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BP EXPLORATION

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Guidelines for Drilling Operations (UK Operations) (GEN, SEMI, JAK and FIX Categories Only)

PSR-W06

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Index Prefixes
0000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Safety and Administration Drilling Casing and Tubing Cementing Drilling Fluids Wellheads, Packers, Tools and Equipment Stuck Pipe and Fishing Well Evaluation Marine and Miscellaneous

Index Suffixes
MST GEN SEM JAK FIX FOR CLY BEA MAG THI MIL DON BRU MAR RAV AME WYF HAR Master Index and User Guide General Semi-Submersible Drilling Units Jack-Up Drilling Units Fixed Drilling Units Forties Clyde Beatrice Magnus Thistle Miller Don Bruce Marnock Ravenspurn Amethyst Wytch Farm Harding

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Section
0000 0120/GEN

Description
SAFETY AND ADMINISTRATION H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide) Procedures Section A - Wildcat/Exploration Area Section B - Known H2S Areas Appendices

0160/GEN 0300/GEN 0310/GEN 0320/GEN 0400/GEN 0402/GEN 0403/GEN 0405/GEN 0410/GEN 0413/SEM 0415/GEN 0420/FIX 0420/SEM 0440/JAK 0441/JAK

Use of Explosives in Drilling Operations Daily Reports from Rig Weekly Reports from Rig General Reports from Rig Well Control Procedures Well Control in High Angle or Horizontal Wells Well Control Whilst Logging Limited Kick Tolerance Shallow Gas Procedures Shallow Gas Procedures (Deepwater in DP Mode) The Effect of Cold Weather on BOP Stacks and Control Lines Surface BOP Testing - General Subsea BOP Testing - General Pressure Testing 21 BOP Pressure Testing 13 5/8 BOP

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SUBJECT:

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

These procedures have been drawn up to ensure that the working environment of the Companys operations is effectively controlled. This document in no way detracts from the Contractors responsibilities in law. It is the responsibility of the Drilling Contractors to produce a written plan describing specific procedures to be followed in the event of an H2S escape for each drilling site. In addition to the procedures identified here, further information and procedures are contained in the BP HSE Practices, Number 10. H2S PROCEDURES INDEX Page INTRODUCTION. SECTION A - WILDCAT/EXPLORATION AREAS. A.1 A.1.1 Equipment. Detection Systems. a) b) c) d) e) A.1.2 Fixed Systems. Portable Equipment. Sensor Testing and Calibration. Records. Alternative Detection Methods. 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 11 13 13 14 14

Personal Protection. a) b) c) d) e) Type of Equipment. Respiratory Protection. Safe Briefing Area. Additional Equipment. Audible Alarm.

A.2 A.2.1 A.2.2 A.2.3 A.2.4 A.3 A.4

Emergency Procedures and Contingency Plans. General Procedures. Specific Procedures. Clearance to Safe Conditions. Reporting of H2S Incidence. Training. Equipment Checklist.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


INDEX (cont'd) Page

SECTION B - KNOWN H2S AREAS. B.1 B.1.1 Equipment. Detection Systems. a) b) c) d) e) B.1.2 Fixed Systems. Portable H2S Detectors. Sensor Testing and Calibration. Records. Other Detection Systems.

15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 25 31 31 31

Contracted Safety Equipment and Personnel. a) b) c) d) e) f) Compressor Unit/Units. Air Storage Cylinders. Self-Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus (CABA). Cascade/Distribution System. Portable H2S Detectors. Personnel.

B.1.3 B.1.4 B.1.5 B.1.6 B.1.7 B.2 B.2.1 B.2.2 B.3 B.4 B.5

Required Procedures. Accommodation. Training. General Safety. Communications. Emergency Procedures and Contingency Plans. General Procedures. Specific Procedures. Training. Equipment Checklist. Mobile Rig Checklist Guide for Testing H2S Prospects.

APPENDIX 1 - Properties of Hydrogen Sulphide. 1. 2. 3. Characteristics. Physiological & Long Term Effects - Table of Concentrations (Table 1). First Aid.

34 34 35 35 37 37 38 39

APPENDIX 2 - Drilling Fluid and H2S Control. 1. 2. 3. Principles. Monitoring of H2S in Drilling Fluids. Stocking of Materials.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


INDEX (cont'd) Page

APPENDIX 3 - Effects of H2S on Drilling Equipment. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC). Factors Affecting Failure. Standards Applying to Metals for H2S Situations. Metals for Use in H2S Environments. Drilling Components for Use in H2S Environments. Precautions Against H2S Corrosion.

40 40 40 40 40 41 41 45

APPENDIX 4 - List of Useful Contacts.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


INTRODUCTION

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is found in detectable concentrations in oil and gas deposits throughout the World. In the UKCS, there have been relatively small numbers of wells tested which have produced H2S in significant amounts, but reservoirs containing high percentages of H2S have and are being successfully and safely produced in other parts of the World. These are not reasons to show any complacency towards H2S, the effect to both human life and equipment, at even low concentrations, can be devastating. These procedures are designed for normal drilling and testing activities. The document is divided into two major sections which cover the following areas of operations: A. WILDCAT/EXPLORATION AREAS In unexplored areas the occurrence of H2S is a possibility. Similarly in exploration areas, even though nearby wells would seem to indicate that it does not exist. It is expected that all drilling rigs engaged in this area will carry the minimum levels of equipment and follow the procedure in this document. B. KNOWN H2S AREAS Where the occurrence of H2S is considered a distinct possibility, additional safety equipment will be required. This document outlines the extra equipment and stricter procedures that will be necessary. These are additional to the minimum levels of equipment and procedures suggested for exploration areas. There are included a number of Appendices giving background information on the effects of H2S on personnel, drilling muds and drilling equipment.

Note:
There is a possibility of H2S occurring during well servicing operations of existing static wells, which formally showed no indication of the gas. Sulphur Reducing Bacteria (SRBs) may be present in the reservoir, or may have been introduced during earlier work. These SRBs can produce H2S from sulphur containing compounds present within the reservoir or formation. Personnel must always be prepared for the presence of H2S during operations on existing wells and follow procedures laid down in Section A, should it be detected.

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SUBJECT:

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


SECTION A WILDCAT/EXPLORATION AREAS

This section is intended to cover the minimum equipment, training and procedure levels that will be applied to all mobile rigs being used by BP Petroleum Development Limited in the UKCS area. A.1 A.1.1 EQUIPMENT Detection Systems Both portable H2S gas detectors and a fixed automatic monitoring and alarm system are required, although their accuracy and reliability must first be ascertained particularly in the case of fixed detectors. Flammable gas detection systems that may be installed in these areas should not be considered as being suitable for toxicity monitoring of H2S concentrations. a) Fixed Systems The number and location of sensors should be sufficient to cover expected areas of accumulation and must be tested for their accuracy and reliability. The sensors should be collectively monitored at a central point, in a safe area. For example, the Mud Logging unit or rig control room. The system should be arranged to provide continuous monitoring of those parts of the installation listed below.

Bell Nipple

This is the best location for early warning, but may not be practicable. In this case the sensor should be as close as possible.

Shale Shakers/Header Box Mud Pit Area Drill Floor


Return and suction pits. Two sensors.

If possible, the system should have at least two spare channels to allow extra sensors to be fitted as required, e.g. on the trip tank. Additionally and depending on rig design and positioning of living quarters air intakes, consideration should be given to installing H2S sensors at the air intakes. Since H2S is heavier than air, sensors must be as close to floor level or mud level as practicable. The system should be set to detect H2S at any individual sensor at 10 ppm. This should sound an alarm and register an alarm at the central monitoring point and at the remote alarm stations. Remote alarms, giving both visual and audible alarm on detection of the preset limit of H2S, should be placed at the following positions: Drillers console. Control room. Mud logging unit.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

b) Portable Equipment In addition to the fixed automatic H2S detection system, portable detectors, both electronic and manual, should be available. Portable Continuous Monitor (Electronic) The instrument provided should be continuous and automatic in operation, tamper proof and suitable for use by non-technical personnel. The instrument should give a clear audible and visual alarm in the presence of H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm. Additionally the unit should be suitable for hazardous areas, of robust construction, easily handled in one man operation, integral power supply and internal function testing. Typical models are: Compur 4100. TAC Model 701.

Two detectors should be provided, one in the toolpushers/OIMs office and one in the control room. H2S Detector Tubes (Manual) H2S detector tubes should meet the current British Standard BS 5343 (1976) Gas Detector Tubes. The detector should be accurate and simple to operate. It should incorporate a hand-operated aspirating pump and colour indication tube graduated directly in ppm H2S. At least one detector set should be provided and normally kept in the contractor toolpusher/OIMs office. A minimum of 6 tubes are to be kept with the detector at all times. A minimum stock of 50 tubes, range 0 - 60 ppm, of H2S should be maintained on board in a cool place below 68F. c) Sensor Testing and Calibration (Fixed and Portable) All H2S detection systems and equipment should be tested and calibrated, in accordance with manufacturers instruction manuals, on installation and weekly thereafter or as often as necessary depending on the reliability of the detectors. Tests should be a functional simulation to test both accuracy and operational efficiency of the system and equipment. Detector tubes should be checked that they are not out of date, and are suitable for H2S. This will be the responsibility of the OIM. d) Records All testing and calibration results should be recorded. These records should be available for inspection at all times. e) Alternative Detection Methods Smell Sense of smell is not a reliable method of detecting H 2S (see Appendix 1). If any crew member believes that they can smell H2S, they should immediately inform the Contractor toolpusher/OIM. He will then arrange for the area to be investigated using Draeger tubes, or similar devices.

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SUBJECT:

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

Mud Analysis By analysis of the drilling mud, either by using a Garrett gas train on routine inspections or a Mud Duck for continuous monitoring, it is possible to determine the level of sulphides in the mud. From this it is possible to infer the amount of H2S in solution in the mud. Variations in the sulphide level will be significant. See also the section on mud systems. A.1.2 Personal Protection The provision of breathing apparatus and its location on the rig is based upon the following premises. Any release of H2S will be detected sufficiently early for BA equipment to be worn. In the event of a substantial release of H2S, the rig will shut down operations and make the well safe. The number of sets is based on the minimum number of personnel to make the well safe. a) Type of Equipment In view of the highly toxic nature of H2S, it is recommended that only BA equipment with a protection rating of 2000, as defined by BS 4275 : 1974, should be used. Such BA equipment should be designed to BS 4667 Part 2 : 1974, or similar standards. b) Respiratory Protection All installations will have at least twelve sets of self-contained BA to the appropriate standard. These sets should have sufficient spare cylinders to allow at least one hour of continuous hard work. This would be two spare bottles for each 1200LBA set, this means a minimum of 36 bottles in total. The sets should be positioned, as far as possible, as follows:

Rig Floor/Doghouse/Derrick 6 sets (Driller, Asst. Driller, 3 x Floormen, Derrickman) Mudroom 1 set (Derrickman/Mud Watcher) Toolpushers Office 3 sets (Toolpusher, BP Representative, Mud Engineer) Control Room 1 set (Spare/Monitor) Mud Logging Unit 1 set (Mud Logger)
Consideration should also be given to providing a further six sets, three at each of the outdoor Safe Briefing Areas (see definition below). Additionally, 10 minute escape BA sets should be available in the derrick, mud pit area and depending on risk, the shaker area. BA equipment will be checked regularly in accordance with manufacturers recommendations and a record kept of all inspections. This is the responsibility of the OIM. c) Safe Briefing Area In general, it is the responsibility of the OIM to define three safe briefing areas onboard the rig.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

Two of these safe briefing areas will be in the open air on opposite sides of the rig so that at least one will be upwind of any incident. These areas will be used to muster essential personnel. In the event of an incident, a tannoy message will designate which safe briefing area is to be used. In the event that both are unusable, a tannoy message will give the location of an alternative site, e.g. Helideck. The third safe briefing area will be within the accommodation of the rig and will be used to muster all non-essential personnel. It is suggested that the messroom or cinemas would be suitable. d) Additional Equipment Extra wind socks or flags should be provided so that at least one can be seen from all points on the rig. This is to enable personnel to determine the upwind side of the structure to proceed to the correct safe briefing area. Actual location depends on rig design. Retrieval ropes and harnesses need to be available to recover incapacitated personnel. This is normally part of rig equipment. Each rig will have two approved resuscitation units. These, also, are part of the normal rig equipment. e) Audible Alarm Consideration should be given to the use of the drill floor horn or similar type of audible alarm, in preference to the General/Fire Alarm, as a means of alerting on-duty personnel to the impending danger of H2S. A.2 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND CONTINGENCY PLANS It is the responsibility of the Drilling Contractor to produce a written plan describing specific procedures to be followed in the event of an H2S escape for each rig. This plan should be discussed and agreed with BP. These plans must be prominently displayed on the rig. The following notes are intended as guidelines for plans of action. These will need to be modified for each individual rig. A.2.1 General Procedures Condition 1 Normal Operation H2S Less Than 10 ppm in Air at Sensors Well Condition Alarm Characteristics General Action Normal work, hole open, drilling ahead. None. Drilling operation under control. This condition will be in effect from surface casing shoe to TD unless it is necessary to go to Condition 2. 1. Be alert for a condition change. 2. Check and maintain all sensors and safety equipment. 3. Designate three Safe Briefing Areas (SBA) or Muster Points in the event of an incident. Two SBAs should be in the open air on opposite sides of the rig so that at least one will be upwind of the incident.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


4. Continue training of all personnel on the dangers and reaction to H2S. Carry out training drills, as suggested below, to ensure personnel are familiar with alarms, etc. 5. Though not reliable, smelling H2S may be a first indication and must be reported and investigated. The odour threshold of H2S is very low, i.e. approximately 0.01 ppm. 6. Any occurrence of H2S should be reported on the daily Drill Data report from the Mud Loggers. See also A.2.4 - Reporting of H2S Incidence.

Condition 2 H2S Levels Between 10 ppm and 25 ppm in Air at Sensors Well Condition Alarm Characteristics General Action Prior to reaching this condition, the hole is open and circulating normally. In mud log unit, drill floor, control room, etc. Drilling operations under control. H2S concentrations at threshold levels. 1. Drill floor personnel to don BA sets, but not mask up. Mud Room personnel to don BA sets and mask up. 2. Mud log unit to telephone rig floor, control room, toolpushers/OIMs office and BP Reps. 3. Shut well in (conforming with standard BOP procedures to make the well safe). 4. Shut down all accommodation ventilation systems. Make general announcement for all non-essential personnel to return to, and remain in, accommodation. 5. Announce which safe briefing area will be used by essential personnel. 6. Increase mud room ventilation to maximum. 7. Switch on degasser, any gas being released in Derrick vent line. 8. Using portable equipment, determine levels of H2S in free air at the drill floor and mud room. 9. Commence circulating treatment mud. Suggested treatments include: a) b) c) Increasing mud pH. Increasing mud weight. Using scavengers if available.

Normally after a few hours circulation H2S level should decrease to below 10 ppm. In this case continue circulation without choke system until the mud is free of entrained gas. If H2S level does not fall, continue circulation and the BP Rep. will inform the responsible Drilling Superintendent or the duty Drilling Superintendent, outwith office hours. Possible actions by essential personnel: Driller Asst. Driller Will don BA. Raise pipe off bottom to enable use of BOP rams. Will don BA. Stand by on BOP controls, until driller is free to stand by.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


Will don BA, mask up and go to mud room. Commence pH and H2S checks. Stand by to start treatment. Main operator will don BA and remain in unit. Other personnel will go to accommodation. Will don BA and go to drill floor. Will don BA and go to drill floor. As soon as practicable, will take BA set from drill floor, don, mask up and report to mud room. Prepare to start treatment. Will don BA and await orders on the rig floor. Will don BA and go to control room. Will don BA set, mask up and assist with mud treatment. Notify standby vessel of situation and to go upwind. Inform incoming helicopters. Make necessary announcements.

