priests o$ the 'emphite doctrine announced1

Thus it was that -orus appeared as ?ing o$ &pper >gypt and as ?ing o$ 9ower >gypt who united the Two 9ands in the province o$ the HwhiteI Dall at the place where the Two 9ands are united!6@48 The $irst king is the creator, and the "land# which he gathered together and uni$ied is a two$old circle! -ence the Two 9ands receive the title "the Two 9adies# HIsis and /ephthysI or appear as "the portions o$ -orus and Set,# 6@47 or the twin circle o$ the gods!6@44 In their organi*ation o$ the terrestrial kingdom the >gyptians strove to reproduce the bisected enclosure, the ideal kingdom! Drites ,rank$ort1 "The dualistic $orms o$ >gyptian kingship did not result $rom historical incidents! They
embody the peculiarly >gyptian thought that a totality comprises opposites ! ! ! % State dualistically conceived "ust have appeared to the Egyptians the "anifestation of the order of creation ! ! !#6@4:

5:. T#$ E-,2tian t;in -od( bind to-$t#$ t#$ !ni'i$d %land.& In the early ritual te ts the phrase "&pper and 9ower >gypt# consistently re$ers to the celestial kingdom, not local geography!
Dhen the Pyra"id Te-ts# $or e ample, declare that "the Two 9ands shine again and he Kthe great godL clears the visions o$ the gods,#6@:2 it should be obvious that they re$er to the primordial dwelling above, rather than terrestrial >gypt!

The T0o !ro0ns2 The god-king is "the %ood <uler who appears in the .ouble +rown# ?ing o$ &pper and 9ower >gypt, 9ord o$ the Two 9ands!#6@:6 /o one reading these lines $or the $irst time is likely to imagine that the "Double (rown# denoted
the same dual enclosure as the "Two 9ands!# Fet, drawing on the cosmic imagery discussed in previous pages one perceives the in$luence o$ a single conception! Though the Two 9ands are Isis and /ephthys, the same twins appear as two crowns worn by the god-king! " ! ! ! your two mothers the two Dhite (rowns caress you, your two mothers the two Dhite (rowns kiss you ! ! !# 6@:@

The >gyptians proclaimed that the two crowns composed the circle o$ glory H khuI which issued $rom the heart or head
o$ the great god! "The two P%reat in 'agic’ KcrownsL grew out o$ his head! Thus it was that -orus appeared as ?ing o$ &pper >gypt and as ?ing o$ 9ower >gypt ! ! !#6@:3 To acAuire the two crowns was to uni$y the Two 9ands!

The T0o #yes2 "Thou didst stretch out the heavens wherein thy two eyes might travel,# reads the !ook of the .ead 6@:G The two eyes are simply the two halves o$ the singular revolving eye, personi$ied by the cosmic twins! "Thine eyebrows are the two sister goddesses who are at peace with each other,# reads the !ook of the .ead 6@:5 Isis and /ephthys are thus called
"the two eyes# o$ <e!

The T0o Serpents2 I$ the >gyptian sign relates the circular serpent or uraeus to the band o$ the enclosed sun, the sign o$ the "two# uraei shows the latter to be two halves o$ the same band— a $act which agrees with the title
o$ Isis and /ephthys as "the two serpent-goddesses!# "The goddess /ebt-&nnut is established upon thy head Kas the crownL and her uraei o$ the South K&pper >gyptL and /orth K9ower >gyptL are upon thy brow!# 6@:8 HThe Two 9ands compose the two uraei

serpents, which the god-king wears as a double crown!I

The te ts leave no doubt that the eye, crown, and circular serpent, each re$erring to the same enclosure around the light god, possessed a dual aspect, as two eyes, two crowns, and two serpentsB and this two$old enclosure was the double circle o$ the gods Hthe Two >nneadsI encircling the Two 9ands! . ?ing, I provide you with the >ye o$ -orus, the <ed (rown rich in power and many natured, that it may protect you, . king, Cust as it protects -orusB may it set your power, . ?ing, at the head o$ the Two >nneads as the two serpent-goddesses who are on your brow, that they may raise you up!6@:7 =assing brie$ly to other $orms o$ the primeval enclosure one $inds the same connection with the celestial twins1 The T0o Thrones2 The king has come to his throne which is upon the Two 9adies!6@:4 The T0o 1ases 67 T0o #yes82 Take the two >yes o$ -orus, the black and whiteB take them to your $orehead that they may
illuminate your $ace—the li$ting up o$ a white Car and a black Car!6@::

The T0o La5es or Rivers2 I am born, I puri$y mysel$ in the two great and mighty lakes in -eracleopolis ! ! ! 6322 . Destroyer who comest out o$ the Double Throne 9ake!6326 -e has circumambulated the Two 0anks KThe Two 0anks denoted the circle o$ &pper and 9ower ">gypt,#
enclosed by the revolving riverL632@

The T0o !ords2 .h you two who are li$ted up ! ! ! , who make the metacord o$ the god ! ! !6323 These are the two knots o$ >lephantine which are in the mouth o$ .siris!632G >very mythical $orm o$ the primeval enclosure in >gypt appears as a two$old band, the circle o$ the celestial twins! The diverse $igures o$ the twins, though complicating the symbolism, always point to the same root idea! The twins denote the revolving enclosure o$ the great god ’s dwelling in heaven, divided into eAual portions o$ light and
shadow! /either (ook’s identi$ication o$ the twins as the abstract night and day sky, nor any other e planation based on the present celestial order, can account $or the underlying identity o$ the twins as a circle revolving around a central sun

5<. An Et !("an )i o d$2i"t( t#$ Dio("! i to t#$ i-#t and l$'t o' a "$nt al %(!n& o %(ta .&

6>. T#$ U !bo o(+ id$nti'i$d a( %t#$ On$+ t#$ All+& #al' da F and #al' li-#t. F o) t#$ Cod$A Ma "ian!( 3**t# "$nt.4.

In numerous lands the great $ather appears to have his home within the embrace o$ celestial twins! 0utterworth reports that " ! ! ! ,rom +sia 'inor to >gypt, $rom Delos to Syria, relie$s and coins and other works o$ art and cra$tsmanship bear
representations o$ a triad consisting o$ the Dioskoroi, the P-eavenly Twins,’ dispersed on either side o$ a divine $igure ! ! !# 6325

In >gyptian, Sumero-0abylonian, Iranian, -indu, and %reek imagery the twins appear as twin doors Ho$ the right and le$tI $rom which the sun shines $orth!6328 The %nostic uroborus or circular serpent is hal$ black and hal$ white and encloses the sun H$ig! 72I! The 'uslim circular serpent, enclosing the ?a’ba and constituting the world ocean, "glitters# in the sun and is hal$ white and hal$ black! 6327 0ut the same two$old serpent will be $ound $rom (hina to the +mericas H$igs! 76, 7@, 73, 7G T 75I! The world egg o$ -indu, %reek, and (hinese symbolism is bisected into black and white semicircles! -indu sources depict the primeval womb as "two bowls# which together $orm a single circle, hal$ white, hal$ black! 6324 The $ace o$ the 'e ican mother goddess is hal$ black, hal$ white, resembling the black and white %reek >rinyes or the bright and dark aspects o$ the %reek goddess Demeter-=ersephone!632: Similarly, two winged goddesses turn the wheel o$ I ion, Cust as two goddesses operate the wheel o$ the Icelandic world mill or the wheel o$ the -indu Skambha!6362 The 0abylonian Shamash and Tammu* rest within the mouth o$ the "twin rivers,#6366 while the (anaanite >l stands "at the sources o$ the Two <ivers, in the midst o$ the pools o$ the .ouble-Deep!#636@

6*. T;o'old "i "!la d a-on in al"#$)i(t )an!(" i2t

6.. E-,2tian 3a4+ S!)$ ian 3b4+ and Mala,an 3"4+ ill!(t ation( o' t#$ 2 i)$val t;in( $v$al a $)a Fabl,
(i)ila "on"$2t. To-$t#$ t#$ t;in( 'o ) an $n"lo(! $.

6/. B!dd#i(t T iBRatna

60. C#in$($ t;in d a-on(+ and t#$ H!a t$ $d "i "l$

61. T;o'old d a-on ' o) Hond! a( The band o$ the enclosed sun, whatever its mythical $orm, is consistently portrayed as a two$old circle, hal$ black and hal$ white! Dhat de$ines the two divisions is the illuminated crescent , revolving about the band so as to alternately $ace "above and below# , or "le$t and right# , ! Dhile ancient sources never Auestion the dual character o$ the enclosure, the language o$ the two divisions is susceptible to considerable misunderstanding by anyone attempting to read it within the conte t o$ an assumed solar mythology or o$ local geography! HI e amine these con$usions in later sections on "-eaven and >arth# and
">ast and Dest!#I

Sym*olism of the !res'ent

The connection o$ the circumpolar enclosure with a crescent con$irms that the images


pertained to

the same celestial con$iguration as the images and ! 0ut Cust as the ancients interpreted the enclosure and cosmic mountain in di$$erent ways, should we not $ind that they e pressed the crescent in varying $orms alsoE In seeking to answer this Auestion one must reckon with the most e traordinary aspects o$ the Saturnian imagery! .$ the crescent in the primary images and ancient sources present these basic $orms1

- The -orns o$ the bull-god Hor cow-goddessI! - The great $ather’s ship! - The upli$ted arms o$ the heaven-sustaining giant! - The outstretched wings o$ the mother goddess Hor winged godI! In the language o$ ancient ritual, "horns,# "ships,# "arms,# and "wings# possess an underlying identity which de$ies all natural
relationships between such concepts in the modern world! To reside within the wings o$ the mother goddess is to dwell upon the upraised arms o$ the -eaven 'an! 0ut these same wings, or arms, constitute the great god’s sailing vessel—which in turn is depicted as two shining "horns!# 9et us e amine the connection o$ these $orms with the Saturnian con$iguration


T#$ C $("$nt Ho n
,n accord with the i"ages and # the central sun appears as a horned god >the !ull of 1eaven?# while his spouse# the cow-goddess# encloses the sun-god within two horns Though e tolled as the "sun,# all $igures o$ the great $ather possess the crescent "moon# as two horns, reigning over the $irst age
as the generative 0ull!

In >gypt, the "sun-gods# <e, -orus, .siris, +men, and =tah all take the $orm o$ a horned god—the mighty "bull!#6363 .siris is the "son o$ /ut, lord o$ the two horns!#636G The :itany of Re celebrates the god as the "supreme power, with attached head, with high horns!#6365 .ne o$ <e’s epithets is simply "Shining -orn!#6368 + chapter o$ the !ook of the .ead begins1 "I am the sharp-horned 0ull, who regulateth the sky, the 9ord o$ the risings in heaven,
the great %iver o$ 9ight, who issueth $rom ,lame!#6367

"I am seated in $ront o$ the %reat .nes like the horned <e,# reads a +offin Te-ts 6364 +s the incarnation o$ the great god, the king acAuires the title "0ull o$ 9ight!#636: It is the general consensus o$ >gyptologists that <e and his counterparts originated as solar gods! To what, then, do the sun-god’s shining "horns# re$erE The characteri*ation o$ the great god as a horned deity seems to be a general principle o$ ancient thought! + 0abylonian hymn to <amman Hthe "sun-god#I begins1 ". lord <amman, thy name is the great god glorious bull, child o$ heaven ! ! ! , lord o$ plenty!# 63@2 +nu, /inurta, >nlil, and >nki all possess radiant horns! " ! ! ! The sun, as the P0ull o$
9ight’ Kthe very title o$ the >gyptian god-kingL, was accorded the supreme position in the 0abylonian solar-god hierarchy,# writes (onrad!63@6 0ut the horns o$ the 0ull o$ -eaven are the crescent "moon#1

,ather /annar, heavenly lord ! ! ! "oon god ! ! ! lord o$ &r ! ! ! lord o$ the brilliant crescent ! ! ! . strong bull, great o$ horns!63@@ -indu sources depict Vishnu, 0rahma, Shiva, +gni, and Indra as bulls with luminous horns! The %reek Dionysus H9atin 0acchusI is "the bull-horned god# said to have been born a "horned child!# +donis receives the same $orm! The
(anaanite >l is addressed as "0ull-god# while the %reek ?ronos is "the horned god!# I$ Fahweh was "the 0ull o$ Israel,# -elios was the "+diounian bull!#

,rom +$rica to northern >urope to the +mericas the archaic "sun#-god wears the horns o$ the crescent "moon!#63@3

In the myths o$ several lands the celestial bull appears in the guise o$ -eaven 'an, his body providing the primeval matter o$ the (osmos! + hymn o$ the -indu %tharva Veda# titled "> tolling the . ,# identi$ies the various gods
with the limbs o$ the cosmic bull1 "=raCapati and the most e alted one are his two horns, Indra his head, +gni his $orehead, Fama his neck-Coint ! ! !# etc!63@G The =ersians knew this beast as the "=rimal 0ull# or "the Sole-(reated . # dwelling in >ran VeC, the "central land#B his $orm was "white and brilliant as the moon!# The world o$ the $irst man and $irst woman was created $rom his body!63@5

There is only one sense in which the myth o$ the horned "sun# or great $ather will $ind meaning$ul interpretation! The horns belong to Saturn, the sun within the crescent-enclosure ! I$ the 0abylonians

65. T;o E-,2tian v$ (ion( o' t#$ ;in-$d b!ll? 3a4 t#$ A2i( b!ll o' M$)2#i(C 3b4 t#$ Ba""#i( b!ll o' H$ )ont#i(

66. T#$ #o n( o' t#$ "$l$(tial ib$A 3M$(o2ota)ia4 $n"lo($ t#$ (!nB" o((. F o) a va($ di("ov$ $d at S!(a.

6:. B!" ani!) d$(i-n+ M$(o2ota)ia.

6<. F a-)$nt o' 2aint$d v$(($l ' o) Bal!"#i(tan+ (#o;in- t#$ %(!n& b$t;$$n t#$ bo n( o' t#$ b!ll. knew Saturn as +nu, "the horned one,# the =hoenicians called the planet-god 0a’al Oarnaim, "9ord o$ the Two -orns!# 63@8 The %reek Saturn-name ?ronos, according to <obert 0rown, possesses the radical sense "the -orned!#63@7 +ncient >gyptian imagery is unvarying in connecting the horns with the %ten# the enclosure o$ the sun ! In a 63@4 +offin Te-t the great god recalls the $irst occasion, "be$ore the +ten had been $astened on the horns!# +nother source describes the "+ten which is between his horns!#63@: =haraoh Thutmose I calls himsel$ the god "-orus-<e, 'ighty-0ull— the sun with sharp horns who comes out o$ the +ten!# 6332 (an one seriously doubt that such hymns re$er to the light god within the crescent-enclosure E Two popular $orms o$ the >gyptian horned god were the +pis 0ull, worshipped at 'emphis, and the 'nevis 0ull o$ -eliopolis! Illustrations o$ these bull-gods con$irm the very relationship o$ the horns and enclosure described in the hymns1 the circle o$ the %ten rests $irmly upon the bull’s horns, o$$ering the precise image ! The >gyptian bull-god 0akha similarly wears the %ten between his two horns! The hieroglyphic symbol o$ the horned %ten is ! H.n the meaning o$ this imagery the specialists remain silent!I .ne o$ the hieroglyphic $orms o$ the %ten
has as its determinative the sign , signi$ying "the two-horned enclosure!# That the mystic horns embrace or encircle the central sun is a principle reaching $ar beyond >gypt! In the $amous horned cap o$ 'esopotamian divinities, "the horns were imagined as encircling the head o$ a divinity rather than springing out o$ it,# writes Van 0uren! 6336 Sometimes the symbolic horns in 'esopotamia are not those o$ a bull but rather o$ an ibe , a heavenly beast whom the myths call the "Ibe o$ the +psu Kcosmic oceanL!#633@ Vase paintings show the horns o$ the ibe encircling the sun-cross6333 H$ig! 77I! >lsewhere the "sun# appears between the horns o$ a bull H$igs! 74, 7:I!

In >gyptian and Scandinavian rock drawings the "sun# rests between the horns o$ bovine $igures, and the illustrations o$ten emphasi*e the horns’ character as an enclosure by drawing them $ull circle H$igs! 4G, 47I! (orrespondingly, a poem o$ the >ast
+$rican Didinga e tols the1

Dhite (ow o$ heaven, your horns have curved $ull circle and are Coined as one!633G In the same vein the -indu %tharva Veda recalls "The ruddy one, the sharp-horned bull, who encompassed +gni, the sun!# 6335 The Iranian Verethraghna, who bears the "glory# Hhalo
ram, with horns bent round!#

I o$ +hura 'a*da, possesses "the shape o$ a wild beauti$ul which is to say, the

The horns which are "bent round# will be the crescent-enclosure, the dwelling o$ the central sun

horns are inseparable $rom the womb o$ the mother goddess! -ence the >gyptian sign , which neatly e presses the crescent’s mythical aspect as two horns, denotes the goddess -athor, the "-ouse o$ -orus!# 0ecause -athor is the
goddess o$ the horned womb, there is no contradiction between the hymns locating <e "in the wo"b o$ thy mother -athor# and the representations o$ the goddess as "sky-cow who bears the sun-god between her horns #6337

In the same way, -athor is at once the >ye o$ <e and the horns supporting the >ye1 "I am that eye o$ yours which is on the horns o$ -athor,# reads a Pyra"id Te-t 6334 .ne o$ the names o$ the >gyptian goddess is simply "-orns, 9ady o$

:>. T#$ -odd$(( Hat#o + ;$a in- t#$ #o n$d At$n (losely paralleling this title o$ -athor is the name o$ the 'esopotamian goddess1 "the 9ady with the horned countenance!#63G2 The Sumerian goddess Inanna describes her own womb as "a horn,#63G6 while the related =hoenician goddess +shtoreth appears as "Oueen o$ heaven with crescent horns# or "+shtoreth o$ the double horn!# 63G@ + horn, in the -indu Satapatha !rah"ana# means the womb o$ primeval genesis! " ! ! ! The black deer’s horn is the same as that
womb,# states the te t! The priest "touches with it Kthe hornL his $orehead close over the right eyebrow, with the te t, PThou art Indra’s womb’—$or it is indeed Indra’s womb, since in entering it he enters thereby, and in being born he is born there$rom1 there$ore he says, PThou art Indra’s womb!’"63G3

It makes no di$$erence whether the horns are those o$ a bull, cow, ram, antelope, deer, goat, or bu$$alo! The vital idea was o$ a horned enclosure, and ancient nations inheriting the tradition obviously adapted the celestial horn to animal $orms most $amiliar to them!

The +orned &ountain
In the Pyra"id Te-ts# the king returns to the womb o$ his birth, with the words1 "I have Coined my mother the %reat Dild (ow! .
my mother, the Dild (ow which is upon the 'ountain ! ! !# 63GG "-omage to thee, <e, supreme power, Shining -orn, =illar o$ +mentet,# reads the 9itany o$ <e! 63G5 two 'ountains!#

The 0akha bull, which supports the %ten

between its horns, is "the 0ull o$ the

That the horns o$ the bull or cow constitute the two peaks o$ the cosmic mountain can alone e plain such imagery! The !ull of 1eaven# in its original for"# is nothing "ore than a horned pillar—as is made clear in a Pyra"id Te-t addressing "the =illar o$ the Stars ! ! ! , the =illar o$ ?enset, the 0ull o$ -eaven!# 63G8 This is the bull "whose horns shine, the HwellI
anointed pillar, the 0ull o$ -eaven!#63G7

In truth, all that distinguishes the horned %ten $rom the "'ount o$ %lory# hieroglyph is the mythical $orm in which the recumbent crescent $ound e pression! 'ythically, the crescent was viewed as both a split peak and two horns! Indeed, one $inds that the >gyptian priests had no doubts about the identity o$ the horns and the cle$t summit, $or the two symbols constantly overlap in >gyptian art! Sometimes the head o$ a bull is placed between the two peaks o$ the mountain symbol , with the +ten resting on the bull’s two horns H$igs! 46, 4@I! In an early period, the >gyptians represented the twin peaks by the image , locating the cle$t summit atop

the primeval "pedestal# ! +t other times, however, they showed a bull resting on the pedestal with the mountain sign displaced to the side H$ig! 43I! (learly, the artists recogni*ed the overlapping meanings o$ the two symbols! .$ten, in $act, the mountain sign is drawn so as to appear "ore like horns than two hills H$ig! 45bI, and this image, as
noted by =ercy /ewberry some time ago, is virtually identical to the (retan "horns o$ consecration# discussed by Sir +rthur >vans in

his now-$amous work, "The 'ycenaean Tree and =illar (ult# 63G4 H$ig! 45aI Thus %!>! Smith observes the " identity o$ what >vans calls the Phorns o$ consecration’ and the K>gyptianL Pmountains o$ the hori*on!’" 63G:H0y "mountains o$ the hori*on# Smith means, o$ course, the two-peaked 'ount o$ %lory!I

:*. Ill!(t ation o' t#$ At$n 3"i "!la ($ 2$nt4 ' o) t#$ Pa2, !( O' H$ BUb$n A (#o;( t#$ ov$ la22inint$ 2 $tation( o' t#$ At$n9( " $("$nt a( a t;inB2$aF$d )o!ntain+ t#$ #o n( o' a "o()i" b!ll+ and t;in loin( 3AF$ 4.

:.. To (#o; t#$ id$ntit, o' t#$ At$n9( " $("$ntB#o n( and t#$ t;in 2$aF(+ E-,2tian a ti(t( 2la"$d t#$ b!ll9( #$ad
b$t;$$n t#$ t;o 2$aF(.

=erceiving the horns as the cle$t summit o$ the pillar sustaining the (osmos , one can understand the spell o$ the +offin Te-ts# which reads1 "I am the 0ull, the .ld .ne o$ ?en*et K?enset, the horned pillarL ! ! ! I support the sky with my

:/. P $#i(to i" E-,2tian (,)bol( 'o t#$ t;oB2$aF$d )o!nt.

:0. B, indi"atin- t#$ #o n( a( a '!ll "i "l$+ 2 $#i(to i" E-,2tian 2i"t! $( o' t#$ "o()i" b!ll 3o t;in b!ll(4 $)2#a(iI$ t#$ "onn$"tion o' t#$ #o n( ;it# t#$ "$l$(tial $n"lo(! $.

:1. 3a4 C $tan %#o n( o' "on($" ation&C 3b4 E-,2tian %"l$'t 2$aF&

:5. M$(o2ota)ian #o n$d 2illa . The Sumero-0abylonians personi$ied the heaven-sustaining peak -ursag as the mountain giant >nlil, also a
horned pillar1

. great >nlil, im-hur-sag K%reat 'ountainL whose head rivals the heavens, whose $oundation is laid in the pure abyss, Dhose horns gleam like the rays o$ the Sun-god!6356 0oth >gyptian and 'esopotamian sources give the heaven-sustaining mountain shining hornsM The name o$ the 0abylonian antediluvian king +laparos derives $rom alap# "bull!# and ur# "$oundation!# -e is the "0ull o$ the

:6. 8a iation( o' t#$ "o()i" b!ll in S"andinavian o"F d a;in-(. At oot t#$ b!ll i( t#$ 2illa and " $("$ntB$n"lo(! $

::. Ro"F 2i"t! $ ' o) G$ )an,+ id$nti'i$d b, H$ b$ t K!#n a( %(t,liI$d oA$n&

:<. A)$ i"an Indian #o n$d $n"lo(! $+ $(tin- on $ $"t ($ 2$nt Thus the paradisal "earth# rested upon the crescent-horns! The 0abylonians called the horned pillar the "%reat 0ull, the most great 0ull, stamping at the holy gates ! ! ! director o$ +bundance, who supports the god /irba ! ! !# 6353 9enormant comments1 "This bull thus plays the role o$ a kind o$ +tlas, bearing the earth and its harvests upon his shoulders!# 635G 0ut the primeval "earth,# as we
have seen, was simply Saturn’s (osmos!

'any Siberian legends speak o$ a primeval bull supporting the "world!#6355 -ebrew and 'uslim traditions place a bull atop the serpent-dragon 9eviathan Hhere a symbol o$ the heavens pillarI! The bull supports the earth on its shoulders6358! The ram’s horn o$ the %ermanic -eimdal holds $ast the rim o$ the world!6357 De consider again the 'esopotamian symbol o$ the Auartered earth upon its pillar ! Dhat is astonishing about this symbol is that it e actly corresponds to the mythical image o$ the bull, or horned pillar, holding alo$t the cosmic enclosure Hwith $our streams o$ li$eI and supporting the sun-god between its horns! To my knowledge, however, no one has yet proposed any connection between this sign and the myths! +s our earth turned on its a is, the crescent-horn must have visually appeared to revolve around the enclosure , , , ! "The %reat 0ull o$ .siris circles aroundM# proclaims a te t $rom the Shrines of Tut-%nkh-%"on 6354 Two lines $rom the !ook of the .ead suggest the same thing1 "I am the steer ! ! ! I go round the Sekhet-+aru Kthe circular plain o$

+ccordingly, the revolving horns mark out a two$old enclosure! .ne o$ the earliest symbols o$ the Two 9ands is a double-headed cow, $acing to the right and le$t !6382H$ig! :2I The Pyra"id Te-ts call this "the two bulls within the Ibis!#6386 The re$erence is more signi$icant than one might recogni*e at $irst glance, $or the ibis encompassing the two twins is the god Thoth—whose symbol is the crescent-enclosure —1 "I have come and I have installed this house o$ mine ! ! ! The door which is on it is two opposing bulls,# reads a Pyra"id Te-t 638@ Together the "opposing# horns o$ the le$t and right , distinguish the $ull circle o$ the "door!# To anyone perceiving the role o$ the >gyptian "two 0ulls# as two halves o$ the sun’s enclosure Hthe door or gate through
which the sun comes $orthI, it is impossible to overlook the corresponding imagery o$ two bulls in 'esopotamia, guarding the gates o$ the palace or temple! These are the "two bulls o$ the gate o$ the temple o$ >-Shakil,# the "two bulls o$ the gate o$ >a,# or the "two bulls o$ the gate o$ the goddess Damkina!#6383

<>. T#$ E-,2tian t;inB#$ad$d b!ll+ (,)bol o' t#$ %T;o Land(.&

<*. M$(o2ota)ian d$(i-n "onv$,in- t#$ i)a-$ o' t#$ 2 i)$val $n"lo(! $ and $volvin- #o n(. +s to the primary meanings o$ the horned god or goddess ancient sources do not eAuivocate1 mythically, the horns signi$y the revolving crescent reaching around the primeval enclosure and seeming to "support# or "embrace#
the sun-god! The horns compose the two peaks o$ the cosmic mountain! +nd in their opposing positions around the central sun, they are identi$ied as the cosmic twins, the "opponent gods!#


I7 T#$ C $("$ntBS#i2 H=art @I
%ll ancient sun gods sail in a celestial ship ,n the oldest ritual the ship appears as a crescent revolving around the circle of the great god0s dwelling# while the god hi"self re"ains stationary The ship0s ""ooring post# >and# by
e-tension# its ""ast#? is the cos"ic "ountain

.ne o$ Saturn’s most e traordinary possessions is the ark o$ heaven! Saturn is "literally represented as sailing over the ocean in a ship,# remarks ,aber!638G .vid tells us that because the planet-god traversed the entire sphere o$ the "earth# in his
primordial voyage, his special token was a ship, and this is the ship which appears on the reverse o$ coins stamped with the double $ace o$ Janus!6385 The latter god, as Saturn’s alter ego, was the "inventor# o$ barks and ships!6388

+ll o$ the Saturnian gods o$ the Sumero-0abylonian pantheon sail in a celestial ship, one o$ whose names is Magula-anna# "%reat boat o$ -eaven!# The "beloved ship# o$ /ingirsu is "the one that rises up out o$ the dam o$ the deep!# 6387 >a rides "the ship o$ the antelope o$ the +psu,#6384 while /inurta sails in the ship Magur The (hinese -uang-ti—the planet Saturn—was the $irst to sail in a ship! In his Courney across the ocean, -ercules rode in a "golden goblet#—the ship o$ -elios HSaturnI—to which one naturally compares the "new-moon# boat o$
Dionysus! + ship o$ "sel$-made light# transports the +vestan great god Fima HSaturnI!

The =hoenician great $ather (hrysor "was the $irst man who $ared in ships,#638: but it was also said that the twin god .usoos "was the $irst who launched a boat!#6372 The Japanese creator god Sukuna-0iko-/a rides "on the crest o$ the
waves in a heavenly *aga"i boat!#6376 "+ golden ship o$ golden tackle moved about in the sky,# reads the -indu %tharva Veda 637@

/atives o$ the 'arAuesas say that in the beginning there was only the sea on which the creator Tiki $loated in a canoe!6373 The -awaiian god Tanaroa sailed above in a "$lying canoe,#637G much like the great shaman o$ the Fenisei .stiaks, who "rows his boat in heaven!# The legendary -iawatha navigated "a white canoe which moved without human

That the original $orm o$ the sun-god’s ship was a crescent is a $act disputed by no one! The crescent $orm prevails in >gypt,
'esopotamia, =ersia, India, %reece, Scandinavia, and even in the +mericas, leading to the popular belie$ that the mythical sun voyages in the "ship o$ the new moon!#

This opinion is due to one $act alone1 the new moon is the only crescent $amiliar to the modern age! Fet so routine is the identi$ication o$ the crescent-ship with our moon that mythologists give almost no attention to speci$ic imagery suggesting a radically di$$erent interpretation! -aving observed the "unorthodo # role o$ the crescent-horn, it is appropriate to note $irst that ancient symbolism always eAuates
the great god’s ship with the bull or cow o$ heaven! =rehistoric drawings $rom >gypt continually relate the ship to a horned creature and later >gyptian art continued the theme!6378

<.. T#$ M$(o2ota)ian - $at -od( (ail in t#$ #o n$d (#i2 The same connection occurs in many Scandinavian rock drawings! + rock picture $rom the /ubian desert south o$ ?erma shows the ship so placed on the back o$ a bull that the boat and the galloping animal are one!6377 The Sumero-0abylonian /annar or Sin, esteemed as the bull with glistening horns, is also "the shining bark o$ the heavens!#6374 "'ay you $erry over by means o$ the %reat 0ull,# reads an >gyptian Pyra"id Te-t 637: +nother declares1 "the 0ull o$ the sky has bent down his horn that he may pass over thereby ! ! ! ,# 6342 while a +offin Te-t celebrates the "long-horn which
supports the bark o$ +nubis!#6346

'any years ago %!S! ,aber, e amining ancient symbolism o$ the ship, wrote1 "+ hei$er seems to have been adopted as
perhaps the most usual emblem o$ the +rk ! ! ! That the hei$er was an emblem o$ the +rk appears $rom a very curious passage in The Ety"ological Magnu"# the author o$ which in$orms us, that Theba, in the Syrian dialect, signi$ied Pa hei$er’ ! ! ! The import, however, o$ Theba# in the -ebrew language, is Pan ark’B and the only reason why a hei$er was designated by the same appellation, was the circumstance o$ its being used as an arkite emblem!#634@

I$ the crescent-horn is that which embraces the enclosed sun day, the ship o$ heaven must be the same crescent!

and visually revolves around the band each

Direct con$irmation comes $rom ancient >gypt! Though the >gyptian ship Has depicted in the relie$sI always possesses the crescent $orm, it revolves in a circle1 " ! ! ! the ark o$ heaven was the revolving sphere con$igurated as a sailing
vessel ! ! ! the ark is portrayed in the act o$ sailing over a vast un$athomable hollow void,# writes 'assey! 6343

=erhaps the most common >gyptian word $or "to sail# is seAet# $rom the root Aet# "a circle# Hwritten with the determinative I! 9iterally, seAet means "to go in a circle# Hcompare seAeti# "encircled#I! -ence one te t declares that "the barge circles in the sky,#634G while another e tols "the circlings o$ the henhenu-bark#6345 Hhenhenu is a name o$ the circular ocean aboveI! 0ut what was the nature o$ the ship ’s circular pathwayE The ship sails around the sun-god’s enclosure1 "I stand up in thy enclosure, . 'aaB I sail round about!#6348 (hapter (SSSVI o$ the !ook of the .ead is thus entitled "The (hapter o$ Sailing in the %reat 0oat o$ <e to =ass over the (ircle o$ 0right ,lame!# 6347 'oreover, this connection o$ the crescent-boat with an
enclosure will be $ound also in 'esopotamia! Though the crescent o$ Sin was the "a-gur boat possessed by /inurta HSaturnI, the sign $or gur means "circular enclosure!#6344

Is there any direct statement that the enclosure depicted in the sign

is the ship’s pathwayE The >gyptians called the band +ten or khu H"glory,# "halo#I1 "-ail to you who sails in his ?hu, who navigates a circle within his +ten,# reads the !ook of the .ead 634: (learly, the subCect is the crescent-enclosure! In the Pyra"id Te-ts# ?ing &nas announces, "I revolve round heaven like <e, , the common symbol o$ Thoth is the crescentenclosure ! +llowing the one image to e plain the other, we see that &nas does not here engage in two separate acts, but in a single act depicted in two di$$erent ways1 to revolve within the %ten is to sail in the crescentI sail round heaven like Thoth!# Dhile <e’s image is the %ten ship o$ Thoth!63:2

The circle o$ the %ten is the "brow# o$ <e, and it is on <e’s brow that the te ts locate the ship1 "I $ly up and perch mysel$ upon the
$orehead o$ <e, in the bows o$ his boat which is in heaven,# states the !ook of the .ead 63:6

"Thou sailest on high in the >vening 0arge, thou Coinest the $ollowers o$ the %ten##63:@ To appreciate this line $rom the Shrines
of Tut-%nkh-%"on one must recogni*e that the "$ollowers# themselves compose the enclosure o$ the %ten6 the great god in the ship resides within the circle o$ lesser gods! It is the same thing to say that the secondary gods, by $orming the enclosure, stand on the

"pathway# o$ the ship, as stated in the +offin Te-ts( ">very god who is on the border o$ your enclosure is on the path o$ your boat!#63:3 (ould one ask $or a more e plicit statement eAuating the enclosure and the revolving shipE

</. T#$ %(!n&B;#$$l $(tin- in t#$ "o()i" (#i2+ a( d$2i"t$d in S"andinavian o"F d a;in-(. It is clear $rom the >gyptian sources that the ship and the secondary gods Hthe ship ’s crewI, in revolving around the
%ten# circumscribe the great god, who resides in the centre o$ the circle1

I cause Truth K"aatL to circle about at the head o$ the great barge which carries the Justi$ied .ne in the council ! ! ! The crew o$ <e circles about!63:G The dwellers in the Sektet 0oat go round about thee ! ! !63:5 This, then, is the only sense in which the central sun "moves#1 he sails around the enclosure remaining e" hetep# "at rest# or "in one place!# The ship is thus "the 0oat o$ <est K1etepL!#63:8 . %od <e, grant thou that the .siris /u may travel on in thy boat e" hetep 63:7 9et me embark in thy boat, . <e, e" hetep 63:4 Thy resting place is the barge o$ ?hepri!63:: +greeing with this view o$ the ship and pathway are the many hymns and liturgies which describe the boat o$ heaven navigating the circular ocean! H+s earlier observed, this revolving river was the circle o$ the %ten I have made my way and gone round the heavenly ocean on the path o$ the bark o$ <e!6G22 9o, I sail the great 0ark on the Stream o$ the god -etep!6G26 .ther hymns similarly depict the ship going around the "9ake o$ the Tuat,# "the =ool o$ 'aat,# or "the =ool o$ ,ire!#6G2@ This cosmic ocean, lake, or river means the circular womb Hor bodyI o$ the mother goddess! -ence, the goddess /ut, the enclosure around the sun-god <e, takes the $orm o$ the circumambient sea, and numerous relie$s show the sun-god’s boat sailing over the body of the goddess "I am a Sahu, who assigneth the bounds as he saileth round the starry
throng o$ -eaven, the body o$ my mother /ut,# states the !ook of the .ead 6G23




, while yet


0ut it is not su$$icient to identi$y the mother goddess as the pathway o$ the crescent-ship, $or the crescent and enclosure are one1 the ship is the goddess Though /ut is the "pathway,# the deceased king beseeches the goddess1 "<ow me, . mother o$ mineB6G2G tow me, . abode o$ mine!# ". 0oat o$ the sky ! ! ! . 0oat o$ /ut!#6G25 Similarly, the "ship o$ -athor,# as stated by 0leeker, was "the e pression o$ her being! Dhen the boat was carried in procession, it was the dramati*ation o$ the deity’s hierophany!# 6G28 .ne o$ the names o$ the -athor-ship is "mistress o$ love#B it is called "the boat which e alts her beauty!# 6G27 + ship was also the symbol o$ the goddess Isis! 6G24 The dweller in the primeval womb is the captain o$ the ship! + survey o$ ship symbolism in other lands will reveal the same identity! The womb o$ the Sumerian Inanna is "a ship!#6G2: "The ship o$ the brilliant o$$-spring# was an epithet o$ the 0abylonian goddess 0au! 6G62 In -indu myth the goddesses Ila, Isi, 9acshmi, and =arvati are synonymous with the ship +rgha, 6G66 transporting the great $ather H'anu, Shiva, 0rahmaI over the waters! 0ergelmir—the /orse mythical giant —"was born in a boat#6G6@ Hi!e!, boat N wombI! The 9atin goddess 'inerva "was surnamed Ergane# $rom Ereg or Erech# the Park’B under which title she was venerated both in 9aconia, and in 0oeotia,# ,aber tells us! 6G63 The (eltic %oddess (eridwen takes the $orm o$ a ship, 6G6G and the ship was the symbol o$ the old 9atin goddess (eres HDemeterI, the =hrygian goddess (ybele, and the =hoenician goddess +shtoreth!6G65

The ship, in other words, is part and parcel o$ the circumpolar enclosure! +nd the identity $inds con$irmation in all mythical $ormulations o$ the enclosure1 The World.Ship. The >gyptian ship is "the 0arge o$ >arth!# ". gods who carry the 0arge o$ >arth, who support the barge o$ the
Tuat,# proclaims the !ook of $ates 6G68

Dhile the name o$ the -indu goddess Ida Hor HIlaI means "the world,# she is depicted as a $loating shipB Stonehenge, the
$amous Druidic monument, was called at once "the circle o$ the Dorld,# "the enclosure o$ the ship-goddess (eridwen,# and the "+rk o$ the Dorld!#6G67

The ship-goddess is none other than the mother earth in heaven! The sland.Ship. +ncient history is $illed with legends o$ $loating, paradisal islands, o$ which the %reek Delos and -indu "island
o$ the 'oon# are noteworthy e amples! The Italian $loating isle o$ (otyleB the >gyptian $loating island o$ (hemnis, described by -erodotusB and the (eltic $loating island o$ Snowdon suggest a common theme!6G64

The tradition o$ the island-ship receives remarkable e pression in the <oman island o$ Tiber, which, as a monument to +sclepius, was $ashioned with a breastwork o$ marble into the $orm o$ a ship, its upper part imitating the stern and its lower part the bow!6G6: ,ig! :G, taken $rom (arl ?erenyi’s %sklepios# shows the ancient $orm o$ Tiber Island as reconstructed by a si teenth-century dra$tsman! 6G@2 Symboli*ed is the island o$ the blessed resting within the vast crescent o$ the cosmic ship!