Mud Engineer Mud Logger Toolpusher BP Representative Derrickman Floormen OIM/Barge Eng. Mud Watcher Radio Operator/ Control Room

Condition 3 H2S Levels Between 25 ppm and 50 ppm in Air at Sensors Well Condition Well shut in, circulating through choke system. All essential personnel having donned BA sets. All non-essential personnel in accommodation. Alarm Characteristics General Action As Condition 2. Drilling operations under control. As Condition 2. 1. All essential personnel to mask up after tannoy instructions. 2. Control room to instruct all non-essential personnel to go to safe briefing area within the accommodation. 3. Continue circulation of treatment mud. Specific Action: Barge Engineer/ Crane Operator Asst. Drill/Rig Crew Radio Operator/ Control Room BP Representative Take control at Safe Briefing Area within the accommodation. Continue with circulation. Inform standby boat, incoming helicopters if not already informed. Consult with Duty Drilling Superintendent or Responsible Drilling Superintendent on the situation.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

Condition 4 H2S Levels Greater than 50 ppm Status of Well Shut in, circulating through choke system. Essential personnel masked up in BA equipment. Non-essential personnel in accommodation Safe Briefing Area. As Condition 2. Critical well operation, well control problems. 1. Shut the well in completely. Monitor drill pipe and annulus pressure. 2. Re-assess the situation. The following points need to be considered: Location of sensor giving high readings. Wind directions/weather conditions. H2S neutraliser availability. Equipment status (BA etc.). Known helicopter movements. Possible evacuation of non-essential personnel. Based on the current situation, a procedure will be agreed to remedy the problem. For example, if wind is adequately dispersing the H2S and sufficient chemicals are available, it may be possible to remove all nonessential personnel, bring in back-up BA equipment and reduce the H2S level by circulation, with increased mud weight. A.2.2 Specific Procedures H2S Detection While Drilling Proceed as for Conditions 1 to 4. H2S Detection While Tripping Stop tripping and proceed to circulate as per Conditions 1 to 4. Once the level is reduced, go to bottom and complete circulation and condition mud. Consideration may be given to stripping in under special circumstances. Circulating Out Trip Gas Maintain vigilance when trip gas is expected to surface. Have degasser running. In the event of H2S, proceed with Conditions 1 to 4. Circulating Out a Kick Follow normal well kill procedures. If H2S becomes apparent, proceed as per Conditions 1 to 3 and continue to circulate until the kick is out.

Alarm Characteristics General Actions

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Coring

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

If there is a possibility of H2S being present in a reservoir, and there is a requirement for cores to be taken, the following procedures should be applied to ensure that the core is handled safely. 1. All BA equipment (including cascade lines) to be checked and confirmed operable while running in hole for core run No. 1. 2. FSO to be requested to provide brief summary of H2S effects/precautions at pre-shift safety meetings. 3. Tripping to stop when corebarrel 1000ft below rotary, to allow a Safety meeting to be held, with FSO in attendance. 4. A tannoy announcement must be made, informing all of the imminent core recovery operation, and the associated potential for an H2S gas release. All unauthorised personnel to remain clear of drill floor. 5. Continuous H2S detector to be installed near rotary. 6. FSO to take a gas sample in each box connection when pulling BHA. 7. Once the core barrel is at the table, the rig floor is to be cleared to minimum personnel, with at least two portable H2S detectors. 8. Floormen don BA. Break safety joint and pull back 90ft of inner. Clamp and break same. FSO to sample for H2S. 9. If ANY test result for the presence of H2S is positive, the following actions apply: (a) (b) (c) All personnel handling or supervising core operations on drillfloor to wear BA until advised by the FSO. Core laydown area to be cordoned off. Boxes to be flushed with compressed air by deck operator wearing BA, until FSO confirms that the samples are free of H2S. Floormen to be rotated regularly.

10. If all tests are negative, the following actions apply: (a) (b) Personnel handling core may work without BA, but these sets must be rapidly to hand and in usable condition. Samples to be taken by FSO complete with BA when breaking each further inner barrel.

Downhole Samples All downhole samples are to be tested for H2S gas prior to them being removed to the mud logging unit for testing, e.g. Repeat Formation Tester (RFT) samples. Testing It is possible that the first indications of H2S will be during the well testing phase. Well testing will be carried out as normal unless H2S was evident during drilling. However, all test equipment will be H2S proof in wildcat/exploration areas. Separator gas will be routinely checked for H2S. In the event that the concentrations of H2S increase to above 10 ppm in free air or 25 ppm in stream, the test string will be shut in at the manifold and surface equipment flushed through with diesel.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

On condition that the test string can withstand the H2S, the flow will be held closed in. Otherwise the test will be terminated. A report of the conditions will be made to the relevant Drilling Superintendent and the Senior Petroleum Engineer. Consideration will be given to continuing the test if suitable equipment, as shown in Section B, can be mobilised. If it is not possible, consideration will be given to aborting the test until a suitable plan of action can be made.

Note: Acidising limestone may generate H2S until cleaned up.


A.2.3 Clearance to Safe Conditions The exact sequence of action to clear an alarm will depend upon the reason for it (e.g. drilling through a sulphurous zone, sampling sour crude, etc.). The general procedure will be: 1. Stop the source of the H2S. 2. Monitor for H2S near the source. Give clearance there when it stays below 10 ppm. 3. Monitor for H2S downwind and downstream of the source. Give clearance in each area when it stays below 10 ppm. Following an H2S incident, all low lying areas of the rig will be inspected by two persons working a buddy system using the portable electronic and/or manual detectors and equipped with BA. Areas inspected should include rig legs, tanks, thruster pods, cellar deck, void spaces, etc. A.2.4 Reporting of H2S Incidence When H2S is detected in a wildcat/exploration well, and appropriate actions have been taken, a report on the incident must be immediately forwarded to the relevant Drilling Superintendent by the BP Representative. Information sent should include: Hole condition, i.e. drilling, tripping. Depth. Maximum level of H2S encountered in free air. Source of maximum level, i.e. flowline, mud pits. Geological structure being drilled. Action taken. Copies should be sent to the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Drilling Superintendent. Senior Drilling Engineer/Office Drilling Engineer. Senior Operations Geologist. Senior Petroleum Engineer. Senior Safety Adviser, Drilling.

This is a reportable incident as per PON 11. A report will be made by BP to the Department of Energy.

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A.3

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

TRAINING All essential personnel, i.e. Contractor drill crews, BP Representative, etc. will be instructed in the use of BA equipment. All supervisory personnel will be instructed on the correct use of the portable H2S gas detectors on the rig. H2S drills should be carried out prior to drilling out of the 13-3/8 and 9-5/8 casing shoes. This will be part of the D5 drill. Information relating to safety measures in the event of H2S should be prominently posted around the rig by the Drilling Contractor. In addition it is strongly recommended, in order to promote efficient safety procedures, that an on-site H2S training programme be established by the Drilling Contractor. As a general outline, the programme should include instruction on the dangers of H2S and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), the detection systems, alarms, safe briefing areas, actions during Conditions 2 and 3 on H2S alert. Instruction should also be given on rescue and first aid of H2S victims. A list of possible training companies is given in Appendix 4. The OIM is responsible to ensure that training and drills are being satisfactorily carried out. A record will be kept.

A.4

EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST The following is a summary of equipment that will need to be provided under Section A. Responsibility for provision will depend on the rig contract but it is likely to be as shown.

Equipment
a) Fixed H2S detector system with 6/7 sensor points and 1 central monitor point and 4 remote alarm points. b) Two hand portable continuous electronic H2S detectors. c) One set of H2S detector tubes and pumps, plus 50 tubes of 0 - 60 ppm range. d) 12 BA sets plus 24 spare bottles of 1200L capacity. e) 1 x 10 minute escape BA set. f) Wind socks (as required) and fluorescent streamers.

Provided By
Drilling Contractor Drilling Contractor Drilling Contractor Drilling Contractor Drilling Contractor BP BP BP BP

g) H2S proof testing gear. h) 6 hand portable continuous electronic H2S detectors. i) 1 pallet of zinc carbonate (25 x 25 kg sacks) (see Appendix A2.5).

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


SECTION B KNOWN H2S AREAS

This section applies to work within known H2S quadrants. For known quadrants at present with concentrations above 50 ppm. In writing these guidelines, it is assumed that H2S will occur in the target or reservoir zone. This may not be the case and each well should be individually planned. The general philosophy for drilling in known H2S areas is that the basic conditions of Section A will be followed until some point prior to entering the H2S section, say 95/8 casing shoe. After that point these extra regulations will apply. The extra equipment etc. will be supplied by BP for known H2S quadrants. B.1 B.1.1 EQUIPMENT Detection Systems Both portable H2S gas detectors and a fixed automatic monitoring and alarm system are required and must be tested for their accuracy and reliability. Flammable gas detection systems that may be installed in these areas should not be considered as being suitable for toxicity monitoring of H2S concentrations. a) Fixed Systems The number and location of sensors should be sufficient to cover expected areas of accumulation. The sensors should be collectively monitored at a central point, in a safe area. For example, the Mud Logging unit or rig control room.

If sensors cannot be collectively monitored at a central point, reporting procedure must be in place to ensure immediate and effective communication to control area.
The system should be arranged to provide continuous monitoring of those parts of the installation listed below.

Bell Nipple

This is the best location for early warning, but may not be practicable. In this case the sensor should be as close as possible.

Shale Shakers/Header Box Mud Pit Area Drill Floor Mud Pumproom Accommodation Well Test Area BA Compressor
Above all active pits. Minimum of two sensors, one in vicinity of dog-house. Minimum of one sensor. One sensor at each main ventilation intake. It should be proved that the fans do trip on monitoring any concentrations of H2S or gas. Where possible in vicinity of separator and sampling point. At air intakes for main cascade system compressor. If two air intakes are required, both should be fitted with sensors and proved to trip compressor on detection of H2S.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


Consideration to be given to the monitoring of H2S when the trip tank is exposed to the well.

Trip Tank

Spare detector heads should be onboard to enable replacement of defective units. Since H2S is heavier than air, sensors must be as close to floor level or mud level as practicable. The system should be set to detect H2S at any individual sensor at 10 ppm. This should sound and register an alarm at the central monitoring point and at the remote alarm stations. Remote alarms, giving both visual and audible alarms on detection of the preset limit of H2S, should be at the following positions as a minimum requirement: - Drillers console. - Control room. - Mud logging unit. b) Portable H2S Detectors In addition to the fixed H2S detection system, portable detectors, both electronic and manual, must be available and must be tested for their accuracy and reliability. Portable Continuous Monitors (Electronic) The instrument provided should be continuous and automatic in operation, tamper proof and suitable for use by non-technical personnel. The instrument should give a clear audible and visual alarm in the presence of H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm. Additionally the unit should be suitable for hazardous areas, of robust construction, easily handled in one man operation, integral power supply and internal function testing. H2S Detector Tubes (Manual) H2S detector tubes should meet the current British Standard BS 5343 (1976) Gas Detector Tubes. The detector should be accurate and simple to operate. It should incorporate a hand-operated aspirating pump and colour indication tube graduated directly in ppm H2S. At least two detector sets should be provided and normally kept in the Control Room and BP Reps office. A minimum of 6 tubes are to be kept with each detector at all times. A minimum stock of 50 tubes, range 0 - 60 ppm, of H2S should be maintained on board in a cool place below 68F. c) Sensor Testing and Calibration (Fixed and Portable) All H2S detection systems and equipment should be tested and calibrated, in accordance with manufacturers instruction manuals, on a weekly basis or as often as necessary depending on the reliability of the detectors. Tests should be a functional simulation to test both accuracy and operational efficiency of the system and equipment. Detector tubes should be checked that they are not out of date, and are suitable for H2S. This is the responsibility of the OIM. d) Records All testing and calibration results should be recorded. These records should be available for inspection at all times.

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e) Other Detection Systems (Fixed and Portable) The fixed flammable gas detection system, as installed, should be calibrated, tested and fully operational. It is recommended that sensors should also be calibrated and cover the same general areas as for fixed H2S sensors. There should be 4 portable meters onboard, two for measuring oxygen and two for measuring flammable concentrations of gas. This is a legal requirement. CAUTION: Sense of smell is not a reliable method of detecting H2S. If any crew member believes that they can smell H2S, they should immediately inform the Contractor toolpusher/OIM. He will then arrange for the area to be investigated using Draeger tubes, or similar devices. B.1.2 Contracted Safety Equipment and Personnel Dependent on hazard expected or perceived, the following equipment should be considered to reduce potential risk to onboard personnel during well test periods. a) Compressor Unit/Units Suitable compressor unit producing breathing air to, or exceeding, BS 4275. Two air intakes for supply air to compressor unit, situated at opposite sides of the rig. b) Air Storage Cylinders To BS 5045 or equivalent, sufficient quantity to provide 140 manhours of compressed air to the cascade/distribution system. c) Self-Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus (CABA) Above to include the following: i) ii) iii) Sufficient 30 minute CABA suitable for inter connection to air line cascade system c/w one spare cylinder for each set. Sufficient 10 minute hip set suitable for inter connection to air line cascade system. Sufficient 10 minute escape sets for evacuation only.

Suggested distribution of apparatus is as follows: For Controlled Situation When Gas is Expected Essential Personnel : Rig Floor Derrickman (1) Drill Crew (6) Toolpusher Subsea Eng. BP Rep. Drilling Eng. Pet.Eng./Geologist Contract Service Personnel Well Test Personnel Monkey Board - use escape set Drill Floor - use air outlets Use 30 min. set from Drilling Office Use 30 min. set from Drilling Office Use 30 min. set from Company Office Use 30 min. set from Company Office Use 30 min. set from Company Office Use 30 min. set from Contractors Unit Use air outlets

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SECTION B KNOWN H2S AREAS

This section applies to work within known H2S quadrants. For known quadrants at present with concentrations above 50 ppm. In writing these guidelines, it is assumed that H2S will occur in the target or reservoir zone. This may not be the case and each well should be individually planned. The general philosophy for drilling in known H2S areas is that the basic conditions of Section A will be followed until some point prior to entering the H2S section, say 95/8 casing shoe. After that point these extra regulations will apply. The extra equipment etc. will be supplied by BP for known H2S quadrants. B.1 B.1.1 EQUIPMENT Detection Systems Both portable H2S gas detectors and a fixed automatic monitoring and alarm system are required and must be tested for their accuracy and reliability. Flammable gas detection systems that may be installed in these areas should not be considered as being suitable for toxicity monitoring of H2S concentrations. a) Fixed Systems The number and location of sensors should be sufficient to cover expected areas of accumulation. The sensors should be collectively monitored at a central point, in a safe area. For example, the Mud Logging unit or rig control room.

If sensors cannot be collectively monitored at a central point, reporting procedure must be in place to ensure immediate and effective communication to control area.
The system should be arranged to provide continuous monitoring of those parts of the installation listed below.

Bell Nipple

This is the best location for early warning, but may not be practicable. In this case the sensor should be as close as possible.

Shale Shakers/Header Box Mud Pit Area Drill Floor Mud Pumproom Accommodation Well Test Area BA Compressor
Above all active pits. Minimum of two sensors, one in vicinity of dog-house. Minimum of one sensor. One sensor at each main ventilation intake. It should be proved that the fans do trip on monitoring any concentrations of H2S or gas. Where possible in vicinity of separator and sampling point. At air intakes for main cascade system compressor. If two air intakes are required, both should be fitted with sensors and proved to trip compressor on detection of H2S.

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Consideration to be given to the monitoring of H2S when the trip tank is exposed to the well.