<0. T#$ "it,B(#i2 o' Tib$ i(land+ a( $"on(t !"t$d b, a d a't()an in t#$ (iAt$$nt# "$nt! ,. The !ity.Ship. The >gyptians commemorated the ship’s daily revolution by $ashioning an image o$ the great god’s barge, placing it on a sledge-shaped stand, and dragging it around the walls of the city 6G@6—$or the city wall denoted the primeval rampart, the path o$ the ship! "This %reat %od travels in this city, on the water,# states one te t! 6G@@ Thus, the 'esopotamian Surripak is "the
city o$ the Ship,# corresponding to -omer’s 'ycenae, the "ark-city!# The %reek cities o$ Thebes, +rgos, and 0erytus are connected by ,aber with the ancient "ship# names theba# argha# and baris or barit 6G@3

The Temple.Ship. Just as the >gyptians conveyed the sacred ship around the wall o$ the city so did they also pull it around the
wall o$ the te"ple# in imitation o$ the cosmic ship which coursed daily around the great god’s dwelling! >gyptian illustrations depict the shrine as an inseparable part o$ the boat! +nd the te ts con$irm this connection1 "The Sektet boat receiveth $air winds, and the heart o$ him who is in the shrine thereof reCoiceth!#6G@G

+ Sumerian hymn to the ?es temple eAuates the dwelling with "the princely Magur-boat, $loating in the sky!#6G@5 %ood temple, built on a good place, ?es temple, built on a good place, 9ike Kor asL the princely 'agur-boat, $loating in the sky! 9ike the pure 'agur-boat ! ! ! 9ike the boat o$ heaven, $oundation o$ all the lands, (abin o$ the banda-boat which shines $rom the beaches, Temple, roaring like an o , bellowing like a breed bull!6G@8 The %reeks designated a temple and a ship by the same word, naus or naos .ur word nave H$rom the 9atin navisI
possesses the dual signi$icance o$ a temple and a ship!6G@7

The Wheel.Ship. .ne o$ the most unnatural aspects o$ the great god’s "chariot# HwheelI is that it $unctions also as a ship! In
commemoration o$ the god’s remarkable vehicle, the ancients o$ten placed the sacred ship on wheels, drawing it on dry land Scandinavian rock carvings depict the "wheel o$ the sun# resting in a cosmic boat H $ig! :3I, and $rom +ssyria to 0ritain to =olynesia images o$ cosmic ships either contain wheels or are set on wheels! The vehicle o$ the (hinese -uang-ti was both a ship and a chariot!6G@4 Similarly, the Sumerian "agur-boat receives the appellation "chariot!# (osmic ship and world wheel are one!

<1. E-- o' L!n!(.

<5. At!)+ ($at$d ;it#in t#$ At$n+ (ail( in t#$ (#i2 o' t#$ E,$. The #gg.Ship. "The god 9unus o$ -eliopolis and (arrhae,# writes ,aber, "was an egg, on the top o$ which rested a crescent $ormed like a boat#6G@: H$ig! :5I! 0ut the god whom classical writers translated as 9unus was the >gyptian +ah, or Thoth, whose hieroglyph was the crescent-enclosure , and one can reasonably assume that, in accord with this symbol, the egg originally stood within, or upon, the crescent boat! Thus the -indus knew the ship +rgha as the lower hal$ o$ a primeval egg which $loated on the waters o$ (haos!6G32 The #ye.Ship. +n >gyptian +offin Te-t speaks o$ "the barge, the >ye o$ thy $ather!# 6G36 >lsewhere one $inds, "I am the %reat
.ne in the midst o$ his >ye, sitting and kneeling in the great barge o$ ?hepri Kthe Turning .neL!# 6G3@ ". you who are in the >ye o$ the 0ark o$ the %od!#6G33 In precise accord with such language the symbolic >ye was regularly inscribed upon ships o$ >gypt H$ig! :8I! Interestingly, the same symbol appears on the %reek +rgo! + =hoenician terra-cotta model o$ a galley $rom +mathus reveals the central >ye upon its prow!6G3G The >ye occurs also on (hinese boats!6G35

The 1ase.Ship. <e$lecting the identity o$ the ship and receptacle is the >nglish word vessel# meaning both "container# and "ship!#
The %erman Schiff means, at once, "ship# and "water container,# and the roots o$ the %erman *anne# "pot,# and *ahn# "boat,# are identical!6G38

In >gyptian symbolism, =ianko$$ tells us, "The Car is the cradle and at the same time a vessel $or crossing the celestial waters!#6G37 The receptacles in which -indu priests o$$ered $ruits and $lowers to the gods were called arghas 0ut
the +rgha was the ship on the cosmic sea!6G34

The Shield.Ship. /orse mythology knows the "shield-god# &ll, the son o$ Thor’s wi$e Si$ by an unknown $ather! "The shield,
according to the skalds, was Pthe ship o$ &ll,’ that on which he traveled—a re$erence to a lost mythology ! ! !# writes 'ac(ulloch! 6G3: Similarly, ?ing +rthur’s magic shield Prydwen served as the hero’s ship!6GG2

The Throne.Ship. In the Pyra"id Te-ts the king ascends to the "throne which is in your bark, . <e!# 6GG6 +nd the !ook of the
.ead locates the throne in the same ship1 "I shall advance to my throne which is in the boat o$ <e! I shall not be molested, and I shall not su$$er shipwreck $rom my throne which is in the boat o$ <e, the mighty one!#6GG@

The Serpent 6%ragon8.Ship. %!>! Smith writes1 "The custom o$ employing the name Pdragon’ in re$erence to a boat is $ound in
places as $ar apart as Scandinavia and (hina ! ! ! In India the 'akara, the prototype o$ the dragon, was sometimes represented as a boat which was looked upon as a $ish-avatar o$ Vishnu, 0uddha or some other deity!#6GG3

/umerous >gyptian sources identi$y the ship with the cosmic serpent—who is also the "pathway# traversed by the boat! The !ook of the .ead# $or e ample, describes the ship sailing over the "back# o$ the serpent-dragon +pepi! 6GGG + dragon-like creature o$ten serves as a ship in 'esopotamian cylinder seals, Cust as the serpentine (hronos $orms the path o$ the ship o$ -elios .ne could, o$ course, endlessly e pand the list o$ such connections between the enclosure and the ship! .ne might even say that the ship has no independent e istence apart $rom the enclosure! /or can one ignore the widespread connection o$ the great god’s ship with the cosmic mountain! In accord with the
archaic $orms


, the ship rests on the "ountaintop# providing the Mount with its cleft su""it ,rom >gypt to

'esopotamia to Scandinavia one $inds the images o$ the ship brought into connection with the pillared crescent ! ,ig! 626$, $rom southwest /orway can be compared to a prehistoric drawing $rom >gypt H $ig! 62@$I In the latter instance the pillared crescent is shown twice, while one end o$ the ship terminates in a crescent-enclosure


,or a more $ormal version o$ the ship and 'ount I o$$er details $rom two illustration in the !ook of the .ead H$ig! :7I! In both drawings the ship, in the $orm o$ a double serpent, rests upon the =rimeval -ill! Dhile one shows the throne within the
ship, the other shows the steps o$ the =rimeval -ill1 "I have reached the high portals o$ the >ntourage o$ <e, who reckon up the pillared bark,# announces the king in a +offin Te-t 6GG5

The subCect is a revolving ship, traversing a circle around the summit o$ the cosmic mountain, , , , ! That is, the 'ount serves as the a is o$ the ship’s revolution1 "I assume my pure seat which is in the bow o$ the 0ark o$ <e! It is the sailors
who row <e, and it is the sailors who convey <e round about the 'ount o$ %lory, and it is they who will convey me round about the 'ount o$ %lory!# 6GG8 "-ail, .nly .neM behold thou art in the Sektet boat as it goeth round about the 'ount o$ %lory!# 6GG7

Dhen the te ts describe the god "sailing over the supports o$ Shu,#6GG4 or engaged in his "voyage over the 9eg o$ =tah,#6GG: they do not depart $rom the integrated symbolism o$ the world pillar, $or the supports o$ Shu H I and the leg o$ =tah re$er to one and the same cosmic column! It is surely signi$icant that in both >gypt and 'esopotamia the cosmic pillar appears as the "mooring post# o$ the
great god’s ship! Dhat the Sumerians called di"gal H0abylonian tarkulluI and the >gyptians "ena or "enat may be translated either as the "0inding =ost# or "'ooring =ost!# The >gyptian image o$ the "enat is , depicting the enclosed sun-cross atop the cosmic pillarB but "enat is a common term $or the post to which the ship o$ heaven is tied or moored, and the verb mena means "to tie the boat to the post!#

.ne can also understand the a is-pillar as the ship ’s "ast De earlier noted that the great $ather, considered as an e tension
o$ the 'ount, becomes the central HthirdI peak rising between the two peaks o$ the right and le$t! Dhen one views the crescent Htwo peaksI as the ship o$ heaven the eAuivalence o$ the 'ount and the ship’s "mast# becomes sel$-evident! The general tradition is observed by ,aber1 "+ vast centrical mountain $ormed the mast or boss o$ the mundane boat1 and the great $ather, rising out o$ the sacred umbilicus o$ the arkite world, supplied to it the place o$ a mast! That mountain was the hill o$ paradise!# 6G52 The -indu

symbol o$ the ship on the mountaintop, according to ,aber, is the trident o$ Shiva, composed o$ a rod or sta$$ surmounted by a "lunette# with a spike rising in its centre! The trident, he states, denotes "the ship +rgha under
its sidereal $orm o$ a crescent with Shiva standing in the midst o$ it and supplying the place o$ a mast!# 6G56

This identity o$ the ship’s mast and the a is-pillar is also noted by (oomaraswamy, who relates an introductory verse o$ the
.asaku"accrita# listing "the mast o$ the ship o$ the earth# as an aspect o$ "the a is o$ the universe!# In the construction o$ -indu stupas the universe a is was represented by a central $inial o$ten e tending upward to an impressive height! The column bore the title "sky-scraping# yasti# or "mast!#6G5@

It is noteworthy also that the Sumerian di"gal# the "mooring post# or "binding post,# o$ten receives the translation "ship’s mast!#6G53 In our world a mast and a mooring post are wholly distinct, but in the symbolism o$ the cosmic ship and mountain they are strictly synonymous, as we should e pect! 0y understanding the ship’s mast as an e tension o$ the cosmic mountain one perceives a deeper meaning in the steps which rise in the centre o$ the >gyptian boat illustrated below H $ig! :7I! The steps, as the most common >gyptian symbol o$ the =rimeval -ill,

here replace the ship’s mast! +nd it is no accident, $or while the >gyptian khet means "steps# H=rimeval -illI, khet also means "ship’s mast# H=rimeval -ill N steps N mast N =rimeval -illI! The symbolism becomes all the more $ascinating when one discovers that the -indus identi$ied the steps or pyramid as both the polar 'ount 'eru and the mast o$ the ship %rgha

<6. T;o E-,2tian v$ (ion( o' t#$ "o()i" (#i2 and P i)$val Hill Such integrated symbolism underlines the $undamental relation o$ the crescent-ship to the cosmic mountain! ,aber thus concludes1 "-ere we may perceive the reason why the pagans deemed those mountains peculiarly sacred, which
branched out at their summits into either two or three smaller peaks or tumuli! They considered them, in the one case, as naturally shadowing out the holy hill with the navicular 'oon resting on its top, and in the other case, as still being a physical copy o$ the same holy hill surmounted by the 'oon, but the 'oon now rendered complete by the addition o$ the centrical mast or pilot ! ! ! #6G5G

It $ollows $rom this line o$ evidence that the >gyptian mountain signs and o$$ering a natural representation o$ the two- or three-peaked summit—must have possessed the same import as the ship o$ heavenB both the ship and the cle$t summit had their re$erence in the crescent, visually united to the celestial column so as to $orm the image ! The ship on the mountaintop merges with the two peaks o$ the right and le$t! (onsistent with this overlapping imagery are those prehistoric >gyptian vase paintings depicting the cosmic ship bearing the mountain sign !6G55 represents two geographical

It is, o$ course, the universal opinion o$ >gyptologists that the mountain glyph peaks real or imaginary, $rom which the solar orb rises each morning!
revolved daily around the sun-god0s enclosure<in flagrant contradiction of natural geography;

0ut i$ the analysis set $orth here is correct, the twin peaks of the Mount# being synony"ous with the ship of heaven# "ust have

<:. T#$ t;inB2$aF$d Khut

) d$2i"t$d a( an in($2a abl$ 2a t o' t#$ "o()i" (#i2.

(ould the >gyptians have believed that the cle$t summit sailed with, or as, the cosmic shipE +ctually, it was not uncommon $or the >gyptian artists to place the *hut H'ount o$ %lory I within the revolving ship, proclaiming the essential identity o$ the two images H$ig! :4I! .$ this identity (lark provides two e amples! In each case the +ten rests
between the peaks o$ the right and le$t, which in turn sit sAuarely in the cosmic ship!

<esponding to the $irst instance, (lark calls the cle$t hill the "eastern hori*on,# adding that "this hill is incongruously placed in the solar boat #6G58 In the second illustration the %ten "rests on the twin-peaked mountain o$ sunrise! %gainst all verisi"ilitude this $igure, mountain and all, is being conveyed across the waters o$ the heavenly ocean in a boat!# 6G57 +s bi*arre as this sailing mountaintop may appear to conventional mythologists, it is, to us, one o$ several independent proo$s that the mountain sign means simply the revolving Saturnian crescent, here rendered naturalistically in its mythical $orm as two peaks! Dhen the te ts say that the god "sails round about in the *hut ,# they mean literally that he sails within the cleft peak as in a ship .$ course, to reckon with these concepts one must abandon once and $or all the standard translation o$ *hut as "hori*on!# The twin peaks are anything but a $i ture o$ the local landscape! HThough the most common position o$ the mountain image is upright, some illustrations depict it in an inverted position , again contradicting geography! 'oreover, the distinction between the upright and inverted positions o$ the revolving twin peaks is crucial to the symbolism o$ the archaic "day# and "night,# as I shall show!

>Aually important is the relation o$ the ship to the cosmic twins! The image tells us that the ship itsel$ divides the enclosure into two portions o$ light and shadow! +ccordingly, though the >gyptian word %t denotes
the boat o$ heaven, the same word means "to divide, bisect!# The language con$orms precisely to the cosmology o$ the crescentenclosure, hal$ dark, hal$ light!

0ut the >gyptians also identi$ied the ship with the twins Isis-/ephthys, the "two eyes# Hthe le$t and right 6G54 positions o$ the revolving crescentI! "Thy right eye is in the Sektet boat, and thy le$t eye is in the %tet boat,# declares the !ook of the .ead 6G5: In the ritual $or the deceased, a chapter o$ the !ook of the .ead is to be "said over a 0ark o$ <e
coloured in pure green! +nd thou shall place a picture o$ the deceased at the prow thereo$! +nd make a Sektet boat on the right side o$ it and an %tet boat on the le$t side o$ it!# 6G82 Together, the boats o$ the le$t and right compose the protective enclosure

or bond, represented by the shen sign


In its every $eature, then, the great god ’s ship con$orms to the revolving Saturnian crescent—enclosing the central sun, resting
upon the cosmic mountain, and dividing the circumpolar enclosure into divisions o$ light and shadow!

T#$ C $("$ntBA )(
To terrestrial observers gazing up the a-is-pillar# the Saturnian crescent appeared as two outstretched ar"s reaching
around and holding aloft the crescent enclosure


/o one considering the image o$ the sun-in-crescent resting atop the cosmic pillar will have any di$$iculty understanding why the crescent came to be viewed as the outstretched arms o$ the great mother, or o$ the heaven-sustaining god! .$ course, it is only in combination with the central sun and pillar that the crescent could acAuire this signi$icance! /othing in our crescent moon, $or e ample, could possibly suggest the upraised arms o$ a humanlike $igure! In ancient art, however, the crescent is o$ten located behind the shoulders o$ a divinity Has suggested by the $orm I and in certain cases replaces the ar"s HIn $ig! :: I o$$er several e amples $rom the +mericas!I

In $ig! 622 the -indu twins Jagan-/ath and 0al-<ama, bearing the respective black and white countenances o$ Shiva and Vishnu
Hwith whom they are identi$iedI, stand to the right and le$t o$ the goddess Subhadra, a $orm o$ Devi! The "body# o$ each o$ the three deities appears to be composed o$ two eggs HKtwo$oldL egg N "body#IB upon the bodies o$ Jagan-/ath and 0al-<ama rests a crescentlike $orm and in each crescent appears the head o$ the deity! (ommenting on this image, ,aber writes1 "The crescent itsel$ e hibits the rude semblance o$ arms, as the two$old egg does that o$ a body1 but a sort o$ standard attached to the $rame on which the three divinities are seated, su$$iciently shows that the apparent ar"s are really a lunette# $or the standard displays in a black background the mystic crescent with a circular ball within it representing the head o$ the deity!# 6G86

<<. 3a+ b4 Col!)bian 2i"to- a2#(C 3"4 Bolivian 2i"to- a2#C 3d4 B aIilian 2i"to- a2#C 3$4 A a2a#2 (i-n 'o
%2$ (on&C 3'4 No t# A)$ i"an -odd$(

*>>. Hind! t;in(+ =a-anBNat# and BalBRa)a+ ;it# ($)i"i "!la a )(+ (tand to t#$ i-#t and l$'t o' t#$ -odd$(( S!b#ad a. + more pure $orm o$ the crescent- or horned-arms occurs in Scandinavian rock drawings, repeatedly e hibiting the image along with numerous variations which present the semi-circular shape alternately as horns or as outstretched arms o$ more human-like $orms H$ig! 626I! This mi ture o$ images, in $act, leaves the archaeologists undecided
as to whether, in the simple $orm , it is arms, or horns, that are horn-like arms, or arms e tended upward to for" a crescent In other instances, the human $igure does not stand in the boat, but holds the boat alo$t on upraised arms H $ig! 626a, bI! 'oreover, in some cases the ship rests on the human shoulders in such a way as to replace the ar"s H$ig! 626c, dI!

*>*. 3a+ b+ "+ d4 In n!)$ o!( S"andinavian o"F d a;in-( t#$ "o()i" (#i2 $it#$ $(t( on t#$ !2 ai($d a )( o' a H$av$n Man o a"t!all, forms t#$ -od9( a )(C 3$+ '4 In ot#$ d a;in-( ' o) t#$ (a)$ $li-ion a 2illa $d
" $("$nt (tand( in t#$ (#i2.

*>.. P $#i(to i" E-,2tian i)a-$( o' t#$ "o()i" (#i2 alt$ nat$l, (#o; t#$ H$av$n Man 3;it# !2 ai($d a )(4 o t#$ 2illa $d " $("$nt (tandin- in t#$ (#i2.

*>/. P $d,na(ti" E-,2tian 'i-! in$(

*>0. C $tan )ot#$ -odd$((

*>1. S,)bol( o' t#$ P#o$ni"ian -odd$(( Tanit

*>5. Hittit$ i)a-$ The cosmic divinity with upraised arms will be $ound in all Auarters o$ the world H$igs! 623, 62G, 625 T 628I!
'ost crucial are the associations o$ such $igures with the a is-pillar and enclosure! The mythical +$rite o$ +rabian myth was an apostate angel, "tall and black# HSaturn N "black# planetI, whose trunk $ormed a vast pillar, his arms stretching heavenward!

(ompare the description o$ the -indu 'anu, the "glorious sage# and $irst king1 "Dith ar"s uplifted and poised on one leg#
he, the king o$ men, practiced hard austerities in the !adari $orest, named Vishala! +nd there he did arduous penance $or ten thousand years with his head downwards and his eyes unwinking!# 6G8@

.$ the Iranian 'ithra, the 9end %vesta declares1 "Dith his arms li$ted up towards Immortality, 'ithra, the lord o$ wide pastures,
drives $orward ! ! ! in a beauti$ul chariot Kthe world wheelL that drives on, ever-swi$t, adorned with all sorts o$ ornaments, and made o$ gold!#

I pose the Auestion1 are the upraised arms an accidental convention, or an integral component o$ the Saturnian image E + conclusive answer is provided by >gyptian sources!

The Ka.Arms
.ne o$ the most $amiliar >gyptian terms is ka# the symbol $or which is two upraised arms ! Though the word ka occurs with great $reAuency in the hieroglyphic te ts, $ew writers can agree on a tangible meaning! 0udge con$esses the general lack o$ agreement on the subCect1 "The e act meaning o$ this word KkaL is unknown, but it has been
translated by double, image, genius, subconscious sel$, natural disposition, abstract personality, character, mind, etc!B all these meanings are suggested by their conte ts, but the real meaning o$ the word has yet to be discovered!# 6G83

"The closest appro imation to the >gyptian notion o$ ?a is Pvital $orce,’# writes ,rank$ort! "The Auali$ication Pvital’ $rees it $rom the
precision o$ the natural sciences, which would, o$ course, be an anachronism1 and the combination Pvital $orce’ may stand $or a somewhat vague popular notion without mechanistic implications! The ?a, according to this view, should be impersonal and should be present in varying strength in di$$erent persons or in the same person at di$$erent times!# 6G8G

In none o$ the common interpretations is the ?a regarded as a visible power! Instead, the e perts tend to treat the ?a as a
hidden source o$ li$e! (lark tells us that "the ?a is a symbol o$ the transmission o$ li$e power $rom the gods to man! 0ut it is not only the act, it is also the source o$ this power! >veryone is a receiver o$ divine power and everyone is an individual, so each has his own ?a!#6G85

I am not prepared to argue that these modern-sounding de$initions are wholly wrong—only that they $ocus on derived, rather than concrete meanings! ,n its original sense the *a is e-actly what its glyph indicates<two upraised ar"s M The ancients saw the two arms o$ the ?a, and every aspect o$ the symbolism springs $rom a once visible relationship o$ these arms to the great god and his dwelling! In recording the Saturnian con$iguration nothing could have been more natural than the interpretation o$ the crescent as two arms, straining upward! To present the "arms# in human $orm, is, o$ course, the only possible way to

e press pictorially this mythical interpretation o$ the crescent HCust as the only way to depict the crescent’s mythical $orm as horns was to draw it as horns or to place the crescent-enclosure on the head o$ a 0ullI!

To test the proposed connection o$ the ?a-arms investigation1

with the Saturnian image

, several Auestions reAuire

Do >gyptian sources locate the central sun within the ?a-armsE +re the cosmic ship and horns identi$ied with these outstretched armsE Do the ?a-arms reach around the enclosureE Do the arms constitute the cle$t summit o$ the world mountainE Is the ?a one hal$ o$ a twin circleE

*>6. 3a4 T#$ KaC 3b4 T#$ Ka $(tin- on t#$ 2 i)o dial %2$ "#&C 3"4 T#$ Ka $)b a"in- t#$ o,al %na)$.&

*>:. T#$ a )( o' t#$ Ab,(( (!22o tin- t#$ %At$n.& .n each o$ these Auestions, >gyptian sources yield a clear-cut reply! 6! Dhile most analyses discuss the ?a as a HhiddenI dimension o$ the human personality, >gyptian sources consistently locate the ?a not in this world, but among the gods! The point is noticed by 0reasted1 " ! ! ! The ka
was not an element o$ the personality, as is so o$ten stated! It seems to me indeed $rom a study o$ the Pyra"id Te-ts# that the nature o$ the ka has been $undamentally misunderstood ! ! ! It was in the world o$ the hereafter the he Kthe ?aL chie$ly i$ not e clusively had his abode ! ! !#6G88

Dhen the king dies "he goes to his ?a in the sky,# 6G87 and here, in heaven, the ?a protects him $rom the destructive demons o$ (haos!6G84 0ut why is this protective genius portrayed as two outstretched arms E The reason is that the heaven attained by the deceased king is the dwelling o$ the central sun, who resides within the embrace o$ two shining arms raised alo$t in the +byss! "This god is like this,# states one mythological te t1 "Two arms guard the body o$ this god!#6G8: +nother invokes +tum shining $orth $rom "the arms o$ +ker!#6G72 The great god <e "is like this on the arms o$ the 'ysterious .ne!#6G76 "The +ten is in the Tuat! The arms o$ the 'ysterious ,ace come out and li$t it up!# 6G7@ reads another te t! Thus .siris "rests# within the two arms o$ the ?a1 "-ail, . .siris, thy ka hath come unto thee and ! ! ! thou resteth therein in thy
name o$ ?a--etep!#6G73 "Thy $ather Tatunen li$teth thee up and he stretcheth out his two hands behind thee!#6G7G

In truth, the saying "to go to his ka# means to attain heaven and thus to reside in the protective embrace o$ the heaven-sustaining


. <e-+tum, your son comes to you, the ?ing comes to youB raise him up, enclose him in your embrace ! ! !6G75 It is pleasant $or me ! ! ! within the arms o$ my $ather, within the arms o$ +tum!6G78 . +tum, set your arms about the ?ing ! ! ! . +tum, set your protection over this ?ing ! ! !6G77 %o up on high, and it will be well with you, it will be pleasant $or you in the embrace o$ your $ather, in the embrace o$ +tum!6G74 To represent the union o$ the king with the outstretched arms o$ heaven the >gyptians depicted the ?a enclosing the cartouche or royal name o$ the -orus-king H$ig! 627cI! In the hieroglyphs the ?a-arms signi$y "to embrace# and "to protect!# "The royal ?a put his arms around the -orus name to protect it $rom harm,# notes (lark! There is no need to seek out hidden metaphysical implications in this symbolism, $or the ?a was in every way an emblem o$ the visible enclosure, the protective rampart in heaven!

@! That the ?a-arms pertain to the "embracing# crescent will e plain why the sun-god sails on the two armsB the same te t
which describes <e "like this on the arms o$ the 'ysterious .ne,# declares, "This %reat %od sails over this cavern Kthe hollow o$ the TuatL on the ar"s o$ the 'ysterious .ne!#6G42

+ spell $rom the +offin Te-ts has the king appearing "in the bark o$ the morning ! ! ! in the arms o$ +nup!# 6G46 +nd .siris sails
"on the two arms o$ -orus in his K-orus’L name o$ P 1enu-bark!’#6G4@ This eAuation o$ the ship and the outstretched arms $inds repeated illustration in the cosmic scenes depicted on co$$ins and papyri!

It $ollows $rom this identity, o$ course, that the arms o$ the ?a are synonymous with the luminous horns o$ the celestial bull! +nd here lies the simple e planation why the >gyptian word $or "bull# is also ka, written with the
same arms

, to which the determinatives

are added! HThe subCect is the generative 0ull o$



I know the secret o$ -ieraconopolis! It is the two hands of horns and what is in them!6G4G The embracing hands or arms mean the same thing as the horns! 3! I$ the outstretched arms, as suggested by the con$iguration , reach around the circumpolar enclosure, then

"to go to his ?a# must signi$y the king’s rebirth in the primeval womb! Did the >gyptians identi$y the ?a-arms with the mother goddessE

"Dhen the dead king was placed in his co$$in,# writes =ianko$$, "he was placed between the ar"s of his "other &ut #6G45 The king’s
return to the mother womb is e pressed in the Pyra"id Te-ts(

Thou art given to thy mother /ut, in her name co$$inB She embraces thee, in her name sarcophagus!6G48 /ut, the "co$$in,# means /ut, the womb o$ primeval birth Hor rebirthI! +nd to dwell in the womb is to reside within the e"bracing
arms o$ the goddess! Thus, the very goddess in whose wo"b shines the central sun is also described enclosing and protecting the sun, or king, with outstretched ar"s

I am thy mother /ut! 'y arms encircle thee in li$e and health!6G47 The arms o$ /ut who bore you are about you so that your beauty may be upraised!6G44 Dords spoken by Isis the Divine1 I have come, I encircle my son with my arms ! ! ! I shall be his protection eternally!6G4: ! ! ! The goddess 'aat embraceth thee!6G:2

*><. N!t $)b a"in- t#$ Aten ;it# o!t(t $t"#$d a )(. In apparent de$iance o$ nature, the te ts proclaim that the ?a-arms give birth to the sun-god! The Pyra"id Te-ts e tol "the %reat .ne who came into being in the arms o$ -er who bore the god!# 6G:6 In the ,nstruction of Ptahhotep appears the statement, "-e is thy son, whom thy ?a hath begotten $or thee!# 6G:@ +nd elsewhere we read1 "Thy mother bringeth thee $orth upon her
hands, that thou mayest give light to the whole circum$erence which the +ten enlighteneth!# 6G:3

In the tomb o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon appear $our gold co$$ins containing the e tracted viscera, each co$$in being represented by a goddess, and symbolically enclosing one o$ the ,our Sons o$ -orus! The inscriptions upon the lids o$ the co$$ins leave no doubt as to the identity o$ the enclosing arms and the protective womb1 Dords spoken by Isis1 I close my arms over that which is in me! I protect Imesty who is in me, Imesty, .siris ?ing /eb-?heperu-<e, Custi$ied be$ore the %reat %od! Dords spoken by /ephthys1 I embrace with my arms that which is in me, I protect -apy o$ .siris ?ing /eb?heperu-<e, Custi$ied be$ore the %reat %od! Dords spoken by /eith1 I encircle with my arms that which is in me, I protect Dua-mute$ who is in me, Duamute$, .siris ?ing /eb-?heperu-<e, Custi$ied be$ore the %reat %od! Dords spoken by Selkit1 'y two arms are on what is in me! I protect ?eb-senu$ who is in me, ?eb-senu$, .siris ?ing /eb-?heperu-<e, the Custi$ied one!6G:G The inscriptions e plicitly declare that the arms o$ the goddess enclose the god-king within the womb! That the goddess HwombI is the arms, and that these arms are those o$ the ?a, is con$irmed by a design in the $unerary temple o$ ?ing Seti I H$ig! 662I! The design shows a $emale $igure embracing the king! 8n the head of the goddess stands the two ar"s of the *a within
which is written the goddess’ na"e 6G:5

In depicting the ?a, >gyptian artists were obviously constrained by the awkwardness which would result $rom the human-like representation o$ the image as a man-child within the arms o$ a god or goddess! In our world one does not embrace a child with uplifted ar"s To accommodate the primal image to a natural anthropomorphic mode o$
representation, the artists showed the arms twice—$irst, as the arms o$ the human, or personi$ied ?a, embracing and protecting the man-childB and second, as upraised arms placed upon the head o$ the ?a-divinity! It is the latter representation which e presses the cosmic $orm o$ the protective embrace!

-ence, the goddess Isis, o$ten depicted enclosing her son -orus upon her lap HwombI, is also shown standing erect with arms held alo$t H$ig! 666I! Since the upli$ted arms, by >gyptian symbolism, mean

**>. T#$ diviniI$d Ka $)b a"$( t#$ )anB"#ild

***. T#$ E-,2tian -odd$(( I(i(+ ;#o($ !2 ai($d a )( $n"lo($d t#$ "$nt al (!n. "protect# and "embrace,# one can be certain that the raised arms o$ Isis pertain directly to Isis’ role as the "protectress# o$ the sungod! (osmic symbolism was not determined by what is "natural# in the human world so much as by the literal $orm o$ the Saturn apparition


The outstretched arms o$ the >gyptian great god or goddess hold alo$t and encircle the celestial earth! . ?ing, you have enclosed every god within your arms, their lands and all their possessions! . ?ing, you are great and round as the circle which surrounds the 1au-nebut 6G:8 The earth is raised on high under the sky by your arms, . Te$enet!6G:7 +n identical picture occurs in the Iranian 9end %vesta# where 'ithra, "with arms li$ted up towards immortality,# encloses
"the boundary o$ the earth!#

+nd do thou, . 'ithraM encompassing all this around, do thou reach it, all over, with thy arms!6G:4 =ointing to the same relation is the common >gyptian phrase "house o$ the ?a!#6G:: To dwell in the cosmic temple is to rest within the arms, and the te ts thus speak o$ "the two arms o$ the temple!#6522 G! +mong the >gyptian gods none is more o$ten depicted with upraised arms than the pillar-god Shu, between whose arms rests the primeval sun +tum, or <e! >gyptian relie$s regularly portray Shu standing erect and sustaining the body HwombI o$ the goddess /ut with his arms held in virtually the same position o$ those o$ the ?a-symbol ! The ar"s which enclose the sun-god belong to the cos"ic "ountain Thus we read1 The mountain will hold out its arms to him and the living ?a’s will accompany him!6526

The hieroglyphic symbol o$ the Shu-pillar or mountain is

called "the two pillars o$ heaven!# The two pillars, in other words, are really one pillar, with two arms! -ence <e, who shines between the mountain peaks o$ the right and le$t, also rests atop the $orked pillar o$ Shu, whose two secondary supports are the embracing arms o$ the ?a! "Thou seest <e upon the pillars which are the arms o$ heaven,# reads the !ook of the .ead 652@ In the =apyrus o$ 'ut-hetep the embracing arms are those o$ Tatunen, the acknowledged personi$ication o$ the =rimeval -ill! "Thy $ather Tatunen, placing his hands behind thee, raiseth thee up!# 6523 Dhat are these two arms o$ the =rimeval -ill other than the two peaks o$ the right and le$tE 'ost relevant in this connection is the hieroglyphic symbol $or "living <e# ! The image not only shows the sun-god resting within the upraised ?a-arms, but presents the arms as an e tension o$ the heavens pillar, so that the entire con$iguration suggests a human $orm virtually identical to that o$ Shu in the above-mentioned illustrations! The same image in yet more human $orm is o$$ered by the hieroglyph , symbol o$ the

elevated god and the cosmic summit! +nd in the glyph the >gyptians depicted the personi$ied pillar holding alo$t the symbol o$ heaven ! Dhat is clear $rom a survey o$ the related te ts and symbols is that the >gyptians conceived the arms o$ the 'ount or god in visible terms! Dhen the king, in a Pyra"id Te-t#
beseeches the god, ". Shu, may your two arms be behind Teti,# one witnesses the in$luence o$ things seen, not abstract speculation!