Trip Tank

Spare detector heads should be onboard to enable replacement of defective units. Since H2S is heavier than air, sensors must be as close to floor level or mud level as practicable. The system should be set to detect H2S at any individual sensor at 10 ppm. This should sound and register an alarm at the central monitoring point and at the remote alarm stations. Remote alarms, giving both visual and audible alarms on detection of the preset limit of H2S, should be at the following positions as a minimum requirement: - Drillers console. - Control room. - Mud logging unit. b) Portable H2S Detectors In addition to the fixed H2S detection system, portable detectors, both electronic and manual, must be available and must be tested for their accuracy and reliability. Portable Continuous Monitors (Electronic) The instrument provided should be continuous and automatic in operation, tamper proof and suitable for use by non-technical personnel. The instrument should give a clear audible and visual alarm in the presence of H2S concentrations at or above 10 ppm. Additionally the unit should be suitable for hazardous areas, of robust construction, easily handled in one man operation, integral power supply and internal function testing. H2S Detector Tubes (Manual) H2S detector tubes should meet the current British Standard BS 5343 (1976) Gas Detector Tubes. The detector should be accurate and simple to operate. It should incorporate a hand-operated aspirating pump and colour indication tube graduated directly in ppm H2S. At least two detector sets should be provided and normally kept in the Control Room and BP Reps office. A minimum of 6 tubes are to be kept with each detector at all times. A minimum stock of 50 tubes, range 0 - 60 ppm, of H2S should be maintained on board in a cool place below 68F. c) Sensor Testing and Calibration (Fixed and Portable) All H2S detection systems and equipment should be tested and calibrated, in accordance with manufacturers instruction manuals, on a weekly basis or as often as necessary depending on the reliability of the detectors. Tests should be a functional simulation to test both accuracy and operational efficiency of the system and equipment. Detector tubes should be checked that they are not out of date, and are suitable for H2S. This is the responsibility of the OIM. d) Records All testing and calibration results should be recorded. These records should be available for inspection at all times.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

e) Other Detection Systems (Fixed and Portable) The fixed flammable gas detection system, as installed, should be calibrated, tested and fully operational. It is recommended that sensors should also be calibrated and cover the same general areas as for fixed H2S sensors. There should be 4 portable meters onboard, two for measuring oxygen and two for measuring flammable concentrations of gas. This is a legal requirement. CAUTION: Sense of smell is not a reliable method of detecting H2S. If any crew member believes that they can smell H2S, they should immediately inform the Contractor toolpusher/OIM. He will then arrange for the area to be investigated using Draeger tubes, or similar devices. B.1.2 Contracted Safety Equipment and Personnel Dependent on hazard expected or perceived, the following equipment should be considered to reduce potential risk to onboard personnel during well test periods. a) Compressor Unit/Units Suitable compressor unit producing breathing air to, or exceeding, BS 4275. Two air intakes for supply air to compressor unit, situated at opposite sides of the rig. b) Air Storage Cylinders To BS 5045 or equivalent, sufficient quantity to provide 140 manhours of compressed air to the cascade/distribution system. c) Self-Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus (CABA) Above to include the following: i) ii) iii) Sufficient 30 minute CABA suitable for inter connection to air line cascade system c/w one spare cylinder for each set. Sufficient 10 minute hip set suitable for inter connection to air line cascade system. Sufficient 10 minute escape sets for evacuation only.

Suggested distribution of apparatus is as follows: For Controlled Situation When Gas is Expected Essential Personnel : Rig Floor Derrickman (1) Drill Crew (6) Toolpusher Subsea Eng. BP Rep. Drilling Eng. Pet.Eng./Geologist Contract Service Personnel Well Test Personnel Monkey Board - use escape set Drill Floor - use air outlets Use 30 min. set from Drilling Office Use 30 min. set from Drilling Office Use 30 min. set from Company Office Use 30 min. set from Company Office Use 30 min. set from Company Office Use 30 min. set from Contractors Unit Use air outlets

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Essential Personnel Other Than Rig Floor OIM CRO Mate Elec. Eng. Chief Eng. 2 Mech. Techs. on duty 3/4 Schlumberger Medic Well Logger Mud Eng./Loss Control Eng. Cementer Safety Reps. Radio Officer Use 30 min. set from Control Room Use 30 min. set from Control Room Use 30 min. set from Control Room Use 30 min. set from Control Room Use 30 min. set from Maint. Office Use 30 min. set from Workshop Use 30 min. set from Contractors Unit Use 30 min. set from Rig Office Use 30 min. set from Logging Unit Use 30 min. set from Mud Lab Use 30 min. set from Cement Room Use 30 min. set from Unit Use 30 min. set from Radio Room

All personnel not mentioned above to remain inside accommodation or as instructed by the OIM. Guidelines for BA Set Distribution P 1200 (30 min) Monkey Board Drill Floor Drilling Office Company Office Control Room Mud Pit Area Mud Pump Room Sack Room Cement Room Logging Unit Mud Lab Radio Room Medic Maintenance Office Mech. Workshop Port Crane Starboard Crane Elec. Workshop Subsea Workshop Welders Shop Main Stores Cinema Well Test Unit EM Generator Room (for storage) TOTAL On Board Escape Sets (10 min) HIP (10 min) 1 8 2 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 3

1 12

2 2 4 2 2 2 50 9 20 100

1 2

30

20

Above equipment is in addition to statutory rig equipment regards BA sets and compressors. d) Cascade/Distribution System To provide sufficient outlets as required to allow persons to work connected to the system. All outlets to meet BS 4275 or equivalent.

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e) Portable H2S Detectors As for portable continuous monitors (Electronic) in Section B.1.1 (b). All portable electrical equipment to be to British Approvals Service for Elec. Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres, BASEEFA or equivalent intrinsically safe specification. f) Personnel i) Minimum of two service company personnel should be present when testing wells with high concentrations of H2S. Prior to mobilising personnel, the service company should be supplied with sufficient information to allow them to tailor a package specifically for that test. Information to be supplied would include expected H2S level, number and duration of flow periods. ii) Duties As required by OIM/BP Rep. to monitor H2S and advise. Through consultation with OIM/BP Rep., provide information and assist training of all staff, e.g: a) Proficient use of all contractor CABA equipment and portable gas detectors. b) Hazards and properties of H2S. c) Actions to take in H2S situations. d) Carry out and assist rescue training in H2S atmospheres. e) Patrol areas around rig, monitoring for H2S accumulations. iii) B.1.3 Ensure full operational status of equipment and report any deficiencies/defects immediately to OIM/BP Rep.

Required Procedures a) For any well test accidents/incidents, ensure correct reporting procedures are carried out as follows: i) Well Control and H2S Incident a) Telex as per Reporting Procedures Section of the Guidelines for Drilling Operations. b) BP accident/incident report form. c) PON 11. d) OIR 9a if applicable (see form for requirements). ii) Hydrocarbon Spillage (if applicable) a) Telex as per Reporting Procedures Section of the Guidelines for Drilling Operations. b) BP accident/incident report form. c) PON 1. d) OIR 9a if applicable (see form for requirements).

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iii)

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


Hazardous Areas To ensure all doorways, openings, etc. for designated hazardous areas are kept closed at all times except for access and that vent intake/extraction fans to these spaces fully operational and effective. Entry into spaces below main deck level, i.e. column spaces, propulsion rooms, warehouse, store rooms, etc., should be restricted and access doors kept closed/sealed. If circumstances dictate, entry into these spaces should be sanctioned by OIM/Area Authority only and an entry permit made out.

ALL EXTERNAL DOORS TO BE KEPT SHUT EXCEPT FOR ACCESS.


iv) Permits During well testing phase, hot work permits should only be issued by OIM/Area Authority following consultation with the BP Rep. or his designate. B.1.4 Accommodation Ensure all windows, doors and non-essential intakes are closed if not in use. Personnel movements to be closely monitored and controlled. Recommend a man be at each exit to police restrictions. B.1.5 Training a) All rig personnel to be trained in the use of 30 minute CABA and 10 minute escape sets. All essential personnel, i.e. drill crews, BP Representative, etc. to be fully trained in the use of all BA equipment including hip sets and cascade system. b) Ensure, through lectures, all staff understand the hazardous nature and rescue procedures regarding H2S. Particular attention to rescue training should be given to drill crews, fire teams, medic and first aid parties. Medic should be given specific information to assist in treating H2S affected personnel. c) To carry out regular H2S drills, mustering at designated safe briefing areas. It is recommended that the signal/alarm initiating such drills should differ from other emergency alarms. On sounding of alarm, an announcement will follow on PA giving safe muster areas and any other relevant information. B.1.6 General Safety a) As required, ensure standby vessel and any other attendant craft remain upwind during risk periods when testing. b) Full consideration given to possible restrictions in helicopter movements. Ensure interested parties informed. c) Reduce overall manning levels to operational minimum.

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d) Ensure clean shaven policy is enforced; only facial hair which could interfere with the seal of the BA mask need be removed. e) High visibility streamers and wind socks to be prominently positioned throughout rig to ascertain accurate wind direction. f) Ensure sick bay provided with stimulant drugs, i.e. Adrenalin and Amyl Nitrate for use with H2S affected personnel. These drugs are normally held onboard as part of the rigs inventory. B.1.7 Communications All internal and external communication and PA systems should be fully operational prior to testing. Systems to include: a) Internal and external PA system. b) Full radio room transmitter and receiver systems including Marisat phone and telex links. c) Internal telephone system. d) All talk-back systems as fitted. e) Portable and fixed VHF radios including crane sets. f) Portable and fixed UHF radios. During testing phase extra sets may be required to ensure adequate on-site communications.

N.B. Ensure compatible frequencies if utilised together with rig sets. Due to communication difficulties if wearing BA sets, chalk boards could be considered.
B.2 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND CONTINGENCY PLANS It is the responsibility of the Drilling Contractor to produce a written plan describing specific procedures to be followed in the event of an H2S escape for each rig. This plan should be discussed and agreed with BP. These plans must be prominently displayed on the rig. The following notes are intended as guidelines for plans of action. These will need to be modified for each individual rig. To avoid incidents it is essential that drilling operations, in areas likely to produce H2S, are thoroughly planned and all eventualities are covered as far as is reasonably practicable. The following is a list of points which should be considered: 1. Early contact should be made with the Drilling Contractors to inform them of the likelihood of H2S. 2. Early contact with Service Companies so that they can arrange for suitable equipment and personnel. 3. The presence of H2S will affect the selection of mud system to be used on the well.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

4. The presence of H2S may affect casing design. 5. The well control system may be similarly affected. 6. Rig well testing lines may need to be altered. The above list is not exclusive to other points which may require consideration. B.2.1 General Procedures Condition 1 Normal Operation H2S Levels Less Than 10 ppm in Air at Sensors Well Condition Alarm Characteristics General Action Normal work, hole open, drilling ahead. None. Drilling operation under control. This condition will be in effect from surface casing shoe to TD unless it is necessary to go to Condition 2. 1. Be alert for a condition change. 2. Check and maintain all sensors and safety equipment. 3. Designate three (3) Safe Briefing Areas (SBA) or Muster Points in the event of an incident. Two of the SBAs should be in the open air on opposite sides of the rig so that at least one will be upwind of the incident. 4. Continue training of all personnel on the dangers and reaction to H2S. Carry out training drills, as suggested below, to ensure personnel are familiar with alarms, etc. 5. Though not reliable, smelling H2S may be a first indication and must be reported and investigated. 6. Any occurrence of H2S should be reported on the daily Drill Data report from the Mud Loggers. See also A.2.4 - Reporting of H2S Incidence. Condition 2 H2S Levels Between 10 ppm and 25 ppm in Air at Sensors Well Condition Alarm Characteristics General Action Hole open, circulating normally prior to reaching this condition. In mud log unit, drill floor, control room, etc. Drilling operations under control. H2S concentrations at threshold levels. 1. Drill floor and mud room personnel to don BA sets and mask up. 2. Mud log unit to telephone rig floor, control room, toolpushers/OIMs office and BP Representative. 3. Switch on degasser, any gas being released in Derrick vent line.

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4. Announce which Safe Briefing Area (SBA) will be used by essential personnel: a) Shut well in (conforming with standard BOP procedures to make the well safe). b) Shut down all accommodation ventilation systems. Make general announcement for all non-essential personnel to return to, and remain in, accommodation until advised by OIM on course of action to be taken. 5. Using portable equipment, determine levels of H2S in free air at the following areas: a) b) c) d) Drill Floor. Mud Room. Shaker Screen Area. All Drilling Areas.

Report back to Installation Manager. 6. Increase mud room ventilation to maximum. 7. Commence circulating and treat mud. Suggested treatments include: a) Increasing mud pH. b) Increasing mud weight. c) Using available scavengers. Normally after a few hours circulation H2S level should decrease to below 10 ppm. In this case continue circulation without choke system until the mud is free of entrained gas. If H2S level does not fall, continue circulation and the BP Representative will inform the responsible Drilling Superintendent or the duty Drilling Superintendent, outwith office hours. Possible actions by essential personnel: Driller Asst. Driller Mud Engineer Mud Logger Toolpusher BP Representative Derrickman Floormen OIM/Barge Eng. Will don BA and mask up. Raise pipe off bottom to enable use of BOP rams. Will don BA and mask up. Stand by on BOP controls, until driller is free to stand by. Will don BA and mask up. Commence pH and H2S checks. Stand by to start treatment. Main operator will don BA and remain in unit. Other personnel will go to accommodation. Will don BA and mask up. Report to drill floor. Will don BA and mask up. Report to drill floor. As soon as practicable, will take BA set from drill floor, don set and mask up. Report to mud room. Prepare to start treatment. Will don BA and mask up. Await orders on the rig floor. Will don BA and go to control room.

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Will don BA and mask up. Assist with mud treatment. Notify standby vessel of situation and to go upwind. Inform incoming helicopters to stay clear. Make necessary announcements.

Mud Watcher Radio Operator/ Control Room

Condition 3 H2S Levels Between 25 ppm and 50 ppm in Air at Sensors Well Condition Well shut in, circulating through the choke system. All essential personnel to have donned BA sets. Non-essential personnel in accommodation. Personnel in pump room area to be masked up. General audible alarm. Drilling operations under control. As Condition 2. 1. All essential personnel to be masked up. 2. Control room to instruct all non-essential personnel to go to Safe Briefing Area (SBA) within the accommodation. 3. Continue circulation of treated mud. Specific Actions: Barge Engineer/ Crane Operator Asst. Drill/Rig Crew Radio Operator/ Control Room BP Representative Take control at Safe Briefing Area (SBA) within the accommodation. Continue with circulation. Inform standby boat, incoming helicopters if not already informed. Consult with Duty Drilling Superintendent or Responsible Drilling Superintendent on the situation.

Alarm Characteristics General Actions

Condition 4 H2S Levels Greater than 50 ppm in Air at Sensors Status of Well Shut in, circulating through choke system. Essential personnel masked up in BA equipment. Non-essential personnel in accommodation Safe Briefing Area. As Condition 2. Critical well operation, well control problems. 1. Shut the well in completely. Monitor drill pipe and annulus pressure. 2. Re-assess the situation. The following points need to be considered: Location of sensor giving high readings. Wind directions/weather conditions. H2S neutraliser availability. Equipment status (BA etc.).

Alarm Characteristics General Actions

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Known helicopter movements. Possible evacuation of non-essential personnel. Based on the current situation, a procedure will be agreed to remedy the problem. For example, if wind is adequately dispersing the H2S and sufficient chemicals are available, it may be possible to remove all nonessential personnel, bring in back-up BA equipment and reduce the H2S level by circulation.

B.2.2

Specific Procedures (in H2S Zone) At all times when BA equipment is required, it is recommended that the air line manifold system be utilised in preference to self-contained breathing apparatus. 1. Drilling Proceed as for Conditions 1 to 4. 2. Circulating Out Trip Gas All drilling and mud room personnel will be masked up. BA equipment tied into the manifold system will be worn 30 minutes prior to bottoms up, by all rig floor personnel and mud room personnel. The degasser will be started at this time. Mud loggers will inform toolpusher when trip gas is up and H2S level is below 10 ppm. Using portable equipment, determine level of H2S in drilling areas. A tannoy message will warn all non-essential personnel to stay away from the drill floor and mud tank areas. 3. Circulating Out a Kick Follow normal well kill procedures. If H2S becomes apparent, proceed as per Conditions 1 to 3 and continue to circulate until the kick is out. BA will be worn 30 minutes prior to the influx coming to surface. 4. While Tripping Prior to POH circulate the mud system. Treat to achieve pH 10.5 to 11 and check that soluble sulphides level is not rising. If H2S is detected whilst tripping, then proceed as for Conditions 1 to 4, circulate at present position then run to bottom to circulate all the well. Consideration may be given to stripping in under special circumstances. 5. Coring If there is a possibility of H2S being present in a reservoir, and there is a requirement for cores to be taken, the following procedures should be applied to ensure that the core is handled safely. 1. 2. 3. All BA equipment (including cascade lines) to be checked and confirmed operable while running in hole for core run No. 1. FSO to be requested to provide brief summary of H2S effects/precautions at pre-shift safety meetings. Tripping to stop when corebarrel 1000ft below rotary, to allow a Safety meeting to be held, with FSO in attendance.