In the signs , , and , we have three closely related ways o$ representing the prototypal $orm , and it is this prototype which enables one to see why the >gyptians celebrated the ?a-arms as the two peaks o$ the 'ount and the mountain sign gave pictorial e pression to two eAually compelling interpretations o$ the pillared crescent! .nce one perceives this underlying identity o$ the arms and the two$old peak, it is impossible not to notice that the >gyptians themselves remembered the connection through many centuries Heven i$ they did not understand it per$ectlyI! <epeatedly the artists showed two arms e tended upward $rom the cle$t peak H$ig! 66@I! +s is usually the case with the most signi$icant symbolic relationships, the union o$ the
o$ %lory! The ?a-sign arms and two peaks is set $orth in spite of its seeming mockery o$ the natural order!

**.. K#$2 $ + $(idin- in t#$ Aten) a22$a ( b$t;$$n t#$ t;o a )(+ ;#i"# "o $(2ond to t#$ t;o 2$aF( o' t#$ K#!t. The eAuivalence o$ the ?a-arms and two peaks is con$irmed by other symbols also! .ne o$ the >gyptian names o$ the two$old 'ount o$ %lory was +ker, drawn as a twin-headed lion !652G Just as the %ten rests on the two
peaks o$ the *hut , so also does it lie on the "back o$ +ker!# In one te t the sun-god <e commands +ker, "., give me your arms, receive me ! ! ! I give light $or you, I dispel your darkness!# 6525 The arms o$ +ker can be nothing other than the two peaks $rom which the sun-god shines $orth each day, $or the !ook of +averns says that the ".ne o$ the Tuat goes $orth KshinesL $rom the arms o$ +ker!#6528 The same source also invokes1

Duati, the In$ernal .ne, who comes out o$ the arms o$ +ker!6527 +tum, who comes out o$ the arms o$ +ker! I$eny, who
comes out o$ the arms o$ +ker!6524

Though the terminology will o$$end the modern ear, it is per$ectly consistent with the cosmic image speak o$ the "two arms o$ the mountain,# and this is e actly what the >gyptians meant by the phrase "the arms o$ +ker!# one cannot ignore the $act that the >gyptian ka


5! It remains to be asked, then, what was the relationship o$ the crescent-arms to the cosmic twins! (ertainly is o$ten translated "double# or "twin!# "The ka o$ the king is his
twinB it accompanies him through li$e as a protective genius, it acts as his twin and his protector in death!# 652:

The imagery o$ the king has its origin in the image o$ the &niversal 'onarch! I$ the arms depicted by the ?a sign

re$er to the Saturnian crescent, reaching hal$way around the circumpolar enclosure, this in itsel$ is the twin Hor hal$ the enclosureI is the two

su$$icient to e plain the ?a’s designation as the "twin!# In the con$iguration

In accord with the counterpoised positions o$ the revolving crescent H and , or and I, >gyptian representations o$ the arms show alternating relationships to the central sun! Dhile the upright position o$ the arms is very common in >gyptian art, one $inds innumerable instances in which the arms embrace the %ten either $rom the right or le$t, or $rom above! .$ the latter instance I give three e amples H$igs! 47, 663, 66GI! 9ike so many >gyptian representations, all o$ these e amples Cu tapose di$$erent mythical versions o$ the crescent! In the $irst H $ig! 46I we see the man-child sitting upon the mountain symbol and resting within the enclosure o$ the %ten# here presented as a circular serpent with
tail in mouth! This circle, in turn, rests upon the horns o$ a bull whose head is placed between the twin lions Shu and Te$nut, representing the peaks o$ the right and le$t! 0ut reaching around hal$ o$ the serpentine band fro" above are two arms—clearly the same arms which elsewhere embrace the %ten $rom below!

**/+ **0. To d$2i"t t#$ '!ll ","l$ o' t#$ %da,& E-,2tian a ti(t( (#o;$d t#$ o!t(t $t"#$d a )( $)b a"in- t#$ At$n
alt$ nat$l, ' o) abov$ and ' o) b$lo;.

It is my contention that such symbolism represents alternate phases o$ the archaic day, each "day# being marked by a $ull revolution o$ the crescent around the enclosure, as it passes $rom its position below to an inverted position above and back to below again! +s $igures o$ the revolving crescent, the upright and inverted arms are synonymous with the cosmic twins, who personi$y the above and below Has well as the right and le$tI! Just this connection o$ the arms with the twins is indicated in the Papyrus o$ Pa-di-%"on H$ig! 663I! The illustration shows the %ten in the centre $lanked by the two goddesses!
Two male $igures are also present, one above and one below, each reaching around the %ten with outstretched arms, so that together the upright and inverted arms compose a complete enclosure—the circle o$ the cosmic twins! 6562 The same relationship o$ the upright and inverted arms to the circle o$ the +ten will be seen also in the Papyrus of *honsu-Renep6566 H$ig! 66GI!

(losely related are the symbolic representations which portray the arms alternately reaching round the %ten $rom
the right and le$t! .ne such e ample occurs in the =apyrus o$ ?honsu-mes +! -ere the arms are e plicitly connected with the symbols o$ +btet and +mentet, the two divisions o$ the celestial kingdom 656@ Hle$t-rightI!

**1. T#$ t;in -odd$(($( I(i( and N$2#t#,( (tand to t#$ i-#t and l$'t o' O(i i(BR$+ 'o )in- an $n"lo(! $ ;it# t#$i a )(. (learly, the counterpoised arms denote the cosmic twins, revolving daily round the %ten The te ts say as much when
they locate the great god within the ar"s >or hands? of the twins In a +offin Te-t +tum recalls the beginning1

K+t $irstL I lived with my two children, my little ones, the one be$ore me, the other behind me ! ! ! I rose over them, but their ar"s were around "e Similarly, one $inds1 The arm o$ -orus is about you KandL the arm o$ Thoth, the two great gods have supported you!6563 Fou are raised alo$t on the hands o$ Shu and Te$nut ! ! !656G Isis and /ephthys salute thee, they sing songs o$ Coy at thy rising Kcoming $orthL in the boat, they protect thee with their hands!6565 Together the counterpoised arms o$ the twins $orm the protective enclosure—the womb giving birth to the central sun! ! ! ! The god is given birth by the sky upon the arms o$ Shu and Te$nut!6568 The symbolism o$ the outstretched arms meets every test o$ the Saturnian crescent! The arms take the $orm o$ a crescent enclosing the central sun! They are inseparable $rom the cosmic wombB they constitute the two peaks o$ the world mountainB and they are identi$ied directly with the celestial twins!

T#$ C $("$ntB@in-(
The sa"e crescent which appeared to the ancients as upraised ar"s also received "ythical interpretations as the e-tended wings of the great god or goddess +ncient Sumerian myths recall a monstrous bird called Imdugud hovering over the primeval waters, its wings outstretched! Imdugud Hthe +kkadian winged dragon QuI was a $orm o$ /ingirsu or /inurta, the planet Saturn!6567 In this primordial wind-bird or thunder-bird scholars recogni*e the prototype o$ the Teutonic -raesvelgr, the winged god o$ the storm, and the -indu eagle %aruda, whose wings were so great as to a$$ect the cosmic revolutions! +ccording to the +thapascans o$ /orth +merica a raven hovered over the waters generating claps o$ thunder by the movement o$ his wings!6564 /atives o$ -awaii say that at the beginning o$ time, when only the ocean e isted, a great white bird appeared in the highest heaven, the egg o$ the world resting between its outstretched wings 656: Very similar is the -ebrew mythical bird Qi*, standing in mid-ocean! The Qi* was as monstrous as 9eviathan, $or while his ankles rested on our earth, his head reached the sky!65@2 Though the relation is sometimes $orgotten, the primeval winged beast originally appears either as the great god himsel$ or as the god’s vehicle! Dhen the .rphics celebrated the "Sun that soarest alo$t on golden wings,# they hearkened back to

an age-old tradition! +mong all o$ the great gods o$ antiAuity it would be di$$icult to $ind a single $igure who neither possesses wings nor rides upon wings!65@6

I$ the -ebrew Fahweh "rides upon the wings o$ the wind,# the -indu Vishnu is carried about on the shoulders o$ the eagle
%aruda! The -indu +gni, 'ithra, Varuna, and Fama receive the title Suparna# meaning "strong-winged!# It is said that the outstretched wings o$ the Suparna e"brace the +os"os 65@@ +lso presented as winged gods are the =ersian 'ithra and

Qurvan, the -ebrew and =hoenician >l, the %reek ?ronos, and all o$ the leading deities o$ ancient >gypt! +nyone willing to look beneath the sur$ace will $ind that the great god ’s wings are much more than a contrived
convenience enabling him to "$ly!# To thought$ul observers the special role o$ the winged god presents many enigmas! In >gypt, $or e ample, the hieroglyph $or the great god -orus is a $alcon, but the wings o$ the $alcon, in early >gyptian art, do not convey the sense o$ "$light# Has one should e pect, i$ the god acAuired his wings $or a "natural# purposeI! <ather the wings—always outstretched— de$ine the limits o$ the (osmos, and it is not easy to see how the >gyptians could have arrived at this consistent notion through observation o$ what we call the natural world today! -orus is "the venerable bird in whose shadow is the wide earthB 9ord o$ the Two 9ands under whose wings is the circuit o$ heaven Kthe (osmosL! 65@3 (oncerning this image o$ -orus, ,rank$ort writes, " ! ! ! The central problem, the relation between god and $alcon, seems entirely insoluble!# 65@G

Dhat powers did the ancients seek to represent by the spread wings o$ the divine eagle, hawk, or $alcon—or the e tended wings o$ the purely mythical "thunder-bird# described around the worldE The >gyptians called the cosmic island o$
beginnings the "%reat ,oundation %round o$ the <uler o$ the Ding# 65@5 almost as i$ the Ding possessed a character o$ its own! The divini*ed Ding marched around the island, according to the te ts!65@8

,ew comparative mythologists seem to have recogni*ed that a common image o$ the cosmic bird prevails throughout the world, and this image corresponds directly to the pillared sun-in-crescent ! <ather than portray the winged beast either in $light or in a seemingly normal resting position, the artists regularly depicted it virtually standing on its tail $eathers, with its wings spread upward to $orm a crescent!

**5. EAa)2l$( o' t#$ ;in-$d divinit, on t#$ ",lind$ ($al( o' ;$(t$ n A(ia.

**6. T#$ 2 i)$val $a-l$+ ' o) t#$ M$(o2ota)ian "it, o' La-a(#.

**:. E-,2tian $a-l$+ ;it# (,)bol( o' %li'$.&

*.>. T#$ A)$ i"an Indian t#!nd$ Bbi d. In $igs! 668, 667, 664 T 6@2 I include e amples $rom Destern +sia to the +mericas! The reader will see that certain o$ the
instances are virtually indistinguishable—and all present the sacred bird in the same "unnatural# way!

In -omer’s hymn to Selene, the poet e tols "the long-winged 'oon!# 65@7 0ut does the lunar crescent alone suggest e tended wingsE It is only in connection with the cosmic $orm that the crescent’s role as wings takes on meaning! +nd this is the very crescent which the ancients also knew as the sacred horn, the ship, and the upraised arms! +s seen in $ig! 6@6, the wings o$ the cosmic $alcon enclose and protect the dei$ied king, in precisely the same $ashion as the ?aarms! + review o$ the artistic tradition shows that the wings o$ the great god or goddess melt into the divinity’s e tended arms in such a way as to become indistinguishable $rom them! The identity is also con$irmed in >gyptian te ts, where the arms o$ <e are called "the two birds o$ =tah!#65@4 + te t $rom the tomb o$ <amesses VI invokes the great god ’s "two wings, the arms o$ Tay!#65@:

*.*. T#$ "o()i" 'al"on

*... T#$ ;in-$d -odd$(( N!t

*./. D!ni ;in-$d -odd$((

*.0. S2a tan -odd$(( A t$)i( O t#ia +dding to the "unnatural# character o$ the winged divinity is the continual association o$ wings and horns! The great god may be
called either a winged bull or a horned bird! 'oreover, it is clear that the combination o$ the two images did not result $rom syncretism Ha later merging o$ incompatible or once independent traditionsI! ,rank$ort acknowledges "the simultaneous validity o$ these views o$ the king,# insisting that the winged and horned aspects o$ the god are "a primitive $eature and not the product o$ the syncretism o$ later times!# /oting this dual aspect o$ the god -orus and his mother-spouse -athor, ,rank$ort writes1 "The mingling o$ the $alcon and cattle images in the relationship o$ -orus and -athor is not due to syncretism! It recurs in the case o$ the war-god 'onthu o$ Thebes, who was conceived as a $alcon but was also mani$est in the 0uches bull! The royal titulary shows it, too, $or a$ter

Thutmosis I the name which is crowned with the $alcon and is called the -orus- or ?a-name regularly includes the epithet Pstrong bull!’ The palette o$ /armer illustrates how little ancients were disturbed by this simultaneous use o$ the two images! It shows the king’s victory three times, once as a man destroying the enemy chie$ with his mace, once as the -orus $alcon holding him in subCection with a rope passed through his nose, and once as a Pstrong bull’ demolishing enemy strongholds!# 6532

I$ the >gyptians were not bothered by this parado ical duality, it was $or a simple reason1 the great god0s shining horns were also his wings; This is why the +pis bull was pictured with outstretched wings upon its back 6536 H$ig! 78aI and why the portrait o$ the 0akha bull shows a vulture e tending its wings over the bull’s hindAuarters 653@ H$ig! 78bI! The same winged bull, o$ course, is common to 'esopotamian ritual H$ig! 6@8I and passes into -ebrew cherubim,
protectors o$ the divine throne! The wings o$ the cherubim "reached $rom one end o$ the world to the other!# 6533

*.5. A((, ian ;in-$d b!ll ,urther evidence is provided by the winged ship, which occurs in almost every segment o$ the world! 653G Dhile it may not be immediately clear $rom the later, more $anci$ul versions o$ the bird-ship, it is abundantly clear in the earliest sources that the wings and the ship are the sa"e thing In the >gyptian Pyra"id Te-ts# the e panded wings constitute
the ship o$ the gods—Cust as the image


. you gods who cross over on the wing o$ Thoth to yonder side o$ the Dinding Daterway! 6535 ! ! ! ,erry me over, . Thoth, on the tip o$ your wing as Sokar who presides over the 0ark o$ <ighteousness!6538 . wings o$ Thoth, $erry me across, do not leave me boatless!6537 . Thoth ! ! ! put me on the tip o$ your wing on yonder northern side o$ the Dinding Daterway! 6534 Surely it is no coincidence that the symbol o$ Thoth, the master o$ the wing-ship, was the crescent-enclosure ! The wings o$ the winged god or goddess answer to the illuminated portion o$ the circumpolar band! The subCect is a winged circle, as one discerns in numerous representations o$ the primeval sun ’s dwelling! Dhether it is
the >gyptian %ten# or the +ssyro-0abylonian enclosure o$ the sun, the %reek wheels o$ I ion, Dionysus, or Triptolemus, the -indu world wheel or (hakra, the 'e ican "shield# o$ the sun-god—the enclosure consistently appears with wings andRor tail $eathers! I$ the ancients soon $orgot the special $orm o$ the winged enclosure Hi!e!,

I, they did not lose the general idea!

*.6. T#$ E-,2tian ;in-$d K#$2 $ + t#$ T! nin- On$

*.:. T#$ A((, ian ;in-$d "i "l$

*.<. T#$ Hind! C#aF a o ;in-$d ;#$$l o' t#$ %(!n&

*/>. In(" i2tion at M$#t$ #an$+ t#$ C$nt al P i(on o' Con(tantino2l$

*/*. D a;in- ' o) a t#i t$$nt#B"$nt! , ;indo; in A!A$ $ "at#$ d al

*/.. M$Ai"an ;in-$d bi d

*//. D$tail ' o) 'i-. 60 (#o;in- $n"lo($d (!n on ba"F o' bi d

*/0. 3a4 P$ (ian A#! a MaIda+ d;$llin- in t#$ ;in-$d $n"lo(! $C 3b4 A((, ian ;in-$d -od A((#! + in t#$ ;in-$d $n"lo(! $. Not$ t#at bot# t#$ A((, ian and P$ (ian $Aa)2l$( "onn$"t t#$ -od9( (Fi t ;it# t#$ tail
'$at#$ (. In t#$ an"i$nt M$(o2ota)ian 2i"to- a2#( t#$ %(Fi t& )$an %)o!ntain.&

*/1. AIt$" (#i$ld+ ;it# tail '$at#$ (

*/5. M$(o2ota)ian ;in-$d "i "l$( "on'i ) 3a4 t#at t#$ band $n"lo($( t#$ (!nB" o(( and 3b4 t#at t#$ band di(2la,( a " $("$nt.

*/6. I(i(+ 2 ot$"tin- t#$ (!nB-od ;it# #$ $At$nd$d ;in-( The relation o$ the wings to the enclosure is vital to any meaning$ul interpretation o$ the winged god or goddess! Surely we are not simply dealing with a venerated bird gradually translated into a god Has many authorities proposeI! ,rom the beginning, the wings belonged to the Saturnian band! In many instances the artists show the great god residing within or issuing $rom the winged circle H$igs! 63Ga T bI! In the symbolism o$ the >gyptian goddess /ut one sees the underlying identity o$ the outstretched wings and the cosmic womb! Though /ut personi$ies the band o$ the (osmos, she is o$ten depicted standing erect with arms and wings e tended outward and upward H$ig! 6@@I in striking accord with the prototypal $orm ! The spread wings are those which enclose and protect the central sun, $or the king beseeches the goddess1 "'other /ut, spread
thy wings over me, encircle HmeI with thy arms in health and li$e that I may be inside thee, that thou HmayestI be my protection!# 653: To be embraced by the outspread wings is to dwell within the great goddess, in the womb! Daily the goddess "conceives you, she bears you, she puts you within her wing!# 65G2 /othing could be more $utile than attempting to resolve the enigmatic language in conventional Hor "natural#I terms! 0ut when re$erred to the overlapping images o$ the Saturnian con$iguration , the ritual terminology acAuires actually do enclose the sun within the celestial womb!

an e traordinary precision! The outstretched and upraised wings

/o less remarkable is the location o$ the all-seeing >ye upon the crescent wing or wings1 The >ye o$ -orus gleams upon the wing o$ Thoth!65G6 The >ye o$ -orus is placed on the wing o$ his brother Set!65G@ +ll $igures o$ the primeval bird reveal a common $eature1 they dwell upon the cosmic mountain! Indeed, as already observed, it is the 'ount, rendered as the "tail $eathers,# which makes intelligible the common interpretation o$ the
polar crescent as outstretched wings!

>gyptian myths say that at the dawn o$ the world the great god took the $orm o$ the 0ennu bird or =hoeni , radiating light $rom its e tended wings and perched atop the Pri"eval 1ill The 0ennu was the "Soul# o$ <e, which means
that it issued directly $rom <e, congealing out o$ the primeval matter, or waters! HThus bennut means "matter# or "issue,# while bennu means the "bread# o$ the gods, the primeval matter organi*ed into a circle!I

*/:. P $#i(to i" Ho2i i)a-$ o' ;in-$d $a t# )ot#$ .

*/<. M$(o2ota)ian $a-l$ (!22o tin- divin$ 'i-! $ b$t;$$n it( ;in-(. The relation o$ the =rimeval -ill to the =hoeni or 0ennu is summari*ed by (lark1 "Since the waters were in absolute
darkness the emergence o$ %od meant the coming o$ light, the $irst morning! ,or the -eliopolitans morning was marked by the shining o$ light on an erect pillar or pyramidion on a support which could re$lect the rays o$ the rising sun! +t the beginning a lightbird, the =hoeni , had alighted on the sacred stand, known as the 0enben, to initiate the great age o$ the visible %od! The rising o$ the mound and the appearance o$ the =hoeni are not consecutive events but parallel statements, two aspects o$ the supreme creative moment!#65G3 To the same elementary image belongs the winged ?hepera, resting upon the tet or pillar o$ the (osmos, and supporting the %ten with outstretched wings!65GG The Pyra"id Te-ts speak o$ the "'ountain o$ the zehzeh-bird,#65G5 or "the =illar o$ the zehzeh-bird,#65G8

Similarly, the Sumerian Imdugud, who "looks down upon the mountain,#65G7 was said to have his home on the northern 'ount 'asiusB while his counterparts—the =ersian Saena or Simurgh and the -indu %aruda dwelt upon the polar mountains o$ -era 0ere*aiti and 'eru! 65G4 +ccordingly, the +ssyro-0abylonians consistently located the winged circle o$ the "sun# atop the cosmic pillar! 65G: The natives o$ /orthwest Siberia $i upon their symbols o$ the world pillar a wooden $igure o$ a bird sometimes with two heads! The winged $igures which so o$ten adorn the summit o$ +merican Indian totem poles provide an obvious parallel!

*0>. M$(o2ota)ian ",lind$ ($al( indi"at$ t#$ "lo($ $lation o' t#$ %(!n&Bbi d( ;in-( to t#$ t;o 2$aF( o' t#$
"o()i" )o!ntain.

9ike all $igures o$ the crescent, the e panded wings, alternately embracing the central sun $rom the le$t and $rom the right Hor $rom above and belowI, appear in the role o$ the twins! The goddess /ut may be presented in the primary $orm B but two secondary divinities $lank the goddess to the right and le$t, e tending their wings

toward each other so as to $orm a complete enclosure! These winged twins are eAuivalent to Isis and /ephthys, the "two kites# who, standing to the right and le$t, together enclose the sun-god within their wings! + spell o$ the +offin Te-ts reads1 Isis comes and /ephthys comes, one o$ them $rom the west Kliterally the rightL and one o$ them $rom the east Kliterally the le$tL, one o$ them as a kite and one o$ them as a screecher ! ! ! They prevent -orus o$ the Two 9ands $rom

(ompare this line $rom the Pyra"id Te-ts( ! ! ! This ?ing has become pure through the eye o$ -orus, his ill is removed by the Two ?ites o$ .siris!6556 To be puri$ied and protected within the >ye is to be made strong by the "Two ?ites# o$ the le$t and right H , I, whose counterpoised wings shadow out the $ull circle o$ the >ye! The same twin birds compose the crown1 . you two kites who are on the wings o$ Thoth, you two who are on the crown ! ! !655@ Thus the goddesses Isis and /ephthys are said to have placed themselves upon the head o$ the great god "as the
two kites# and these, in turn, are identi$ied as the two uraei serpents and the two >yes—all $igures o$ the bisected womb or enclosure!6553 +nd the proo$ o$ this identity is the very name o$ the "two kites!# They are the Tcherti# which means nothing more than the two halves o$ the tcher# the "enclosure# or "boundary,# o$ the %ten


Int$ "onn$"t$d S,)bol(
+ comprehensive discussion o$ the Saturnian crescent’s wide-ranging mythical $orms would reAuire vastly more space than
available here, but a brie$ summary should be su$$icient to indicate the breadth o$ the symbolism! Supplementing the imagery discussed above are the $ollowing mythical versions o$ the crescent!

The Plant of Life
>gyptian sources relate that the original dwelling o$ the solitary god took the $orm o$ a shining lotus—called
"the %reat 9otus that issued $rom the pool in the Island o$ the Two ,lames, the =rovince o$ the 0eginning!# The lotus "initiated light# at the ",irst .ccasion in the -igh -ill at the 0eginning o$ (oming into > istence!# 655G

+ccording to the legend, the lotus sprang up $rom the watery abyss, emerging $rom the *hu Hluminous matterI
erupting $rom the creator! .ne o$ the >gyptian names $or this plant o$ li$e was &efer Te" H"the young or beauti$ul Tem#I, a personi$ication o$ the "/orth Dind# or breath o$ <e! In (hapter (9SSIV o$ the !ook of the .ead# the deceased announced "I grow bright like /e$er-Tem, who is the lotus at the nostrils o$ <e, when he comes $orth in the 'ount o$ %lory each day!# <e is thus "that great god who is within the lotus bud o$ gold!#6555

Inscriptions at Dendera show the king o$$ering a lotus to the god -orus with the words, "I o$$er thee the $lower,
which was in the beginning, the glorious lily o$ the great water! Thou camest $orth $rom the midst o$ its leaves in the town o$ (hmun H-ermopolis magnaI and didst lighten the earth, which was still wrapped in darkness!# 6558

=arallels to the >gyptian cosmic lotus, as the home o$ the great god, will be $ound in all sections o$ the world, including the +mericas! The 'ayans knew the $lower as "the $orm o$ the moisture o$ heaven, the substance o$ heaven, the yellow blossom o$ heaven!#6557 9ooking back to the creation a 'ayan te t recalls, "Then it was that the $lower sprang up,
wide open ! ! ! Thereupon the heart o$ the $lower came $orth to set itsel$ in motion! ,our-$old K can-hek# literally "$our-branched#L was the place o$ the $lower and +h ?in Socbiltun was set in the centre!6554

*0*. T#$ 2 i)$val (!n9( bi t# in t#$ lot!(

*0.. T#$ )anB"#ild Ho !( on t#$ lot!( blo((o) 'uch the same tradition occurs in 'esopotamia, where a 0abylonian te t depicts the plant o$ li$e emerging in >ridu, the dwelling on the cosmic sea1 HInI >ridu a stalk grew over-shadowing1 in a holy place did it become greenB its root was o$ white crystal which stretched toward the deepB Hbe$oreI >a was its course in >ridu, teeming with $ertilityB its seat was the central place o$ the earth1 its $oliage was the couch o$ Qikum Hthe primeval motherI! Into the heart o$ its holy house which spread its shade like a $orest hath no man entered ! ! ! In the midst o$ it was Tammu*!655:

*0/. T!tBAnF#BA)on+ 2 $($nt$d in t#$ 'o ) o' N$'$ BT$). This "bright plant which grows up $rom the apsu Kthe cosmic seaL# 6582 is clearly an early prototype o$ the $amous -indu soma and Iranian haoma plants both recogni*ed as belonging originally to the gods in heaven! 6586 HThus the haoma is "the $irst o$ the trees planted by +hura 'a*da in the $ountains o$ li$e!#I658@ >gyptian, -indu, and 0uddhist sources either show the head o$ the great god emerging $rom a lotus or depict the god in a resting position in or above the lotus! It is logical to re$er such imagery o$ the lotus-seat to the archetypal sun-in-crescent and all the more so because the plant o$ li$e is regularly identi$ied with the crescent "moon!#6583 The soma and haoma plants are widely discussed as $igures o$ the "moon!# The 'ayan 0ook o$ (hilam 0alam re$ers to the "moon# as the "$lower o$ the night!#658G Similarly, the Sumero-0abylonian crescent o$ /annar or Sin is the "lo$ty plant, magni$icent, whose
abundance never ceases!#6585

De have seen that the 0abylonians depicted the crescent o$ Sin as the support, or lower hal$, o$ the world wheel ! The relationship illuminates -indu and 0uddhist symbolism o$ the cosmic wheel resting in the e-panded leaf of a lotus H$ig! 6GGI! The lotus supports and reaches around the celestial "land# and is thus always identi$ied with the mother goddess, the $emale personi$ication o$ the wheel! In the ritual o$ the Satapatha !rah"ana a lotus lea$ becomes the "birthplace o$ +gni# and "the symbol o$ his womb!# &pon the symbolic lotus lea$ the priest lays a round gold disk said to represent the "sun!# "The lotus means the Daters, and this earth is a lea$ thereo$ ! ! ! and this same earth is +gni’s womb,# reads the te t! 6588 It is imagery o$ this sort which yields such epithets o$ the -indu great god as "lotus-born,# "lotus-seated,# or "lotus-navelled!#6587 The connection o$ the lotus and "lotus-born# god with the sun-in-crescent is eAually evident in the eAuation o$ the lotus and the cosmic ship! In the >gyptian system the ship and the lotus are synonymous1 the great god sails in a
lotus-ship# which the artists illustrate either by a lotus blossom in the centre o$ the ship or by a lotus terminating either one end or both ends o$ the vessel!6584

*00. Hind! ;o ld ;#$$l $(tin- in lot!( l$a'.

*01. Lot!( blo((o) E (#i2 a( ),t#i"al i)a-$ o' t#$ Sat! nian " $("$nt

+nd the same eAuation occurs among the -indus, who tell us that the cosmic ship %rgha was the lotus on which the
great god sailed in the beginning!658:

/ow i$ the blossom o$ the plant o$ li$e is the circumpolar crescent, one can assume that the "stem# is the cosmic
mountain! The >gyptians represented the great god’s "sceptre# as a lotus

and in both the hieroglyphs and in art this

sceptre becomes the pillar upholding "heaven# !6572 9otus-pillars are o$ten depicted supporting the god ’s 6576 shrine or throne, while at other times the great god is depicted resting upon a lotus column! 0ut the plant o$ li$e was also represented as a papyrus—and called "the %leaming Sceptre o$ =apyrus!# 657@ + te t published by Dumichen says "Thou art the >ye o$ <e, at the tip o$ the papyrus-stem!# 6573 .$ course other te ts say that it is the light-pillar Shu which holds alo$t the >ye, but there can be no contradiction1 the >gyptian word shu means
both "light-pillar# and "papyrus!#

The identity o$ the two powers is also e plicit in -indu iconography! The soma plant, to which many hymns o$ the Rig Veda are devoted, is "the stabili*er and supporter o$ heaven!# 657G The introductory verse o$ the .asaku"araccrita includes as a $igure o$ the world a is "the stalk o$ the lotus where 0rahma resides!# 6575 .$ the cosmic lotus in 0uddhism, '! 'us writes1 "The prolongation o$ the stem, which is the a is o$ the sensible world, bears at the summit o$ the universe the spiritual lotus-throne ! ! !#6578 Thus does the cosmic 'ount 'eru become the "lotus-mountain,#6577 and in the same way the Iranian haoma plant appears as the "imperishable pillar o$ li$e!#6574

*05. T#$ Lot!( "ol!)n (! )o!nt$d b, t#$ Ho !(B'al"on

*06. E-,2tian E,$ 3E " $("$nt $n"lo(! $4 (!22o t$d on t#$ lot!( "ol!)n

*0:. Sat! n idin- on #i( ($ 2$ntin$ "#a iot and ;i$ldin- #i( (",t#$ 3' o) Po$ti"on A(t ono)i"on+ 8$ni"$+ *0:14.

Saturn comes to power wielding his curved sword or scythe, which writers generally connect with the crescent
"moon!# The %reek ?ronos carries as his special weapon the curved harpe and it has o$ten been proposed that this weapon lies behind the relatively late astronomical sign o$ Saturn, ! The harpe and the winged harpies Hbirdlike $emale monstersI surely trace to the same root! HThat is, "sword# and "wings# re$er to the same cosmic $orm!I

In a Sumerian hymn, /inurta, or Saturn, invokes the "sickle o$ my +nuship# Ki!e!, o$ kingshipL and the weapon is called at once sharur and shargaz—both names o$ Sin# the crescent "moon!#657: Sin is the "sickle# and the "curved sabre# o$ the great

The >gyptians knew the sword as the khepesh, written with the signs


, or as the "a# whose sign,

, depicts a sickle $ashioned $rom the Cawbone o$ an animal! The Pyra"id Te-ts identi$y the great god’s sword as "a sharp strong horn#6546 Hsword N hornI! 0ut khepesh also means the "shoulder# or "two arms# o$ heaven! +nd here the symbolism meshes precisely with that o$ the 0abylonian system, which declares the sickle o$ Sin to be "the two arms# o$ >nlil, the cosmic mountain! That the sword shares in the coherent imagery o$ the Saturnian crescent is suggested by other traditions also! In %enesis 31@G, Fahweh is said to have placed in front Htranslators say to the ">ast#I "o$ the garden o$ >den kerubim and the
$laming blade o$ the sword which turns, to keep the way o$ the tree o$ li$e!# I$ the thesis presented here is correct, the winged kerubim re$er to the same revolving crescent as the turning sword! 'any scholars logically connect the -ebrew kerubi" with the +ssyro0abylonian kirubi, the winged and horned beasts who in the $orm o$ twins guard and de$ine the limits o$ the great god’s enclosure! In the +ssyrian vocabulary, kirub means "bull,# while kirubu designates a large species o$ bird o$ prey! The revolving "sword# o$ %enesis, on the other hand, is the khereb# a "curved sickle,# recogni*ed as the -ebrew counterpart o$ the %reek harpe and the >gyptian khepesh 654@

The Altar

,or reasons which I intend to e amine at length in a subseAuent volume, the Saturnian crescent was the receptacle o$ a primordial "sacri$ice!# Together the crescent and cosmic mountain >gyptian hieroglyphs record the altar by the sign $ormed "the +ltar o$ the Dorld!#

! &pon the altar—called the +ltar o$ -etep H"rest#I or +ltar

o$ the &atchet H>yeI—rests all the $ood and drink o$ the celestial habitation!

In the !ook of the .ead# the great god comes $orth "in the city o$ +nnu, upon the altar o$ the lady o$ the two lands,# and it is clear that the >gyptians conceived the altar as supporting and embracing the entire celestial domain Hor twin "lands#I! 6543 -ence the sign —glyph o$ the "holy domain#—shows the womb o$ /ut , resting on the altar!

+lways, the altar conveys the same signi$icance as the primordial "world!# +mong the -indus, notes >liade, "the
building o$ the altar was conceived as a creation o$ the world! The water with which the clay was mi ed was the same as the primeval waters!#654G "+s large as the altar is, so large is the earth,# reads the Satapatha !rah"ana 6545

The same altar may be termed "the navel o$ the earth ! ! ! the lap KwombL o$ +diti,# in close correspondence with >gyptian

-ebrew and 'uslim thought, according to Densinck, considered the altar "as a symbolic representation o$ the earth!#6547 + 'idrash asks, "Dhere is the navelE In Jerusalem! 0ut the navel itsel$ is the altar!# 6544 .$ the primeval altar, tradition says, "Its top reached to heaven!#654: The god upon the altar is simply the "sun# resting in the pillared crescent ! H-ence the image o$ the sun-in-crescent upon the Sabaean altar in $ig! 83!I >arly prototypes o$ the altar throughout the ancient world not only connect it with the central pillar o$ the (osmos65:2 but suggest a radical association with the cosmic bull, while altars $rom =ersia to (rete to +$rica were either decorated with horns or given the shape o$ horns! "The horned altar# and "the horns o$ the altar#
were, o$ course, common phrases among the ancient -ebrews!