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4.

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


A tannoy announcement must be made, informing all of the imminent core recovery operation, and the associated potential for an H2S gas release. All unauthorised personnel to remain clear of drill floor. Continuous H2S detector to be installed near rotary. FSO to take a gas sample in each box connection when pulling BHA. Once the core barrel is at the table, the rig floor is to be cleared to minimum personnel, with at least two portable H2S detectors. Floormen don BA. Break safety joint and pull back 90ft of inner. Clamp and break same. FSO to sample for H2S. If ANY test result for the presence of H2S is positive, the following actions apply: (a) All personnel handling or supervising core operations on drillfloor to wear BA until advised by the FSO. (b) Core laydown area to be cordoned off. Boxes to be flushed with compressed air by deck operator wearing BA, until FSO confirms that the samples are free of H2S. (c) Floormen to be rotated regularly.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

If all tests are negative, the following actions apply: (a) (b) Personnel handling core may work without BA, but these sets must be rapidly to hand and in usable condition. Samples to be taken by FSO complete with BA when breaking each further inner barrel.

Display warning signs where core is being handled or stored. Cores not to be stored in enclosed spaces where H2S concentrations may build up. 6. Open Hole Logging Inform logging company, in advance, that H2S is present or is likely to be present. When POH, wash tool and cable with scavenger and spray with inhibitor. When recovering and handling RFT samples chamber personnel will have donned BA and masked up, until chamber has been vented and purged. 7. Testing This phase of the drilling operation will be the first time at which H2S is produced to surface. Consequently, the risk factor is higher. To cope with this eventuality, the following precautions should be taken: a) b) c) All service companies involved in testing to be informed in advance that H2S is present. All testing equipment shall be approved for H2S duty. Unless otherwise stated below, all normal testing procedures will be observed, i.e. first opening of tools will be in daylight, etc.

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d)

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


On initial opening of the tool string, BA equipment and masks will be worn by all rig floor and testing personnel. These will continue to be worn until the level of H2S in free air has been established either at the choke or at the separator. Depending on the level (Long Term Exposure Limit (LTEL)), personnel will be allowed to demask in accordance with testing conditions. In stream H2S will be monitored every 10 minutes for a change in level. Once level has stabilised, sampling rate should be reduced at the discretion of the BP Representative/PE.

e)

DUAL positive ignition sources will be provided for both oil and gas burners. Flare gun will be used to light burners if ignition system fails (ensure gas bottles are full). Diesel burning pilot flames should be used when testing heavy crude oils. The Testing Period referred to in this section is defined as the whole time from the test tools being first opened until the test tools are recovered to surface. All non-essential personnel shall be restricted to the accommodation area during the Testing Period. The control of all personnel movements is the responsibility of the OIM, who will consult with the BP Representative. BA will be worn by all personnel outside of the accommodation during the Testing Period. The requirements to mask up will be notified by tannoy message as circumstances dictate. No open tanks will be used for collecting flow products. Surge tanks and separators will be equipped with overboard vent lines from the relief valve and rupture disc to below the lowest rig deck. Venting of gas during shrinkage measurements, sampling and gas orifice changes should be done through bleed-off lines run to a safe venting area. All pneumatic separator valve controls must be supplied with rig air (i.e. separator gas must not be used).

f) g)

h) i)

j)

Testing personnel will mask up prior to operating valves or opening equipment that has contained H2S. For example, changing chokes, operating flowhead valves, using bubble hoses, taking separator samples, etc. There will probably be a background level of H2S during testing which can come from a variety of sources (incomplete combustion at the flare, weeping valves, flanges, chiksans, etc.). The important thing is to be aware of any increases in this background level and to take appropriate action. The installation will also be monitored for SO2 (a product of combustion and more toxic than H2S) using hand-operated monitors (Draeger tubes).

k)

l) m) n)

At the end of the test, reverse circulate tubing contents to flare. Circulate conventionally until satisfied that mud sulphide level is stable and pH is 10.5 to 11. Prior to POH, slug tubing with inhibitor. 5 stands before the first test-tool gets to surface, i.e. reverse circulating valve, all rig floor personnel will mask up with BA sets. BA will continue to be worn until the test string has been broken down, sample chambers have been vented and purged and slip joints stroked. When deciding the specific actions to be taken in the event of certain levels of H2S, it must be remembered that both the concentration of H2S in air at the sensors and the concentration of H2S in stream must be considered.

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Whichever condition has the more stringent precautions will be the one followed.

Note: There is an increased likelihood of hydrates in the presence of H2S.


H2S in Stream There are 4 alert conditions for in-stream concentrations: 1. 20 - 100 ppm 2. 100 - 250 ppm 3. 250 - 700 ppm 4. 700 + ppm (because sense of smell is lost at approximately 100 ppm). (because permanent damage can result from exposure at 250 ppm). (because 700 ppm is fatal within 2 - 3 minutes). (for planned high H2S well testing).

1. 20 - 100 ppm

a) Personnel who were masked at initial opening may now demask if the instream rate is established at below 100 ppm. Tannoy instructions will be made. Exceptions are personnel operating valves, sampling, etc. b) Flow periods may continue into the night. c) The test string may be re-opened at night provided that nothing has been changed in the surface equipment layout, e.g. no lines have been broken. d) Test duration should be a minimum.

2. 100 - 250 ppm

a) Personnel in the test area and rig floor will mask up. Tannoy instructions will be made. b) Flow periods may continue into the night. c) Continual monitoring of all test and drilling areas.

3. 250 - 700 ppm

a) All personnel outside accommodation will be masked up. Tannoy instructions will be made. b) Flow period may continue into the night. c) No opening or re-opening at night.

4. Over 700 ppm

a) All personnel outside of the accommodation area will mask up. Tannoy instructions will be made. b) Report the test data to the responsible Drilling Superintendent. c) Due to much increased SO2 production during flaring, increased numbers of SO2 detectors are to be fitted by the flare booms. d) All H2S, Hydrocarbon Gas and SO2 detectors to be tested and calibrated prior to test.

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e) Commencement of well test to be during daylight hours only. Flow may continue into the night but no re-opening of the well may be conducted during the hours of darkness. f) Windspeed must be a minimum of 5 knots in such a direction to take any escaped gases away from accommodation modules. A light windsock to monitor wind direction is to be fitted.

g) Rig personnel to be kept to an absolute minimum during the test period. All persons involved must be monitored in and out of the accommodation. h) All ventilation and access to pontoons and internal workspaces to be closed. All personnel requiring access to these areas during well test periods must first obtain an entry permit - remember H2S is heavier than air and will accumulate in low spaces. Testing Condition I H2S Levels Less Than 10 ppm in Air at Sensors Alarm Characteristics General Actions None. Testing operation under control. 1. Be alert for a condition change. 2. Check and maintain all sensors and safety equipment. 3. Check all well testing equipment for leaks. 4. Though not reliable, smelling H2S may be a first indication and must be reported and investigated. 5. Non-essential personnel restricted to accommodation. 6. Personnel outside accommodation, who will have donned BA, need not be masked up if H2S in stream stabilised and is below 100 ppm. Over 100 ppm in stream, they must mask up. A tannoy message will be made in either event. Exceptions are personnel operating valves, etc. who must wear a mask (see (j) above). Testing Condition II H2S Levels Between 10 ppm and 25 ppm in Air at Sensors Alarm Characteristics General Actions In mud log unit, drill floor, control room, etc. Testing operation under control. H 2 S concentration above long term exposure limit of 10 ppm. 1. Mud log unit/control room to telephone rig floor, toolpusher/OIMs office, BP Representative and control room/mud log unit. 2. Continue with test. Isolate source of H2S. 3. Shut down accommodation ventilation systems.

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4. Make general accouncement for all non-essential personnel to remain in the accommodation. 5. Announce which safe briefing area will be used by essential personnel. 6. All personnel outside the accommodation to mask up.

Specific Actions Chief Well Tester/ Toolpusher/ BP Representative Radio Operator/ Con trol Room Op. Will don BA sets, mask up and, using a buddy system, investigate the source of H2S using suitable hand-portable equipment. Notify standby vessel of situation and to take up a position upwind of rig. Inform any incoming helicopters to stay clear until situation improves.

Testing Condition III H2S Levels Between 25 ppm and 50 ppm in Air at Sensors Alarm Characteristics General Actions As Condition II. Testing operations under control. H2S concentration above long term exposure limit of 10 ppm. 1. Instruct non-essential personnel to go to Safe Briefing Area in the accommodation. 2. Terminate the test if the source of H2S cannot be isolated. If the source is due to incomplete combustion at the flare, cut back the choke size. Specific Actions Chief Well Tester/ Toolpusher BP Representative Radio Operator OIM/Barge Eng. Continue investigation of source of H2S and isolate if possible. Inform relevant DS of situation. Notify standby vessel and helicopters if not already done. Standby to make announcements. Take control of accommodation Safe Briefing Area.

Testing Condition IV H2S Levels Greater Than 50 ppm in Air at Sensors Alarm Characteristics General Actions As Condition 2. Testing operation control problems. 1. Terminate test. 2. Shut well in. Specific Actions BP Representative to inform relevant DS of situation.

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B.3

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

TRAINING As suggested in Section A, it is expected that the Drilling Contractor will already be providing a training programme for his employees. When in a known H2S area and while additional regulations are in force, BP will provide qualified personnel to instruct on the use of BA and on the dangers of H2S.

B.4

EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST The following is a summary of equipment that should be provided under Section B. The responsibility for provision of equipment will depend upon the particular rig contract, but is likely to be as shown below.

Equipment
Additional fixed detectors into existing system (as required). 10 personal alarms. LP compressor for 12 man service and 1 hour reserve capability. 20 outlets on manifold system. 12 off escape BA sets for manifold system. 30 BA sets plus 60 spare bottles of 1200L capacity. These are excluding the rigs own sets. HP Compressor. (100 Elsa), 10 minute escape sets. Scavenger/neutraliser (0.5 lb/bbl for the full circulating system plus kick control). Test equipment for H2S work. Qualified personnel. Mud Duck. B.5 MOBILE RIG CHECKLIST GUIDE FOR TESTING H2S PROSPECTS Requirements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure all portable O2 (oxygen) meters fully operational and recalibrated.

Provided By
BP/Drilling Contractor BP BP BP BP BP BP BP BP BP BP BP

Ensure all H2S gas detector heads operational and recalibrated. This to include portable units (electronic and manual).

ALL personnel trained in use of CABA and escape sets.


Unique alarm for H2S emergency. Standby vessel to be positioned upwind during testing.

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


Reduce overall manning levels to operational minimum. Carry out H2S drills regularly, prior to and during test periods. To produce CABA distribution list by areas and for dedicated essential staff. Provide plan to strictly police movement of personnel during risk periods (all non-essential staff remain inside accommodation). Personnel to be clean shaven whereby air tight seal on all BA equipment is not compromised. Fitting of SO2 detectors in vicinity of flare booms if required. Well test system relief valves and bursting disc vents to be piped clear of all rig structure.

Procedures 1. 2. No hot work permits to be issued during testing unless sanctioned by the OIM/Area Authority, after consultation with BP Rep. That all openings/doorways into areas below main deck level (i.e. column spaces, propulsion rooms) are to be kept shut. Entry into these spaces as sanctioned by OIM/Area Authority (entry permit should be considered). For gas escape accidents/incidents, ensure correct reporting procedures. a) b) c) d) e) 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Telex as per Reporting Procedures in the Guidelines for Drilling Operations. BP Accident/Incident Report. PON 1 for Hydraulic Spillage. PON 11 for Well Control Incident, including the detection of H2S. OIR 9a if applicable.

3.

To ensure Mud Loggers report any H2S to BP Rep., rig floor and control room immediately. For agreed Briefing/mustering areas (2 outside, 1 inside) combined with PA instructions as to safe areas. To ensure ALL personnel understand the hazards, actions and rescue procedures regarding H2S (Register of Personnel attending Lectures). To inform interested parties regarding possible restriction to helicopter and supply vessel movements. To closely monitor wind speed and direction. Below 5 knots from any direction well to be closed in. To ensure hydrocarbon to surface at commencement of test in day- light hours only. To ensure propane cylinders (for flare pilot light) are checked regularly to provide continual supply.

Equipment 1. Two air intakes for CABA compressor. If an electric compressor is to be used, ensure that it is connected to the emergency generator supply.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES


Streamers and wind socks to be positioned throughout unit to ascertain accurate wind direction. Gas and H2S sensors fitted at accommodation intakes (test that intake fans trip on detection). Minimum of 140 manhours of compressed air stored for use with High Pressure Distribution System.

ALL communications systems fully operational.


a) b) c) d) PA System. Portable UHF and VHF Radios. Telephone System. Talk-Back Systems.

N.B. During test period extra portable UHF sets may be required. Ensure compatible frequencies with rig units.
6. 7. 8. 9. Sick Bay be provided with stimulant drugs, i.e. Adrenalin and Amyl Nitrate for use with H 2S affected personnel. Consideration given to provision of extra personal protective equipment as protection from Sulphur Dioxides given off from flares H2S. Cascade HP Air Line System to be rigged and fully function tested. Recommended areas covered by H2S fixed monitors (rig fixture). a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 10. Rig Floor. Shakers/Header Box. Mud Pump Room. Active Pits. Bell Nipple. Accommodation Vent Intakes. Well Test Area.

Recommended areas covered by fixed audible/visual alarms for H2S. a) b) c) d) e) f) Rig Floor. Control Room. Logging Unit. Shakers/Header Box. Mud Pits. Well Test Area.

11.

Recommended positions for SO2 (Sulphur Dioxide) monitoring. a) Vicinity of Flare Booms. b) Crane Pedestals. c) Accommodation Vent Intakes.

12.

Sufficient quantities of inhibitor and scavenging chemicals onboard.

General Above checklist is designed to cover concentrations of H2S in excess of 700 ppm. For lesser risk values, a reduced checklist could be considered.

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APPENDIX 1 PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE

Hydrogen Sulphide is a highly toxic, colourless gas with the chemical formula H2S. It is about 20 percent more dense than air. It can readily be dispersed by air movement. It is weakly soluble in water to produce a slightly acidic solution and is strongly absorbed by alkaline solutions to form metal sulphides. Hydrogen Sulphide forms flammable mixtures with air. The minimum auto-ignition temperature (260C) occurs at a concentration of about 15 percent. At higher concentrations it burns mainly to water and sulphur and at lower concentrations to water and Sulphur Dioxide and combustion occurs with a pale blue flame. Hydrogen Sulphide is highly corrosive to certain metals. In particular materials containing copper should never be utilised. Metal sulphides are all combustible. In some cases spontaneous ignition at room temperature is possible. Hydrogen Sulphide is easily identified by its characteristic smell of rotten eggs at low concentrations 1 - 30 ppm. A noticeable odour will exist at very low concentration (0.01 ppm). At higher concentrations, it becomes sweetish and at about 150 ppm olfactory paralysis occurs when the sense of smell cannot be relied on at all. EFFECTS OF H2S Like other toxic materials, the effect of H2S depends on how long, and at what concentrations, you have been exposed to it. Your physical condition also plays a part, so it is difficult to provide a set of inflexible rules. H2S concentrations are usually expressed in parts per million (ppms). One part per million of water, for example, would be a teaspoonful in approximately 25 drums. In general, the body can tolerate repeated exposure to an average concentration of 10 ppm vol. H2S for a normal eight hour working day without hazard to health. This concentration is known as the Long Term Exposure Limit (LTEL). For a short period of ten minutes within that day, the level can be increased to 15 ppm vol. (Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)). It must be stressed, however, that these are guideline figures used for monitoring. It should never be the intention for people to work in an environment which regularly contains H2S since it can never be assumed that the concentrations can be controlled. REMEMBER any sign of H2S should be treated as a warning and steps taken to detect the source of H2S and stop it. As noted above, the effect of H2S depends upon several variables; although it is correct to say that the sense of smell of an average person would be rapidly deadened at about 100 ppm, there have been cases of people who have been regularly exposed to even very low concentrations, eventually being unable to detect the gas by smell. 1. Characteristics 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Deadly - extremely toxic gas. Colourless. Heavier than air. Vapour density of 1.189 compared to air (1.0). It tends to collect in low lying areas. Has a wide explosive range. 4.3% to 46% by volume in air. Burns with a blue flame to produce Sulphur Dioxide which is also toxic. Auto-ignition temperature of 500 20F (260C). Highly corrosive to certain metals.

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2.

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

Physiological and Long Term Effects As stated previously, H2S is extremely toxic at relatively low concentrations. Table 1 lists the various effects at different levels of exposure. At very low concentrations, in normal circumstances, it is absorbed through the lungs into the blood stream forming non-toxic compounds. As the level of the free radical increases it poisons the nervous system producing eventual paralysis of the respiratory centre in the brain causing respiratory failure and death. In addition H2S has a profoundly irritant effect on the eye due to the formation of sodium sulphide. Acute damage may be severe with blurring of vision and the formation of blisters. Recovery is usually complete, scarring is very rare and there are no cumulative effects. At high concentrations the sense of smell is rapidly lost, and death by respiratory paralysis is rapid if exposure continues. Though skin contact is not significant, perforated eardrums, however, have given rise to greater concern in recent years. Recent medical research now indicates that perforated eardrums do not pose any significant risk as a route for absorption of H2S. Alcohol in the blood stream enhances the effect of H2S poisoning. Delayed irritant effects on the lungs may present an acute pneumonia type inflammation, anything up to 24 hours after acute exposure, and should be treated as for Pulmonary Oedema, following contact with a Medical Practitioner. In cases successfully revived, there may be permanent nervous, brain or behavioural damage due to the lack of oxygen supply to the brain during the acute poisoning phase.

3.

First Aid The normal remedy for personnel suffering H2S poisoning is removal to fresh air, and artificial resuscitation as required. Before commencing artificial resuscitation (mouth to mouth), expel gas from victims lungs by pressing down on the chest. This eliminates the risk of being gassed by H2S in the victims expired air.

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TABLE 1 Physiological Responses to Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulphide

H2S Concentration in Air ppm3 by Volume4 10'

Response Can smell. Minimal effect over 8 hours.

Classification 1. Long Term Exposure Limit (LTEL) - 8 hour continuous exposure. 2. Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL).

152 10' 152 70 - 150 150 - 400 Minimum eye irritation. Minimum lung irritation. Kills smell in 3 - 15 minutes. Irritates eyes, throat and lungs. Loss of smell. Dizziness. Difficult respiration. Coughing. Irritation of eyes, throat lungs. Needs prompt removal to fresh air if respiratory paralysis is to be avoided. Coughing. Collapse. Unconsciousness. Death. Breathing will stop and death will result if not given artificial resuscitation immediately. Rapidly produces unconsciousness permanent brain damage possible. Immediate unconsciousness, death in a few minutes.

Irritation. Irritation.

Injurious.

400 - 700

Dangerous. May produce severe injury or death. Immediate threat to life.

700 - 1,000 Above 1,000

Note:
1. 2. 3. Above values in ppm refer to concentrations in air and not in stream. Above values are approximate as susceptibility varies significantly between individuals exposed. LTEL and STEL are outlined in Guidance Note EH 40/84 from the Health and Safety Executive.

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APPENDIX 2 DRILLING FLUID AND H2S CONTROL

The drilling fluid is the primary means of preventing a release of H2S. It achieves this by: a) b) c) Maintaining sufficient hydrostatic head to prevent H2S intrusion from the formation. Keeping H2S in the mud by converting it to sodium sulphide, provided that the pH is over 10. Removing dissolved H2S and/or sodium sulphide with a scavenger such as zinc carbonate or ironite sponge. Principles pH Control In water based mud systems, the dissolved H2S reacts with the caustic to form soluble sodium sulphide. This effect is more pronounced at higher pH. However, if the pH falls below 10, the dissolved sodium sulphide will convert back to H2S at surface and will come out of solution as a free gas. Scavengers At low pH (less than 10.5), there is an equilibrium at surface between H2S dissolved in the mud and H2S gas bubbling out. At a pH greater than 10.5, the H2S is converted by caustic to sodium sulphide and there is no H2S in solution to come out at surface. If the pH is greater than 10.5 and the sulphide levels are increasing, then H2S must be entering downhole. The mud weight should be increased to prevent this and the sulphides should be treated out by adding an H2S scavenger, e.g. Zinc Carbonate. These form insoluble zinc or iron sulphides which will not be converted back to H2S even if the pH drops. Zinc carbonate is the most commonly available and used scavenger. Approximately 0.5 lb/bbl is sufficient to treat 200 ppm H2S or sulphide ions in the mud. Large additions of zinc carbonate will adversely affect mud properties, especially rheology. This can be reduced by strict control of drill solid and by adding thinners and caustic to the mud. These should be added as a pre-mix to maintain the pH above 10.5. Alternative H2S scavengers are: Zinc, chealates e.g. Zinc NTA, which has a high solubility hence works very quickly, although the products are very expensive Ironite Sponge (best at neutral pH) Lime can be used to buy time before more effective Zinc-based treatment Zinc Oxide

1.

Oil Base Muds The water phase of an oil mud has a high pH (greater than 12) due to an excess of lime in the system. As in a water mud, this converts the H2S to a sulphide: in this case calcium sulphide which is insoluble in the mud. If lime in the mud is allowed to fall to zero, any future intrusions of H2S would come out of the mud at surface. The sulphide already present as calcium sulphide would not be converted back to H2S. It is essential that the lime content is monitored by the mud engineer during his mud checks and that an excess lime content of between 6 - 8 lb/bbl is maintained when H2S is expected. The lime content cannot be used as an indication of H2S intrusion. Lime can be taken out of an oil mud by CO2, or by reacting with the formation and cuttings, e.g. shales, polyhalites.

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Oil based muds have the advantage that the oil will protect steels by providing a non-conductive film on the surface and so preventing corrosion. A mud duck system cannot be used for the continuous monitoring of sulphides in an oil mud. 2. Monitoring of H2S in Drilling Fluids There are various methods available to monitor the level of H2S contamination in drilling muds. The majority require the use of mud laboratory test facilities and are not continuous in nature (e.g. the Garrett Gas Train, and the HACH test. Although the latter is easier and quicker to conduct, it is at the expense of accuracy). None of these methods will positively identify the presence of H2S in the formations, but if the mud is close to balance, and H2S seeps into the mud, they should detect it. The most convenient method of continuous monitoring is the use of a mud duck. The Mud Duck This is inserted into the mud system header tank, from where it takes its readings. By careful setting of the alarm limits, the mud duck can give a forewarning of H2S in the mud before H2S is detected in the air at surface. It also gives an indication of the maximum concentration of H2S (in ppm) that can exist at the mud/air interface. The following readings are taken by the instrument: a) b) Mud Temperature Soluble Sulphide Concentration (pHS) Readings Range to 0.0 (10,000 ppm H2S) 19.9 (10-16 ppm H2S)

Reading
19 - 12 12 - 9 9-7 Less than 7 c)

Interference
Concentration of soluble sulphides is insignificant. Concentration still too small to be significant. Variations and trends are more important than absolute values. Soluble sulphide concentration is increasing. It is advisable that zinc carbonate is added to the mud system to prevent corrosion. H2S may be evolved if the pH of the mud drops. Zinc carbonate should be added to the mud system immediately.

Delphian Hazard Potential (DHP) This gives an indication of the maximum amount of H2S (in ppm) that would occur if gas broke out of the mud system. It is a measurement taken at the mud/air interface.

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d)

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

Mud pH Procedures to be Followed in the Event of Changes in Mud Duck Readings i) pH does not change. DHP gets larger. pHS gets smaller. There is build-up of total soluble sulphides and an increasing level of H2S gas above the mud. Continue operations but add zinc carbonate to the mud system. Check H2S levels are below 10 ppm. If 10 ppm H2S level is exceeded, follow relevant procedures in Section B.2.1 in the main body of this Manual. Check with Draeger toxic gas detector for possible H2S accumulations. ii) pH gets smaller. DHP gets larger. pHS gets smaller. Situation as a) above but the mud is also becoming more acidic, so more soluble sulphides will be converted to H2S. Add zinc carbonate and increase pH of mud as in Section 1 of this Appendix. Continue operations as long as H2S is less than 10 ppm. Check with Draeger toxic gas detector for possible H2S accumulations. iii) pH does not change. DHP reads zero. pHS gets smaller. Indicates an increase in total soluble sulphides, but the H2S level is still below 1 ppm. This is important trend information. Any change in level of sulphides should be followed with treatment of mud as in Section 1 of this Appendix. iv) pH gets smaller. DHP gets larger. pHS does not change. Mud is becoming more acidic, so an acid gas has entered the borehole. The total soluble sulphides has not changed, so the gas is not H2S. CO2 is the most likely candidate to be the cause of the pH decrease. The DHP number gets larger due to more of the existing soluble sulphides being converted to H2S. Treat mud to maintain pH at 10.5 - 11, as in Section 1 of this Appendix. Monitor H2S levels, checking for possible accumulations with Draeger toxic gas detector. Continue operations as long as H2S level is less than 10 ppm. As will be realised, mud duck readings are qualitative and changes in trend are more important than actual recorded levels.

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3.

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

Stocking of Materials For rigs working in Wildcat/Exploration areas, a stock of zinc carbonate should be held onboard. Minimum of one pallet (25 x 25 kg sacks). Under present arrangements, our mud suppliers hold a minimum stock of zinc carbonate (100 x 50 lb) and filming amine corrosion inhibitor (5 x 55 gal) in Peterhead. For rigs working in a known H2S area, the BP Representative/Mud Engineer will ensure that sufficient scavenger is onboard to allow a 0.5 lb/bbl treatment of zinc carbonate to the complete circulating system plus sufficient to neutralise a 50 bbl kick.

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APPENDIX 3 EFFECTS OF H2S ON DRILLING EQUIPMENT

1.

Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) Sulphide Stress Cracking, also known as hydrogen blistering, hydrogen embrittlement and stress cracking, is due to reaction of iron in a moist H2S environment. H2S + Fe + H2O FeS (Iron Sulphide) + 2H (Free Hydrogen) + H2O Most of the hydrogen produced is released but, with pressure, some is absorbed into the metal. It migrates along the grain boundaries and recombines to form molecular hydrogen which occupies a larger volume than the hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen molecules cause increased internal stresses leading to blistering or embrittlement. This occurs particularly if there are any inclusions in the steel. Hydrogen blistering tends to occur in materials of an average yield greater than 95,000 psi. It occurs close to the surfaces and is characterised by visible blistering of the surface and pieces being shed from the surface. Hydrogen embrittlement occurs in materials with yield strengths of over 90,000 psi. It is a true intergranular failure of the material. It is a delayed failure, since time is required for the hydrogen to diffuse in the metal to points of high stress.

Note: H2S levels in samples will read artificially low if not measured at the time of sampling, due to H 2S absorption by metals.
2. Factors Affecting Failure Failure of materials is affected by the following factors: 3. H2S concentration. Total and partial pressure applied. Metal chemical composition, strength, heat treatment and microstructure. Total tensile stress. Temperature. Time. Solution pH.

Standards Applying to Metals for H2S Situations The most commonly applied standard for metals in an H2S environment is the NACE Standard MR-01-75 Rev. 1980. This is generally accepted as the standard for all oilfield equipment. Within BP there is BP Engineering Standard 153 which extends the requirements of NACE.

4.

Metals for Use in H2S Environments The major selection criteria for any metals to be used in H2S environments is the surface hardness. The relationship of SSC and surface hardness is well documented and it is evident that metals of less than 22 Rockwell C Hardness Scale (Rc) are not susceptible to SSC. The second selection factor is the ultimate yield strength. This should be less than 95,000 psi.

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Metals within this range will not fail due to SSC throughout the full temperature range. However, there is evidence that stronger materials can be used over 160F. See Tables 2 and 3. 5. Drilling Components for Use in H2S Environments It is worth examining the various common components used in drilling in H2S environments and how they vary from standard items. Drillpipe Tubing etc. API recommends that all steel drillpipe used has a yield strength of less than 95,000 psi. Any failure is likely to occur near the surface, where the pipe is under maximum stress and does not have the protection of elevated temperatures. This restriction affects string design on deep wells. If aluminium drillpipe is used, pH must be limited to 10.5 to avoid accelerated weight loss corrosion. Tubular goods must be made up correctly to prevent stress concentrations which can cause SSC. Drill Collars These are largely unaffected by H2S because of the lower stress involved and the high operating temperatures. Annular BOPs Hydril manufacture their annulars with materials of hardness less than Rc22 to permit use in H2S. The selection of packing units is governed by drilling fluid type rather than H2S. However, H2S will reduce the service life of the material. BOPs Both API and NACE lay down standards for BOPs in H2S service. The basic requirement is for materials of hardness less than Rc22. This is not always possible for the rams. For blind and pipe rams, material up to Rc26 can be used. For shear rams, the blades must be of high strength, high hardness material. This makes them susceptible to SSC. Rubber goods in the BOPs need to be changed to nitrile elastomers. Wellheads and Valves for H2S These are produced generally to NACE MR-01-75, however some companies prefer to tailor valves to specific requirements. Welding of Materials On H2S equipment, most connections are made by welding or welded flanges. The important point is that after welding the Head Affected Zone (HAZ) must be stress relieved by tempering. The hardness of the HAZ and base metal must be less than Rc22. The welds must be qualified to appropriate API or ASME specifications. This precludes any field welding. 6. Precautions Against H2S Corrosion An advantage in drilling is that the service environment can be controlled. Also operations take place at high temperatures which reduces H2S attack.

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H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

Drilling Fluids A number of methods can be used to control the effects of H2S on the drill string: a) 2) 3) Use of sulphide scavengers, to chemically absorb the H2S, e.g. Ironite Sponge or Zinc Carbonate. Increasing pH over 10 to neutralise H2S. Can result in sulphur liberation in the mud. Using oil based muds to form a non-conductive oil film on the steel.

Completion Fluids A recommended method is to use oil or oil based fluids on completions. Corrosion Inhibitors Corrosion inhibitors should be used to coat all the pipe when it is being pulled out. A filming amine type corrosion inhibitor, e.g. Coat 415 or Ami-Tec, should be applied by slugging the pipe every 3rd connection with 2 bbls of diesel containing 5 gal/bbl corrosion inhibitor. When tripping in the hole, the same solution should be sprayed on the outside of the pipe. Inspection of Components It is difficult to inspect items exposed to H2S for possible SSC, due to the intergranular nature of the attack. If blistering occurs or the SSC is associated with inclusions in the metal, it can be detected by ultrasonics or x-ray. Failure due to SSC usually occurs early in equipment life, thus if an item is in service for a while it is unlikely to fail.