A*ove and (elo0) Left and Right
'ore than once, in discussing common translations o$ ancient sources, I have had occasion to re$er to the inappropriate use o$ the phrases "east and west,# "north and south!# and "heaven and earth!# Such terminology, I have
suggested arises $rom the habit o$ reading solar imagery into non-solar te ts and o$ interpreting the great god’s cosmic dwelling in terrestrial terms!

Dithout attempting to provide a complete analysis o$ the problem Hwhich I intend to e plore in a separate volume on >gyptian religionI, I shall simply indicate the manner in which the Auestion can be resolved by re$erence to the Saturnian con$iguration! .$ course, there can be little progress toward an improved understanding o$ ancient religious te ts until the translators and commentators acknowledge the celestial character o$ the imagery! ,rom start to $inish the hymns and liturgies deal with cosmic $igures and cosmic events! +nd when these mythical $igures and events are connected with a primordial "land# it is imperative that one understand this "land# as the enclosure o$ the original great god,
who is Saturn! The te ts deal, not with geography, but with cos"ography—the map o$ the celestial kingdom! In relation to Saturn’s dwelling the words which translators render as "east# and "west# actually mean something Auite di$$erent! +nd while the modern phrase "heaven and earth# suggests little concrete meaning, the archaic terms so translated convey a very speci$ic sense!

In the >gyptian language the word rendered as "east# is %btet H%bt or %btiI, while the word translated "west# is %"entet Hor
%"entiI! To what did the >gyptians re$er by these wordsE

I$ the $irst mistake o$ the translators is to assume that %btet and %"entet are geographical terms, the second is to assume
that they necessarily re$er to opposite regions, or directions! Standard translations are based on the premise that the "sun# rises in the east and sets in the west! Fet to anyone $ollowing this logic ancient >gyptian te ts will leave the impression that the priests were continually $orget$ul o$ the place o$ sunrise and sunset! I$ %"entet was the "west,# why did the >gyptians repeatedly describe the great god "coming $orth# or "renewing himsel$# in %"entet= I cite below a $ew conventional translations1

0ehold the coming $orth $rom the Dest!65:6 .siris, -e who arises in -ealth, -e at the -ead o$ the Dest!65:@ The arms o$ the inhabitants o$ the Dest receive thee in thy $orms o$ glory and reCuvenation!65:3

I make mysel$ young HinI the $air Dest!65:G Dhen thou comest $orth in peace there arise shouts o$ delight to thee, . thou lord o$ heaven, thou prince o$ the Dest!65:5 .$ such imagery as this, ?ristensen writes1 "Dhat was meant is evidently that the sun, when it goes down does not die but reaches the hidden $ountain o$ li$e!# 65:8 0ut one naturally remains skeptical o$ such conCecture! Do the hymns cited above portray the solar orb "when it goes down#E The truth is that i$ we substituted "east# $or "west# in these lines they would
appear to solar mythologists as per$ectly reasonable descriptions o$ the rising sun! <ather than the "west,# %"entet is simply the -oly 9and, the primeval enclosure! The head, or governor, o$ %"entet is the central sun, which does not rise or set, but "goes in and out# Hi!e!, grows bright and diminishesI with the $ull cycle o$ each "day!# The great god’s "coming $orth in +mentet# signi$ies the beginning o$ the day! H+n eAuivalent phrase, "coming $orth by day,# occurs repeatedly in >gyptian te tsI! Thus (hapter (VII o$ the !ook of the .ead is "The (hapter o$ %oing Into and (oming .ut $rom the %ate o$ the %ods o$ +mentet!# 65:7 (hapter SVII e tols the great god’s "coming out and going in# within %"entet65:4!

It is the same thing to say that the god grows bright and diminishes within the womb o$ the mother goddess! There was, in $act, a goddess +ment whom the >gyptians eAuated with Isis, while Isis hersel$ was "the Divine 'other, 9ady o$ +mentet!#65:: The phrase has no original connection with geographyB it simply re$ers to Isis as the womb or enclosure o$ the -oly 9and above! -athor is the same goddess1 "-athor, 9ady o$ +mentet ! ! ! , 9ady o$ the -oly (ountry!#6822 >lsewhere the te ts identi$y %"entet as the circumpolar Tuat# the womb o$ /ut!6826 There is no association with the geographical "west!# To reside within the -oly 9and o$ %"entet is to rest in the mother-womb, which goes by many names! In te t a$ter te t the
priests seek to show that the various names o$ the -oly 9and signi$ied the same enclosure! Dhen the !ook of the .ead calls .siris the "mighty one who comest $orth $rom /ut, thou king in the city o$ /i$u-ur, thou %overnor o$ +mentet, thou lord o$ +btu H+bydosI,# 682@

the re$erence is not to di$$erent dwellings but to di$$erent names o$ the same dwelling! Dhat has caused so much con$usion is the $act that the -oly 9and is a bisected circle! The central sun is he who "unites the two Tuats# the two regions o$ +mentet!#6823 -ere one must reckon with the parado o$ the celestial twins! ,n na"ing
the two divisions of the 1oly :and the Egyptians brought together two independent na"es for the enclosure as a whole# pairing the" as opposites

This development o$ the language stands out in the case o$ Isis and /ephthys, both o$ whom, independently, denote the $ull circle o$ the %ten ! Isis is the "house,# "chamber,# or "throne# o$ the central sun, while /ephthys is the "9ady o$ the -ouse# Hor simply "9ady--ouse#I! +s a pair# however, Isis and /ephthys personi$y two halves o$ the circle, the "le$t
and the right,# suggested by the counterpoised positions o$ the revolving crescent



In the same way the >gyptians paired the name %"entet with another name o$ the same dwelling %btet—yielding the dual kingdom o$ %"entet-%btet 682G Dhen Coined as opposites, %"entet and %btet are precisely synonymous with the twins Isis and
/ephthys! 0y this union, %"entet acAuires the literal meaning "region o$ the right# and %btet# "region o$ the le$t!# The idea that the god-king, standing in the centre o$ the enclosure, balances the divisions o$ the le$t and right will be $ound repeatedly in both the te ts and in art! That translators commonly use the terms "east and "west# has caused a maCor con$usion in conventional translations!

9ike %"entet# in other words, the >gyptian term %btet Hconventionally translated "east#I may re$er either to the entire celestial
kingdom or to one o$ its two divisions! ,undamentally, %btet is the sacred land at the centre and summit! The king, in the Pyra"id Te-ts# seeks to attain this dwelling, with the words, "'ay I ascend and li$t mysel$ up to the sky as the great star in the midst o$ +btet!# "I have come into heaven, and I embrace my seat which is in +btet,# reads a line $rom the !ook of the .ead 6825 -ere, any connection o$ %btet with the "east# or the solar orb e ists only in the mind o$ the translators!

The same inappropriate use o$ terms is evident in the phrase "heaven and earth# recurring in virtually all accepted translations! "The universe as a whole was re$erred to as Pheaven and earth,’# states ,rank$ort! 6828 The two terms in Auestion are
pet Htranslated "heaven#I and ta Htranslated "earth#I!

9iterally, the phrase "pet and ta# means "the above and below!# /umerous >gyptian illustrations indicate that, together, the two
divisions composed an enclosure around the "sun#-god! +s opposites the pet and ta mean the celestial twins, here personi$ying the revolving crescent in its alternate positions above and below the stationary god!

0ut this does not mean that pet necessarily denotes "above# any more than ta necessarily means "below!# +s a matter o$ $act, many signs e tol "two pet## one above and one below Hdenoted by the sign and its inverse I! +nd $ew phrases are more common in >gyptian sources than the "two ta## e plicitly re$erring to the upper and lower divisions o$ the celestial
kingdom! ,undamentally, the pet is the two$old circle o$ Saturn’s (osmos, and the ta is the same circle, conceived as an enclosure o$

"land# around the central sun! ,t is only as a pair that pet and ta acAuire the "eaning "above and below # +nd in no sense does the translation "heaven and earth# convey the tangible signi$icance o$ the terms!

The >gyptian "circle o$ above and below# is the womb o$ /ut, the "holy abode# Hwritten with the sign

I!6827 Fet /ut’s

identity with the $ull circle did not prevent the >gyptians $rom pairing /ut with another goddess, /aunet, so that together they represented the two halves o$ the circle, represented by the signs o$ the "above# H/ut I and the "below# H/aunet I!

In the same way the priests Coined /ut with the male $igure %eb, identi$ying /ut with the upper hal$ o$ the enclosure and %eb with the lower! +ccording to tradition the separation o$ the portions was carried out by the god Shu, the pillar with outstretched arms ! ,ndeed# it was the ar"s of Shu >i e , the Saturnian crescent? which divided the
circle into upper and lower regions# according to the original tradition

The division o$ the enclosure into male HlowerI and $emale HupperI halves gave rise to two interrelated signs o$ masculine and $eminine connotation! The sign depicts the male power Husually translated "lord#I while the same semicircular image inverted Hand in smaller scaleI signi$ies "$eminine!# Together the upper and lower hemispheres
compose the complete circle o$ the %ten or shen bond! To translate masculine and $eminine divisions as "heaven# and "earth# simply destroys the interrelated symbolism o$ the enclosure!

*0<. N!t and G$b+ a( t#$ Abov$ and t#$ B$lo;. The terminology in Auestion H"le$t and right,# "above and below#I concerns celestial regions marked out by the revolving Saturnian crescent, which is the ever-turning $ace o$ the central sun Hor the "two# $aces o$ the twin godI! This is why the sign , which may also be presented inversely , means, among other things, heru, or "$ace!# The herui are the "two
$aces# o$ -orus, or o$ -orus and Set, acknowledged personi$ications o$ the "&pper 9and# and the "9ower 9and!#

=ertaining to the same imagery is the notion o$ two semicircular "mounds# Coined so as to $orm a $ull circle! The
>gyptian "mound# sign is nothing more than one hal$ o$ the Auartered womb o$ /ut ! Its meaning is "division o$ the holy abode!# The central sun may be designated either "the %reat .ne in the 'ound# or the dweller in "two# mounds!6824

The two mounds are the two atenti or aterti# the two halves o$ the %ten %tent# written with the sign Hone hal$ o$ the elongated shen bond, or cartouche I, signi$ies a "division into opposite regions!# The te ts speak o$ an atert "eht# the
"lower hal$# o$ the %ten6 and an atert she"a# the "upper hal$!# +ny attempt to understand such terminology in terrestrial terms can only yield con$usion!

The divisions o$ the "right and le$t# and "above and below# are not only mani$estly cosmic, their special character derives $rom the relation o$ the revolving crescent to the stationary god and his enclosure! Dhen the crescent passes below the god it "supports# him, and when it arches above , it "bows# to him! Thus the te ts say o$ the cosmic twins1 "The two mistresses o$ 0uto Kthe celestial cityL accompany you to the right and le$t ! ! ! , they support you and bow to you!# 682: The same thing is said o$ the twin regions1 The two regions o$ +btet Kthe le$tL and +mentet Kthe rightL make adoration unto thee, bowing low and paying homage unto Ksethes# "supporting#L thee!6862 . luminary, the lower and upper halves o$ -eaven KpetL come to thee and bow low in adoration!6866 That the bowing region means the upper hal$ o$ the enclosure Hin opposition to the "supporting# region below I is demonstrated by the symbolism o$ /ut! Dhile /ut, in her relationship to %eb represents "above,# this Auality o$ the
goddess may be represented either by the sign depicting the "above# as a bowing goddess!

or another sign o$ precisely the same signi$icance—

Saturn,s %ay

In the revolving crescent we possess the key to >gyptian symbolism o$ the "day# and "night,# $or the crescent’s
position simply re$lected the position o$ the solar orb in relation to the terrestrial observer! .ne should think o$ the revolving crescent

, "le$t# , "below# , "right# I, all the while standing in one place! The $our positions HregionsI will correspond to $our segments o$ the archaic day!
as Saturn’s ship, in which the god voyaged around the $our regions H"above#

6! The cycle began with the descent o$ the crescent as it moved $rom its position "above# Hsolar orb directly overheadI to its position directly to the "le$t# o$ Saturn Hsolar sunsetI! .n reaching the region o$ the "le$t,# Saturn
and the crescent began to grow bright, due to the darkening o$ the heavens as the solar orb sank below the hori*on! -ence, in the general symbolism o$ the "le$t and right# H%btet and %"entetI the le$t is the region o$ "dawn# or "growing bright!#

The cosmic ship, on reaching %btet# the "le$t,# became the Matet ship, whose name means "becoming strong!# It was, in other
words, a descending ship which grew bright—a $act which has $rustrated many solar mythologists, who would have e pected the "dawn# or "morning# to e press itsel$ in a rising solar bark! "I descend in the ship o$ the morning,# states the god! 686@

Including the polar mount, the image o$ the "dawn# is hieroglyph

! The >gyptians gave human $orm to the image in the

, symbol o$ the tua or "morning!# 'ythically, the god "awakens,# and the spirits o$ the celestial city come to li$e, "praising# and "supporting# the god with the descending crescent-arms! It was these aspects o$ the archaic dawn which supplied
the >gyptian pillar-sign

with its interconnected meanings1 "to awaken,# "to praise,# "to support!#

@! The supreme moment o$ the "day# was that at which the Saturnian crescent sat sAuarely upon the central pillar, the two horns ! +t this moment the solar orb stood directly beneath the terrestrial observer, and the entire Saturnian con$iguration shone its brightest!
o$ the crescent reaching eAually to the le$t and right

3! +s the crescent traveled toward the region o$ the "right#

Hwhich it reached at the solar sunriseI Saturn’s brilliance began to diminish! The god’s vessel became the Se"ktet ship, or the ship o$ "becoming weak!# The god "sails upstream# in the Se"ktet ship Hagain, a surprise to solar mythologistsI! In the dual kingdom o$ %btet-%"entet the region o$ %"entet Hthe "right#I is thus the domain o$ declining, or "going in!# G! The cycle was completed with the return o$ the crescent to the position "above# overheadI! This point in the cycle, when Saturn’s light was most subdued, was the archaic "night!# Hsolar orb directly

The cycle o$ the day and night is one o$ the most pervasive themes in >gyptian art, and the key is the revolving crescent! In connection with the cosmic twins, I have already noted that the primal pair has its origin in the alternating positions o$ the crescent around the central sun, and that this symmetrical opposition is depicted in illustrations o$ the daily cycle! The artists o$ten showed a pair o$ arms HN crescentI reaching around the %ten
alternately $rom above and below, or $rom the le$t and right! These are not only pictures o$ the dual regions, but o$ the cycle o$ "coming $orth and diminishing!#

+round this cycle the >gyptians built an impressive range o$ symbols, and the underlying connection with the revolving crescent re$lects itsel$ in two basic rules! 6! +ll symbols o$ the "day# Hin opposition to "night#I have their origin in the image o$ the crescent "below!# This is why the signs
$or the "lower# region generally overlap with signs $or the "day!# In $act, a number o$ interrelated ideas converge on the same celestial image H , "masculine power!#



I1 "below,# "lower,# "day,# "coming $orth,# "li$e,# "e istence,# "awake,# "support,# "celebrate,#

@! Similarly, the symbols o$ the "night# generally coincide with the symbols o$ the "above,# all taking their meaning $rom the
inverted crescent H , , , I, The meanings include1 "above,# "upper,# "mound,# "night, diminished,# "negation, absence,# "asleep,# "concealment,# "bowing,# "$eminine,# "arrival# Hat the topI, and "completion# Ho$ the cycleI!

-ere are a $ew o$ the key signs1



! The signs not only portray the *hut or 'ount o$ %lory, they signi$y "the coming $orth# o$ the sun-god, who , i!e!, the also means "the below!#

shines between the two peaks o$ the right and le$t! In this sense the signs have e actly the same meaning as the image "day!# 0ut the mountain sign

Dhile >gyptologists like to think o$ the two peaks as $i ed on our earth, the >gyptians themselves knew that the great god "sailed# in the *hut or "revolved# round the %ten in the *hut This is why the artists not only placed the two peaks in the revolving ship, but often depicted the" in an inverted position above the %ten The inverted peaks simultaneously mean "the
above# and "concealment# or "obscurity!# Together, the upright and inverted peaks represent both the $ull cycle o$ the day and the $ull circle Habove and belowI o$ the celestial kingdom!

*1>. Khut and An5h) int$ "#an-$abl$ (,)bol( o' t#$ t;inB2$aF$d )o!ntain(

*1*. 3a+ b4 E-,2tian ill!(t ation( o' t#$ AnF#+ ;it# o!t(t $t"#$d a )( #oldin- alo't t#$ At$n. T#$ AnF# i((!$( ' o) t#$ T$t+ t#$ 2illa o' %(tabilit,.& @! ! /o >gyptian sign is more $amiliar to the modern world than the %nkh In >gyptian symbolism the %nkh corresponds in $undamental meaning to the *hut# or 'ount o$ %lory! To convey this eAuation the artists either superimposed the %nkh on the two peaks H$ig! 652I or showed the %ten resting, not on the *hut# but on two arms e tending upward $rom the %nkh H$ig! 656a T bI! The %nkh Hwhose origins the e perts have long debatedI is but a conventionali*ed image o$ the polar con$iguration during the period o$ "coming $orth,# or "li$e!# De have already seen that the image o$ the crescent-enclosure passed into the related $orms , , , ! The %nkh merely adds the central pillar!

Just as the central sun "comes $orth in the 'ount o$ %lory,# so also does it "come $orth in the %nkh# —literally, "in the 'ountain
o$ li$e!# +s a $igure o$ the sun-god’s period o$ brilliance or "activity# the hieroglyph came to signi$y "li$e# generally!


! This sign $or the "upper $ace# o$ the sun-god takes its meaning $rom the crescent in its position "above# ! i!e!, the "night#-time position! Thus, in addition to its meaning as "the upper region# the sign also denotes "obscurity,# "concealment,# and "night!# To show the relation o$ above and below H "night and day#I, the artists o$ten placed the sign , so that together the two images present an enclosure# signi$ying the $ull circle o$ the %ten over the cle$t peak

*1.. To-$t#$ + t#$ %abov$& and t#$ %b$lo;& 3t#$ !2 ai($d a )(4 'o ) t#$ $n"lo(! $ o' %t#$ abov$ and b$lo;.&

*1/. N!t+ t#$ Abov$+ #$ld alo't b, S#!. 3A )( o' S#! E (#i2 E t;in 2$aF( a( 'i-! $( o' t#$ B$lo;4.

G! , , , , ! &praised arms, in >gyptian symbolism, signi$y the crescent "below# , and thus possess the $ull range o$ meanings associated with Saturn’s "day!# The ?a-arms, commonly shown supporting the
%ten# convey the sense o$ "li$e,# "coming $orth!# "support,# and "masculine power# H"below# N "male principle#I! The sign


I denotes "living <e,# while the sign

carries the interrelated meanings "to support,# "to celebrate!#

0ut numerous illustrations also show the ?a-arms embracing the %ten $rom above H$igs! 663, 66GI! -ere they denote
"the upper region,# the region o$ the "night!# -ence the related signs and Hinverted armsI means "cessation,# "absence,# "negation,# and completion!#



crescent above "concealed!# and by e tension, "mysterious,# "secret!#

! In illustrations o$ the daily cycle, these signs o$ the "upper region# Hcorresponding to the I are interchangeable with the image o$ the inverted cle$t peak ! They mean "hidden,#

H(oncerning the sign , however, an additional signi$icance deserves consideration! The two$old enclosure, or circle o$ the cosmic twins—pertaining to symmetrically related positions o$ the crescent—is a circle hal$ light and hal$ shadow! In one character, the twins simply represent the light and dark divisions, so that the inverted semicircle might represent, not the "night#-time crescent, but the shadow in the "day#-time con$iguration ! It is thus highly signi$icant that the sign , read *haibit# means "shadow!# +s the $emale KupperL portion o$ the circle, the *haibit comes to be conceived as the consort o$ the male power Klower regionL! .$ course, one could hardly e pect the >gyptians to rigorously maintain the distinction between the "shadow# and the inverted crescent!I





! +s earlier noted, all symbols o$ the +ten resting in the horns signi$y "coming the horns are inverted over the central sun and pillar! The sign’s meaning is

$orth# and "below!# 0ut in the sign "concealed,# "mysterious!#





! +ll o$ these images o$ the primeval "mound# depict the upper region, marked out by the Hor I means "to arrive Hat the topI,# "to complete , "to arrive!# %enerally the mound signs re$er to the region o$ "sleep,# suggesting the crescent in its "day#-time position! The glyph means

crescent at the completion o$ the daily cycle! Thus the mound sign the Courney Hor cycleI!# (losely related is the sign "death,# or "diminished light!#

The reverse o$ these mound signs is
"golden# or "brilliant!#

4! image

! Dhile the sign denotes the masculine power o$ the (osmos Hthe belowI the inverse denotes the $eminine Hthe aboveI! Dhen the crescent reaches the below the celestial kingdom is in "celebration!# -ence the sign means "celebration,# "$estival o$ li$e!# Though many additional aspects o$ the >gyptian two$old kingdom and the related circle o$ "day and night# need to
be e plored, I cite the above simply to indicate how the Saturnian con$iguration can illuminate certain >gyptian images which have long remained une plained!


(oncerning the relation o$ the >gyptian system to the language and symbols o$ other nations, I o$$er no stead$ast rule! 0ut there is every reason to believe that certain general principles can be applied elsewhere! In ancient Sumerian thought, $or e ample, the "(osmos# is designated by the term an-ki HJensen renders the word as "the
+ll!#I6863 The most common translation o$ an-ki is "heaven and earth!# 0ut the symbol o$ "the +ll# is , and the literal meaning o$ an-ki is "above and below,# suggesting a noteworthy parallel with the >gyptian circle o$ pet-ta +nd Cust as the >gyptian goddess /ut $orms the "circle o$ above and below,# so does the Sumerian goddess Inanna "encompass the an-ki #

To unravel the symbolism o$ the dual kingdom, or o$ the Auartered kingdom, the $irst reAuirement is to put aside prevailing geographical interpretations! The language originated in connection with the celestial dwelling! In the original imagery the phrase "heaven and earth# is meaningless! There is no "north,# "south,# "east,# or "west,# There is
simply the above and below, the le$t and right, the regions o$ coming $orth and declining! +s to the capacity o$ this principle to resolve numerous enigmas o$ ancient speech I have no doubt!

In the $oregoing pages I have attempted to show that the oldest moti$s o$ ritual and myth $ocus on a coherent set o$ ideas—and that these ideas bear no relationship to the present world order! Dhat modern man views as creations o$ a $ragmented and irrational imagination actually pertain to a vision o$ e ceptional simplicity! The (yclopes, dragons, and one-legged giants speak not $or unconstrained speculation, but $or once visible powers! To modern writers, seeking to penetrate the language o$ myth, it is as i$ early races contrived their $antastic symbolism in conscious disdain $or later e$$orts to understand! "+nyone who has ever entered the labyrinth o$ an archaic
culture’s mythical compendia Hthe Pyra"id Te-ts# the Vedas# the TheogonyI can testi$y to a desperate suspicion that there is no thread o$ obCective reality,# con$essed one classicist! Such a suspicion is di$$icult to dispel in the $ace o$ such "primitive# imagery as golden mountains reaching heaven, revolving islands and temples, winged goddesses, cosmic bulls, circular serpents, and descending rivers o$ $ire! 'ythologists Auickly despair o$ rational e planation!

0ut it is the thesis o$ this book that the con$usion results chie$ly $rom the $ailure o$ the modern age to discern the underlying cosmic order to which the myths re$er! .ur reconstruction o$ this order includes the $ollowing elements1 6! In the earliest age recalled by man the planet Saturn was the dominant celestial body! +ncient races the world over record that there was once a "%olden +ge#—a kingdom o$ cosmic harmony ruled by a central light god! /umerous
sources identi$y this light god as the planet Saturn!

@! +ccounts o$ Saturn’s appearance suggest that the planet hung ominously close to the earth! In early ritual and astronomy Saturn
appears as the "primeval sun,# described as a $igure o$ "terri$ying splendour!# Today, Saturn appears as a bare speck o$ light $ollowing the same visual path as the solar orb! 0ut during the legendary %olden +ge, Saturn stood in the north! 9egends $rom every continent depict the primeval sun as an immense, $iery globe at the north celestial pole—the visual pivot o$ the heavens! &nlike the rising and setting solar orb, the primeval sun remained $i ed in one place!

3! The modern age has misread the ancient accounts o$ "the beginning!# These accounts speak o$ a creator, a $irst man, and
a $irst king—all re$erring to the same cosmic $igure! It is impossible to understand these accounts in any conventional sense because the ancient terminology carries meanings radically di$$erent $rom the modern! The legendary creator, $irst man, and $irst king was Saturn!

G! The subCect o$ the global creation legend is a spectacular cosmic event actually witnessed by the ancients1 massive Auantities o$ cosmic debris e ploded $rom Saturn, clouding the heavens and eventually congealing into a vast band around the planet! In mythical terms this band was Saturn ’s created "land# in heaven! Saturn ruled this
celestial kingdom as both the &niversal 'onarch and +dam, the =rimordial "'an!#

5! The ancients drew pictures o$ Saturn incessantly, and these pictures will be $ound around the world! +ncient papyri, clay tablets, monuments, arti$acts, and rock drawings consistently show a central orb surrounded by a circle! This symbol o$ the "enclosed sun# is the original hieroglyph $or the planet Saturn! 8! Images o$ Saturn in his enclosure occur on every page o$ ancient te ts! The band is Saturn ’s spouse, the mother
goddess! 0ut it is also his revolving temple, city, or island in heaven! It is the stationary, but ever-turning "world-wheel# recalled by almost every ancient race! Saturn wears the band as a golden girdle, collar, or crown! -e dwells in it as the pupil o$ the all-seeing >ye! The same band receives mythical interpretation as Saturn’s throne, a receptacle o$ cosmic waters, and an encircling serpent!

7! ,our primary streams o$ light appeared to radiate $rom Saturn, dividing the Saturnian band into Auarters! The symbols o$ these $our streams are the sun-cross and enclosed sun cross ! 'ythically, these are the $our rivers o$ the lost paradise, the $our winds, and the $our pillars o$ Saturn ’s (osmos! The enclosed sun-cross is thus the
universal image o$ the "uni$ied state# on our earth, $or every terrestrial "holy land# was a copy o$ the ideal kingdom above!

4! The same records which describe Saturn’s band and its $our-$old division depict a pillar-like stream ascending the world
a is and visually seeming to sustain Saturn’s dwelling! Two primary images o$ this "cosmic mountain# are and ! In the myths this column appears as the great god ’s single leg, a vertical stream o$ water or air Hthe /orth DindI, and the erect serpent or dragon o$ the deep!

:! <eceiving light $rom the solar orb, the Saturnian band acAuired a brightly illuminated crescent, which, as the earth rotated on its a is, visually revolved around Saturn each day! The light and dark portions o$ the band

$ound e pression in the black and white cosmic twins, while the alternating positions o$ the crescent produced the twins o$ the "right and le$t# or "above and below!# 62! In the polar con$iguration the ancients saw, at once, the cle$t summit o$ the cosmic mountain, with the central sun standing between the peaks o$ the right and le$tB the cosmic bull supporting Saturn between its hornsB Saturn’s crescent-ship on the mountaintopB the heaven-sustaining giant with out-stretched armsB the winged god or goddessB
the plant o$ li$eB Saturn’s turning swordB and the altar o$ the world! It was the relation o$ the Saturnian crescent to Saturn’s period o$ brilliance which produced the original symbolism o$ the $our directions and o$ "day and night!#

In the earliest age the Saturnian con$iguration was the e clusive $ocal point o$ religious rites! 0ut when Saturn ’s
%olden +ge passed away, mankind drew on all aspects o$ nature to commemorate his reign! The solar orb, the moon, meteorological $orces, various animals, mountains and rivers—all mani$est some special Auality o$ the creator-king! +nd where no representative powers were available in nature, the ancients $ashioned their own monuments in earth and stone!

The $irst reAuirement, then, is to distinguish between the primeval, cosmic $orms on the one hand, and, on the other
hand, the representative images chosen to depict those $orms in ritual and myth! De must separate the archetype Hconcealed realityI $rom the sy"bol Hanalogy or representation o$ realityI!

In e amining the world o$ symbolism our predicament is much like that o$ the dwellers in =lato ’s allegorical cave,
who can discern the nature o$ things only through the shadowy specters cast on the wall! 'ost o$ the cave’s inhabitants take the shadows $or the real world, but occasionally a wiser man recogni*es that the shadows are merely the blurred image o$ a more coherent reality!

So it is with ancient myth and ritual! .ne must not con$use the shadow with its source, the symbol with the thing symboli*ed! I$ the >gyptians came to regard the bull as sacred it was only because this animal was the natural counterpart to the 0ull o$ -eaven, whose horns, supporting the very vault o$ the (osmos, "shone like day!# I$ the eagle was similarly
venerated, this was because its e panded wings seemed to mirror a special Auality o$ the "winged# creator, or the "winged# goddess!

The same principle applies to the symbolism o$ the constellations! The vital powers depicted by constellation $igures date back to an era long be$ore men began imposing anthropomorphic and *oomorphic $orms on star groups! 0ut eventually the ancients sought to represent diverse aspects and traditions o$ the great god by sketching them out in the heavens! (ould a patternless group o$ stars have inspired the history o$ mighty .rionE <ather, the story o$ .rion preceded
astrology! HIn $act, .rion is widely acknowledged to be the %reek version o$ the 0abylonian Tammu*-/inurta, the planet SaturnI +nd when priest-astronomers $inally proCected .rion onto the starry dome, they received only the most $eeble assistance $rom the stellar patterns themselves!

9ikewise, our sun, contrary to long-standing opinion, never inspired the idea o$ a "supreme god# and never produced
an original myth o$ creation! .nly in later times did the poets and historians con$use the solar orb with the great god o$ beginnings! 0ut that such a con$usion did occur is crucial to an understanding o$ the development o$ ancient religion! In >gypt, $or e ample, the original ritual o$ the central sun was eventually trans$ormed into eulogies to the solar orbB and the devotion to the celestial kingdom passed $inally into a veneration o$ nature as a whole! Hthe most decisive shi$t occurred in the time o$ +khenaten!I .ne could trace similar developments among numerous races, as priests, philosophers, astronomers, and more practical-minded generations became ever more preoccupied with "this world,# recasting Saturnian imagery within the conte t o$ a less spectacular cosmic order!

<ather than attempt to $ollow the comple process here, I ask the reader to await treatment o$ the subCect in the second volume o$ this work Hentitled The +ataclys"I! The $act is that the traditions reviewed in previous sections supply only
the pre$ace to the Saturnian drama! In these pages I have sought only to demonstrate the reality o$ Saturn’s polar con$iguration, reserving discussion o$ the ultimate calamity $or the subseAuent volume!

Saturn’s death or $all, we will discover, constituted the prototypal catastrophe, recounted by the ancients in numerous $orms and
elaborations! The collapse o$ the celestial kingdomB the world-destroying delugeB the battle with the serpent-dragon o$ the deepB the birth o$ JupiterB the (hild--eroB the resurrection and trans$ormation o$ SaturnB and Saturn’s eventual departure to the distant realm— these are key elements in a story o$ incalculable impact on ancient imagination!

0ut to decipher the myths o$ the great catastrophe one must have clearly in mind the nature o$ the celestial order brought to an end with Saturn’s $all! ,or those willing to pursue the Auestion in an obCective spirit there is the promise o$
dramatic discoveries about man’s past!