BP EXPLORATION

SUBJECT:

TABLE 2 - Acceptable API and ASTM Specifications for Tubular Goods


Consult the NACE Specification for full information. Materials listed in this table are acceptable under environmental conditions noted. OPERATING TEMPERATURE For All Temperatures (1) Tubing and Casing API Spec. 5A Gr H-40(3) J-55 & K-55 5AC Gr C-75 & L-80 Pipe(4) API Spec. 5L Gr A & B 5LS Gr X-43 thru X-65(7) 5LX Gr X-42 thru X-65(7) A-53 A-106 Fr A, B, C A-333 Gr 1 & 6 A-524 Gr 1 & 2 A-381 C1 1 Y35-Y65(7) For 65C (150F) or Greater (2) Tubing and Casing API Spec. 4A Gr N-80 (Q&T) 5AC Gr C-05 For 80C (175F) or Greater Tubing and Casing API Spec. 5A Gr H-40 & N-80 5AX Gr P-105 & P-110

H2S (HYDROGEN SULPHIDE) PROCEDURES

GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

UK Operations

Proprietary Q&T Grades with 110 ksi or less maximum yield strength.

Proprietary Q&T Grades to 140 ksi maximum yield strength.

ASTM

Drill Stem Materials(5) API Spec. 5A Gr D & E 5AX Gr X-95, G-105 S-135

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API Spec. 7 Aluminium 2014-T6 (UNS A92014)(6) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Impact resistance may be required by other standards and codes for low operating temperatures. Continuous minimum temperature; for lower temperatures, select from Column 1. 80 ksi maximum yield strength permissible (latest revision of API 5A includes this requirement). Welded grades must meet the requirements of Sections 3 through 8. For use under controlled environments as defined in Paragraph 11.1.2. Maximum drilling fluid pH = 10.5. Grades X-56 through X-65 and Y56 through Y65 shall have a maximum hardness of HRC 22.

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TABLE 3 Acceptable Materials for Sub-Surface Equiment for Direct Exposure to Sour Environment

USE Drillable Packer Components Drillable Packer Components Compression Members All

MATERIAL Ductile Iron (ASTM A-536, A-571) Malleable Iron (ASTM A-2000, A-602) Gray Iron (ASTM A-48, A-278) 9Cr-1Mo (ASTM A-199 Gr T9, A-200 Gr T9, A-276 Gr F9)(1) ASTM A-213 T9

(1)

Maximum hardness of HRC 22. ABSTRACT FROM : NACE MR-01-75 (1980).

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APPENDIX 4 LIST OF USEFUL CONTACTS

NOTE:

This list is not exclusive and may be added to later. Inclusion in this list does not imply approval by BP.

Protector Saver, 225 Ash Road, Aldershot 01252-344141/342325 Safety Concepts, Camco House, Viking Road, Gapton Hall Industrial Estate, Great Yarmouth. 01493-440728 OPITO, Forties Road, Montrose. 01674-66250 Draeger Ltd, Kittybrewster Industrial Estate, Blyth, Northumberland, NE24 4RG. 01670-352891

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INTRODUCTION TO OFFSHORE EXPLOSIVE TECHNIQUES Explosives can be divided into two broad categories - low and high explosives.

1.1

Low Explosives Low explosives are employed where their ability to produce large volumes of gas is required as a source of energy. This can be as a propellant to force a projectile in the desired direction or as a means of inflation, e.g. in a packer. Low explosives are said to be deflagrating and are initiated by ignition (although this may start as impact, e.g. percussion cap). By comparison with high explosives, they generate a slow, heaving action.

1.2

High Explosives High explosives are used where an instantaneous shattering action - brisance - is required. They are initiated by detonation, i.e. by an explosion, and the speed and power of the means of detonation is reflected in the speed of the shock waves produced by the high explosive.

1.3

Detonators The selection and correct use of an appropriate combination of detonators and accessories is essential in achieving a safe and effective result, whilst minimising the physical and environmental hazards.

1.4

Primers Primers are used to boost the detonation wave for efficient propagation to the less sensitive explosive charges. There are special purpose boosters available, but in most cases detonating cord is used as the priming medium.

1.5

Initiation Methods Detonators are the most sensitive components in the explosives train. Modern systems have been devised to decrease their sensitivity to handling and to make operations involving explosives safer and more predictable. For underwater explosives operations, the use of straight-forward electrical detonators, which are prone to the effects of radiation, has virtually been discontinued. As these detonators could be prematurely triggered by voltages induced in the firing circuit from radiating sources such as radar, radio, navigation systems, etc., they required radio silence at critical periods. They have been replaced by three basic types of detonator: a) b) The high threshold detonator which employs a resistor to filter stray voltages. The magnetically induced detonator which utilises a magnetite ring to induce a current from a predetermined cycle surged through a circuit. This momentarily turns the ring into a transformer resulting in initiation of the detonator. The exploding bridge wire system which depends on a high voltage and high amperage applied over a short time. This ruptures a bridge wire at such a velocity as to produce a detonating wave.

c)

These systems have been developed to provide a higher degree of safety andreliability. 1.6 Shaping a Charge An explosion exerts force in all directions. Although the explosion from a cartridge in a firearm may seem to direct all the force towards propelling the projectile along the barrel, this is not so. Much of the energy is absorbed in the breech or chamber, and more is spent in the recoil. It has been made

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possible to use all the energy shaped or focused into a jet by having the explosive packed behind a conical liner. This effect is illustrated in Figure 1.

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                  ,      ,   ,
SHAPED CHARGE - FORMATION OF JET AND SLUG METAL LINER EXPLOSIVE DETONATION FRONT

FIGURE 1

(1) BEFORE FIRING

(2) DURING FIRING

(3) DURING FIRING

(4) AFTER FIRING

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THE APPLICATION OF EXPLOSIVES IN DRILLING Perforating Perforating was originally carried out using a propellant cartridge to fire a solid ball into the formation through tubing. This method is still available, but is little used. The Kinley Perforator, however, still uses this principle to perforate tubing where bridging problems interrupt circulation. Nearly all perforating is now carried out using shaped charges run on either wireline or drill pipe. In the former method, initiation is by means of a detonator fired by the wireline, and in the latter by firing a cartridge by means of impact or pressure. In both cases a series of shaped charges is detonated virtually instantaneously by means of detonating cord, itself detonated by the described initiation methods.

2.2

Pipe Back-Off Pipe back-off is achieved by setting off a controlled explosive jarring action to loosen a selected joint.

2.3

Pipe Cutting Pipe cutting is possible by means of a shaped charge which has an outward facing circular liner providing all round shaping of the charge to give a clean cut on detonation (Figure 2).

2.4

Collar Cutting Collar cutting is more difficult to accomplish because of the thickness of metal involved. A technique using a collision charge is used. This involves a container of explosives with a detonator above and another below the charge (Figure 3). Simultaneous detonation results in two shock waves converging and colliding with the result that they force each other sideways, thus cutting the chosen collar.

2.5

Side-Wall Coring Side-wall coring is used to obtain small samples of the formation. It is accomplished by firing a hollow bullet into the formation. The bullet, with its formation sample, is held captive by short cables and is recovered by pulling the gun out of the hole.

2.6

Junk Shot Where undrillable junk, e.g. twisted-off rock bit, is preventing drilling and cannot be fished, a large shaped charge can be used to shatter the obstruction. The fragments are then retrieved with a magnet or junk basket. The junk shot is either run on drill pipe or wireline. A built-in stand-off ensures that the charge is at the correct distance from the obstruction.

2.7

Wellhead Recovery from a Drilling Rig On abandonment, wellhead recovery from a drilling rig can be accomplished using explosives to sever casings in much the same way as collar cutting, but using a much larger collision charge (Figure 4).

2.8

Wellhead Removal from a Diving Support Vessel (DSV) Wellhead recovery from a Diving Support Vessel (DSV) is carried out when the rig has moved off location. It is not unusual to contract a DSV to recover more than one wellhead in an operation. The method of severing the casings is similar to collar cutting. The main difference is that divers guide the charge assembly into the hole as it is being lowered on the load-line from the DSV. A cross-piece is fitted to the load-line to give the correct distance the charge must be in the hole, which is usually 5m (Figure 5). When the Diving Supervisor is satisfied the charge is correctly placed, he will recover the diver/diving bell to the surface before the charge is fired. If a corrosion cap is set, the divers will be required to remove it before cutting operations begin.

SUBJECT:

BP EXPLORATION

SANDLINE (OR DRILL-PIPE)


,,,,,,, , ,,, ,, ,, ,,,, ,,,,, ,,,, ,,,,,,, ,,,,,,, ,,,,,,

JET TUBING CUTTER

DRILLING MANUAL

USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN DRILLING OPERATIONS

COLLAR CUTTER

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,, ,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,, ,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,, , ,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, , , ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,, ,, ,, ,,,,,,,,,, , , , , , ,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,, ,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

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JET CASING CUTTER

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FIGURE 2

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FIGURE 4 WELLHEAD SEVERING CHARGE


DRILL PIPE FIRING MODULE INITIATING CABLE VENTED TOOL ATTACHMENT

BALLAST CONTAINER EXPLOSIVE CONTAINER CASINGS

FIGURE 5 DIVER GUIDING CHARGE INTO WELLHEAD

LOADLINE FIRING CABLE DIVING BELL

CROSS PIECE

DEPTH CHARGE IN THE HOLE BALLAST DRUM EXPLOSIVE CHARGE

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When the wellhead has been severed the diver will connect the DSV crane to the base. It is then recovered to the surface. The crane should be rated to a minimum of 60t SWL to overcome the weight of grout, cement and effects of suction. 3. INFORMATION REQUIRED TO PERFORM EXPLOSIVE OPERATIONS The work to be done must be specified in sufficient detail to allow the explosives service company to produce procedures. The procedures should be submitted to Drilling for approval and any major changes to the procedures must be agreed before implementation. 3.1 Perforating A large range of shaped charges is available to suit different tubular sizes. A charges performance is governed by the angle of the conical liner. It is the responsibility of the Petroleum Engineering Department to: Specify which charges are required to optimise performance in the formation to be perforated. Provide the explosives service company with information on the zone or zones to be perforated and the spacing and direction of the charges. Provide an engineer to look after their interests on the rig during perforating operations.

The Drilling Supervisor is responsible for the running of the operation.

Note: Top-drive isolation - see Note 4.3.


3.2 Pipe Back-Off Assuming the Free Point Indicator tool has indicated the free point, it will be necessary to work out the point at which back-off is to be attempted. Since this is most likely to be successful at a joint which is normally broken when tripping, the joint nearest above the free point should be identified and its depth given to the service company. A discussion should take place on the type of thread, torque used in make-up and the reverse torque turns required to achieve back-off on firing the jarring charge. 3.3 Pipe Cutting Where back-off is unsuccessful, a severing charge can be used at the chosen joint. It is obviously easier to cut the drill pipe in the middle section rather than at a connection. 3.4 Collar Cutting The information required by the service company is again the identification of the most suitable free joint. 3.5 Side-Wall Coring The cores are required by Geology Department who will specify the depths at which cores are to be obtained and will witness the operation. Drilling will be responsible for the running of the operation. 3.6 Junk Shot The explosives service company require to know the nature of the junk material in order to decide the size of junk shot required.

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Wellhead Recovery from a Rig Information required by the explosives service company includes: a) b) c) Number of casings to be cut. Grade of casings to be cut. Water depth.

3.8

Wellhead Recovery from a DSV a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Well locations and number. Number of casings. Grade of casings. Water depth. Condition and weight of wellhead. Proximity to other wellheads, debris, etc. Where the wellheads are to be off-loaded. Depth of cut required.

4. 4.1

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS General The following safety points offer guidance to the BP Drilling Supervisor and OIMs involved in overseeing explosives operations, and should be read in conjunction with BPPD Standard HS&E Regulations, Chapter 30.

4.2

Responsibilities The BP Drilling Supervisor and OIM in an operation involving the use of explosives have a responsibility to be fully aware of all the aspects and limitations connected with their applications, and a duty to ensure the rigid enforcement of safety regulations. An Explosives Engineer experienced in the safe handling and use of explosives should be placed in overall charge of the explosives operation and be responsible to the BP Drilling Supervisor/OIM for its conduct and the health and safety of all personnel involved. His responsibilities will include: Advising the OIM/Drilling Supervisor on aspects of the explosives operation. Ensuring the explosives are fit for purpose and correctly stored. Making-up and deploying the charges. Supervision of all persons involved in explosives handling. Implementation of the Service Company Regulations. Ensuring that all explosives that are to remain onboard are correctly stored and accounted for. Preparing surplus explosives for back-loading and ensuring that they are correctly labelled and manifested.

The allocation of responsibility must be clear and should be published and distributed to ensure that all the appropriate parties are informed.

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Ready Use Storage on Site The storage area selected for the explosives and accessories required to be used on site should fulfil the following minimum requirements: Remote from any Hazardous Area. Remote from the living accommodation. Remote from any source of heat or flame. Insulated against shock. Protected from blast debris. Well ventilated and dry. Remote from possible Electro Magnetic emission hazards.

Note: On rigs equipped with an electric top-drive, the top-drive motor must be electrically isolated before running explosives on electric wireline.
Free of grit, or the explosives must be mounted on wooden pallets with a grit free surround. If a storage area is on a vessel, it must have wooden walls and floor and offer secure storage in the event of rough weather. The exterior should be painted red with the word DANGER painted by the door of the magazine or container. Appropriate hazard labels should also be displayed on the vertical sides of the magazine or container.

In addition, the area must be clearly marked with warning and No Smoking signs in white letters on a red background. There must be separate storage for detonators, and all storage areas must be secured and locked against unauthorised entry. 4.4 Issue of Stores The OIM should authorise all issues of explosives and accessories and ensure that: 4.5 The explosives are not approached or handled by unauthorised persons. Surplus stores are returned to the magazine/explosives container prior to firing. The explosive register is kept up-to-date and all issues and returns noted, including material damaged and destroyed. Detonators are drawn only immediately prior to firing by the Explosives Engineer.

Explosives Register An explosives register shall be kept by the OIM for the purpose of complying with the Health & Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, and shall be maintained at those locations where the explosives certificate holders are based. It shall contain the following information: a) b) c) d) Details of all receipts. Details of all issues, and where being used. Details of all explosives used in each operation. Details of all misfired shots.

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Details of all explosives returned. Details of disposal and destruction of old stock.

After Firing On completion of explosives work, all unused and misfired explosives must be returned to the store/freight travel container and the Explosives Register updated. Any shortage must be the subject of an immediate enquiry conducted by the OIM. Unless this resolves the situation, the Police must be informed by the OIM.

Note: Explosives must not be stored on offshore installations for longer than is absolutely necessary. Explosives so stored shall be the minimum quantity deemed necessary to carry out the job.
4.7 Radio/Radar Silence During Explosives Operations During operations involving explosives, sources of stray induced currents, e.g. welding sets or cathodic protection which may be deemed as possible triggers to detonators, must be shutdown/ switched off before making up any explosive tool or device (see 4.3 - electrical isolation of top-drive). These limitations must be enforced from the time when the Electro Explosives Devices (EEDs) are removed from the store until the time when the armed charge is 100 metres or more below the seabed or ground level. The limitations must be re-imposed at the 100 metre level when the shot, fired or not, is being brought back to the surface, until it is declared safe by the Explosives Supervisor. The OIM is responsible for ensuring that the correct procedures are instituted by way of the Control Room and Radio Operators (see BPPD HSE Regulations, Appendix 30.3 Radio Silence Whilst Operations Involving the Use of Explosives are in Progress). The offshore installations standby vessel should be in visual signalling distance of the installation during such periods of radio silence. 4.8 Safety Distances An underwater explosion will create shock waves and other forces which could damage rigs, installations and vessels. To avoid damage, tables have been evolved by vessel and rig owners indicating safe distances from explosions. Dependent on the weight, type and the location of the charge, the Explosives Engineer will calculate the predicted pressure and bubble effects. He will advise the OIM/Master of the required safety distance from the charge. The BP Drilling Supervisor should ensure that the safety distances are adhered to. The intended weight and type of explosives will be determined in the approved procedures. If it is considered necessary by the Explosives Engineer to increase the agreed charge weight or type of explosives, it must be justified and endorsed by the Drilling office. The maximum weight of explosives used during wellhead severing operations is about 35 lbs (TNT equivalent). It should be noted that the effects of the shock waves on the hull of a vessel or rig from 35 lbs TNT set in the hole for wellhead severing operations is approximately equal to 2 lbs TNT detonated on the seabed. 4.9 Legislation and Guidance a) b) XTC Drilling Policy & Guidelines Manual. Petroleum (Production) (Seaward Areas) Regulations, 1988.