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(! J! 0leeker, 1athor and Thoth H9eiden, 6:73I <aymond 0loch, "9e Symbolisme (osmiAue,# SDrie 8rientale Ro"a# Vol! SIV H<ome, 6:57I ,ran* 0oll, "?ronos--elios,# %rchiv fEr Religionswissenschaft# F,F H6:68-6:I +! 0ouche-9eclerA, :0%strologie $recAue H=aris, 64::I <obert 0ri$$ault, The Mothers H9ondon, 6:@7I, Vol! I <obert 0rown, Jr!, Eradinus( River and +onstellatton H9ondon, 6443I Researches into the 8rigins of the Pri"itive +onstellations H. $ord, 6:22I, @ vols! ?! -! 0rugsch, Thesaurus ,nscriptionu" Ggyptiacaru" H9eip*ig, 6443-:6I , Religion und Mythologie der %lten Ggypter H9eip*ig, 64:2I >! +! 0udge, The Egyptian !ook of the .ead H9ondon, 6:26I % 1ieroglyphic Vocabulary to the Theban Recension of the !ook of the .ead H9ondon, 6:66I )ro" )etish to $od in %ncient Egypt H9ondon, 6:3GI 8siris( The Egyptian Religion of Resurrection H/ew Fork, 6:86I The Papyrus of %ni H/ew Fork, 6:87I The $ods of the Egyptians HDover edition, /ew Fork,6:8:I, @ vols The :itany of )unerary 8fferings H/ew Fork, 6:7@I (! +! 0urland, The $ods of Me-ico H/ew Fork, 6:87I >! +! S! 0utterworth,

The Tree at the &avel of the Earth H0erlin, 6:72I The +a"bridge %ncient 1istory H(ambridge, 6:76I, Vol! I Joseph (ampbell, 8riental Mythology HViking (ompass edition, /ew Fork, 6:72I 8ccidental Mythology HViking (ompass edition, /ew Fork, 6:72I 'aurice +! (anney, "+ncient (onceptions o$ ?ingship,# .rienhl Studies in 1onor of +urset/i E Pavry# J! D! (! =avry, ed!
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+lbert J! (arnoy, ,ranian Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! VI H/ew Fork, 6:8GI <! -! (harles, ed!, The %pocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the 8ld Testa"ent H. $ord, 6:63I 'ohini '! (hatterCi, translator, The !hagavad $ita H/ew Fork, 6:82I J! (! (irlot, % .ictionary of Sy"bols H9ondon, 6:8@I <! T! <undle (lark, Myth and Sy"bol in %ncient Egypt H/ew Fork, 6:5:I -ermann (ollit*, "?Unig Fima und Saturn,# in 8riental Studies in 1onor of +urset/i E Pavry# J! D! (! =avry, ed! H9ondon, 6:33I V! (! (! (ollum, "Die Schop$erische 'utter %Uttin,# in .lga ,rUbe-?apteyn, VortrHge Eber $estalt und *ult der $rossen Mutter#
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>! (ombe, 1istoire du +ulte de Sin H=aris, 6:24I Jack <andolph (onrad, The 1orn and the Sword H/ew Fork, 6:57I +! 0! (ook, 9eus( % Study in %ncient Religion H/ew Fork, 6:8GI, 3 vols! +! ?! (oomaraswamy, "Symbolism o$ the Dome,# The ,ndian 1istorical 4uarterly# Vol SIV, /o! 6 H'arch 6:34I % &ew %pproach to the Vedas H9ondon, 6:83I Ele"ents of !uddhist ,conography H/ew Delhi, 6:7@I +! ?! (oomaraswamy and Sister /ivedita, Myths of the 1indus and !uddhists H/ew Fork, 6:87I (umont, The Mysteries of Mithra H/ew Fork, 6:58I James Darmesteter, The 9end%vesta H. $ord, 6442I, 3 vols! -! <! >llis Davidson, $ods and Myths of &orthern Europe# =enguin 0ooks edition H'iddlese , 6:8GI -ertha von Dechend, with %iorgio de Santillana, 1a"let0s Mill H0oston, 6:8:I +rmand Delatte, Itudes sur la :itterature Pythagoricienne H=aris, 6:65I >douard Dhorme, :es Religions de !abylonie et d0%ssyrie H=aris, 6:G:I <oland 0! Di on, 8ceanic Mythology "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! IS H/ew Fork, 6:8GI Ignatius Donnelly, %tlantis# the %ntediluvian 'orld H/ew Fork, 644@I Ragnarok( The %ge of )ire and $ravel H/ew Fork, 6443I '! J! Dresden, "'ythology o$ +ncient Iran,# in Samuel /! ?ramer, ed!, Mythologies of the %ncient 'orld H%arden (ity, 6:86I >! S! Drower, The +oronation of the $reat Sisla" H9eiden, 6:8@I ,ray Diego Duran, !ook of the $ods and Rites# ,ernando -orcasitas and Doris -eyden, trans! H/orman, 6:76I J! >ggeling, trans!, Satapatha !rah"ana HDelhi, 6:83I, 3 vols! <obert >isler, 'elten"antel und 1i""elszelt H'unchen, 6:62I

'ircea >liade, :e +ha"anis"e et les TechniAues %rchaiAues de l0E-tase H=aris, 6:56I The Myth of the Eternal Return HDestminster, 6:5GI Patterns in +o"parative ReliJion H/ew Fork, 6:83I >llen <ussell >merson, ,ndfan Myths HDay*ata, 6:85I Vnel, :es 8rigines de la $enKse et l0Enseigne"ent des Te"ples de l0%ncienne Igypte H=aris, 6:83I +dol$ >rman, The :iterature of
the %ncient Egyptians H/ew Fork, 6:76I

D! F! >vans-Dent*, The Tibetan !ook of the .ead H. $ord, 6:57I -ugh %! >velyn-Dhite, trans!, 1esiod# the 1o"eric 1y"ns and1o"erica H(ambridge, 6:72I %! S! ,aber, % .issertatton on the +abiri H. $ord, 6423I, @ vols!, The 8rigins of Pagan ,dolatry H9ondon, 6468I, 3 vols! <! .! ,aulkner, trans!, The %ncient Egyptian Pyra"id Te-ts H. $ord, 6:8:I , trans!, The +offin Te-ts H. $ord, 6:7GI John (! ,erguson, +hinese Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! VIII H/ew Fork, 6:8GI 'aurice ,lueWel, Philosophy# 4abbala and Vedanta H0altimore, 6:2@I -enri ,rank$ort, The ,ntellectual %dventure of %ncient Man H(hicago, 6:G8I *ingship and the $ods H(hicago, 6:G4I James %! ,ra*er, The $olden !oughJ Vol! l H9ondon, 6:27I The $olden !ough# abridged edition H/ew Fork, 6:83I Theodor -! %aster, Myth# :egend and +usto" in the 8ld Testa"ent H/ew Fork 6:8:I =eter %elling, with -ilda Davidson, The +hariot of the Sun H/ew Fork, 6:8:I 9ouis %in*berg, The :egends of the Bews H=hiladelphia, 6:63I, Vols! I and 66 >ugene %oblet d’+lviella, The Migration of Sy"bols H/ew Fork, 6:58I Delia %oet*, with Sylvanus %! 'orley, Popul Vuh H/orman, 6:52I 0! 9! %o$$, Sv"bok of Prehistoric Mesopota"ia HFale, 6:83I Igna* %old*iher, Mythology %"ong the 1ebrews H/ew Fork, 6:87I <obert %raves, The $reek Myths H/ew Fork, 6:55I <obert %raves, with <aphael =atai, 1ebrew Myths( The !ook of $enesis H/ew Fork, 6:88I 9! %revan, .er *a in Theologie und *Lnigskult der Ggypter des %lten Reichs H%luckstadt, 6:5@I Jacob %rimm, Teutonk Mythology# B S Stallybrass, trans! H/ew Fork, 6:88I, G vols! <ene %uenon, :e Roi du Monde H=aris, 6:54I, :e Sy"bolis"e de ta +roi- H=aris, 6:36I Itudes sur l01indouis"e H=aris, 6:84I )or"es Traditionelles et +ycles +os"iAues H=aris, 6:72I D! ?! (! %uthrie,

The $reeks and Their $ods H0oston, 6:55I 8rpheus and $reek Religion H/ew Fork, 6:88I 'anly =! -all, %n Encyclopedic 8utline of Masonic# 1er"etic# 4abalistic and Rosicrucian Sy"bolic Philosophy HSan ,rancisco,

J! <enel -arris, !oanerges H(ambridge, 6:63I '! Selim -assan, 1y"nes Religieu- du Moyen E"pire H(airo, 6:@4I (! -ent*e, "(osmogonie du 'onde Dresse Debout et du'onde <enverse,# Serie 8rientale Ro"a# Vol! SIV H<ome, 6:57I .as 1aus als 'eltort de Seele HStuttgart, 6:86I -! -eras, The E"pire of the Svastika H0ombay, 6:37I Thor -eyerdahl, *on-Tiki H(hicago, 6:56I -irata, Pure Shinto HFokohama, 6:62I +! '! -ocart, *ingship >8-ford# 6:@7I *ings and +ouncilors H(hicago, 6:72I -ans -oerbiger, $lacial*os"ogonie# @nd edition H9eip*ig, 6:@5I 'aC Sandrnan -olmberg, The $odPtah H9und, 6:G8I &no -olmberg, .er !au" des :ebens H-elsinki, 6:@@I .ie ReligiLsen Vorstellungen der %ltaischen VLlker# ,olklore ,ellows (ommunications, Vol! 6@5 H6:34I Siberian Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! IV H/ew Fork, 6:8GI Indianapolis, Indiana, -istorical Society, 'alu" 8lu" HIndianapolis, 6:5GI T! Jacobsen, Toward the ,"age of Ta""uz H-arvard, 6:72I '! Jastrow, The Religion of !abylonia and %ssyria H0oston, 64:4I "Sun and Saturn,# Revue d0%ssyriologie et d0%rcheologie 8rientale# Vol! 7 H6:2:I =eter Jensen, .ie *os"ologie der !abylonier HStrassburg, 64:2I +l$red Jeremias, Monotheistische StrL"ungen ,nnerhalb der !ab Religion H9eip*ig, 6:2GI 1andbuch der%ltorientalischen $eisteskultur H9eip*ig, 6:63I (! %! Jung, +ollected 'orks# 0ollingen Series H=rinceton, 6:58-7@I (! %! Jung, with (! ?erenyi, Essays on a Science of Mythology# <! ,! (! -ull, trans! H=rinceton, 6:8:I The *alevala H(ambridge, 6:83I, ,rancis =! 'agoun, Jr!, translator -ermann ?ees, "?ulttopographische und 'ythologische 0eitrXge,# 9eitschrift fEr Ggyptische Sprache und %ltertu"skunde# 76
0and, >rstes -e$t!

+! 0! ?eith, ,ndian Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! SII H/ew Fork, 6:8GI

The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and 5panishads HDelhi, 6:72I, @ vols! Rigveda !rah"anas HDelhi, 6:76I (arl ?erenyi, %sklepios H/ew Fork, 6:5:I Pro"etheus H/ew Fork, 6:83I (! ?erenyi, with (! %! Jung, Essays on a Science of Mythology# <! ,! (! -ull, trans! H=rinceton, 6:8:I <! ?libansky, with >! =ano$sky and <! Sa l, Saturn and Melancholy H9ondon, 6:8GI Samuel /oah ?ramer, )ro" the Tablets of Su"er HIndian -ills, 6:58I Mythologies of the %ncient 'orld H/ew Fork, 6:86I The Sacred Marriage Rite >!loo"ington# MNON? Su"erian Mythology H/ew Fork, 6:7@I Dalter ?rickeberg, Pre-+olu"bian %"erican Religions H/ew Fork, 6:8:I =ierre 9acau, Traduction des Te-tes des +ercueik du Moyen E"pire H=aris, 6:37I Stephen 9angdon, % Su"erian $ra""ar H=aris, 6:66I Su"erian :iturgical Te-ts H=hiladelphia, 6:67I Su"erian :iturgies and Psal"s H=hiladelphia, 6:6:I, "+ -ymn to >ridu,# Bournal of the Society of 8riental Research# Vol! 5, /o! @ H6:@6I Se"itic Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! V H/ew Fork, 6:8GI ,rancois 9enormant, +haldean Magic H9ondon, 6474I, :es 8rigines de l01istoire H=aris, 6442I, 3 vols! 'iguel 9eon-=ortilla, Pre-+olu"bian :iteratures of Me-ico H/orman, 6:8:I %! <achel 9evy, Religious +onceptions of the Stone %ge H/ew Fork, 6:83I -ildegard 9ewy, ".rigin and Signi$icance o$ the 'Ygen DYwZd,# %rchiv 8rientalni# Vol! 64 H6:52I -ildegard and Julius 9ewy, "The .rigin o$ the Deek and the .ldest Dest +siatic (alendar# 1ebrew 5nion +ollege %nnual#
Vol! 67 H6:G@-G3I

-! =! 9’.range, Studies in the ,conography of +os"ic *ingship >8slo# 6:53I J! +! 'ac(ulloch, Eddic Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! Il H/ew Fork, 6:8GI +eltic Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! Ill H/ew Fork, 6:8GI Donald +! 'acken*ie, The Migration of Sy"bols H9ondon, 6:@8I ,! =! 'agoun, Jr!, trans!, The *alevala H-arvard, 6:83I 'aude Dorcester 'akemson, The Morning Star Rises H/ew -aven, 6:G6I +! >! 'ariette, .enderah H=aris, 6442I %erald 'assey, The &atural $enesis H9ondon, 6443I, @ vols!

%ncient Egypt H/ew Fork, 6:72I, @ vols! 9einani 'elville, +hildren of the Rainbow HDheaton, 6:8:I Siegried 'oren*, with Johannes Schubert, .er $ott auf der !lu"e H+scona, 6:5GI '! +! 'oret, "9e 9otus et la /aissance des Dieu in Vgypte,# Bournal %siatiAue# T ,F /o! 6 HJan!-,eb! 6:67I Dilliam 'ullen,
"The (enter -olds,# Pensee H'ay 6:7@I

D! 'uller, .ie 1eilige Stadt HStuttgart, 6:86I D! '! 'uller, Egyptian Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! 6@ H/ewFork, 6:8GI >! /eumann, The $reatMother H=rinceton, 6:73I =ercy >! /ewberry, "The =etty-?ingdom o$ the -arpoon and >gypt’s >arliest 'editerranean =ort,# %nnals of %rchaeology and %nthropology#
Vol! l H6:24I

"Two (ults o$ the .ld ?ingdom,# %nnals of %rchaeology and %nthropology# Vol! I H6:24I -ugh /ibley, "Tenting, Toll, and Ta ing,# The 'estern Political 4uarterly# Vol! SIS H6:88I Swami /ikhilananda, The 5panishads# abridged edition H/ew Fork, 6:83I Sister /ivedita, with +! ?! (oomaraswamy, Myths of the 1indus and !uddhists H/ew Fork, 6:87I Qelia /uttall, )unda"ental Principles of 8ld and &ew 'orld +ivilization# +rchaeological and >thnological =apers o$ the =eabody
'useum, Vol! II H-arvard, 6:26I

D! T! .lcott, Myths of the Sun H(apricorn 0ooks edition, /ew Fork, 6:87I John .’/eill, The &ight of the $ods H9ondon, 64:3I <! 0! .nians, The 8rigins of European Thought H(ambridge, 6:5GI .vid, The Meta"orphoses# -orace %reeley, trans! H/ew Fork, 6:82I >! =ano$sky, with <! Sa l and <! ?libansky, Saturn and Melancholy H9ondon, 6:8GI <aphael =atai, The 1ebrew $oddess H/ew Fork, 6:87I Man and Te"ple H/ew Fork, 6:87I <aphael =atai, with <obert %raves, 1ebrew Myths( The !ook of $enesis H/ew Fork, 6:88I John Deirr =erry, :ord of the )our 4uarters H%! 0ra*iller, 6:88I Donald 9! =hilippiW trans!, The *o/iki H=rinceton, 6:8:I +le ander =ianlio$$, The To"b of Ra"esses VI H/ew Fork, 6:5GI The Shrines of Tut-%nkh-%"on H/ew Fork, 6:55I Mythological Papyri H/ew Fork, 6:57I The :itany of Re H/ew Fork, 6:8GI The Pyra"id of 5nas H=rinceton, 6:84I The 'andering of the Soul H=rinceton, 6:7GI >rwin =ousselle, "Seelische ,[hrung in 9ebenden Taoismus,# in .lga ,robe-?apteyn, ed!, Coga und Meditahon i" 8sten und i"
'esten HQurich, 6:3GI

J! 0! =ritchard, ed!, %ncient&earEastern Te-ts Rehhng to the 8ld Testa"ent H=rinceton, 6:8:I %eorge <awlinson, 1erodotus H9ondon, 6:8GI

=! <enou$, The Egyptian !ook of the .ead H9ondon, 6:2GI >! +! <eymond, The Mythical 8rigin of the Egyphan Te"ple H/ew Fork, 6:8:I John <hys, Studies in the %rthurean :egend H. $ord, 64:6I Dilliam <idgeway, The 8rigin of Tragedy H/ew Fork, 6:62I .ra"as and .ra"atic .ances of &on-European Races H(ambridge, 6:65I D! -! <oscher, 8"phalos H9eip*ig, 6:63I &eue 8"phalosstudien H9eip*ig, 6:65I .er 8"phalosgedanke bei Verschiedenen VLlkern H9eip*ig, 6:64I <alph 9! <oys, The !ook of the +hila" !ale" H/orman, 6:87I %iorgio de Santillana, with -ertha von Dechend, 1a"let0s Mill H0oston, 6:8:I 9eopold de Saussure, ".rigine (hinoise de la (osmologie Iranienne,# Bournal%siatiAue H.ct!-Dec! 6:@@I ".rigine 0abylonienne de l’+stronomie (hinoise,# %rchives des Sciences PhysiAues et &aturelles# Vol! 5 HJan!-,eb! 6:@3I "9e Systeme (osmologiAue Sino-lranienne,# Bournal %siatiAue H+pril6une 6:@3I "9a S\rie Sept\naire, (osmologiAue et =lan\taire,# Bc?urnal %siatiAue H+pril6une 6:@GI# :es 8rigines de l0%strono"ie
+hinoise H=aris, 6:32I

<! Sa l, with <! ?libansky and >! =ano$sky, Sahurn and Melancholy H9ondon, 6:8GI +! Sayce, :echures on the 8rigin and $rowth of Religion H. $ord, 64:4I -einrich SchX$er, "+ltXgyptische 0ilder der +u$- und &ntergehenden Sonne,# 9eitschrift fEr Ggyptische Sprache und
%ltertu"skunde# VI 0and!

%! Schlegel, :05ranographie +hinoise HTaipei, 6:87I %! ! %! Scholem, Bewish $nosticis"# Merkabah Mysticis" and Tal"udic Tradition H/ew Fork, 6:82I Johannes Schubert, with Siegried 'oren*, .er $ott auf der !lu"e H+scona, 6:5GI Julius Schwabe, %rchetyp und Tierkreis H0asle, 6:56I Vincent Scully, The Earth# the Te"ple and the $ods H/ew Fork, 6:8:I 9aurette SeCourne, !urning 'ater H/ew Fork, 6:58I +ke D! SCUwith >! 0ergmann, The +ollechon of the Su"erian Te"ple 1y"ns H9ocust Valley, 6:8:I %! >lliot Smith, The Evolution of the .raJon H'anchester, 6:6:I Vincent +! Smith, "The Iron =illar o$ Derhi,# Bournal of the Royal %siatic Society HJanuary 64:7I -erbert Spencer, The Pnnciples of Sociology H9ondon, 647@-:8I '! (! Stevenson, The 9uni ,ndians HDashington, 6:25I Snorri Sturluson, The Prose Edda# J! I! Foung, trans! H0erkley, 6:76I >lmer %! Suhr, !efore 8ly"pos H/ew Fork, 6:87I TheSpinninJ%phrodite H/ewFork, 6:8:I The Mask# the 5nicorn and the
Messiah H/ew Fork, 6:72I

Suryakanta, The )lood :egend in Sanskrit :iterature HDelhi, 6:52I ?nut TallAuist, "-immelsgegende und Dinde,# Studia 8rientalia MM H6:@4I J! >ric S! Thompson, Maya 1istory and Religion H&niversity o$ .klahoma, 6:72I

<! (! Thompson, The Reports of the Magicians and %strologers of &inevah and !abylon# Vol II H9ondon, 6:22I The .evils and Evil Spirits of !abylonia H9ondon, 6:23I %iuseppe Tucci, The Theory and Practice of the Mandala H9ondon, 6:8:I >dward 0urnett Tylor, Researches into the Early 1istory of Mankind H9ondon, 6474I Pri"itive +ulture H9ondon, 6:23I >! Douglas Van 0uren, "(oncerning the -orned (ap o$ the 'esopotamian %ods,# .rientalia, Vol! 6@ H6:G3I Sy"bols of the
$ods in Mesopota"ia >Ro"e# 6:G5I

,! +! Vanderburgh, Su"erian 1y"nsfro" +uneifor" Te-ts in the !ritish Museu" H/ew Fork, 6:88I -ans -enning Van Der .sten, %ncient 8riental Seats in the +ollection of Mr Edward T &ewell H&niversity o$ (hicago
.riental Institute =ublications, Vol! SSIII

JacAues Vandier, "IousYas et H-athorI-/\bet--\t\pet,# Revue d0Egyptologie t! 67 H6:85I J! Van DiCk "9e 'oti$ (osmiAue dans la =ens\e Sum\rienne# %cta 8rientalia HVol! SSVIII /o! 6-@I -! D! Velanker, RgvedaMandala V,, H0ombay, 6:83I Qev Vilnay, :egends of Berusale" H=hiladelphia, 6:73I D! -! Dard, The +ylinder Seals of 'estern %sia HDashington, 6:62I D! ,! Darren, "The %ates o$ Sunrise in +ncient 0abylonian +rt,# The !abylonian and 8riental Record# Vol 666, /o! 66 H.ct! 644:I Paradise )ound H0oston, 6445I +! J! Densinck, "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth,# %fdeeling :etterkunde HDeel SVII /o! 6I "The .cean in the 9iterature o$ the Destern Semites,# %fdeeling :etterkunde HDeel SIS /o! @I +lice Derner, %frican Mythology# "'ythology o$ +ll <aces,# Vol! VII H/ew Fork, 6:8GI Dilliam Dhiston, % &ew Theory of the Earth H9ondon, 68:8I D! D! Dhitney, %tharva Veda H0erlin, 6:88I -ans Dinkler, Rock .rawings of Southern Egypt H9ondon, 6:34I <! (! Qaehner, 9urvan( % 9oroastrian .ile""e H. $ord, 6:55I



+ number o$ Vail’s papers have been collected and published by Donald (yr, +nnular =ublications, @5 Dest +napamu Street, Santa 0arbara, (ali$ornia

+ general and less-than-convincing survey o$ mythological evidence will be $ound in -! S! 0ellamy, 'oons, 'yths and 'an

This is not the place to recount the details o$ the "Velikovsky a$$air# or to recite the many une pected space age discoveries weighing in Velikovsky’s $avor! The story receives comprehensive coverage in the recent book Velikovsky Reconsidered# a series o$ papers by scholars acknowledging substantial scienti$ic evidence in support o$ Velikovsky’s claims!

Spencer, The =rinciples o$ SociologyB Tylor, =rimitive (ulture and <esearches into the >arly -istory o$ 'ankindB ,ra*er, The %olden 0ough! In 6:3G >!+! Dallis 0udge published his ,rom ,etish to %od in +ncient >gypt, whose very title indicates the in$luence o$ the evolutionary theory on specialists! 0udge writes Hp!58I1 "+nimism must have preceded the magical cults o$ the predynastic >gyptians, and it, in its turn, was succeeded by the cults o$ animals, birds, reptiles, trees, etc!, which a$ter animism $ormed the predominant part o$ the later religion o$ the >gyptians! The great merit and $act that it embraced a Auali$ied totemism and $etishism and prepared the way $or the higher classes o$ spirits to become Pgods!’# Fet one looks in vain $or evidence o$ this assumed evolution among the >gyptians!
5 8 7 4 :

=yramid Te t 62G2! (lark, 'yth and Symbol in +ncient >gypt, G2, $rom (hapter 45 o$ The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead! (lark, op cit , :G! ,bid , :5!

,bid , 7G! >lsewhere the te ts employ the phrases "while he was still alone,# H77I, "when I K+tumL was still alone in the waters ! ! !# 34!

'uller observes, $or e ample, that within the capital o$ each o$ the $orty-two names, the original patron god was e tolled "as though he was the only god or was at least the supreme divinity!# >gyptian 'ythology , 67-64!
66 6@ 63 6G

,rank$ort, ?ingship and the %ods , 37! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead , Introductory -ymn to <e! 9enormant, (haldean 'agic, 42!

=tah is "le dieu splendide Aui e istait tout seul au commencement! Il n’y a pas son pareil, celui Aui s’est cr\\ au commencement sans avoir ni p]re ni m]re! Il a $a^onn\ son corps tout seul, celui Aui a cr\\ sans _tre cr\\, celui Aui porte le ciel comme le travail de ses mains!# -assan, -ymnes <eligieu du 'oyen >mpire, 682-86!

0udge, The %ods o$ the >gyptians,Vol! I, 636 $$!, G22, 5261 also 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od in +ncient >gypt, G-5, 6343:!
68 67 64

-assan, op cit , @G, @7B 0udge, %ods , Vol! II, 6G! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology , viii!

,bid , :3! "9es \pith]tes laudatives insisteront sur son caract]re de dieu des cieu , p]re des cieu , et surtout de roi des cieu ! Il tr`ne au sommet de la voate c\leste!# Dhorme, 9es <eligions de 0abylonie et d’+ssyrie , @3!

The iconography o$ such dieties, states ,rank$ort, reveals a single underlying idea! 8p cit , @4@! +ccording to Van DiCk, "les di$$\rents dieu des panth\ons locau sont les P>rscheinungs$ormen’—des $ormes pluralistes—d’une m_me divinit\!# "9e 'oti$ (osmiAue dans la =ens\e Sum\rienne,# G! 0ut Jeremias in his discussion o$ these "monotheistic streams# described the supreme god as an "invisible divine power!# It is di$$icult to imagine a less appropriate description o$ +n or any o$ his representative deities! In the te ts +n is not only the "light o$ the gods,# but a light o$ "terri$ying glory!# +l$red Jeremias, -andbuch der +ltorientalischen %eisteskultur, @@7! +lso Jeremias, 'onotheistische StrUmungen ! ! ! I$ only one god prevailed in the beginning, how did the Sumero-0abylonian religion acAuire its almost endless number o$ deitiesE 9angdon writes1 "0y giving special names to the $unctions o$ each deity Kor representative o$ +nL the theologians obtained an enormous pantheon, and by assigning special $unctions o$ the three great gods to their sons, and again giving special names to their $unctions the parent tree became a $orest o$ gods and minor deities!# 8p cit , :6!

@2 @6 @@ @3 @G @5 @8 @7 @4 @: 32 36

9angdon, op cit , 6@G! =yramid Te ts 623:-G2 See especially the section on "The (ircle o$ the %ods#! See the discussion o$ the >gyptian "&nmoved 'over#! (lark, op cit , 7:! =ianko$$, The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon , 6@6! See the section on the cosmic womb! >velyn-Dhite, -esiod, the -omeric -ymns and -omerica, 66! 8p cit , 623! 0udge, .sirisB the >gyptian <eligion o$ <esurrection , 6-@3! 0udge, %ods , Vol! I, 636!

.$ .siris 0udge writes, "-is 0ody $ormed the circle o$ the Tuat ! ! ! .siris enshrined within himsel$ all the cosmic gods or gods o$ nature!# ,rom ,etish to %od , 643!
3@ 33 3G 35 38 37 34 3:

9es .rigines de l’-istoire , 54! %ods, Vol! I, 3@:! Ouoted in The (ambridge +ncient -istory , Vol! I, =art @, 62@! 9angdon, op cit , 6:G! ,bid , 625! ,bid , 66:! Van DiCk, op cit#, 68$$!

,bid , @3! Van DiCk writes Hp! 3@I1 "(ette pens\e Aue le Cour de l’origine est devenu le prototype des autres Cours ob, tant dans la mythologie Aue dans l’histoire sum\rienne, de grandes catastrophes se sont produites, se trouve perp\tu\e dans l’e pression ! ! ! comme dans les temps lointains!’"
G2 G6 G@ G3 GG G5 G8 G7

+le ander, 9atin +merican 'ythology, 88! =erry, 9ord o$ the ,our Ouarters, 6:5! 0urland, The %ods o$ 'e ico , 33, G7! 9ecn-=ortilla, =re-(olumbian 9iteratures o$ 'e ico , G2-G6! Ouoted in 0urland, op cit , 6G:! +le ander, op cit , 8:! =erry, op cit , 6:8! %uenon, 9e <oi du 'onde , 63$$! =erry, op cit , 6@8$$!

,luegel, =hilosophy, Oabbala and Vedanta, Vol! I, 67:! .$ Vishnu, the inscription on the $amous Iron =illar o$ Delhi declares, "The beauty o$ that king’s countenance was as that o$ the $ull moon Kcandra LB—by him, with his own arm, sole world-wide dominion was acAuired and long heldB and although, as i$ wearied, he has in bodily $orm Auitted this earth, and passed to the other-world country won by his merit, yet, like the embers o$ a Auenched $ire in a great $orest, the glow o$ his $oe-destroying energy Auits not the earth ! ! !# Vincent +! Smith, " The Iron =illar o$ Delhi,#8!
G4 G: 52 56 5@ 53

(arnoy, Iranian mythology, 32G-5B Darmesteter, The Qend-+vesta , l v, l

viii, 62-66!

,aber, The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, Vol! II, 63:B ,erguson, (hinese 'ythology , @6! Davidson, %ods and 'yths o$ /orthern >urope, :@$$!, 58, @2@$$!B 'ac(ulloch, >ddic 'ythology , 3@, 3:, 663-6G, 633! 9es .rigines de l’-istoire , Vol! I, 54! ?ingship, 7! 8p cit , 6G4!

5G 55 58 57

,bid , 6G:! ,bid , 56! (anney, "+ncient (onceptions o$ ?ingship,# 7Gn!

"+us dem +nspruch des %ottkUnigtums ergibt sich der des Deltimperiums! Der -eros /inib wird in einem *weisprachigen Te t als ?Unig einge$[hrt, dessen -errscha$t bis an die %ren*en -immels und der >rde leuchten soll ! ! ! Dasselbe gilt vom historischen ?Unig! /aramsin besteigt als >roberer den Deltberg! Die Ceder ?ult als kosmisch gilt, so wird Cede Stadt, Cedes 9and, Cedes <eich als ?osmos angesehen! /icht die %rUsse des Territoriums, sondern die Idee ist massgebend! +uch ein Stadtkonig nennt sich in diesem Sinne lugal kalama, PDeltkUnig!’ Die 9Xnderbe*eichnungen und ?Unigstitel sind in diesem Sinne kosmisch gemeint1 dar kibrYt irbitti P?Unig der vier Deltteile,’ dar kissati P?Unig des Deltalls!’" -andbuch, 674!
54 5: 82

>liade, =atterns in (omparative <eligion, G25! (anney, op cit , 7G!

<idgeway, Dramas and Dramatic Dances o$ /on->uropean <aces, 8! (ompare the role o$ the Irish king1 "=rosperity was supposed to characteri*e every good king’s reign in Ireland, perhaps pointing to earlier belie$ in his divinity and the dependence o$ $ertility on himB but the result is precisely that which everywhere marked the golden age!# 'ac(ulloch, (eltic 'ythology , 637-34!
86 8@ 83 8G 85 88

Jung, 'ysterium (oniunctionis , @54! J! >ric S! Thompson, 'aya -istory and <eligion, @3@! <idgeway, The .rigin o$ TragedyB and Dramas and Dramatic Dances! %raves and =atai, -ebrew 'yths1 The 0ook o$ %enesis, 86B %in*berg, The legend o$ the Jews, Vol! I, 5:! %in*berg, op cit , 82!

The 0ook o$ the Secrets o$ >noch 3613, in (harles, The +pocrypha and =seudepigrapha o$ the old Testament, Vol! II, G52!
87 84 8: 72

Jung, op cit , 3:4-::! %in*berg, op cit , 8GB %raves and =atai, op cit , 8@! Ouoted in (irlot, + Dictionary o$ Symbols, G!

"+dam-?admon ist nach der ?abbala der erste 'ensch, der &rmensch, die erste aus dem &nendlichen, der absoluten Vollkommenheit H>n So$I, unmittelbar hervorgehende >manation, in der Xltesten hebrXischen 'ystik %ott selber!# Schwabe, +rchetyp und Tierkreis, :!

">l insYnul-Aadim, c’est-e-dire l’-omme primordial,’ est, en arabe, une des d\signations de l’’-omme universel’ Hsynonyme d’>l-insYnul-kamil, Aui est litt\ralement l’’-omme par$ait’ on totalIB c’est e actement l’+dam Oadmon h\braiAue!# %uenon, ,ormes Traditionelles et (ycles (osmiAues, 8Gn!

"9es .phites ou /ahass\niens, dans les premiers si]cles du christianisme, avaient adopt\ cette id\e due +dam Oadmon dans leur +damas ! ! ! Au’ils appelaient Pl’-omme d’en haut,’ traduction e acte du titre de la ?abbale, Pl’+dam sup\rieur!’ + leur tour, les 0arb\lonites, Aui \taient une branch\ d\riv\e des .phites, disaient Aue 9ogos et >nnoia, par leur concours, avaient produit +utog\nes HOadmonI, type de la grande lumi]re et entour\ de Auatre luminaires cosmiAue ! ! ! <emarAuons Aue dans un des morceau cosmogoniAues, cousus maladroitement les uns au bout des autres, Aue nous o$$rent les e traits du Sanchoniathon de =hilon de 0yblos, tels Aue nous les poss\dons, >pigeios ou +utochthon, c’est-e-dire fdYm Havec la m]me allusion a adYmYth Aue dans le te te de la %en]seI, nait e l’orignine des choses due dieu supreme P>lioan, et est identiAue e .uranos ! ! !# 9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire, G6n!
73 7G 75 78 77 74

Drower, The (oronation o$ the %reat gidlam , IS! 9enormant, 9es .rigines De l’-istoire, 672! (arnoy, op cit , @:3$$! Dresden, "'ythology o$ +ncient Iran,# 3G@! Di on, .ceanic 'ythology, @3-@7! -ocart, ?ings and (ouncilors, 53!

7: 42 46 4@ 43 4G 45

+le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, 625-8! &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology , 368! De Santillana and von Dechend, -amlet’s 'ill, 632! &no -olmberg, Der 0aum des 9ebens, 5:-82! +ncient >gypt, Vol! I, G37-34! Jung, op cit , 345, G2:!

=yramid Te t 6G4-G:! "'an kann hier wohl sogar soweit gehen dass alle anderen %Utter in +tum beschlossen sind,# Drites 9! %revan, Der ?a in Theologie unb ?Unigskult der hgypter des +lten <eichs , 65!
48 47 44 4: :2 :6 :@ :3 :G :5 :8 :7 :4 ::

0udge, %ods , Vol!I, 666! ,bid (lark, 'yth and Symbol, 86-83 Sturluson, The =rose >dda! Qaehner, Qurvan1 + Qoroastrian Dilemma, 637! &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, 37@! Qaehner, op cit , 6G2! ,aber, op cit , Vol! II, 67@! ,bid , G@! ,luegel, op cit , k@23-G! ,bid , @2@! +llegro, The Sacred 'ushroom and the (ross, @6! ,ra*er, The %olden 0ough, abridged edition, 875! .vid, The 'etamophoses, 33-3G! Ouoted in (ampbell, .ccidental 'ythology, 3@@-@3! -ildegard and Julius 9ewy, "The .rigin o$ the Deek and the .ldest Dest +siatic (alendar!# ,aber op cit , Vol! II, @35! ?libansky, =ano$sky, and Sa l, Saturn and 'elancholy, 65@! Die ?osmologie der 0abylonier, 638-37! 9angdon, op cit , 55B Jermias, -andbuch, 637, @74! -andbuch, :@, 637! .’/eill, The /ight o$ the %ods, 77! =atai, The -ebrew %oddess, 3@-33B ,aber, op cit , @@3! ,aber, op cit , G:6B %rimm, Teutonic 'ythology, @G4-G:n! "?onig Fima and Saturn,# :5a$$! .’/eill, op cit , 774-7:! De Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , 6@:! 'akemson, The 'orning Star <ises, G7$$! (ollit*, op cit , 62@B ,aber, op cit , 687B .’/eill, op cit , 774! Ouoted in de Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , @@@! ,bid (ampbell, .ccidental 'ythology, 664! .n the meaning o$ an-ki, usually translated "heaven and earth,# see here!

622 626 62@ 623 62G 625 628 627 624 62: 662 666 66@ 663 66G 665 668

667 664 66: 6@2 6@6 6@@ 6@3 6@G 6@5 6@8 6@7 6@4 6@: 632 636 63@ 633 63G 635

.rigin and Signi$icance o$ the 'Ygen DYwZd,# 358-57! ,bid , 35G-58 Qaehner, op cit , @@@! ,bid , 66@! ,bid , 66@-663, 638! Jung, op cit , G2:! ,bid , G2:, G:3, 335B also Jung, +ion, 6:7, @24! De Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , 6G7! .rphic -ymns, no! 63! De Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , 632! Schwabe, op cit , 4! .lcott, 'yths o$ the Sun, 6G6-G@! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 8@7! ,bid , 78! 0oll, "?ronos--elios,# 3G3, <4! 0ouch\-9eclerA, 9’+strologie %recAue , :3, note @! -yginus, =oetica astronomica II, G@! This e planation is tentatively accepted by 0ouch\-9eclerA, op cit , :3, note @!

"+llein seither ist vUllig klar geworden und wohl auch allgemein *ugestanden, dass die %leichset*ung von ?ronos, dem %otte des =laneten Saturn, mit dem Sonnengotte weit vor Cedem mUglichen griechischen 'issverstXndnis liegt1 es handelt sich um ein altes und durch ?eilinschri$ten vollkommen sicher be*eugtes Stuck des babylonischen Sternglaubens ! ! !# 0oll, op cit , 3G3!
638 637 634

=lato, >pinomis, :47c! ,bid

"Ich habe seitdem die gleiche Variante noch an verschiedenen Stellen beobachtet1 in =tolem! Tetrab, p! 87, 4 schreiben die *wei alten +usgaben ?ronon wXhrend die beste -s! V HVatic! 6234I hlion hatB bei <hetorios in (atal, codd! astrol! VII @23, : steht in dem -ss! < V ?ronon, in T hlion1 gemeint ist hier wie bei =tolemaios der =lanet Saturn! au$$allender und wohl kaum urspr[nglich ist die gleiche Variante in dem =ina des ?ebes, wo die 3! -and des sehr spXten (od! ( HSV! Jahr!I und diCe -s! 'eiboCms am <ande *weimal Hp! 6, 6!@, 7 =r!I den /amen H?rononI des %ottes, dem der Tempel mit Cenem =ina* geweiht ist, durch P-lion erset*en!# 8p cit , 3GG!

"So viel ist aber sicher, dass nach einer o$t be*eugten Vorstellung der 0abylonier und Syrer ?ronos und -elios eine und dieselbe %ottheit sind, die sich in den *wei mXchtigsten %estirnen des Tages und der /acht o$$enbarte,# ,bid , 3G5-G8! It must be emphasi*ed, however, that the proposed distinction between day and night sun is unnecessary! There is only one primitive sun1 ?ronos--elios!
6G2 6G6 6G@ 6G3 6GG 6G5 6G8 6G7

Diodorus II! 32-33! Jastrow, "Sun and Saturn ", 683-74 ,bid , 676! Semitic 'ythology, 55! +lbright, "The 'outh o$ the <ivers,# 685! Jastrow, The <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria , 57! -ildegard 9ewy, ".rigin and Signi$icance o$ the 'Ygen DYwZd,# 335! Die ?osmologie der 0abylonier , 665-668, 638$$!

6G4 6G: 652 656 65@

?libansky, =ano$sky, and Sa l, Saturn and 'elancholy , 6@:! Schwabe, +rchetyp und Tierkreis , G:@! This is, $or e ample, the opinion o$ both 0oll and Jastrow, in the articles cited above! (hapter II!

>! /eumann, $or e ample, speaks o$ a presolar ritual in which "the reckoning o$ time begins and ends with night$all! >ven in >gypt the evening is the time o$ Pbirth,’ and the morning, when the luminous world o$ the stars vanishes, is a time o$ death, in which the day-time sky devours the children o$ night! This conception, which was universal among early mankind, becomes understandable i$ we $ree ourselves $rom the correlation dayNsun!# The %reat 'other, @8! .ne o$ the many peculiarities o$ the >gyptian sun-god is that he not only brings the day, but shines at "night!# The 0ook o$ the Dead reads, "I am that god <e who shineth in the night!# To the "$ather o$ the gods# the >gyptians sang, " ! ! ! thou lightest up the habitation o$ the night ! ! !# <e -armachis, in the Dendera temple inscriptions appears as "the shining -orus, the ray o$ light in the night!# 0udge, op cit , (hapter (SSSIB Jung, Symbols o$ Trans$ormation, @8:B 0rugsch, Thesaurus Inscriptionum hgyptiacarum, 68! In this connection one cannot $ail to notice the number o$ ancient gods whom scholars customarily deem "night sums!# >gypt is a good e ample! The popular god .siris is almost always termed a sun o$ night, as in =tah Seker! 0udge, op cit , 7n, $ollows a well-established practice when he designates +tum "a $orm o$ <e and the type o$ the night sun!# The same appellation is given to the Sumero-0abylonian Tammu*, the -indu Varuna and Fama, the Iranian Fima, and the %reek Dionysus to name a $ew o$ many e amples! In the conventional view Saturn, $or reasons which remain unspeci$ied, is the planetary representative o$ the night sun!

.n the original priority o$ the night among the -ebrews and +rabs see Igna* %old*iher, 'ythology +mong the -ebrews, 8@-7G! In 0abylonia it was in "later times# that "the reckoning o$ time was altered to the e tent o$ making the day begin with sunrise, instead o$ with the approach o$ night!# Jastrow, The <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria , 74!
65G 655 658 657 654 65: 682 686 68@

,aber, The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, Vol! I, @38-37! +lbright, op cit , 685-88! 0udge, The %ods o$ the >gyptians, Vol!II, 62@! +n >ncyclopedic .utline o$ 'asonic, -ermetic, Oabalistic and <osicrucian Symbolic =hilosophy, 9SSIS! See &no -olmberg, Die <eligiUsen Vorstellungen der +ltaischen VUlker, 37! Ouoted in ,aber,+ Dissertation on the (abiri, Vol! I, 63G! Schlegel, 9’&ranographie (hinoise, 832-36! ,bid , 836!

De Saussure, "9e Syst]me (osmologiAue Sino-Iranienne,# @35-:7B "9a S\rie Sept\naire, (osmologiAue et =lan\taire,# 333-72B see discussion o$ de Saussure’s $indings!
683 68G 685 688 687 684 68: 672 676 67@ 673 67G

9angdon, op cit , :G! .n +nu as the ruler o$ the celestial pole, see also Jensen, op cit , 67-6:! ,bid , 638! Ouoted in (ampbell, .ccidental 'ythology, @G3 Kmy italics—D! TalbottL! Ouoted in .’/eill, The /ight o$ the gods, 737 Kmy italics—D! TalbottL! Schlegel, op cit , 836! 'akemson, The 'orning Star <ises , 5! +le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, :5! (oomaraswamy and /ivedita, 'yths o$ the -indus and 0uddhists, 374! 9angdon, Sumerian 9iturgical Te ts , 637! 9enormant, .rigines de l’-istroire , Vol! I, 3:3! Schwabe, op cit , 4, 344!

675 678 677 674 67: 642 646 64@ 643 64G 645 648 647 644 64: 6:2 6:6 6:@ 6:3 6:G 6:5 6:8 6:7 6:4 6:: @22 @26 @2@ @23 @2G @25 @28 @27 @24 @2: @62 @66 @6@

8p cit , 7G4! The Tree at the /avel o$ the >arth, 6@G! (lark, 'yth and Symbol in +ncient >gypt, 5:! ,bid , G6! 0udge, %ods , Vol! I, 32:! =ianko$$, The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 38! 9es .rigines de la %en]se et l’>nseignement des Temples de l’+ncienne >gypte, @2-@6, n!@! (lark, op cit , 54! ,bid , 54! <enou$, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 6G7! ,aulkner, The co$$in Te ts, Spell @57! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od in +ncient >gypt, 3:G! =yramid Te ts 6268! =yramid Te ts 6684-72 Ouoted in =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, @:! -ence <e not only "comes out# in the Tuat, but "rests# there also! =ianko$$, The 9itany o$ <e ,@5! 0udge, The 0ook o$ the Dead, 3:4! ,bid , 8GG! ,rom ,etish to %od, 6:2! <enou$, op cit , 6@2! 0udge, The 0ook o$ the Dead, @82! <enou$, op cit , 7! 0udge, The 0ook o$ the Dead, 344-4:! ,bid , @56! 0udge, The =apyrus o$ +ni, 6@3,63G! ,bid , 625! 0udge, %ods, Vol, I, 33@! =yramid Te t, 45G! 'assey, +ncient >gypt, G@8! Vnel, op cit , 667! 0udge, + -ieroglyphic Vocabulary to the Theban <ecension o$ the 0ook o$ the Dead, 67G! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, 524-:! <enou$, op cit , 656! ,bid , 87! ,bid , G5! ,bid , 663! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 628! =ianko$$, The 9itany o$ <e, G2-G6!

@63 @6G @65 @68

0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od , G26! Jensen, op cit , 66! ,bid k, 68-6:B 0rown, <esearches into the .rigins o$ the =rimitive (onstellations, Vol! I, @8:B Vol! II, 6:6!

9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, :GB Jensen, op cit , 67$$! I certainly cannot accept, however, Jensen’s identi$ication o$ +nu with the pole o$ the ecliptic!
@67 @64 @6: @@2 @@6 @@@ @@3 @@G @@5 @@8 @@7 @@4 @@:

Sayce, 9ectures on the .rigin and %rowth o$ <eligion, G4@! 8p cit , Vol! II, 64G, 6:2! 9enormant, op cit , 3:3! >a H>rikiI was the "king o$ destinies, stability and Custice!# .’/eill, op cit , G:2! 9angdon, Sumerian 9iturgical Te ts, 637! 9enormant, (haldean 'agic, 67@! Sayce, op cit , 677 note 6! =ritchard, +ncient /ear >astern Te ts <elating to the .ld Testament, 347! Sayce, op cit , 677 note 6! ,bid , 673! 8p cit , Vol! II, 6:6! Jastrow, op cit , 834-G6! +kkadian %enesis , @G, Auoted in .’/eill, op cit , 74!

/uttall, ,undamental =rinciples, Auoting an article in the 9ondon Standard, .ctober 6:, 64:G, entitled "+ prayer meeting o$ the star-worshippers!#
@32 @36 @3@ @33 @3G @35 @38 @37

0hagavata =urana, (hapter G! >ggeling, Satapatha-0rahmana IV, 3, G, :! emphasis added! +grawala, Sparks $rom the Vedic ,ire, 4@-43! Velanker, <gveda 'andala VII, 6G7! +grawala, op cit , 88! (hatterCi, The 0hagavad %ita, 6G5! Vtudes sur l’-indouisme, 6:!

?eith, The <eligion and =hilosophy o$ the Veda and &panishads, Vol! I, :8B (oomaraswamy, + /ew +pproach to the Vedas, 4, 82-86, :@, note 76!
@34 @3: @G2 @G6 @G@ @G3 @GG @G5 @G8 @G7 @G4

=erry, 9ord o$ the ,our Ouarters, 6@@! ,bid , 6@6-@@! Dhitney, +tharva Veda, SIS, G5!G! >ggeling, Satapatha 0rahmana III, 8!3!65! Ouoted in de Santillana and von Dechend, -amlet’s 'ill, 634! Velanker, op cit , @6:! 8p cit , G2, citing <ig Veda S!4@!8! ,bid , 72! The Thousand Syllabled Speech, Vol! I, 66@! >ggeling, Satapatha +brahmana II!5!6!6GB see also note G, p! 38B (oomaraswamy, + /ew +pproach, 84! (oomaraswamy, >lements o$ 0uddhist Iconography, G@-G3! ,bid , G3-G5, 5@, 55!

(omparable to the $irmly seated position o$ the >gyptian great god is the position o$ the "resting# or "meditating# 0uddha! The 0uddha "sat himsel$ down cross-legged in an unconAuerable position, $rom which not even the descent o$ a hundred thunderbolts at once could have dislodged him!# Ouoted in (ampbell, .riental 'ythology, 68!
@G: @52 @56 @5@ @53 @5G @55 @58 @57 @54 @5: @82 @86 @8@ @83 @8G

Schlegel, op cit , 527! Jung, +lchemical Studies, @2! ,bid , @5! "Seelische ,[hrung in 9ebenden Taoismus,# in Foga und 'editation im .stem und im Desten, 6:3! 8p cit , 836! "9a S\rie Septenaire, (osmologiAue et =lan\taire,# 3G@! ".rigine (hinoise de la (osmologie Iranienne,# 325! 8p cit , 686, emphasis added! ,bid , G@, 58, :5B 0urland, The %ods o$ 'e ico, :G! 8p cit , 77B see also p! 42! +le ander, op!cit!, :5-:8! Stevenson, The Quni Indians, G8, 42! Darmesteter, The Qend +vesta, 'iher Fast SII, G:-52! "9e Syst]me (osmologiAue,# @:@-3! Studies in The Iconography o$ (osmic ?ingship! 63!

0loch, "9e Symbolisme (osmiAue et les 'onuments <eligieu dans l’Italie +ncienne,# @G-@5B sell also 9’.range, op cit , @:!
@85 @88 @87 @84 @8: @72 @76

8p cit , @4-@:! "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth,# 55! Isaiah 6G1 63-6G! +ion, 635! Jung, +lchemical Studies, @2: note 4! ,bid , @@8!

0!9! %o$$, $or e ample, discusses the sign as an "e plicit# solar $orm in 'esopotamia! Dhy e plicitE 0ecause "it is surrounded by rays!# %o$$, Symbols o$ =rehistoric 'esopotamia, @@!
@7@ @73 @7G @75 @78 @77 @74 @7: @42 @46 @4@ @43

This has, in $act, become the popular e planation o$ the >gyptian +ten! <eymond, The 'ythical .rigin o$ the >gyptian Temple, 6@-63, 85-87, 48! ,bid# 6@-63! ,bid , 645B ,rank$ort, ?ingship and the %ods, 34 note @6! ,aulkner, The (o$$in Te ts, 622! 9acau, Traduction des Te tes des (ercueils du 'oyen >mpire, 32! 0udge, The %ods o$ the >gyptian, Vol, I, 3G2! 9acau, op cit , G3! ,aulkner, op!cit!, G3! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 34@! Tem is also "the dweller in his disk!# ,bid , :G! =ianko$$, The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 66! %ods, Vol! II, 8:!


The -ebrew Shekinah was a "cloud o$ glory,# recalled as the visible dwelling o$ %od! =atai, The -ebrew %oddess, 634G2!

+ Dictionary o$ Symbols , G2! This is what a 0abylonian te t recalls as the "veil o$ gold in the midst o$ heaven#B the te ts compare it to a crown! Sayce, 9ectures on the .rigin and %rowth o$ <eligion, @7G! To the -indus this was the ?hvarenah, "the +w$ul <oyal %lory!# =erry, 9ord o$ the ,our Ouarters, 6G3!
@48 @47

0rown, <esearches into the .rigins o$ the =rimitive (onstellations, 645!

9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire , Vol! I, 63! The 0abylonian sun-god "rises# within the enclosure, but "sets# within it also! Sayce, op!cit!, 676,563! The subCect is the central sun!
@44 @4: @:2 @:6 @:@ @:3 @:G @:5 @:8 @:7 @:4 @:: 322 326 32@ 323 32G 325 328 327 324 32: 362 366 36@ 363 36G 365 368 367 364 36:

0est, The +stronomical ?nowledge o$ the 'aori, 35-38! ,aulkner, op cit , 62@! +nt! <om! lib! i cap! @3 Auoted in ,aber, + Dissertation on the (abiri, 88! .’/eill, The /ight o$ the %ods, 3@! ,bid , 3@! 'assey, +ncient >gypt, 373! See .’/eill, op cit , 3@-35, 865$$! %uenon, ,ormes Traditionelles et (ycles (osmiAues, 34B 9e <oi du 'onde ! (lark, 'yth and Symbol in +ncient >gypt, 7G! 'aCor Sandman -olmberg, The %od =tah, 66:! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 577! ,bid , G:3! <enou$, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 624! ,bid !, 633! 8p cit , 58! %uthrie, .rpheus and %reek <eligion, 637, citing .rphic -ymn 76! >liade, =atterns in (omparative <eligion, G63! +grawala, Sparks $rom the Vedic ,ire, @3$$! 8p cit , G63-G65! Jung, 'ysterium (oniunctionis, G8-G7B +lchemical Studies , 4@! 0udge, The >gyptian book o$ the Dead, 62G! ,rank$ort, op cit , GG! %ods, Vol! I, @:6, summari*ing the research o$ 0rugsch! <eymond, op cit , 88! .n the rite o$ "stretching the cord# see ,bid , @3:, 324$$! Semitic 'ythology, 62:! De Santillana and von Dechend, -amlet’s 'ill, 63@-633, citing .rphic -ymn 63! .nians, The .rigins o$ >uropean Thought, 367! 0udge, The =apyrus o$ +ni, 64@! <enou$, op cit , @23! 8p cit , @3:! =ianko$$, The 9itany o$ <e, 5@! ,aulkner, op cit , 6@8!

3@2 3@6 3@@ 3@3 3@G 3@5 3@8 3@7 3@4 3@: 332 336 33@ 333 33G 335 338 337 334 33: 3G2 3G6 3G@ 3G3 3GG 3G5 3G8 3G7 3G4 3G:

Qaehner, Qurvan1 + Qoroastrian Dilemma, 666$$! Jung, 'ysterium (oniunctionis, 66, 6@, GG$$! <enou$, op cit , 56! ,bid , @54! =ianko$$, The Dandering o$ the Soul, 6@! <enou$, op cit , @8G! =ianko$$, The Dandering o$ the Soul, @7! =ianko$$, Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 3G! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 64:! ,aulkner, op cit , G! -assan, -ymnes <eligieu du 'oyen >mpire, 622R 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 8GG! -assan, op cit , 5G! =yramid Te t 73@! =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, 6G! 0udge, %ods , Vol! I, 32:! ,bid , 324! ,bid , 36G! =ianko$$, Dandering o$ the Soul, 47! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 6:@! <eymond, op cit , 66:! Thus, the 9itany o$ <e invokes the god as "the .ne Joined Together!# (lark, op cit , 7G! <enou$, op cit , 3:! 0udge, The >gyptian book o$ the Dead, 586! <enou$, op cit , 668! 0udge, The =apyrus o$ +ni, @:! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, @:B see also =ianko$$, The 9itany o$ <e, @:! 9acau, op cit , 33!

It can hardly be doubted that the assembly in heaven served as the prototype o$ all sacred assemblies on earth1 Cust as the king represented the &niversal 'onarch, his councilors or assistants answered to the circle o$ secondary divinities around the central sun! +mong the %reeks, notes .nians, "a circle appears to have been the ritually desirable $orm $or a gathering!# 8p cit , GGG! Similarly, the Sumerian %I/, "to assemble,# possesses the sense "to circle, turn, enclose!# 9angdon, + Sumerian %rammar, @68! This aspect o$ the sancti$ied assembly is, o$ course, universal! H>ven today we speak o$ a circle or band o$ assistants, $ollowers, or companions without really knowing why!I
352 356 35@ 353 35G

(ampbell, .ccidental 'ythology, G3! The %reat 'other, @@7! The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry! +llegro, The Sacred 'ushroom and the (ross, :@! +grawala, The Thousand Syllabled Speech, 665!

355 358 357 354 35: 382 386 38@ 383 38G 385 388 387 384 38: 372 376 37@ 373 37G 375 378 377 374 37: 342 346 34@ 343 34G 345 348 347 344 34: 3:2 3:6 3:@

(oomaraswamy, >lements o$ 0uddhist Iconography, @3! 'ac(ulloch, >ddic 'ythology, 67G! Jung, 'ysterium (oniunctionis, @46! 0est, op cit , >ggeling, The Satapatha 0rahmana, =art II, 3:G! 0rown, op cit , Vol! I, @84! =re$ace to =erry, op cit Thousand Syllabled Speech, 6@7! "Die SchUpterische 'utter %Uttin,# @@6-3@G! =atai, op cit , @3:! >vans-Dent*, The Tibetan 0ook o$ the Dead, 6@7! =yramid Te t 434! 0udge, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, G! 0leeker, -athor and Thoth, G4! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od, 32B see also =yramid Te t 6827! 0rugsch, <eligion, 3@G! 'ythological =apyri, 8! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, :@! See, $or e ample, the use o$ the sign O in 0udge, =apyrus o$ +ni, 76! ,aulkner, op cit , @54! =yramid Te t ::2! =yramid Te t 53@! =yramid Te t 6G68! =yramid Te t 6844 <enou$, op cit , 6G4! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od, G68! 0udge, %ods , Vol! II, @82! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 642! ,rank$ort, op cit , 677! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, G36! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 63G! ,rank$ort, op!cit!, 642! ,bid , 677! 0udge, .siris1 the >gyptian <eligion o$ <esurrection, 84! =yramid Te t 6525! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 337! ,rank$ort, op cit , G@! =yramid Te t 53@!

3:3 3:G 3:5 3:8 3:7 3:4 3:: G22 G26 G2@ G23 G2G G25 G28 G27 G24 G2: G62 G66 G6@ G63 G6G G65 G68 G67 G64 G6: G@2 G@6 G@@ G@3 G@G G@5 G@8 G@7 G@4 G@: G32

=yramid Te t 6G68-67! ,rank$ort, op cit , 677! ,bid , 677B see =yramid Te t 74@! ,bid , 677! ,bid , 642! Dard, The (ylinder Seals o$ Destern +sia, 65G! .nians, 64@! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 63G! =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, 8! <enou$, op cit , @85! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 5:G! ,bid , 3:@! ,aulkner, op cit , 6@5! <enou$, op cit , @25! =yramid Te t 624! 0udge, %ods , Vol! I, G56! De Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , 6G7! (lark, op cit , G6! Vnel, 9es .rigines de las %enese et l’>nseignement des Temples de l’+ncienne >gypte, 63 note G! ,bid , 66$$! =ianko$$, The 9itany o$ <e, 5G! Scha$er, "+ltXgyptische 0ilder der +u$- und &ntergehenden Sonne,# @2! .rigins, 685! =atterns, G@3! See also >liade, 'yth o$ the >ternal <eturn! Virgil, %eorgics , ii! 673$$! Jensen, Die ?osmologie der 0abylonier, 64:$$!B 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, ::! De Saussure, "9e Systeme (osmologiAue Sino-Iranienne!# The %ods o$ the >gyptians, Vol! II, :G! =lutarch, De Iside et .siride, SII! Jensen, op cit , 644$$!B 9angdon, op cit#! 62@! The (ollection o$ the Sumerian Temple -ymns, 638! Van DiCk, "9e 'oti$ (osmiAue dans la =ens\e Sum\rienne,# G:! 8p cit , 6::! 9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire, Vol! II, @6! %uenon, 9e <oi du 'onde, :5! (lark, 'yth and Symbol in +ncient >gypt, 54-5:, @@@! ,bid , 54-5:! De Saussure, ".rigines (hinoise de las (osmologie Iranienne,# 323!

G36 G3@ G33 G3G G35 G38

<enou$, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 6:3-:G! 0udge, op cit , Vol! II, 66:! =yramid Te t 6@65-@2! 0udge, op cit , Vol! I, 3G2! <eymond, The 'ythical .rigin o$ the >gyptian Temple, 4G!

0udge, %ods, Vol! II, 7! 0ut one o$ the >gyptian phrases $or the sacred land is /eter-ta-'ehti, rendered by 0rugsch as "das nordliche %ottesland#—"the northern land o$ the gods,# This, states 'assey, was "the polar paradise in heaven, not an elevated part o$ our earth!# See 'assey, +ncient >gypt, 374!
G37 G34 G3: GG2 GG6 GG@ GG3 GGG GG5 GG8

%aster, 'yth, 9egend and (ustom in the .ld Testament, @G! 'elville, (hildren o$ the <ainbow, 62! See $or e ample the review by %aster, op cit , @G$$! 8p cit , 64! (oomaraswamy, >lements o$ 0uddhist Iconography, @7! ,bid , G@! ,bid , 5@! =erry, 9ord o$ the ,our Ouarters, 636! Qaehner, Qurvan1 + Qoroastrian Dilemma, 666-63, 638, @@@! De Santillana and von Dechend, -amlet’s 'ill, 48$$!

+s soon as one compares the imagery o$ Saturn’s revolving wheel with corresponding images o$ the Saturnian isle, egg, cord, and girdle, one is $orced to think beyond coincidence! The varied symbolism hearkens to a singular $orm! Dhen Snorri Sturluson speaks o$ +mlodhi’s churning wheel as the "Island 'ill,# he preserves Hprobably unwittinglyI an important connection1 in the original myth the turning island and the mill wheel were the same thing!
GG7 GG4 GG: G52 G56 G5@ G53 G5G G55 G58

'agoun, The ?alevala, 55-86! De Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , 666! ?eith, Indian 'ythology, 634! (ook, Qeus1 + Study in +ncient <eligion, Vol! I, @65, @@5! ,bid , @:2! ,bid , @:4! 9’.range, Studies in the Iconography o$ (osmic ?ingship, G4$$! Scholem, Jewish %nosticism, 'erkabah 'ysticism and Talmudic Tradition, @8! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 64:! <eymond, op cit , 5, note @3!

The Throne, as observed by Vnel, is not merely the seat o$ the god, but an enclosure! The primeval sun "dwells# in his throne! 9es .rigines de la %en]se, et l’>nseignement des Temples de l’+ncienne >gypte, @@6! The most common >gyptian word $or "throne# is ast, o$ten written with the determinative which means "chamber,# "abode!# +st signi$ies the god’s "place#—not Cust any place, but the place—the ast ab H"place o$ the heart#I, ast urt H"great place#I, ast hetep H"place o$ rest#I, or ast maat, H"place o$ regularity#I!
G57 G54 G5: G82 G86

8p cit , 43! ,bid , 4G! (lark, op cit , 5:! ,bid , 677! ,rank$ort, ?ingship and the %ods, 342 note @6!

G8@ G83 G8G G85 G88 G87 G84 G8: G72 G76

=ritchard, +ncient /ear >astern Te ts <elating to the .ld Testament! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od in +ncient >gypt, @73! The name o$ the celestial city o$ =e means simply "seat# or "throne!# 8p cit , 53! =ritchard, +ncient /ear >astern Te ts, G7! 8p cit , 63,@2! 9angdon, Sumerian 9iturgies and =salms, @:7! SCUberg and 0ergmann, op cit , @! ,bid , 4:! ?ramer, ,rom the Tablets o$ Sumer, 47!

9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, 6:5! The same can be said o$ the celestial city o$ >ridu, which like Dilmun served as the primeval home o$ >nki! >ridu, "teeming with $ertility,# $loated on the cosmic sea +psu, and more than one writer has asserted, with =inches, that >nki’s city was "as a garden o$ >den!# Sayce, %i$$ord 9ectures, 348B +lbright, "The 'outh o$ the <ivers!# =inches’ comment is Auoted in Thompson, The Devils and >vil Spirits o$ 0abylonia, lvi!
G7@ G73 G7G G75 G78 G77 G74 G7: G42 G46

<evelation @6166! =salm G41@! The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, 352-56! >*ekiel @71 3-GB @41 63 H<SVI! Darmesteter, The Qend +vesta, I, 68-6:! ,aber, op cit , 3@8, 3G6! See the discussion o$ the (hinese polar mount ?wen-lun! +le ander, 9atin +merican 'ythology, 66G, 674! =yramid Te t 644!

(ook, op cit , Vol! I, @76! (ook’s entire discussion HVol! I, @53-43I assumes the wheel to be synonymous with the solar orb!
G4@ G43 G4G

/uemann, The %reat 'other, @34! ,bid , :4!

-ocart, ?ingship, 42! The signi$icance is too o$ten missed1 a$ter in$orming us that the throne was the glyph o$ Isis, 0udge continues, "but we have no means o$ connecting it with the attributes o$ the goddess in such a way as to give a rational e planation o$ her name, and all derivations hitherto proposed must be regarded as mere guesses!# 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, @2@! 0ut is it a "mere guess# to connect the Isis-throne with the enclosure o$ the primeval wombE HThe >gyptian ast, "throne,# means "enclosure,# as we have seen!I
G45 G48 G47 G44 G4: G:2 G:6 G:@ G:3 G:G

=yramid Te ts 674, 6825! +ccordingly, the sun in the cosmic womb appears as the "boy in the city!# 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @7G! Jastrow, The <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria, 5:! %raves, The %reek 'yths, @@3! +llegro, The Sacred 'ushroom and the (ross, 633! <evelation 671 6-@, 5, 64! 8p cit , :5! =atterns in (omparative <eligion, 6:-@2! The 'yth o$ the >ternal <eturn, 4-:! II 0aruch IV1 @-G!

G:5 G:8 G:7 G:4 G:: 522 526

=atterns in (omparative <eligion, :! Tucci, The Theory and =ractice o$ the 'andala, @3! ,bid# @3! 8p cit , :$$! >liade, =atterns in (omparative <eligion, 65-68! Jung and ?erenyi, >ssays on a Science o$ 'ythology, 6@!

'any >gyptologists, however, make no distinction between the cosmic and the local cities! Thus 0udge, speaking o$ the actual >gyptian city o$ -enen-su H-erakleopolisI, tells us that this habitation "is o$ten re$erred to in the 0ook o$ the Dead, and a number o$ important mythological events are said to have taken place there! Thus it was here that <e rose $or the $irst time when the heavens and the earth were created, and it was this rising which $ormed the $irst great act o$ creation ! ! ! .siris was here crowned lord o$ the universe ! ! ! In this place the souls o$ the beati$ied $ound a place o$ rest in the realm o$ .siris ! ! !# 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, 54-5:! That these were cosmic, not geographical places and events, should be obvious!
52@ 523

,rank$ort, op cit , :2!

<oscher, .mphalosB /eue .mphalosstudienB Der .mphalosgedanke bei Verschiedenen VUlkernB 'uller, Die -eilige Stadt!
52G 525 528 527 524 52: 562 566 56@ 563 56G 565 568 567 564 56: 5@2 5@6 5@@ 5@3 5@G 5@5 5@8 5@7 5@4 5@:

0rown, >radinus1 <iver and (onstellationB de Saussure, ".rigins (hinoise de la (osmologie Iranienne!# D!T! Darren, =aradise ,ound, 6G6 note 3B .’/eill, The /ight o$ the %ods, 35:! &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, 324! %uenon, op cit , 7:! 'akemson, The 'orning Star <ises, 62B -eyerdahl, ?on-Tiki, 6G6! /uttall, ,undamental =rinciples o$ .ld and /ew Dorld (ivili*ation, 633! D!T! Darren, op cit , @G4, note 6! ,aber, op cit , Vol! III, 43! <oscher, .mphalos, @2$$! 8p cit , @35! 9\on-=ortilla, =re-(olumbian 9iteratures o$ 'e ico, 83! Sayce, %i$$ord 9ectures, 348! 8p cit , 674! ,aber, + Dissertation on the (abire, Vol! I, 73! 'uir, .riginal Sanskrit Te ts V, @6G$$! Densinck, "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth,# 38! ,bid , 65! ,bid , 55! Jung, +ion, 6@5! <oscher, .mphalos, G3! The Tree at the /avel o$ the >arth, 3:! 8p cit , 6@7! Der 0aum des 9ebens, :5! ,aber, .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, Vol! III, :2! ,bid , :@! (oomaraswamy, >lements o$ 0uddhist Iconography, 6:!

532 536 53@ 533 53G 535 538 537 534 53: 5G2 5G6 5G@ 5G3 5GG 5G5 5G8 5G7 5G4 5G: 552 556 55@ 553 55G 555 558

,bid , 64! =erry, 9ord o$ the ,our Ouarters, 64G! .nians, The .rigins o$ >uropean Thought, 368! Sayce, 9ectures on the .rigin and %rowth o$ <eligion, G74! Densinck, "The .cean in the 9iterature o$ the Destern Semites,# @5! -erodotus iv, 38! -erodotus iv, G5! In the .rphic description o$ the primeval /ous or 'ind, "the circling ocean was his belt!# See our chapter II! >velyn-Dhite, -esiod @@:$$! (lark, 'yth and Symbol, 48! 0udge, The =apyrus o$ +ni, 647! See =yramid Te ts 77 and 56@! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 65@! (lark, op cit , 667! 'aC Sandman -olmberg, The %od =tah, 628! 8p cit , 6G@! ?ees, "?ulttopographische und 'ythologische 0etrXge,# 656! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, :7B <eymond, op cit , 65@! 8p cit , 42! 0udge, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 672! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, 625! Sayce, 9ectures on the .rigin and %rowth o$ <eligion, G47! Jeremias, -andbuch der +ltorientalischen %eisteskultur, 36! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, 32:! Jensen, op cit , @G4-G87! %enesis @162

%aster, 'yth, 9egend and (ustom in the .ld Testament, @7-@4B Densinck, "The .cean in the 9iterature o$ the Destern Semites,# 5:-82B see also our section on "The ,oundation Stone#!
557 554 55: 582 586 58@ 583 58G 585 588 587

+le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, 65:! D!T! Darren, =aradise ,ound, 6@:B .’/eill, The /ight o$ the %ods, :2:! 9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire, @8! ,bid , 6:-@6! ,bid , @7-@:! &no -olmberg, Die <eligiUsen Vorstellungen der +ltaischen VUlker, 48-47B Ser 0aum des 9ebens, 76$$! +lbright, "The 'outh o$ the <ivers,# 64:! 0rown, >radinus1 <iver and constellation, G8! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od in +ncient >gypt, 673! +lbright, "The %oddess o$ 9i$e and Disdom# @86! %aster, op cit , @7!

584 58: 572 576

>ncyclopedia o$ <eligion and >thics, Vol! II, 728! %aster, op cit , @7! 0rown, op cit , G8!

+ Dictionary o$ Symbols, 6@7! The mystic idea "is con$irmed and rein$orced when it is portrayed in architectural plans1 whether in the cloister, the garden or the patio, the $ountain occupies the centre position, at least in the maCority o$ architectural works built during periods within the symbolist tradition, as in <omanesAue or %othic edi$ices! ,urthermore, the $our rivers o$ =aradise are denoted by $our paths which radiate out $rom the region o$ the cloister towards a clear space, circular or octagonal in shape, which $orms the basin o$ the $ountain!# ,bid ,663!
57@ 573 57G 575 578 577 574 57: 542 546

.’/eill, op cit , 64G! Delatte, >tudes sur la 9itterature =ythagoricienne, 653-5G! <ig Veda, IS! 7G!8B IS! 663!4! De Saussure, 9es .rigines de l’+stronomie (hinoise, 65:-82, @32! DeCourne, 0urning Dater, 7@! 0udge, op cit , @@8B D!'! 'uller, >gyptian 'ythology, G8, :5, 66@! =yramid Te t G:7! %aster, op cit , 5! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, G6G!

,aulkner, The (o$$in Te ts! 6! .$ten the >gyptians represented the $our streams by $our vases or "$our crocodiles!# HThe crocodile is an >gyptian symbol o$ $lowing water!I <enou$, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 74! The $our crocodiles "live by the Dords o$ =ower#—that is, they come to li$e through, or as, the outward-$lowing speech o$ the creator! .n attaining the heavenly kingdom, the deceased king beseeches the crocodiles HriversI1 "9et not thy $iery water be in$licted upon me!# ,bid , 7:! +s $igures o$ the $our li$e-bearing streams the crocodiles were identi$ied with the $our Auarters o$ the (osmos! ,bid , :7!
54@ 543 54G 545 548 547 544 54: 5:2 5:6 5:@ 5:3 5:G 5:5 5:8

(ampbell, .riental 'ythology, 74! 0udge, The %ods o$ the >gyptians, Vol! II, 55! D!T! Darren, op cit , 67:! <enou$, op cit , 663! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, G5@! =ritchard, +ncient /ear >astern Te ts <elating to the .ld Testament, 8@! -ildegard and Julius 9ewy, "The .rigin i$ the Deek and the .ldest Dest +siatic (alendar,# 5! ,bid TallAuist, "-immelsgegende und Dinde,# 628! Jeremias, -andbuch der +ltorientalischen %eisteskultur, @5@! .’/eill, op cit , 64G! Jeremias, op cit , 6@! ,bid , 63! Jensen, Die ?osmologie der 0abylonier, 687-8:!

,bid , G7@! Saturn’s streams o$ light illuminate "the interior o$ the +psu Hcosmic seaI!# +s in >gypt, the e plosive sha$ts o$ light were interpreted as $our streams o$ "speech# radiating to the $our corners! The "$our winds# and "$our world directions,# according to Jeremias, correspond to the creator! 8p cit , 6G4!
5:7 5:4

Ouoted in D!T! Darren, op cit , 67:-42! The Thousand Syllabled Speech, Vol! I, 654!

5:: 822 826 82@ 823 82G 825 828 827 824 82: 862 866 86@ 863 86G 865 868 867 864 86: 8@2 8@6 8@@ 8@3 8@G 8@5 8@8 8@7 8@4 8@: 832 836 83@ 833 83G 835 838

Dhitney, +tharva Veda, III!iii! >ggeling, Satapatha 0rahmana III, 5!3!6G-68! Die -eilige Stadt, 6@G! ,bid , 6G5$$! De Saussure, op cit , 682, @32! Jung 'andala Symbolism, 7G! Schlegel, 9’&ranographie (hinoise, 6G8! "(osmogonie du 'onde Dresse Debout et du 'onde <envers\,# 62:! 9’.range, Studies in the Iconography o$ (osmic ?ingship, 63B see also D! 'uller, op cit , 632$$! D!T! Darren, op cit , @33! D! 'uller, Die -eilige Stadt, @6! +le ander, op cit , 6:! 0urland, The %ods o$ 'e ico, 636! /uttall, ,undamental =rinciples o$ .ld and /ew Dorld (ivili*ation, 682-686! J! >ric S! Thompson, 'aya -istory and <eligion, @57! 8p cit , @@3! ,bid , @42! 9\on-=ortilla, "'ythology o$ +ncient 'e ico,# in ?ramer, 'ythologies o$ the +ncient Dorld, GG:-52! <oys, The 0ook o$ the (hilam 0alam, 87! See, $or e ample, J! >ric S! Thompson, op cit , @72-76! /uttall, op cit , @55! ,bid , 6:4! ,bid , @7G! <oy, op cit , 6@5! ,bid , 6@5! Indianapolis, Indiana, -istorical Society, Dalum .lum, 66! ,bid , 66! ,bid 'elville, (hildren o$ the <ainbow, 64! ,bid , 64! ,bid , G2, 6@8,6G2! (ampbell, op cit , 74B Jung, +ion, 6:4! -erodotus, I!66!@-3! Ouoted in 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, 45! ,bid , Vol! II, 85! Dhitney, +tharva Veda, 5@! ?eith, Indian 'ythology, 662! ,bid , 5@!