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USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN DRILLING OPERATIONS

The Offshore Installations (Construction & Survey) Regulations 1974. The Offshore Installations (Operational Safety Health & Welfare) Regulations 1976. The Explosives Acts 1875 and 1923. UKOOA Council Minutes of 13th June 1979. Continental Shelf Operations Notice No. 11. The Classification and Labelling of Explosives Regulations 1983. BPPD Standard HS & E Regulations, Chapter 30. D.O.T. Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (The Blue Book). The Air Navigation (Dangerous Goods) Regulations, 1984. The Dangerous Substances in Harbour Areas Regulations, SI 37/87.

m) Exemption from the Requirements of Article 44 of the Air Navigation Order 1985, CAA Ref. 000583. n) 5. 5.1 BPPD (HTH) Safety Flash 3/86. Perforating gun trapped pressure hazard.

RESTRICTED AREAS Rig Floor When operations are about to begin on the rig floor, the area must be cleared of all non-essential personnel. While the Explosives Engineer is making up the charges or mixing two-part liquid explosive, only service company operative(s) and a rig supervisor (OIMs competent person or BP Drilling Supervisor) should be present.

5.2

DSV When operating from a vessel, the designated area where the explosives container and magazine is sited should be restricted to personnel as for rig floor operations.

6. 6.1

DIVING OPERATIONS USING EXPLOSIVES When divers are required to place explosives, i.e. wellhead removal from a DSV, they will remain under the control and responsibility of the Dive Supervisor. The Dive Supervisor will take advice from the Explosives Supervisor as to how and where the charges will be deployed and placed. The Dive Supervisor must have custody of the dynamo exploder and firing key at all times when the bell is unmated from the dive system and/or when divers are in the water. The bell must be on-deck or mated to the system before the explosives are fired.

6.2

Commercial divers must never be called upon to handle unexploded bombs, mines or other military explosive devices. If explosives are found during diving operations, the Drilling Supervisor/OIM should contact his management during working hours and the Dyce Operations Control Centre (to contact the Duty Diving Operations Superintendent), out of working hours. The site should be cleared until the appropriate authorities declare it safe to continue work.

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USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN DRILLING OPERATIONS

Diving/Perforating Operations It is acceptable to carry out diving and perforating operations simultaneously providing the following precautions are observed. The Dive Supervisor must satisfy himself that the rig is observing radio silence. He should ensure that the firing key is removed from the firing panel and in his custody. The Diver is to return into the bell during the period of radio silence including the retrieval of the gun to the surface. The Diver must return to the bell stage before the gun is fired.

Note: It is advisable to position the bell as far as practicable from the wellhead during perforating operations.
7. PRECAUTIONS DURING EXPLOSIVES OPERATIONS Prior to explosives operations, ensure that the following measures are taken: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Inform all shipping and installations in the area that subsea explosives operations will commence in approximately 30 minutes (repeat at 5 minutes before firing). Withdraw hot work permits for welding work. Ensure that there is no smoking in the area where charges are being made up. Ensure that radio/radar restrictions are in force. Ensure that fire extinguishers are placed near the explosives container. Ensure that warning signs are prominently placed and red flags are displayed. Ensure that rig/vessel transducers, transponders (including radio and radar DP beacons) are hoisted inboard and shutdown. If acoustic beacons are used as in DP vessels, there is no need to shut them down. Broadcast to all personnel that explosives will be fired within 30 minutes, and the siren will be sounded 1 minute before blasting. Ensure that prior to helicopter operations the rig/vessel instructs the pilot to switch off all of the aircrafts transmitting systems. Ensure that the vessel/rig is the correct distance from the charge. Ensure that all loose explosives and detonators are correctly stored. Ensure that, on completion of operations, shipping and installations are informed.

h) i) j) k) l)

m) Ensure that, on completion of operations, it is broadcast to personnel that it is all clear.

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USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN DRILLING OPERATIONS

EXPLOSIVES HANDLING, LEGAL AND PROCEDURAL ASPECTS Legal The Legislation requires that there be written instructions specifying practices to be observed to ensure the safety of the installation and safe use of the equipment thereon. This is the responsibility of the Installation Owner. The written instructions should include: Appointment of a competent person who will be responsible for the handling, storage, issuing, use of, documentation and transport of explosives within the sphere of responsibility of the OIM. As Concession Owners, BP have the responsibility to ensure that the Installation Owner (OIM) carries out his duties and provides a Safe System of Work.

9. 9.1

PROCEDURES AND AUDITS Audits For all explosives operations, BP will contract a company specialising in such work. The explosives service company will be audited by BP to ensure that they are responsible and capable of carrying out work on BP sites and that they meet the legal and BP requirements. The audit will be carried out annually or as deemed necessary by BP.

9.2

Requirements of Audits A requirement of the audit is that the explosives service company submit to BP copies of their Company details and procedures, including: Safety Manuals and Contingency Plans. CVs of Operations staff. Management Organigram and Responsibilities. Base Facilities. Magazine and Explosives Storage Facilities. Transport arrangements for explosives to and from BP Sites. Training methods for Company personnel.

9.3

Procedures The explosives service company will be required to submit details and procedures for the particular worksite and operation, including: Safety and Contingency Plans. Personnel, Responsibilities and Qualifications. Work plan including type and weights of explosives. Certification of Plant and Equipment. Transport and Storage of Explosives.

When the details and procedures have been agreed by Drilling Department, they will be copied to the BP Drilling Supervisor onsite and should be considered as the formal Guidelines for the work. Any major changes from the agreed procedures should be confirmed with Drilling Department before implementation. While BP have a responsibility to ensure that the work is carried out safely in accordance with a permit to work and a written safe procedure etc., we should not interfere in the technical expertise for which we have contracted and for which the explosives service company is responsible in law.

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USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN DRILLING OPERATIONS

Post Operations Report On completion of the work, the explosives operating company will compile an Operations Report. The Drilling Supervisor should ensure that he receives a copy of the report, and forwards a copy to LOG (Explosives Advisor) for information and filing.

9.5

Offloading and Storage The area in which explosives are stored must be chosen to comply with legislation and be marked on the rig plans as required by Legislation (SI 1019). Consignments of explosives arriving on the installation should be craned to this dedicated area, and, if not already in weatherproof containers, the contents should be transferred to the explosives store and the explosives register updated accordingly. If the consignment must be kept elsewhere on the rig (e.g. carrier guns), then that place must be demarcated. In all cases, the crane operator must be aware that he is handling explosives which may be sensitive to impact.

10. 10.1

PERSONNEL Manning Levels For safety and operational reasons consideration must be given to the practice of employing only one Explosives Operator on sites where it can be expected that he will be working for abnormally long periods. An error due to tiredness could be catastrophic. It is desirable to deploy a minimum of two explosives personnel, one being the Explosives Engineer with specific duties and responsibilities, the other being his assistant with sufficient knowledge and maturity to carry out work unsupervised upon the Engineers instructions.

10.2

Qualifications For wellhead severing operations, demolition and cutting work, the Explosives Engineer will be an individual Member of the Institute of Explosives Engineers with at least three years experience of offshore explosives work. Other personnel working to the instructions of the Explosives Engineer should ideally be associate Members of the Institute, or experienced in offshore explosives operations. When wireline operations are used with explosives, i.e. perforating, etc., it is unlikely that the personnel will need formal explosives qualifications. The Drilling Superintendent or others responsible for contracting explosives users should use their discretion in ensuring that the operators are suitably qualified and experienced for such specialist operations. Only personnel who have been approved for explosives work will be allowed to work on BP sites.

10.3

Log Books A scheme has been introduced by the major explosives operating companies and in conjunction with the Institute of Explosives Engineers whereby all operatives keep a Log Book of their work experience and training. Since BP are required by law to employ offshore only those experienced in that operation, the log book will assist greatly in ensuring that operatives proposed in contract bids comply with this requirement. The Log Book is not a legal document, but it will offer the onsite BP Drilling Supervisor the opportunity to assess the experience and capabilities of the explosives operatives under his control.

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USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN DRILLING OPERATIONS

REPORTING PROCEDURES When near seabed use of explosives is planned the MOD must be informed by telex. This will be undertaken by the drilling office. Refer to the BP Reporting Procedures Manual for the required telex details.

12. 12.1

CONTROL AND MOVEMENT OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS Road It is essential that a record of control shall be kept of the movement of explosive materials. A simple system has been devised to ensure that this control is maintained. It is the responsibility of the Field Group/Divisional Safety Officer to maintain a record of this control but this does not preclude interested parties maintaining a similar control should they so wish. The driver should have a statement of the quantity and description of the explosives being carried. This should be checked with the person taking delivery who should sign the statement as a form of receipt for the driver. The Department, Contractor or Supplier concerned in the despatch of explosive materials will advise the Field Group/Divisional Safety Officer, Stores Department (Receiving Warehouse) and the recipient at the final destination by telex giving the following information: a) b) c) Nature of explosives, e.g. shaped charge, flare, rockets, etc. Time and date sent and by what mode of transportation. Destination - final and interim.

Where the explosive material is handled at interim destinations, the same procedures will be carried out. When the explosive material has reached its final destination, the recipient shall forward a telex confirming its receipt. A maximum 6 hour time delay is allowed from each ETA at each given destination before a search action shall be initiated by the Field Group/Divisional Safety Officer in conjunction with Stores Department to establish the whereabouts of the explosive material and the cause of delay. 12.2 Sea The explosives service company must present the explosives package(s) at the BP Base properly packaged, labelled and documented to comply with the IMDG Code. On completion of the explosives operations, the senior operative must prepare his stores for the return trip and assist the OIM (or his competent person) with the documentation, labelling, etc.

Note: When explosives are backloaded from the rig, the BP Drilling Supervisor/OIM should ensure that a telex is sent to the BP Base, who will then advise the service company of the ETA so that they may collect their explosives on the vessels arrival.
12.3 Air Generally transportation of explosives is forbidden in both passenger and cargo aircraft. However, the Civil Aviation Authority granted certain exemptions from the Air Navigation Order 1985, quote: Please find enclosed an exemption from the above order enabling ............... Ltd. to carry limited quantities of

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explosives on board helicopters engaged on offshore operations in support of the oil and gas industries - unquote. Copies of the CAA exemptions are distributed to Drilling Department by LOG as required. The limited quantities of explosives allowed to be transported will vary depending on classification. In compliance with legislation all packaging and documentation must comply with the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air approved and published by decision of the Council of the Inter- national Civil Aviation Organisation - the ICAO Handbook. Both the helicopter company and the explosives operating company have responsibility for the packaging and labelling of the explosives to be transported. The BP Central Receipt Point (CRP) have staff trained to standards required by ICAO to receive and ensure that the cargo is correctly labelled, etc. It is not acceptable practice to use BP transport to collect explosives from the explosives operating company base.

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SUBJECT:

DAILY REPORTS FROM RIG

ALL REPORTS TO BE SUBMITTED TO THE BP OFFICE BY ON-SITE STAFF ARE NOW INCLUDED WITHIN THE WELL OPERATIONS REPORTING GUIDELINES (PSR-W28).

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SUBJECT:

WEEKLY REPORTS FROM RIG

ALL REPORTS TO BE SUBMITTED TO THE BP OFFICE BY ON-SITE STAFF ARE NOW INCLUDED WITHIN THE WELL OPERATIONS REPORTING GUIDELINES (PSR-W28).

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GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

GENERAL REPORTS FROM RIG

ALL REPORTS TO BE SUBMITTED TO THE BP OFFICE BY ON-SITE STAFF ARE NOW INCLUDED WITHIN THE WELL OPERATIONS REPORTING GUIDELINES (PSR-W28).

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SUBJECT:
1.

WELL CONTROL PROCEDURES

WELL CONTROL POLICY In accordance with Section 2.6 of the BPX Drilling Policy, dated 12/92, the BPX Well Control Manuals (Volumes I and II) constitute policy. However, if a formal and specific dispensation from this Policy has been granted, an alternative (contractor's) procedure (well shut-in method, etc.) MAY be followed in preference.

2.

DRILLING In addition to the above referenced Well Control Policy, the following statements apply:

2.1 2.2

It is a primary responsibility of the BP Drilling Supervisor to ensure that BP Well Control Policies and Procedures are adopted. The subject of Well Control must be discussed with the Contractor Toolpusher to ensure: a) b) c) d) e) BP Well Control Policies as set down in the Drilling Policy Document are understood and adhered to by supervisory personnel. BP Well Control Procedures as set down in the BP Well Control Manual are understood and correctly implemented. Standing Orders for Well Close-In Procedures have been posted at the Driller's position, and that all responsible personnel fully understand them. All relevant rig equipment is competent and adequately tested to ensure that a flowing well can be controlled. The well status and all operations are constantly reviewed to ensure that the ability to control the well is not impaired.

2.3

The following equipment must be available while drilling: 1) 2) 3) Hydril drop-in BOP located in the BHA. Dart to be kept in Drillers doghouse (refer to Section 5410/GEN). Full opening kelly cock to be installed below the kelly at all times. Back-up to be available on rig floor. If available, a suitably rated circulating head with short joint of S135 drill pipe below to be available for immediate installation when drilling or tripping. Also sufficient length of suitably pressure rated circulating hose to be available for use with the circulating head. Back-up manual adjustable drilling choke spares to be available and stored near the choke manifold. A drillable bridge plug with drill pipe running tool and retrievable bridge plug/storm valve assembly to be available on board for 13 3/8 and smaller casings to cover the event of having to pull the BOP stack with hydrocarbon bearing zones in open hole.

4) 5)

2.4

The BOP stack configuration must conform with Company Policy. A diagram showing ram positions in the stack and the depths to each ram below rotary table and below MSL is to be clearly displayed. On semi-submersible units a procedure for estimating the tidal height is to be immediately available using tide height charts or guidewire markers. Depths can be accurately checked when testing the BOP.

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2.5

WELL CONTROL PROCEDURES

On subsea BOP stacks both control pods on the BOP stack must be operational for drilling to continue. If one pod fails then the pipe should be hung off with the bit at the shoe and the well closed in (including shear rams) until the repair is completed. If both pods fail then a cement plug or bridge plug must be set prior to any repair work. In certain circumstances, drilling or other open hole operations may be allowed to continue after consultation with the drilling office. The well will be flow checked always prior to tripping, after pulling into the casing shoe and before the BHA enters the BOP stack. The minimum length of a flow check will be 15 minutes. Ensure that the hole fill pump from the trip tank is running continually and that the trip tank level indicator is operating smoothly. On semi-submersible units this will help to overcome the effects of rig heave. The Drilling Supervisor is to be on the rig floor to observe the first 10 stands pulled off bottom. When swabbing is anticipated on trips, avoid pumping a heavy pill which will disguise the swabbing. Instead, pump the pill when swabbing has stopped, or at the shoe. Mud weight while drilling should be sufficient to give at least 200 psi overbalance on known or predicted formation pressures. On semi-submersible units, in most situations the mud weight should afford 100 psi overbalance on formation pressure with the riser removed. The well will always be drilled in a manner which allows primary well control to be maintained by the use of mud weight. On exploration/appraisal wells, one mud pit (typically 300 bbl) of heavy mud must always be available with mud weight 0.25 SG higher than the drilling mud weight, and with similar rheology. All pit level monitoring equipment must be observed at all times when in open hole. Any pit increase must be checked, and the derrickman must always inform the driller and the mud loggers when changing tank levels. The degasser is to be operated daily and always during bottoms up circulation after tripping. The equipment must be maintained and operating efficiently. At the start of his tour the driller must check that choke manifold valves, and subsea valves on floating units, are correctly set and that the line from the chokes to the degasser is open. When running casing, a casing to drill pipe crossover (to allow casing to be landed on the rams on floating units) and a casing circulating swage (to allow casing to be circulated) are to be available on the rig floor. WELL CONTROL RESPONSE PROCEDURES In the event of a well control incident, and once the well has been shut-in using the appropriate technique/procedure, all appropriate installation staff must be informed (e.g. OIM, Toolpusher, BP Drilling Supervisor, etc.). The BP Drilling Supervisor/Representative must contact the appropriate DS (or Duty DS if outwith normal office hours). The OIM must contact the appropriate onshore control centre (the DOCC in the case of Dyce-based operations), and if appropriate, the Coastguard. The above steps are in accordance with the first few essential steps as detailed in the 'Well Incident Response Procedures", a controlled manual issued by PSR (reference number PSR-W20). This also contains further detail of how, through activating the Well Incident Group (WIG), the onshore organisation will provide appropriate technical support. This group does not duplicate any aspect of the operational support (evacuation and rescue of site personnel, etc.) provided through activation of the ERC (Emergency Response Centre) in BP's Dyce office. It should be borne in mind that, in addition to covering incidents during drilling operations, the Well Incident Group procedures also apply to ANY well-related incident during well completions, workovers, maintenance activities, and non-rig well servicing operations.