837 834 83: 8G2 8G6 8G@ 8G3 8GG

,bid , G6! Suhr, The 'ask, the &nicorn and the 'essiah, 4:! ,erguson, (hinese 'ythology, 36! (ook, Qeus1 + Study in +ncient <eligion, Vol! II, 37:! (ited in ,aber, The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, Vol I, 688! +le ander, op cit , 678-77! =erry, 9ord o$ the ,our Ouarters, @22!

9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, 8:! The re$erence is to 'arduk, who has $our eyes which "behold all things even as he H>aI!#
8G5 8G8 8G7 8G4 8G: 852 856 85@ 853 85G 855 858 857 854 85: 882 886 88@ 883 88G

Derk 0odde, "'yths o$ +ncient (hina,# in ?ramer, 'ythologies, 37G! +n >ncyclopedic .utline o$ 'asonic, -ermetic, Oabalistic and <osicrucian Symbolic =hilosophy, cviii! ,bid , ccviii! ?ingship and the %ods, 653! ,bid Vnel, 9es .rigines de la %en]se et l’>nseignement des Temples de l’+ncienne Vgypte, 32! (ited in Jung, +lchemical Studies! Jung, 'ysterium (oniunctionis, G37! ,bid , GG8-G7, citing ?abbala denudata I, =art 6, 68! ,bid , GG7n, citing Qohar I, @36a! =atai, 'an and Temple, 45! Vilnay, 9egends o$ Jerusalem, 67! Densinck, The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth, 3G! Isaiah @41 68! D! 'uller, Die -eilige Stadt, 34$$! ,bid , :G! ,bid , 6:4! ,bid , 6:4-::! ,bid , 6:4-::!

,bid , 6G5! Such traditions illuminate the image o$ .edipus sitting on a stone where the ways part into many roads! .’/eill, op cit , 3:3!

+t resurrection day, the ?a’ba Stone, which is in holy 'ecca, will go to the ,oundation Stone in holy Jerusalem, bringing with it the inhabitants o$ 'ecca, and it shall become Coined to the $oundation Stone!# Vilnay, op cit , 67!

Densinck, Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth,64! +s is well known, the stone o$ the ?a’ba is black H"the black stone#I! 0ut it was not always so, $or the legends claim that be$ore +dam le$t >den, it was a white hyacinth! This is, in $act, a theme which occurs elsewhere1 the white stone Hor godI loses his radiance, becoming "black!# Though I intend to review this theme in a subseAuent volume, it is appropriate to note here that, in a widespread myth, Saturn, the primeval sun, passes into a $igure o$ death and darkness, a prototype o$ Satan! Saturn becomes the "black planet!# H"Saturn is $reAuently called the Pblack’ or Pdark’ planet,# observes -ildegard 9ewy, .rigin and Signi$icance o$ the 'Ygen DYwZd, 33:!I
887 884

-ildegard 9ewy, op cit , 382! ,bid , 38@!


,bid The myth o$ the $our rivers $lowing $rom the ,oundation Stone and de$ining the $our Auarters o$ the world proves to be most tenacious! .’/eill, $or e ample, cites the $ollowing $rom an old maga*ine, The =ost +ngel, which published a section called "+nswers to (orrespondents,# in 6:761 "O!Dhy does the needle in the sea-compass always turn to the /orthE# "+! The most received opinion is that there is under our /orth =ole a huge black rock, $rom under which the .cean issueth in G currents answerable to the G corners o$ the >arth or G winds1 which rock is thought to be all o$ a loadstone, so that by a kind o$ a$$inity it draweth all such like stones or other metals touched by them towards it!# .’/eill, op cit , 6@:! >ven when the cosmic imagery has become con$used with geography, the central $eatures are the same as in the >gyptian version e pressed thousands o$ years earlier!
872 876 87@ 873 87G 875 878 877 874 87: 842 846 84@ 843 84G 845 848 847 844 84: 8:2 8:6 8:@ 8:3 8:G 8:5 8:8 8:7 8:4 8::

0udge, %ods, Vol! I, G:7! =yramid Te t 654! >ggeling, op cit , 5!3!6G! 0ook o$ >noch 641 6-3! (irlot, op cit , 64! 'elville, (hildren o$ the <ainbow, 33! 0utterworth, The Tree at the /avel o$ the >arth, 53! ,aber, op cit , Vol! II, 68! ,bid , 65! .’/eill, op cit , :2:! 9enormant, op cit , Vol! II, 6:-@6! &no -olmberg, Die <eligiUsen Vorstellungen, 48-47B Siberian 'ythology, 354-5:! /uttall, op cit , @:3! +le ander, op cit , @47! Jung and ?erenyi, >ssays on a Science o$ 'ythology, 65! De Saussure, 9a S\rie Sept\naire, (osmologiAue et =lan\taire, 3G2! ,bid , 333-72B 9e Syst]me (osmologiAue Sino-Iranienne, @35-:7B .rigine 0abylonienne de l’+stronomie (hinoise, 5-64! De Saussure, 9e Syst]me (osmologiAue Sino-Iranienne, @77! ".rigine 0abylonienne de l’+stronomie (hinoise, 64! ,bid , 68-67! 9a S\rie Sept\naire, 354! ?ramer, Sumerian 'ythology, 83! %ragg, The ?ed Temple -ymn, 672-76! ?ramer, op cit , 83! (ombe, -istoire du (ulte de Sin, 6@6! %ragg, op cit , 68:! SCUberg and 0ergmann, The (ollection o$ the Sumerian Temple -ymns, 63! The <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria, 83@! ,bid , 8G6!

The same meaning attaches to the 0abylonian >sharra, the dwelling which the creator measured out on the cosmic sea! Jastrow calls >sharra "a poetic designation o$ the earth!# The <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria, G36! Jensen relates the term especially to the earth as it appeared at the creation! Die ?osmologie der 0abylonier! 644$$! The literal meaning is

"house o$ $ullness# or "house o$ $ertility!#
722 726 72@ 723 72G 725 728 727 724 72: 762 766 76@ 763 76G 765 768 767 764 76: 7@2 7@6 7@@ 7@3 7@G 7@5 7@8 7@7 7@4 7@: 732 736 73@ 733 73G 735 738

8p cit , 654! ,bid , @3! SCUberg and 0ergmann, op cit , Temple -ymn 3:! %ragg, op!, cit!, 67G! ,bid , Temple -ymn @5! ,bid , Temple -ymn 64! ,bid , Temple -ymn 65! ,bid , Temple -ymn @6! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, 6:2-:6! 'elville, (hildren o$ the <ainbow, @6! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 834! ,bid , G2G! ,bid , 56! ,bid , 67! 9acau, Traduction des te tes ses (erueils du 'oyen >mpire, G5! <eymond, The 'ythical .rigin o$ the >gyptian Temple, 366! ,bid , 366! ,bid , 366! ,bid , 325! "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth,# 65! =atai, 'an and Temple, 668! ,bid , 4G-45! The %reat 'other, 65:! +llegro, The Sacred 'ushroom and the (ross, @5! 0leeker, -athor and Thoth, @5! 0udge, .siris1 the >gyptian <eligion o$ <esurrection, Vol!II, @7@! 0udge, The %ods o$ the >gyptians, Vol! I, G8@! 9evy, <eligious (onceptions o$ the Stone +ge, 667! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @82! (ited in 0leeker, op cit , @5! =ritchard, ed!, +ncient /ear >astern Te ts, 5! ,rank$ort, ?ingship and the %ods, 87! The 9itany o$ <e, @5n! SCUberg and 0ergmann, op cit , 3@! 9angdon, Sumerian 9iturgical Te ts, 665! ,bid , 6G6! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, 3G7!

737 734 73: 7G2 7G6 7G@

,bid , 655! +ncient /ear >astern Te ts, 8@! ?ramer, The Sacred 'arriage <ite, @4! 9angdon, + Sumerian %rammar, @53! 9evy, op cit , 622!

Jastrow, op cit , 3@7! .$ the goddess 0elit-ekalla, "0elit o$ the palace,# Jastrow writes1 "it must be con$essed that the precise $orce o$ the Auali$ication o$ P0elit o$ the palace’ escapes us!# ,bid , @@7! To one aware o$ the root meaning o$ the god’s "house# the title can hardly pose a mystery! The identity o$ "womb# and "house# occurs in every section o$ the globe! Simplicus reports that the Syrian goddess Derceto or +targatis wss the habitation o$ the gods, Cust as .rphic doctrine styled Vesta the house o$ the gods! ,aber, The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, III, G:! The -indu <ig Veda states1 "They conduct him to the hut o$ the consecratedB the hut o$ the consecrated!# ?eith, <igveda 0rahmanas, 624! The same meaning o$ the sacred house prevails in (hina, according to -ent*e, Das -aus als Deltort der Seele, 73! The 'ayans knew the goddess I +hau /a, rendered by <oys as "=alace 9ady#—an appellation e actly eAuivalent to the 0abylonian "0elit o$ the =alace# and the >gyptian "9ady o$ the -ouse# H/ephthysI! In the 'ayan language /a means both "mother# and "house!# See J! >ric S! Thompson, 'aya -istory and <eligion, @G5! Dith this understanding o$ the cosmic temple, one can better appreciate the sacred marriage rites so o$ten conducted in sacred chambers! The king or high priest signi$ied the god, while the Aueen or priestess represented the goddess and thus the temple itsel$, the cosmic receptacle housing the seed o$ abundance! Symbolically the temple was the spouse o$ the king, and the kings union with the temple maiden reenacted the primal marriage! " ! ! ! It is $rom the temple,# states =atai, "that the blessings o$ $ertility issued $orth the whole world ! ! ! The temples o$ many an ancient people were regarded as the /uptial (hamber in which the divine powers o$ $ertility, the ,ather %od and 'other %oddess, celebrated their great annual wedding $east $or the purpose o$ ensuring the $ruit$ulness o$ the earth and the multiplication o$ man and beast!# =atai, op cit , 44!
7G3 7GG 7G5 7G8 7G7 7G4 7G: 752 756 75@ 753 75G 755 758 757 754 75: 782 786

(lark, 'yth and Symbol in +ncient >gypt, 623! Ouoted in 0rown, <esearches into the .rigins o$ the =rimitive (onstellation, Vol! I, 3@! Drower, The (oronation o$ the %reat gidlam, 63! 'uller, >gyptian 'ythology, 6@:! 9angdon, Sumerian %rammar, @6! The .rigins o$ >uropean Thought, GG5, G52-G82! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, 3GG! =ianko$$, The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 667! =ianko$$, The Dandering o$ the Soul, @@! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @53! Ouoted in ,rank$ort, op cit , 624! 9acau, op cit , @@! 0udge, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @G4! (lark, op cit , 677! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 3G5! =yramid Te t :62! =yramid Te t 7@:, Auoted in ,rank$ort, op cit , 67G! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, @63! -assan, -ymnes <eligieu du 'oyen >mpire, G8!

78@ 783 78G 785 788 787 784 78: 772 776 77@ 773 77G 775 778 777 774 77: 742 746 74@ 743 74G 745 748 747 744 74: 7:2 7:6

,rank$ort, op cit , 627, 67GB (lark, op cit , @6:! 8p cit , 627! 8p cit , 678! SCUberg and 0ergmann, op cit , @6! ,bid , G5! %ragg, op cit , 68:! -ent*e, op cit , :8! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, :3! Sayce, 9ectures on the .rigin and %rowth o$ <eligion, 46! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, 6:-@3! The Spinning +phrodite, 6G8! 8p cit , 6@7! The >volution o$ the Dragon, 646! /eumann, op cit , 6@4! +lbright, The 'outh o$ the <ivers, 673! 8p cit /uttall, ,undamental =rinciples o$ .ld and /ew Dorld (ivili*ation, 625! /eumann, op cit , 6@G! =yramid Te t G37! +grawala, Sparks $rom the Vedic ,ire, @6! Darmesteter, The Qend +vesta, =art II, @@5! .’/iell, The /ight o$ the %ods, :@3! Jung, 'ysterium (oniunctinis, 3G4! /uttall, op cit , 622! ,bid , @4G! ,bid , :8! 8p cit , 63@! '! S! -olmberg, The %od =tah, G8! ,bid , G8!

=yramid Te ts 664G-45! In /umerous ancient rites reviewed by -ent*e—$rom (hina to 'e ico to Italy—the deceased, or their ashes, were placed in vases which possessed the shape o$ a houseB and these "house-urns,# in each cult, symboli*ed the ">arth-'other!# +rtists in (hina and =eru depicted the house-urn containing an unborn child! The vase sheltered the deceeased as the womb, giving birth Hthat is, rebirthI to him in the land o$ beginnings! /eumann describes similar symbolism o$ the house-urn in the +egean cults o$ the 0ron*e +ge, where the dead man lies in the vessel "as a child in the attitude o$ an embryo!# The practice o$ enclosing the dead within house-like vases symboli*ing the mother-womb does not e plain itsel$! The union o$ womb, house, and vessel hearkens back to the primordial order and the original dwelling o$ the great $ather! See -ent*e, op cit 1/eumann, op cit , 683!
7:@ 7:3 7:G 7:5

8p cit , @@7! ,bid , @64! <udol$ +nthes, 'ythology in +ncient >gypt, in ?ramer, 'ythologies o$ the +ncient Dorld, 47-:2! 9acau, op cit , 677!

7:8 7:7 7:4 7:: 422 426 42@ 423 42G 425 428 427 424 42: 462 466 46@ 463

0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 674! ,bid , 834! 9acau, op cit , 85! 9enormant, (haldean 'agic, 623! 0udge, =apyrus o$ +ni, @6:! <enou$, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 68G! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, 3GG! 0udge, =apyrus o$ +ni, @6:! Vandier, "IousYas et H-athorI-/\bet--\t\pet,# 36, 43! 0udge, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, G65! =yramid Te t 6:5! =yramid Te t 3@2! <enou$, op cit , :7! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, 35G, G@@, G32, GG3, GG7, 567B Vol! II, @63, @7:! 8p cit , @@7! 0udge, The 9itany o$ ,unerary .$$erings, 635! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead 674! (lark, op cit , 652! That the >ye, though $emale, belongs to the great $ather Has the ">ye o$ -orus,# ">ye o$ <a,# or ">ye

o$ /u#I agrees $undamentally with the character o$ the enclosed sun already e amined! The sun and its enclosure constitute the primordial +ndrogyne or ",ather-'other!# + common idea underlies the mythical recollections o$ "birth# $rom the great gods navel, thigh, or eyeB the imagery $ocuses on the simple and universal $orm o$ the primal parents
46G 465 468 467 464 46: 4@2 4@6 4@@ 4@3 4@G 4@5 4@8 4@7 4@4 4@: 432


,rank$ort, op cit , 65@! SCUberg and 0ergmann, op cit , G6! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, 648! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @2:! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 688! ,rank$ort, op cit , 6@7! =yramid Te t 835! =yramid Te ts 4GG-G5 =yramid Te t 6@3G! =yramid Te t @@7G! =yramid Te t 6468! %ods, Vol! II, 663-6G! 0udge, =apyrus o$ +ni, :8! (lark, op cit , :5! .’/eill, op cit , G8G! 'ac(ulloch, (eltic 'ythology, 52! .’/eill, op cit , G8G!

436 43@ 433 43G 435 438 437

,bid , G8G! (ook, Qeus1 + Study in +ncient <eligion, Vol! I, 648! .’/eill, op cit , G8G! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 58! .’/eill, op cit , G8G! 'ac(ulloch, op!, 68:!

+s an e ample o$ contemporary analyses I note the e planation o$ the (yclopes o$$ered by <obert %raves1 "The (yclopes seem to have been a guild o$ >arly -elladic bron*esmiths! (yclops means Pring-eyed,’ and they are likely to have been tatoed with concentric rings on the $orehead, in honour o$ the sun ! ! ! (oncentric circles are part o$ the mystery o$ smith-cra$t1 in order to beat out bowls, helmets, or ritual masks, the smith would guide himsel$ with such circles, described by compass around the centre o$ the $lat disk on which he was working! The (yclopes were one-eyed also in the sense that smiths o$ten shade one eye with a patch against $lying sparks!# %raves, The %reek 'yths, 3@! In one paragraph %raves o$$ers three di$$erent—and eAually unsatis$actory—e planations o$ the "ring-eyed# god!
434 43: 4G2 4G6 4G@ 4G3 4GG 4G5 4G8 4G7 4G4 4G: 452

%rimm, Teutonic 'ythology, Vol! I, 723! + Dictionary o$ Symbols, G4! ,aber, op cit , Vol! I, 6:G! /uttall, op cit , @8! ,bid , @8! (lark, op cit , 52! ,bid , 56! ,bid , 56! =yramid Te t @@4:! Ouoted in 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, GG3! ,rank$ort, op cit , 642! +lbright, "The %oddess o$ 9i$e and Disdom,# @73!

-andbuch der +ltorientalischen %eisteskultur, @6B <! (! Thompson, The reports o$ the 'agicians and +strologers o$ /ineveh and 0abylon, Vol! II, @G:!

(ollum, "Die SchUp$erische 'utter %Uttin,# @G:, @7GB /eumann, op cit , 64, 653B ,aber, op cit , vol! II, G58B 0urland, The %ods o$ 'e ico, 633!
45@ 453 45G 455 458 457 454 45: 482 486 48@ 483

Sayce, op cit , 668! Ouoted in .nians, op cit , @52! ,bid , 33@! Ouoted in 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, @88! ,bid , 33@! -orapollo 6!c!@! <! (! Thompson, <eports, @G:! Densinck, "Ideas o$ the Destern Semites,# 86$$! 0rown, <esearches, Vol! II, 625! (lark, op cit , 52! Sayce, op cit , @46! Densinck, "The .cean in the 9iterature o$ the Destern Semites,# @5!

48G 485 488 487 484 48: 472 476 47@ 473 47G 475 478 477 474 47: 442 446 44@ 443 44G 445 448 447 444 44: 4:2 4:6 4:@ 4:3 4:G 4:5 4:8 4:7 4:4 4:: :22 :26

%raves and =atai, -ebrew 'yths1 The 0ook o$ %enesis, 56-5@ 'ac(ulloch, >ddic 'ythology, 3@4! .nians, op cit , @G:-56 +le ander, 9atin +merican 'ythology, 57! Densinck, "Ideas o$ the Destern Semites,# 8@! ,bid , 83! ,bid , 83! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, @@6, @@:! J! >ric S! Thompsom, op cit , @84! >merson, Indian 'yths, 3G7! I intend to take up such imagery in greater detail in the second volume o$ this work! 9angdon, Sumerian 9iturgies and =salms, 368! Densinck, "Ideas o$ the Destern Semites,# 85! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 377! .’/eill, op cit , 735! J! >ric S! Thompson, op cit , @6@-6G! /uttall, op cit , 5@@! Densinck, "Ideas o$ the Destern Semites,# 8G! (lark, op cit , 53! =yramid Te ts 6:5-:4! =yramid Te t :22! 8p cit , :3! SCUberg and 0ergmann, op cit , @:! =yramid Te t 545! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, G46! ,bid , G22! The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @G4 note 7! ,rank$ort, ?ingship and the %ods, 65G! <eymond, The 'ythical .rigin o$ the >gyptian Temple, G4-G:! =yramid Te t 62@@! 8p cit , 56-5@! (lark, 'yth and Symbol in +ncient >gypt, G8! 0udge, The %ods o$ the >gyptians, Vol! I, 32:! ,bid , Vol! II, 65:! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 828,8@G, 8@7! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, 32:! (lark, op cit , 48! ,bid , 43!

:2@ :23 :2G :25 :28 :27 :24 :2: :62 :66 :6@ :63 :6G :65 :68 :67 :64 :6: :@2 :@6 :@@ :@3 :@G :@5 :@8 :@7 :@4 :@: :32 :36 :3@ :33 :3G :35 :38 :37 :34 :3:

,aulkner, The (o$$in Te ts, @@8! ,bid , @32-36! =yramid Te t 655:! (lark, op cit , G6! ,bid , 674! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 344-4:! ,bid#! @56! ,rank$ort, op cit , 653! (lark, op cit ,5:! ,bid , G6! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od in +ncient >gypt, @G3B see =yramid Te t 7:Gc! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 54@! 8p cit , @38! ,bid , @37! Vnel, 9es .rigines de la %]nese et l’>nseignement des Temples de l’+ncienne Vgypte, 667! Scha$er, "+ltXgyptische 0ilder der +u$-und &ntergehenden Sonne,# 6:, note 7! 0udge, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 344-4:! ,aulkner, op cit , 678! ,bid , 6G4! 'oret, "9e 9otus et la /aissance des Dieu in Vgypte,# 526! 'assey, +ncient >gypt, 383! (ompare 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 62G! (ompare =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 3@2! (ompare 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 66! (ompare ibid , G46! (ompare ibid , 3:3! (ompare ibid , G22! (ompare ibid , GG8! (ompare ibid , 76! Ouoted in =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, @:! 0udge, %ods, Vol!I, 35G! ,rank$ort, op cit , $ig! 3:! =ritchard, ed!, +ncient /ear >astern Te ts <elating to the .ld Testament, 7! 8p cit , 378! (lark, op cit , 63G! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, 667! =ianko$$, The Dandering o$ the Soul, 623! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, 67!

:G2 :G6 :G@ :G3 :GG :G5 :G8 :G7 :G4 :G: :52 :56 :5@ :53 :5G :55 :58 :57 :54 :5: :82 :86 :8@ :83 :8G :85 :88 :87 :84 :8: :72 :76 :7@ :73 :7G :75 :78 :77

8p cit , 652! ,bid , 65G! ,bid , 65@! +grawala, Sparks $rom the Vedic ,ire, 4@-43! ?ramer, Sumerian 'ythology, 46! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, ::B Sayce, 9ectures on the .rigin and %rowth o$ <eligion, 382! 9angdon, op cit , 66:! 8p cit , 382! ,bid , 565! ?ramer, op cit , :4! 9angdon, op cit , @2:! Toward the Image o$ Tammu*, 664! Sayce, op cit , GG:! 9angdon, op cit , @2:! 8p cit , 386! (haldean 'agic, 65@! ,bid B see also 9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire, Vol! I, 6@8-6@7! The Tree at the /avel o$ the >arth, 6@G! "The %ates o$ Sunrise in ancient 0abylonian +rt,# @G@! <esearches into the .rigins o$ the =rimitive (onstellations, Vol! I, 64G! ,bid#! 645! Jensen, Die ?osmologie der 0abylonier, 66! 9angdon, "+ -ymn to >ridu,# 8G! SCUberg and 0ergmann, The (ollection o$ the Sumerian Temple -ymns, 56! D! T! Darren, =aradise ,ound, 688-8:! The /atural %enesis, Vol! II, @6! 9es .rigines, Vol! II, 67! ,bid B ,aber, The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, Vol! III, @26! Dilson, Vishnu =urana, Vol!II, 662$$!B %uenon, 9e <oi du 'onde, 45B .’/eill, The /ight o$ the %ods, G22! 9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire, Vol! II, 6:! ,bid ,bid >ggeling, Satapatha 0rahmana, III, 7,6, 6G! ,bid , III, 8, 6, 65B >liade, 9e (hamanisme el les TechniAues +rchaiAues de l’> tase, 38@-83! Satapatha 0rahmana, I, @, 6, 62! ,bid , =art IIn 6G2-G3, G5G, note 3! >liade, op cit , 383! >lements o$ 0uddhist Iconography, ,igs! 6-5!

:74 :7: :42 :46 :4@ :43 :4G :45 :48 :47 :44 :4: ::2 ::6 ::@ ::3

,bid , note to ,ig! @! De Saussure, 9es .rigines de l’+stronomie (hinoise, @36,@G:! <ig Veda S, 4:, G, in (oomaraswamy, op cit , @:! ,bid , @4-@:! ,bid , 3G! .’/eill, op cit , G22! ,bid , G22! D! T! Darren, op cit , 6G8-G7! ,bid , 6G3-GG! ,bid , 6@4! 'assey, +ncient >gypt, 3G:! Darren, op cit , 6@:! ,bid , 6G7! .’/eill, op cit , 5@6! /uttall, ,undamental =rinciples o$ .ld and /ew Dorld (ivili*ation, @44!

.’/eill, op cit , @@8! .’/eill Summari*es the ?i as $ollows1 "=laced in the middle, it is Hlike the pivot, like the king, like the =ole starI the center and the TerminusB or like the upper poimt o$ the post o$ a house, which is the center, and supports all ! ! ! The ?i, the supreme =ole, is the centre o$ the heavens and o$ the >arth! ,bid , 5@2! +gain, the "center# coincides with the "summit!#
::G ::5 ::8 ::7 ::4 :::

Darmesteter, The Qend +vesta, =art II, 675! ,bid , =art I, @@5, including note I! Dest, 0undahish SS! Darmesteter, op cit , =art II, 636-3@! +rarat and >den, G6! Dresden, "'ythology o$ +ncient Iran,# 35:! 9es .rigines, Vol! I, 32$$! Darmesteter, op cit , =art II, 626! Desr, op cit , ii, 8! Darren, op cit , @G3! Darmesteter, op cit , =art II 675! ,bid , 33, note 6! Darren, op cit , 658-57! &no -olmberg, Die <eligiUsen Vorstellungen der +ltaischen VUlker, 42! Siberian 'ythology, 333! ,bid ,3G6! ,bid , 3G@! &no -olmberg, Die <eligiUsen Vorstellungen, 5:!

6222 6226 622@ 6223 622G 6225 6228 6227 6224 622: 6262 6266 626@

&no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, 337! Though the cosmic pillar is e plicitly polar, the Siberians Hlike so many other racesI connect it with the primeval "sun!# The .stiaks describe the celestial binding post as standing "on the side o$ the sun!# (ertain tribes deem the celestial pole the "=illar o$ %old,# "the =illar o$ ,ire,# or "the =illar o$ the Sun!# >liade, op cit , @38!

Some traditions describe the binding post as made o$ iron! The Voguls recall "the holy iron pillar o$ god erected $or the tethering o$ the holy animal with many-coloured thighs,# while others o$ten depict it as a shining "nail# serving as the a is and support o$ the cosmos! The Samoyeds, $or e ample, speak o$ a polar "nail o$ the sky,# "round which the heavens revolve!# &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, @@6! +mong the ,inns and 9apps the conception o$ the world pillar as a golden nail was very common! -ol*mayer describes the belie$ as $ollows1 "In the middle o$ the sky, or in the north, the heavens are a$$i ed to a nail in such a manner that they are able to revolve round the nail, the revolving causing the movement o$ the stars!# This nail is at the same time conceived as the support or $oundation o$ the sky! ,bid The +ltaic "/ail o$ the /orth# was the a is o$ the world mill! The .stiaks sang1 "There is a mill which grinds by itsel$, and scatters the Cdust o$ a hundred versts away! +nd there is a golden pole with a golden cage on top which is also the /ail o$ the /orth!# De Santillana and von Dechend, -amlets 'ill, :8! De can now understand this mill as the ever-turning cosmic wheel supported by the "golden pole# or a is-pillar


In one Such wooden post described by 9eem an iron nail was stuck in the Ctop as an obvious symbol o$ the world nail! &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, @@6-@@!
626G 6265 6268 6267 6264 626: 62@2 62@6 62@@ 62@3 62@G 62@5 62@8 62@7 62@4 62@: 6232 6236 623@ 6233 623G 6235 6238 6237 6234 623: 62G2 62G6

&no -olmberg, Die <eligiosen Vorstellungen, G7-G4! ,bid , 8@! ,bid , 75-44! 9enormant, 9es .rigines,Vol! I, 6G8! Dionysius -alicarnass, I, 3GB II, 6! (ook, Qeus1 + Study in +ncient <eligion, Vol! I, 626, 66G-65! =lato, (ritias, 6@2B 9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire, Vol! I, 6G8! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, 668! Ouoted in Darren, op cit , 64@! ,bid , @6@! <evelation @6162! Densinck, "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth,# 6-62! ,bid , 68! ,bid , 63! =salm G41 6-@! %aster, 'yth, 9egend and (ustom in the .ld Testament, 754! =salm G41@, as translated by %aster, op cit , 754! Isaiah 6G163-6G! (li$$ord, The (osmic 'ountain, 68@! =salm 521 @-3! To (ome! =salm G416! =salm 781@! >*ekiel 6@1 63-65! See also the 0ook o$ Jubilees 416:! 8p cit , 6G! (li$$ord, op cit , 636! ,bid , :7!

62G@ 62G3 62GG

,bid , 84! ,bid , 77!

,bid (omplementing -ebrew traditions o$ Qion are the 'uslim tales o$ the world mountain ?a$! +ccording to the commentary o$ Tha’labi, "+llah created a large mountain o$ green emerald, $rom which the green colour o$ the sky is derived1 it is called mount ?a$ and it surrounds the whole earth!# Densinck, op cit , 5! The mount served as a stable support and enclosed the "world,# This is e actly the image o$ the enclosed celestial earth $orming the summit o$ the primeval hill

'uslim cosmology knows the holy city o$ 'ecca as the summit o$ the worlds highest mountain! ,bid , 6@, @5! The throne o$ +llah on the mountaintop or world summit stood at the celestial pole! "The highest point and the center o$ heaven is the =olestar,# states Densinck! ,bid , G7! Destern Semitic races claim that the creator dwelt in a celestial tent, re$lected in imitative tents on earth! The central pole o$ the terrestrial tent corresponds to the world mountain! The +rabs called the cosmic mountain itsel$ the "(entral =ole o$ the Tent,# while the +rabic name $or the pole star, +l-rucaba, gave the Spanish arrocabe, "the kingpost o$ a roo$!# .’/eill, op cit , Vol! I, @@8! The polar mount also $inds symbolic e pression in the +rabic minaret or "light house,# a slender and lo$ty tower atached to a 'uslim mosAue! .n the balcony o$ the minaret the mue**in calls the people to prayer! The worlds largest minaret is the Outb 'inar at Delhi, standing over @G2 $eet high and described by one observer as resembling "a cyclopean red telescope!# ,bid , @28-4! The Outh Ho$ Outb 'inarI is, as we have seen, the "pole# or "a is# o$ the universe! The minaret— commemorating the a is-pillar—thus corresponds well with the sacred poles and pillars o$ other nations! HI earlier proposed that the prototype o$ the minaret was the >gyptian 'ena-uret—the %reat 'ooring =ost!I
62G5 62G8 62G7 62G4 62G: 6252 6256 625@ 6253 625G 6255 6258

8p cit , @G7! 'asey, +ncient >gypt, 544! ?rickerberg, in =re-(olumbian <eligions, G6B ,ay Diego Duran, 0ook o$ the %ods and <ites, 686, translators $ootnote! SeCourne, 0urning Dater, 4:! 9\on-=ortilla, =re-(olumbian 9iteratures o$ 'e ico, 58-57! +le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, 674! ,bid , 627! ,bid , 4! 9atin +merican 'ythology, @77! +le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, 4! In =re-(olumbian <eligions, 683!

,bid , 688! The 'e ican national temple o$ Tlaloc and Vi*ilput*i HTlaloc’s brotherI stood in the center o$ the city o$ 'e ico, whence $our causeways radiated in the $our direction! "In the center o$ the temple stood a richly ornamented =illar o$ peculiar sanctity,# noted Darren, op cit , @G7 note 6! Since the intersection o$ the crossroads symboli*ed the cosmic center and summit, the pillar clearly represented Tlaloc’s celestial mountain at the navel o$ the world! The center and capital o$ the =eruvian city o$ (u*co stood at the intersection o$ $our great highways running to the north, south, east, and west, each traversing one o$ the $our provinces or vice-royalties into which =eru was divided! In the central temple was a circle and in the center o$ the circle stood a sacred pillar, ,bid , note @!
6257 6254 625: 6282 6286 628@

8p cit , Vol! I, 55-58! ?ramer, The Sacred 'arriage <ite, 5G! ,rank$ort, op cit , @57! ?ramer, Sumerian 'ythology, 46! Jastrow, The <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria, 3::! (li$$ord, op cit , 32!


"Der Ithyphallus, der au$ der elamischen Vase realistisch dargestellt ist, entspricht in der mythischen Symbolik der Deltberg!# Jeremias, -andbuch der +ltorientalischen %eisteskultur, @G!
628G 6285 6288 6287 6284 628: 6272 6276 627@ 6273 627G

<enou$, op cit , 665, note 6! ,bid , 5G! Ouoted in .’/eill, op cit , @26! ,aber, op cit , Vol! I, 336! (oomaraswamy, op cit , 5G-5B 88, note 65B 44, note 63@! Dhitney, +tharva Veda, 842! =hilippi, The ?oCiki, 52! ,bid , 3:4-::, citing -irata, =ure Shinto, 87! ,aber, op cit , Vol! III, @23! ,bid , 32$$!, @26$$!

The cosmic mountain was the masculine source o$ universal generation, a $act re$lected in the pronounced phallic atributes o$ the mountain-god! >nlil, the 'esopotamian "great mountain,# raises alo$t the goddess /inhursag, the "Aueen# o$ the cosmic hill, and implants the male "seed# HSaturnI within the celestial womb! The 0abylonian 0el H(anaanite 0aalI receives the title "lord, the mightly mountain 0el!# +llegro in$orms us that the god "derives his name $rom a Sumerian verb +l, Pbore,’ which combined with a pre$ormative element 0+, gave words $or Pdrill’ and Ppenis’ and gave 9atin and us our word Pphallus!’ The Sacred 'ushroom and the (ross, @G! 0el, the "mighty mountain,# was the generative pillar o$ the heavens! The phallic mountain was also the bore because it was the turning a le! The >gyptian Shu, personi$ying the 9ight 'ountain, is "lord o$ the =hallus# and appears in one te t H=yramid Te t 8G@I to be eAuated with the male organ o$ +tum! 'ore generally the pillar-god represents the phallus o$ %eb, brother and husband o$ /ut! >gyptian art depicts Shu standing on the recumbent %eb and supporting the curved and star-stubbed body o$ /ut with outstretched arms! >lsewhere, however, the artists replace Shu by the phallus o$ %eb! These illustrations, coming $rom the late period o$ >gyptian history, yet preserve a vital idea, whose origins will be $ound in the simple con$iguration ! The identity o$ Shu, the heaven’s pillar, with the phallus o$ %eb, illuminates these lines $rom the (o$$in Te ts1 "+s %eb I shall impregnate you K/utL in your name o$ sky! I shall Coin the whole earth to you in every place! . high above the earthM Fou are supported upon your $ather Shu!# Ouoted in (lark, op cit , G:!
6275 6278 6277 6274 627: 6242 6246 624@ 6243 624G 6245 6248 6247 6244 624:

>velyn-Dhite, -esiod the -omeric -ymns and -omerica, 667! =indar, =ythian .des iv, @4:! .vid, 'etamorphoses, 684 ,ra*er, +pollodorus, II! V! II! ,bid , @@6 note @! -yginus, =oetic +stronomy ii! 3! %raves, The %reek 'yths, 6GG! .ldenberg, Vedic -ymns, G:! ,bid , 86! 8p cit , 85! ,bid , 62! <ig Veda V, 3, 682! Dhitney, op cit , 3G7! >ggeling, op cit , III, 5, 3, 6G! (ampbell, .riental 'ythology, @24!


/ikhilananda, The &panishands, 64! De also saw that the -indu skambha, or universe post, acAuired the $orm o$ a cosmic giant sustaining the heavens! See here!
62:6 62:@ 62:3 62:G 62:5 62:8 62:7

(oomaraswamy, op cit , 62B 84, note 32B see plates I and IIB see also .’/eill, op cit , 6:G! >liade, op cit , @3:! &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, @3G-35! 9enrot, The ?alevala, 5! (umont, The 'ysteries o$ 'ithra, 668! De Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , 654-5:!

>merson, Indian 'yths, 334-3:, G34! +tlas was the cosmic mountain personi$ied! Thus both >uripides and +ristotle relate the pillar o$ +tlas to the world a is! Darren comments1 "The upright a is o$ the world is o$ten poetically conceived o$ as a maCestic pillar, supporting he heavens and $urnishing the pivot on which they revolve!# 8p cit , 6@@!
62:4 62:: 6622 6626 662@ 6623 662G 6625 6628 6627 6624 662: 6662 6666 666@ 6663 666G 6665 6668 6667 6664 666:

+mos 51@8! +ncient >gypt, 872! %oet* and 'orley, =opul Vuh, 46-4G! ,bid , 4@, note 7! 9\on-=ortilla, op cit , 85! -arris, 0oanerges, 33! (oomaraswamy and 'ivedita, 'yths o$ the -indus and 0uddhists, 344! <hys, +rthurian 9egend, 5:G! 'ac(ulloch, (eltic 'ythology, 6:2! Derner, +$rican 'ythology, 634! 8p cit , @6G! ,bid , @68! 0odde, "'yths o$ +ncient (hina,# in ?ramer, 'ythologies o$ the +ncient Dorld, 37G-78! 0udge, The =apyrus o$ +ni, 664! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 372! +ncient >gypt, 366! (ited in /eumann, The %reat 'other, @@G! Suryakanta, The ,lood 9egend in Sanskit 9iterature, G! ?eith, Indian 'ythology, 663! /ikhilanda, op cit , @@6$$! Schwabe, +rchetype und Tierkreis, 3G!

+grawals, op cit , G6, 72! Fet strangely, while observing the connection o$ the one $oot and motionlessness, +grawala never mentions the celestial pole—and even more strangely, he identi$ies +Ca >kapad as the solar orb Hpage G@I!
66@2 66@6 66@@

(oomaraswamy and /ivedita, op cit , 344-4:! ,bid , 374!

.’/eill, op cit , 526! The identity o$ the single leg as the world pillar $inds additional con$irmation in the symbolism o$ sacred structures, mythical and historical! In the Japanese ?oCiki the mythical emperor Jimmu encounters a palace which appears to rest on a central post! (hamberlain renders the description as "a palace which could be entered with one stride!# 0ut the most literal translation, according to (hamberlain, would be "a one-$oot-rising palace!# +s is so o$ten the case the literal rendering is superior to that chosen by the translators! That the palace rises on a single $oot or leg is con$irmed by the /ihongi re$erence to the same palace1 here, instead o$ ashi, "$oot,# we have hashira, "pillar!# The native commentators seem

to agree that the single pillar supported the whole weight o$ the palace, observes .’/eill, op cit , @@G!
66@3 66@G 66@5

,ra*er, The %olden 0ough, Vol! I, @32! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, G@@!

.’/eill, op cit , @32! This leads us to the suggestion that the $abulous polar mountain o$ 'eru must in some sense have been the leg or thigh o$ the great god! There is a well-known classical tradition that Qeus gave birth to Dionysus $rom his "thigh# Hwhich reminds us o$ the >gyptian god-king issuing $rom the cosmic "leg#I! The %reek "thigh# is meros, and the %reek 'ount 'eros wea KsicL the -indu 'eru, the starting point o$ creation and mythical birthplace o$ gods and man! 0irth $rom the leg or thigh is eAuivalent to cosmic birth atop the mountain o$ the world! HDe must remember that the $eminine "thigh# or womb composed the summit o$ the mount or leg and thus an inseparable part o$ the androgynous -eaven 'an!I
66@8 66@7

(oomaraswamy and /ivedita, op cit , 344!

=erceiving the in$luence o$ astral symbolism, .’/eill recogni*ed the leg-pillar as the polar a is! "In 'ailduins Voyage he came to an island called +enchoss, that is .ne-$oot, so called because it was supported by a single pillar in the middle ! ! ! ,# reports .’/eill! + curious $orm o$ the palace on one $oot occurs in a <ussian tale, relating how $our heroes who are wandering about the world come to a dense $orest in which an i*ba or hut twirls round on a $owl’s leg! "The youngest, prince Ivan Hour JackI makes it revolve with the magic word I*bushka! This supplies the idea o$ cosmic rotation which is absent in the Japanese myth!# .’/eill, op cit , @@5 The mythical dwelling raised on a single leg echoes a cosmic tradition! /o one has even seen, on our earth, an island supported by a pillar or leg—or a house revolving on a leg! The leg was the central pillar seeming to sustain the primeval suns cosmic dwelling!
66@4 66@: 6632 6636 663@ 6633 663G 6635 6638 6637 6634 663: 66G2

Di on, .ceanic 'ythology, 65:-82! ,bid , 686! (oomaraswamy, "The Symbolism, o$ the Dome,# 6:! &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, 362! /uttall, op cit , @8@-83! ?rickerberg, in =re-(olumbian +merican <eligions, G7! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, @G:! +ncient >gypt, 32G! ?ramer, Sumerian 'ythology, 78! 0e$ore .lympos, 46! ,bid , 47! ,bid , 45!

,bid , 4G! Sacred pillars claimed to have been $ashioned by the companions o$ Ouet*alcoatl also received the $orm o$ serpents, as did sacred pillars in Ireland! .’/eill, op cit , 374!
66G6 66G@ 66G3 66GG 66G5 66G8 66G7 66G4 66G: 6652 6656

8p cit , Vol! II, 4:! D’+lviella, The 'igration o$ Symbols, @:! =yramid Te t @6@4! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, 35:! -ans -enning Van Der .sten, +ncient .riental Seals in the (ollection o$ 'r! >dward T! /ewell, 663! =atterns in (omparative <eligion, 685-88! 8p cit , @7! (ook, op cit , Vol! II, G:GB %uthrie, The %reeks and Their %ods, 74! %ods, Vol! II, 47! ,bid , :6! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 8@5!

665@ 6653 665G 6655 6658 6657 6654 665: 6682 6686 668@ 6683 668G 6685 6688 6687 6684 668: 6672 6676 667@ 6673 667G 6675 6678 6677 6674

,bid , 523! ,bid , 85! ,bid , 3:6! ,bid , 373! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, :2! -assan, -ymnes <eligieu du 'oyen >mpire! =yramid Te ts @77, 6556! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, G26! ,bid , 8@5! =ianko$$, The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 665! =yramid Te t 6654! ?ramer, Sacred 'arriage <ite, 3@! ,rom the Tablets o$ Sumer, 7@! (oomaraswamy, + /ew +pproach to the Vedas, :8, note :@b! (oomaraswamy, "Symbolism o$ the Dome,# 35, citing <ig Veda IV, 8, @-3! ,bid , 53! Densinck, The .cean in the 9iterature o$ the Destern Semites, 64! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, 75:, note 8! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 3@7! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, 44! =yramid Te t 6476! 0udge, %ods, Vol! II, :2! ,bid , :2! <enou$, op cit , 685! +lbright, "The 'outh o$ the <ivers,# 674! ?ramer, Sumerian 'ythology, G8!

Symbols, 4! Though many writers on comparative mythology note the common belie$ in a celestial river—the mythical source o$ all terrestrial waters—no one seems to have perceived the root identity o$ this $amous stream with the =rimeval -ill! Darmesteter, however, comes close when he writes Ho$ the Iranian celestial riverI1 "Daters and light are believed to $low $rom the same spring and in the same bed1 P+s light rises up $rom -ara 0ere*aiti Kthe polar mountainL so waters spring up $rom it and come back to it!’# Darmesteter, op cit , =art I, @@5! Similarly, (li$$ord reports that &garitic te ts and seals depict the (anaanite cosmic mountain as "the paradisiacal source o$ water that gives $ertility!# The 'ount, he states, "Coins the upper and lower worldsB in it is contained a super abundance o$ li$e, o$ waterB it is the throne o$ the deity!# 8p cit , :7! Thus can the Japanese ?oCiki announce1 "That down river which is like a mountain o$ green leaves, looks like a mountain but it is not a mountain# H=hilippi, op cit , @@@I, and the northwestern +merican Indians can speak o$ the river leading to the end HsummitI o$ the world as a vast "pole# ascended by the souls o$ the dead! +le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, @G4G:!
667: 6642 6646 664@

?ramer, Sumerian 'ythology, G5! .’/eill, op cit , 488! Schlegel, 9’&ranographie (hinoise, @24! (li$$ord, op cit , 74!

6643 664G 6645 6648 6647 6644 664: 66:2

8p cit , 8-7! =salm 381 7-4! %aster, op cit , @7! ,bid , 7! 8p cit , 84! De Santillana and von Dechend, op cit , @24-:B 'ac(ulloch, >ddic 'ythology, 333! %aster, op cit B <ig Veda i 7G, 8B i , 663, 4!

The 0iblical ,ountain o$ 9i$e, states %aster, "has abundant parallels in $olklore! In the ?oran, $or e ample, we read o$ the wondrous paradisiacal $ountains, Salsabil and ?authar HP+bundance’IB while the /orth +merican Indians knew ! ! ! o$ a ,ountain o$ Fouth and Vigor on the paradisal island o$ 0imini Hor 0oiucaI! + hula chant $rom -awaii likewise makes mention o$ such a $ountainB while in (eltic belie$ it was held that in the midst o$ the island o$ +valon $lowed a rill $rom which a sprang a $ountain the waters o$ which gave li$e to the spirits o$ the departed! +n old ,rench poem speaks in a similar vein o$ a $ountain o$ perpetual youth in the land o$ (ocagneB all who bathe in it are at once reCuvenated! In =seudo(allisthenes’ version o$ the +le ander legend, the hero goes in search o$ the ,ountain o$ ImmortalityB and it need scarcely be added that the ,ountain o$ Fouth, 0eauty, or immortality is a very common $eature o$ >uropean $olktales!# 8p cit , @7!@4!

The central spring or $ount comes alive each night, appearing as a river o$ $ire! This was the nature o$ +mmon’s legendary ",ountain o$ the Sun# and o$ the spring o$ Qeus at Dodona! +t midday, =liny reports, the spring o$ Qeus $ails altogether, "but it soon increases till it is $ull at midnight, $rom which time onwards it again gradually $ails!# +mmon’s pool Hthe ",ountain o$ the Sun#I, "cold by day, is hot by night!# The tradition is noted by (ook, who cites the reports o$ -erodotus, 9ucretius, .vid, Diodorus, and others to the e$$ect that the ,ountain o$ the Sun grows colder each morning until midday, but that as the day declines the $ount grows warmer "becoming tepid at sundown and $airly bubbing with heat at midnight!# It may seem strange that such a spring, increasing with the setting o$ the solar orb, was the ",ountain o$ the Sun!# +mong the chroniclers o$ the $ount the current e planation was that by night the sun went below the earth and there boiled the water! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, 484! In truth, the cosmic $ountain rose to the central sun at the pole, becoming a $iery stream each night H"day,# in the earliest ritualI! =liny says that the spring o$ Qeus at Dodona kindles torches—obviously no characteristic o$ a terrestrial spring! The mythical imagery pertains to the archetypal $ountain o$ the sun, the $iery, ethereal stream o$ Shu, to which the >gyptians gave pictorial e pression in the hieroglyph
66:@ 66:3 66:G 66:5 66:8 66:7 66:4 66:: 6@22 6@26 6@2@ 6@23 6@2G 6@25 6@28


?erenyi, =rometheus, 56! (ombe, -istoire du (ulte de Sin, 66-6@! Die ?osmologie der 0abylonier, 6:6! <awlinson, -erodotus, >ssay S! -andbuch der +ltorientalischen %eisteskultur, :8! (ombe, op cit , 6G8! ,bid , 66G! Jastrow, "Sun and Saturn,# 6G3! The %ods o$ the >gyptians, Vol! II, 38! ,bid , 37! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, @@4! The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @83-8G! ,aulkner, The (o$$in Te ts, 636! The Tree at the /avel o$ the >arth, 62:! The 'others, Vol! III, 4@!

6@27 6@24 6@2: 6@62 6@66 6@6@ 6@63 6@6G 6@65 6@68 6@67 6@64 6@6: 6@@2 6@@6 6@@@ 6@@3 6@@G 6@@5 6@@8 6@@7 6@@4 6@@: 6@32 6@36 6@3@ 6@33 6@3G 6@35 6@38 6@37 6@34 6@3: 6@G2 6@G6 6@G@ 6@G3 6@GG

8p cit , 6@7! The >volution o$ the Dragon, 58! ,bid , 58! Suhr, The Spinning +phrodite, 57! Jung, 'ysterium (oniunctionis, 677! ,bid , 6@:! The .rigins o$ =agan Idolatry, Vol! II, 3! ,bid , 5! ,bid , 8! 8p cit , Vol! III, 86! ,bid , 86! ,bid , 86 ,aber, op cit , Vol! III, 63! ,bid , 64! ,aulkner, op cit , @@G! "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites (oncerning the /avel o$ the >arth,# 63! Jeremias, op cit , 57! Densinck, "Tree and 0ird (osmological Symbols in Destern +sia,# 6:, citing /onnus, Dionysiaca, SI, G27 sAA! 0utterworth, op cit , 55! Der 0aum des 9ebens, 8@! 9enormant, 9es .rigines de l’-istoire, Vol! II, @2G-5! The >arth, The Temple and the %ods, 66! ,bid , @@, @23! 8p cit , Vol! III, @2@! ,bid , @23-G! ,bid , @2G! ,bid , @2G! =ercy >! /ewberry, "Two (ults o$ the .ld ?ingdom,# @G$$! ,aber, op cit , Vol! III, @2G! Ouoted in (ook, Qeus1 + Study in +ncient <eligion, Vol! I, 66G! 8p cit , vol! III, @2G-5! -ans -enning van Der Destern, +ncient .riental Seals in the (ollection o$ 'r! >dward T! /ewell, $ig! 8, no! @67! =indar, /emian .des, 62!6G4$$! 8p cit , Vol! II, GG2! ,bid , Vol! II, G3@-33! ,bid , Vol! II, G33! ,bid , Vol! II, G3G! ,bid , Vol! II, G35!

6@G5 6@G8 6@G7 6@G4 6@G: 6@52 6@56 6@5@ 6@53 6@5G 6@55 6@58 6@57 6@54 6@5: 6@82 6@86 6@8@ 6@83 6@8G 6@85 6@88 6@87 6@84 6@8: 6@72 6@76 6@7@ 6@73 6@7G 6@75 6@78 6@77 6@74 6@7: 6@42 6@46 6@4@

,bid , Vol! I, 776! ,bid , Vol! II, 374! >isler, Deltenmantel und -immels*elt! (ook, op cit , Vol! II, G35! /eumann, The %reat 'other, @25! Sparks $rom the Vedic ,ire, G@-G3, 8@$$! =atterns in (omparative <eligion, 5@! .’/eill, The /ight o$ the %ods, 438! %raves, The %reek 'yths, @G3, note @! (ook, op cit , Vol! II, GG@-G3! Ouoted in (ook, op cit , Vol II, 378! ,bid , 335! 8p cit , Vol! II, 346! +le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, @35! 'assey, +ncient >gypt, 375! =yramid Te t! 624:! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 8! 9acau, Traduction des Te tes des (ercueils du 'oyen >mpire,5@! ,bid , 37! =yramid Te ts 68:2-:6! =yramid Te t 6375! =yramid Te t @4:! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @86! <enou$, op cit , 624! 9acau, op cit , G4! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @86! ,bid , @@:! ,aulkner, op, cit!, 86! ,bid , 684! =yramid Te t 42G! =yramid Te t 6375! =yramid Te t @8@! =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, @62! =yramid Te t ::8! =yramid Te ts 6@:@-:3! ,aulkner, op cit , @3@! ,bid , @37! =yramid Te t 6622!

6@43 6@4G 6@45 6@48 6@47 6@44 6@4: 6@:2 6@:6 6@:@ 6@:3 6@:G 6@:5 6@:8 6@:7 6@:4 6@:: 6322 6326 632@ 6323 632G 6325 6328

0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 624! =yramid Te t 6247! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 5:G! ,rank$ort, ?ingship and the %ods, @7! ,bid#! @6-@7! =yramid Te t 6@:7! 8p cit , 6:-@2! =yramid Te t 373! =ianko$$, The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 664! =yramid Te t 362! ,rank$ort, op cit#! @7! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 47! ,bid , 543! ,bid#! 7@! =yramid Te t :26-@! =yramid Te t @83! =yramid Te t 33! =ianko$$$, Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 56! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 3@G! =yramid Te t G28! =yramid Te t 888! =yramid Te t @3G! 8p cit , 626!

9ike the >gyptian -orus and Set the 0abylonian gates o$ the right and le$t are "the twin $ighters!# Sayce, 9ectures on the .rigin and %rowth o$ <eligion, G:@B Jastrow, The <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria, @45!
6327 6324 632: 6362 6366 636@ 6363 636G 6365 6368 6367 6364 636: 63@2

Densinck, "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites,# 8G! +grawala, The Thousand Syllabled Speech, 628! 0ri$$ault, op cit , Vol! III, 8@, 683! (ook, op cit , G:! Densinck, "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites,# 68:! (li$$ord, op cit , G:! 0ri$$ault, op cit , 6:@! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, 657B 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od in +ncient >gypt, G2: =ianko$$, The 9itany o$ <e, @G! ,bid , 63! <enou$, op cit , 627! ,aulkner, op cit , @G3! -assan, -ymnes <eligieu du 'oyen >mpire, 7@! (onrad, The -orn and the Sword, 62@!

63@6 63@@ 63@3 63@G 63@5 63@8 63@7 63@4 63@: 6332 6336

,bid , 3:! ,bid , 34! %elling, The (hariot o$ the Sun, 46-4@B 0ailey, The %od-?ings and the Titans, 6:@B Dhitney, +tharva Veda, Vol! II, 5G7! (ampbell, .ccidental 'ythology, @2G-5B 0ri$$ault, op cit , Vol! III, 6:6! 0rown, <esearches into the .rigins o$ the =rimitive (onstellations, Vol! II, 643B (ook, op cit , Vol! III, 55G! 8p cit , Vol! I, 3n! (lark, 'yth and Symbol in +ncient >gypt, 44! =ianko$$, Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 6@5! =ianko$$, Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 8!

"(oncerning the -orned (ap o$ the 'esopotamian %ods,# 36:! See -ans -enning Van Der .sten, op cit , $ig! @@, no! 66G, 668, 6@4, 653, 684!
633@ 6333 633G 6335 6338 6337 6334 633: 63G2 63G6 63G@ 63G3 63GG 63G5 63G8 63G7 63G4 63G: 6352 6356 635@ 6353 635G 6355 6358 6357 6354

?ramer, Sumerian 'ythology, ii! Jeremias, op cit , ::, $ig! 72! (onrad, The -orn and the Sword, 4:! Dhitney, op cit , Vol! II, 76G! Darmesteter, The Qend +vesta, =art II, @37! 0leeker, -athor and Thoth, G4! =yramid Te t 725! =ianko$$, The Dandering o$ the Soul, 62! 9enormant, (haldean 'agic, 6G:! ?ramer, The Sacred 'arriage <ite, 5:! Sayce, op cit , @58! >ggeling, Satapatha-0rahamna II, =art II, 33! =yramid Te t 34:! =ianko$$, 9itany o$ <e, @8! =yramid Te t @42, in =ianko$$, The =yramid o$ &nas! =yramid Te t @4@-43! /ewberry, "Two (ults o$ the .ld ?ingdom,# @G$$! 8p cit , $ig! @8! ,aulkner, op cit , 6G4! 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, ::! 0rown, op cit , Vol! I, 58! 9enormant, 9es .rigines, Vol! I, 668! ,bid &no -olmberg, Siberian 'ythology, 336-@! Densinck, "The .cean in the 9iterature o$ the Destern Semites,# 3! =erry, 9ord o$ the ,our Ouarters, 64@! =ianko$$, Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 4G!

635: 6382 6386 638@

<enou$, op cit , 66G-65! 'acken*ie, The 'igration o$ Symbols, 64! =yramid Te t G@5!

=yramid Te t 6@88! +nother te t reads1 "See among whom this ?ing stands, the horns on his head being those o$ two wild bulls, $or you are a black ram, the son o$ a black ewe, whom a white ewe bore!# =yramid Te t @5@! In this hymn one discerns the two primary $orms o$ the cosmic twins! The twins, as the two "wild# or $ighting bull, are simply aspects o$ a singular horned god, whose horns alternately $ace opposing directions! 0ut the twins also have to do with a circle hal$ light and hal$ shadow, and this bisected enclosure is the womb o$ the great gods birth! -ence he is "the son o$ a black ewe, whom a white ewe bore!#

9enormant, 9es .rigines, Vol! I, 66G! In the symbolism o$ the -indu <ig Veda it is the universal 0ull and (ow who together compose the primeval womb! They "are like two inverted bowls uniting to $orm a common womb,# writes +grawala! Thousand Syllabled Speech, 628!
638G 6385 6388 6387 6384 638: 6372 6376 637@ 6373 637G 6375 6378 6377 6374 637: 6342 6346 634@ 6343 634G 6345 6348 6347 6344 634: 63:2 63:6 63:@

8p cit , Vol! II, G:5! (ited in ,bid ,bid Jastrow, <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria, 85G! 9angdon, op cit , 628! 0rown, >radinus1 <iver and (onstellation, 6@! 0rown, <esearches, Vol I, 3:! =hilippi, The ?oCiki, 665! Dhitney, op cit , Vol! I, @@7! Di on, .ceanic 'ythology, @2! 'elville, (hildren o$ the <ainbow, 37! +le ander, /orth +merican 'ythology, 5@! Dinkler, <ock Drawings o$ Southern >gypt, no! 67, @@, and inset, pl! (ampbell, .riental 'ythology, 8:-72! Jeremias, op cit , @G3! =yramid Te t 7:@! =yramid Te t 6G33! ,aulkner, op cit , @7:! + Dissertation on the (abiri, Vol I, 677-74! 8p cit , 578! =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, citing a te t $rom the Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon! ,aulkner, op cit , 6G:! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, G44! ,bid , G66! Vanderburgh, Sumerian -ymns $rom (unei$orm Te ts in the 0ritish 'useum, GG! (ompare 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 43! =yramid Te t! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, GG3, citing the 0ook o$ the Dead, (hapter 9SVI! =ianko$$, Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 7@! iiiB =ianko$$, Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 653!

63:3 63:G 63:5 63:8 63:7 63:4 63:: 6G22 6G26 6G2@ 6G23 6G2G 6G25 6G28 6G27 6G24 6G2: 6G62 6G66 6G6@ 6G63 6G6G 6G65 6G68 6G67

9acau, op cit , 33! =ianko$$, Dandering o$ the Soul, @7! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od, G26! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, @52! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, G62! ,bid , 3:4! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, @3:! <enou$, op cit , 48! ,bid , 6:3! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, :7, 635, 565, etc! <enou$, op cit , 636! =yramid Te t 323! 0udge, .siris1 the >gyptian <eligion o$ <esurrection, Vol! I, 664! 8p cit , 86! ,bid , 82, 4:! ,aber, .rigins, Vol! III, @G-@7! ?ramer, The Sacred 'arriage <ite, 5:, 8G! Jastrow, <eligion o$ 0abylonia and +ssyria, 855! ,aber, .rigins Vol! I, 332, 345B Vol! III, G3, 83! 'ac(ulloch, >ddic 'ythology, @75! + Dissertation, Vol! I, 628! ,aber, .rigins, Vol! I, 332, 383, 34G! ,bid , Vol! III, @4-33! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 653!

,aber, .rigins, Vol! I, 332B Vol! III, 32, @32! So also does the world navel appear in the $orm o$ a ship! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, 355$$!B
6G64 6G6: 6G@2 6G@6 6G@@ 6G@3 6G@G 6G@5 6G@8 6G@7 6G@4 6G@: 6G32

,aber, .rigins, Vol! III, @@@-@7, G2-G6, 4:$$! ,bid , Vol! II, @83! ?erenyi, +sklepios, 5, $ig! 3! =ianko$$, Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 88! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, @73! + Dissertation, Vol! I, 677-74! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 63! %ragg, The ?es Temple -ymn, 684! ,bid ,aber gives several e amples o$ ship-temples $rom India, Italy, and Ireland! .rigins, Vol! II, @44-4:! .’/eill, /ight o$ the %ods, 545B see re$erences in /ibley, "Tenting, Toll, and Ta ing,# 82@, note 6:! .rigins, Vol! I, 6:5B see plate I, $ig! 66, @@! ,bid , 6:@B %uenon, 9e <oi du 'onde, :@, note G!

6G36 6G3@ 6G33 6G3G 6G35 6G38 6G37 6G34 6G3: 6GG2 6GG6 6GG@ 6GG3 6GGG 6GG5

=ianko$$, Dandering o$ the Soul, 6G! ,bid , @4! =yramid Te t 6@G! .’/eill, op cit , 4@2! ,bid /eumann, op cit , @58! =ianko$$, 9itany o$ <e, 8GB =yramid Te ts G37, 6645! +siatic <esearches, Vol! III, 63G! 'ac(ulloch, >ddic 'ythology, 657! ,aber, .rigins, Vol! III, :6-:@, 677! =yramid Te t 338! 0udge, The >gyptian C0ook o$ the Dead, @32! 8p cit , 667, note 6! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, @:7!

,aulkner, op!cit!, 648! The close connection o$ the ship and the 'ount o$ %lory is apparent in another hymn $rom the same te ts1 "The %reat .nes who are in the 'ount o$ %lory appear, the ,ollowers o$ the 9ords o$ all reCoice, the crews and servants o$ the bark are glad, and those who are in the 'ount o$ %lory are happy when they see you in this dignity o$ yours!# ,bid , 3:!
6GG8 6GG7 6GG4 6GG:

=yramid Te t 762-66! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, G74! ,aulkner, op cit , @86!

<enou$, op cit , 688! + widespread association o$ the ship and the a is-pillar is noted by (irlot1 " ! ! ! 'any primitive peoples place ships on the end o$ a pole or on the roo$ o$ a house ! ! ! all these $orms, then, represent the a is valleymountain, or the symbolism o$ verticality and the idea o$ height! +n obvious association here is with all the symbols o$ the world-a is!# + Dictionary o$ Symbols, @:5!
6G52 6G56 6G5@

.rigins, Vol! II, @2! ,bid# 34@!

(oomaraswamy, "Symbolism o$ the Dome,# 64! The mast o$ the cosmic ship o$ 9i$e coincides "with the vertical a is o$ the house and the a le-tree o$ the chariot,# writes (oomaraswamy! ,bid , 66!
6G53 6G5G 6G55 6G58 6G57 6G54 6G5: 6G82 6G86 6G8@ 6G83 6G8G

SCUberg and 0ergmann, The (ollection o$ the Sumerian Temple -ymns, @6, 87, 656! .rigins, Vol! III, @25! /ewberry, "The =etty-?ingdom o$ the -arpoon and >gypts >arliest 'editerranean =ort,# 64n! 8p cit , @5@! ,bid , @56! =yramid Te ts 6:46-4@ 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 527! <enou$, op cit , @5:! .rigins Vol IIB see plate I, $ig! 68! Suryakants, The ,lood 9egend in Sanskrit 9iterature, G! Ouoted in =erry, op cit , 634! ,rom ,etish ot %od, 3@4!

6G85 6G88 6G87 6G84 6G8:

8p cit , 8@! 8p cit , @36! Development o$ <eligion and Thought in +ncient >gypt, 5@! ,bid , 53B =yramid Te t 6G36!

Thus the dead king =epi "lives with his kaB he Kthe kaL e pels the evil that is be$ore =epi, he removes the evil that is behind =epi, like the boomerangs o$ the lord o$ 9etoplis Kthe cosmic cityL, which remove the evil that is be$ore him and e pel the evil that is behind him!# =yramid Te t :24, translated in 0reasted, op cit , 53!
6G72 6G76 6G7@ 6G73 6G7G 6G75 6G78 6G77 6G74 6G7: 6G42 6G46 6G4@ 6G43 6G4G 6G45 6G48 6G47 6G44 6G4: 6G:2 6G:6 6G:@ 6G:3 6G:G 6G:5 6G:8 6G:7 6G:4 6G:: 6522 6526

=ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, @6@ =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 76! ,bid , :G! ,bid , 378! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 344! ,bid , 48! =yramid Te t 682! =yramid Te t 656! =yramid Te ts 6853-5G! =yramid Te t @6@! 8p cit , @3@! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, :3! 9acau, op cit , 36! -assan, op cit , 6@! /ewberry, "Two (ults o$ the .ld ?ingdom,# @4! =ianko$$, The =yramid Te t o$ &nas, G3! The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, @6! ,bid , @6, Auoting =yramid Te t 868! ,bid , 66G! ,aulkner, op cit , 5G! ,bid , 43! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, G! =yramid Te t @54! >rman, The 9iterature o$ the +ncient >gyptians, 5:! <enou$, op cit , @G! =ianko$$, op cit , The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 6:! ,rank$ort, op cit , 87! =yramid Te t 4G7! =yramid Te t 6G25! Darmesteter, op cit , =art II, 6G8B =erry, op cit , 634-3:! Vnel, 9es .rigines de la %en]se et l’>nseignement des Temples de l’+ncienne Vgypte, @66! =ianko$$$, The Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, 6@5!

652@ 6523 652G 6525 6528 6527 6524 652: 6562 6566 656@ 6563 656G 6565 6568 6567 6564 656: 65@2 65@6 65@@ 65@3 65@G 65@5 65@8 65@7 65@4 65@: 6532 6536 653@ 6533 653G 6535 6538 6537 6534 653:

(lark, op cit , @33! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 547! 0udge, ,rom ,etish to %od, G26! The reader will have no di$$iculty seeing that the +ker glyph simply translates the image =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 76! ,bid ,bid ,rank$ort, op cit , 8:! =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, 37! ,bid , 3:! ,bid , 34! =yramid Te t 6572-76! =yramid Te t 6353! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 67! =yramid Te t 6GG3! .n the connection o$ Imdugud with /inurta, see Jacobsen, Toward the Image o$ Tammu*, G! %aster, 'yth , 9egend and (ustom in the .ld Testament, 5! 'elville, op cit , 3@! %in*berg, The 9egends o$ the Jews Vol! I, @4-@:B %raves and =atai, -ebrew 'yths1 The 0ook o$ %enesis, 55! (ook, op cit , Vol! I, 3G@, citing .rphic ,rag! G:, 3! +grawala, Sparks $rom the Vedic ,ire, 5@-55! ,rank$ort, op cit , 37! ,bid , 6G3! <eymond, The 'ythical .rigin o$ the >gyptian Temple, 68! ,bid , 6@2-@6! >velyn-Dhite, -esiod, The -omeric -ymns and -omerica, G5:! =ianko$$, 9itany o$ <e, 5G! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 384! 8p cit , 673! 0udge, I 7G! 0udge, %ods, Vol! I, G37! =atai, The -ebrew %oddess, 6@@B 9enormant, 9es .rigines, Vol!I, 66@$$! %elling, The (hariot o$ the Sun, 6@2$$!B 'agoun, The ?alevala, 37-34B .’/eill, op cit , vol! II, 6,22:, 6,26@! =yramid Te t 5:5! =yramid Te t 6G@:! =yramid Te t 6678! =yramid Te t 6377! =ianko$$, Shrines o$ Tut-+nkh-+mon, G8! into leonine $orm!

65G2 65G6 65G@ 65G3 65GG 65G5 65G8 65G7 65G4 65G: 6552 6556 655@ 6553 655G 6555 6558 6557 6554 655: 6582 6586 658@ 6583 658G 6585 6588 6587 6584 658:

=yramid Te t 6372! =yramid Te t :78! =yramid Te t 67G@ 8p cit , 3:! .’/eill, op cit , @@2! =yramid Te t 34:! =yramid Te t @@G3! SCUberg and 0ergmann, op cit , ::! +lbright, "The %oddess o$ 9i$e and Disdom,# @84, note 3! Van 0uren, Symbols o$ the %ods in 'esopotamian +rt, :8-::! ,aulkner, op cit , 84! =yramid Te t 36@! =yramid Te t 6@5G! 0udge, The =apyrus o$ +ni, 3@! <eymond, op cit , 84! (lark, op cit , 87! 'ariette, Denderah, 6, 55a! <oys, The 0ook o$ the (hilam 0alam, 636! ,bid , 625! Sayce, op cit , @34! +lbright, "The 'outh o$ the <ivers,# 6:3! See, $or e ample, the discussion in >liade, =atterns in (omparative <eligion, @:2! 0ri$$ault, op cit , Vol! I, 632! ,bid , 636! <oys, op cit , :G! (ombe, op cit , ::! (oomaraswamy, >lements o$ 0uddhist Iconography, 6:-@2! ,bid , 67-64! 'ore* and Schhubert, Der %ott au$ der 0lume, 34!

,aber, .rigins, Vol! II, @67B vol! I, 6:! In >gyptian ritual there is also a $ascinating relationship o$ the plant o$ li$e and the outstretched arms o$ heaven Hthe ?aI! =yramid Te t 5GGa has the king proclaiming himsel$ to be the "$lower which issued $rom the ?a!#
6572 6576 657@ 6573 657G 6575 6578

0udge, %ods, Vol! I, G63, G3:! See e ample in 0udge, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, @:! (lark, op cit , 683! Ouoted in .’/eill, op cit , G87! 0hawe, The Soma -ymns o$ the <ig Veda, 4@! (oomaraswamy, >lements o$ 0uddhist Iconography, 4:, note 63:! Ouoted in ,bid , 55!

6577 6574 657: 6542 6546 654@ 6543 654G 6545 6548 6547 6544 654: 65:2 65:6 65:@ 65:3 65:G 65:5 65:8 65:7 65:4 65:: 6822 6826

.’/eill, op cit , G22! ,bid , @:2! (ombe, op cit , 66B 9angdon, Semitic 'ythology, :6! 9angdon, op cit , @7! =yramid Te t @G2! 9enormant, 9es .rigines Vol! I, 6@:$$! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, G78! =atterns 37@! >ggeling, op cit , =art I, 48! ,bid , @63, note @! "The Ideas o$ the Destern Semites,# 62! ,bid , 66! ,bid Schwabe, +rchetype und Tierkreis, 377$$! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, @67! =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, 78! ,bid , 37! ,bid 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 45! Ouoted in =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, 32! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 36G! 0udge, The =apyrus o$ +ni, @7! =ianko$$, 'ythological =apyri, :3! ,bid , 7:!

"-ail <eM -is resting place is the TuatB what he traverses is the 0eauti$ul +mentet!# =ianko$$, =yramid o$ &nas, 32! "The disk is in the Tuat, the disk rests in +mentet!# =ianko$$, Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 378! "The souls o$ <e in +mentet are e alted, and in the *one o$ the Tuat the souls ! ! ! cry out in their songs o$ e ultation unto the soul o$ <e who dwelleth therein ! ! ! . yet -etepu gods, grant yet that I may enter into the Tuat, and let me make a way into the beauti$ul +mentet!# 0udge, >gyptian 0ook o$ the Dead, 86@-63!
682@ 6823 682G 6825 6828 6827 6824 682: 6862 6866 686@

0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 347! =ianko$$, The Tomb o$ <amesses VI, 78! =yramid Te t 6234! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 568-67! 8p cit , 6:! "/ut encompasses and Pis’ heaven and earth,# states /eumann! 8p cit , @@3! =ianko$$, 9itany o$ <e, 68:! 9acau, op cit , 37! 0udge, The >gyptian 0ook o$ the dead, 45! ,bid , 42! (o$$in Te t 664B see also spell 32@!


8p cit , 6-3!

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