2.6

2.7 2.8

2.9 2.10

2.11 2.12 2.13

3. 3.1

3.2

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1.

WELL CONTROL IN HIGH ANGLE OR HORIZONTAL WELLS

KICK PREVENTION AND DETECTION All techniques used in vertical wells for avoiding and detecting kicks can be applied to high angle or horizontal wells. Kick intensity is potentially high when drilling a horizontal well due to the longer exposed hole section to the producing formation. The swab/surge pressure is relatively higher in a high angle or horizontal well. To prevent swabbed kicks, it is important to ensure that: The mud rheology is conditioned prior to tripping out The tripping speed is controlled below the maximum allowable speed The correct tripping procedures are followed

The equivalent circulating density (ECD) is relatively high when drilling a high angle well. This means a greater bottom-hole pressure reduction when circulation stops. Therefore it is important to flow-check the well prior to making a connection or tripping to ensure that the well is stable without the ECD effect. 2. WELL SHUT-IN AND GAS KICK MIGRATION Use hard (fast) shut-in method to shut in the well upon detecting a kick to minimise the kick volume. Studies showed that the potential water-hammer effect associated with the hard shut-in is negligible. When a kick occurs in a high angle or horizontal hole section, the shut-in drillpipe pressure (SIDPP) will be close or equal to the shut-in casing pressure (SICP). This is because the kick only causes a small or no hydrostatic pressure reduction in the annulus. Zero shut-in pressures (SIDPP and SICP) do not mean there is no kick. Together with a positive pit gain, this may indicate that the kick is still in the horizontal hole section which may be caused by swabbing or improper hole fillup on trips. The conventional method, which determines the influx density/type (gas/water/oil) based on pit gain, SIDPP and SICP, can not be applied in a high angle or horizontal well. There is no simple alternative method for field applications. However, a gas influx can be recognised by the continuous increase in the casing pressure due to gas expansion above the horizontal hole section, which may be caused by gas migration during shut-in or by mud circulation. During the well shut-in period, the free gas usually migrates up the annulus if the angle is below 90. Experiments showed that, for a mud with PV=10 cP and YP=6 lbf/100sqft, the gas migrates at about 10,000, 9500 and 7500ft/hr at vertical, 50 and 80, respectively. The migration rate will be lower if the mud has a higher yield stress or gel. Do not calculate the migration rate based on the increase in SICP, as it often seriously underpredicts the migration rate. Gas does not migrate if: The hole angle is 90 or higher; The gas is dissolved in the OBM; or The gas is trapped as small bubbles in mud by its high gel strength

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3.

WELL CONTROL IN HIGH ANGLE OR HORIZONTAL WELLS

WELL KILLING OPERATIONS The advantages of the wait-and-weight method over the drillers method are less important in a high angle or horizontal well. This is because the weighted mud will not reduce the surface and casing shoe pressures until it has passed the high angle or horizontal hole section. By then the gas influx may have entered into the casing or been circulated out of the well. Do not wait for the mud being weighted up. Start to circulate using the drillers method once a kick is detected; change over to the wait-and-weight method once the kill weight mud is ready (circulate and weight method). This will minimise the time of dealing with the kick and reduce the risks of stuck pipe and other hole problems. When pumping down the kill weight mud, use the kick sheet designed for high angle wells to work out the standpipe pressure schedule. Do not use the kill sheet designed for vertical wells, as it will result in excessive high well pressures and the possible consequence of fracturing the formation. During circulating out a gas kick, the free gas will slip through and travel faster than the mud, even in a horizontal hole section. Studies showed that the slip velocity is in the range of 60 to 180ft/min, depending upon the mud rheology and hole angle etc. Therefore the gas kick may arrive at surface much earlier than the mud.

4.

FREE GAS KICKS IN INVERTED (>90) HOLE SECTION If a gas kick occurs when drilling an inverted hole section, the free gas will be trapped at the bottom of the hole when circulation stops. Similar scenario may also occur in washouts or undulations of a horizontal hole section. Studies showed that the free gas will remain being trapped unless the annular mud velocity exceeds about 100ft/min, which is higher than that at a commonly used SCR during well killing operations. Therefore special well killing techniques may have to be considered. The trapped gas may be flushed out by gradually increasing the SCR to a corresponding annular velocity of about 100 to 150ft/min for a short period of time (say 1/4 of bottom-up maximum). Then reduce to a normal SCR and proceed using a conventional well killing technique (drillers or wait-andweight). Depending on the kick volume and the length of the hole section, the procedures may have to be repeated in order to remove the trapped gas completely. So prior to drilling the hole section, the pump pressure at an SCR corresponding to 100 to 150ft/min should be recorded. If the above technique fails to remove the trapped gas, consider bullheading the gas back into the formation. As the trapped gas should be near the kicking formation, bullheading is more likely to succeed in an inverted hole section.

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1.

WELL CONTROL WHILST LOGGING

PREPARATION Hold a pre-logging safety meeting prior to commencing logging operations on the well in question and include in the discussion the shut-in procedure with wireline in the hole. The formal posted procedure should state that whenever pipe is out of the hole, the blind/shear rams should be closed if the well kicks, however, this action may not be totally appropriate if we have logging cable in the hole/across the stack. Below is a procedure which outlines the actions with wireline in the hole/across the stack if a well control scenario exists.

2.

PROCEDURE WHILST LOGGING ACROSS THE RESERVOIR/OPEN HOLE The well must be monitored at all times whilst preparing to log, logging and rigging down, and the action on detecting flow from the well is as follows: Note: Be aware that during running in with wireline, a very slight flow may be observed, this being the wireline displacement. (1) Advise logging contractor personnel to stop the winch. (2) Open HCR valve. (3) Close annular preventer advise Toolpusher/BP Rep, who will then evaluate (in consultation with Onshore Team if time permits), the appropriate course of action. Note: This action will depend on a number of factors, eg rate of flow, pressures, logging tool position in hole. (4) Monitor well pressures and the closure effectiveness of the annular. (5) The decision may then be taken to use blind/shear rams in order to effect a well kill by bullheading (or to seal the wellbore). Note: (1) Should it be necessary to close the blind/shear rams on the wire then, if possible, an attempt must be made to cut the wire to allow it to fall downhole prior to closing in the blind/shear rams. Again, there may be a scenario whereby the wire is being lifted out of the hole, in which case immediate closure of the blind/shear rams is required. It is the responsibility of the BP Rep to make this decision. Prior to making any cut on the wire, ensure that the wire above the cut is clamped and tied off to avoid snaking of the surface after being cut. All key personnel are to be made aware of the procedures and duties are to be assigned.

(2) (3) 3.

FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS (1) A formal procedure of the above is to be made and posted on the rig. (2) Ensure that a risk assessment is carried out in relation to the above as it may capture some items that have been missed. (3) Ensure that the logging contractor is included in any assessments and that he is happy with the procedure.

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SUBJECT:
1.

LIMITED KICK TOLERANCE

For full details of how to determine the Limited Kick Tolerance, refer to the BP Well Control Manual. The subject of limited kick is also addressed within the Casing Design Manual, a portion of which is repeated as Section 2005/GEN of these Guidelines for Drilling Operations Manual (Section A3.4). The Limited Kick Tolerance is sensitive to changes in: a) b) c) Fracture pressure. Mud weight. Formation pressure.

2.

When one or more of these parameters changes, the Limited Kick Tolerance must be recalculated. 3. 4. 5. 6. Calculate Limited Kick Tolerance for the hole section based on the actual leak-off at the casing shoe. The Limited Kick Tolerance should be recalculated for the midnight depth and for the hole section TD. Report the Limited Kick Tolerance values in the daily DEAP report, together with the appropriate depth and mud weight. Also ensure that the mud loggers are informed of these figures. When calculating the Limited Kick Tolerance, the pore pressure should be assumed equal to the mud weight in the hole.

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1.1 1.2

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SHALLOW GAS PROCEDURES

When the shallow seismic survey over a well location indicates the presence of seismic anomalies, and it is not practical to re-site the rig position, then the following procedures MUST BE FOLLOWED. A 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled in open water to below the lowermost anomaly (refer to Section 1060/EXP).

Note: Anomalies will be penetrated only during the hours of daylight and in reasonable weather conditions.
1.3 The following shallow gas precautions will be taken in order to minimise the risk to the rig and personnel: 1. The rig will be moored up with enough chain left in the lockers to enable the rig to move 150 metres off location. The anchor winch operation must be checked prior to drilling the anomaly. In water depths of less than 100 metres, consideration will be given to attaching a supply boat to the rig; the requirement will be discussed and agreed with the Marine Superintendent. 2. 3. One vessel capable of towing should remain on location. A watch will be kept at the moonpool to observe for gas breaking out of the sea under the rig. The watch keeper should be provided with a radio with which to contact the control room and drillfloor. The 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled with the ROV in attendance to observe any gas breaking out at the seabed. 4. 5. 6. The weather conditions and tidal state will be monitored at all times and a preferred direction for moving the rig off location determined. A minimum volume of 400 bbls of 1.3 SG kill mud will be available to pump in the event that it is necessary to attempt to dynamically kill a gas flow. A safety meeting will be held prior to spudding the pilot hole. All gas detectors and alarms will be tested. All hot work permits are to be withdrawn. All bulk lines and salt water supply lines must be checked and the mud and cementing systems pressure tested. The 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled with seawater and viscous slugs. A float without bleed hole will be included in the drilling assembly. Rates of penetration will be restricted to 8 metres/hour from within 15 metres of the anticipated top of an anomaly. Once the anomaly has been penetrated the ROP may be increased at the discretion of the Drilling Superintendent. Circulation rate should be high, of the order of 800 gallons/minute. 8. 9. At total depth the hole will be circulated clean and displaced to seawater. The pumps will be shut down and the hole observed for flow. If no flow is observed then the pilot hole should be displaced to 1.3 SG mud prior to continuing with operations on the well.

7.

10. In the event that a shallow gas flow does occur, either after displacement to seawater or during drilling, then circulate at maximum flowrates with seawater whilst allowing the accumulation to deplete. If unable to control the depletion, then pump the 1.3 SG kill mud. The kill mud must be pumped at as high a rate as possible to dynamically kill the flow.

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11. During any trips the drillstring should be pumped out of the hole. Every effort must be made to prevent a gas influx through swabbing. In the event that a shallow gas flow does occur whilst tripping, then the appropriate procedure will depend on the depth out of hole and the rate of flow. If possible, run back in the hole to bottom and pump the 1.3 SG kill mud at as high a rate as possible in an attempt to dynamically kill the flow. 12. If at any time the gas flow is so severe as to threaten the safety of the rig, then the rig should be moved off location in such a direction as to take the rig out of any gas plume in the water and so that the wind will carry gas away from the rig.

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SHALLOW GAS PROCEDURES (DEEPWATER IN DP MODE)

When a shallow seismic survey has not been carried out over a deepwater (> 300m) well location with a rig operating in DP mode, then the following procedures MUST BE FOLLOWED. A 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled in open water to below the surface casing shoe depth. The following shallow gas precautions will be taken in order to minimise the risk to the rig and personnel: 1. 2. 3. 4. The 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled with the ROV in attendance to observe any gas breaking out at the seabed. The weather conditions and tidal state will be monitored at all times and a preferred direction for moving the rig off location determined. A minimum volume of 400 bbls of 1.3 SG kill mud will be available to pump in the event that it is necessary to attempt to dynamically kill a gas flow. A safety meeting will be held prior to spudding the pilot hole. All gas detectors and alarms will be tested. All hot work permits are to be withdrawn. All bulk lines and salt water supply lines must be checked and the mud and cementing systems pressure tested. The 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled with seawater and viscous slugs. A float without bleed hole will be included in the drilling assembly. Circulation rate should be high, of the order of 800 gallons/minute. 6. 7. 8. At total depth the hole will be circulated clean and displaced to seawater. The pumps will be shut down and the hole observed for flow. If no flow is observed then the pilot hole should be displaced to 1.3 SG mud prior to continuing with operations on the well. In the event that a shallow gas flow does occur, either after displacement to seawater or during drilling, then circulate at maximum flowrates with seawater whilst allowing the accumulation to deplete. If unable to control the depletion, then pump the 1.3 SG kill mud. The kill mud must be pumped at as high a rate as possible to dynamically kill the flow. 9. During any trips the drillstring should be pumped out of the hole. Every effort must be made to prevent a gas influx through swabbing. In the event that a shallow gas flow does occur whilst tripping, then the appropriate procedure will depend on the depth out of hole and the rate of flow. If possible, run back in the hole to bottom and pump the 1.3 SG kill mud at as high a rate as possible in an attempt to dynamically kill the flow. 10. If at any time the gas flow is so severe as to threaten the safety of the rig, then the rig should be moved off location in such a direction as to position the rig upwind and clear of any gas breaking free at sea level.

5.

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SUBJECT: THE EFFECT OF COLD WEATHER ON BOP STACKS AND CONTROL LINES
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 GENERAL In extremely cold weather conditions, it is possible that BOP control lines, choke and kill lines or cooling systems may become frozen. The lowest ambient temperature in the UK North Sea is -10 Celcius. When BOP control lines freeze, it is because the fluid in the lines contains insufficient glycol to protect it against ambient temperatures. Only fluid in the 1 line on subsea BOP stack systems can be displaced simply by cycling the functions. The fluid in control lines on surface stacks and pilot lines can only be displaced if the lines are broken at the stack or pod. To ensure that the pilot lines contain glycol treated fluid, whenever the ambient temperature falls below freezing point, the pilot accumulator must be fed from a dedicated reservoir in which the glycol concentration is maintained throughout the year. If this is not possible, then the required glycol concentration should be maintained in the whole reservoir. To ensure the correct additive concentration, the constituents should be mixed in a separate tank. The fluid in the reservoir should be agitated to prevent glycol settling out and the concentrations periodically checked. The possibility of glycol settling out within the pilot lines with time must be investigated. Suitable precautions should be taken to prevent damage to cooling systems when equipment is shut down in cold weather. Significant ice and snow accretions are rare, however any accumulation should be monitored to ensure the vessels design criteria are not breached. Hydraulic equipment in storage may be vulnerable if it is not fully drained or filled with a suitable fluid. POLICY The following is mandatory on all BP operated rigs on the UKCS unless written dispensation is obtained from the Drilling Operations Manager (Dyce). 1) Mud shall be retained in the choke and kill lines and circulated every shift. If a water based mud is in use, the salinity shall be controlled to prevent freezing under prevailing conditions. If the rig is in deep water or using high mud weights, consideration should be given to displacing the choke and kill lines to water containing an anti-freeze agent. Control fluid in subsea BOP pilot lines shall be protected against freezing above -10 Celsius throughout the year. Operating fluid in surface and subsea BOP lines shall be protected against freezing above -10 Celsius during the period 1st November - 30th April. If water based control fluid is used, the glycol concentration shall be confirmed by means of a hydrometer or refractometer each time the pilot lines are flushed through and once per day during the period 1st November - 30th April.

1.4

1.5

1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.

2) 3) 4)

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SURFACE BOP TESTING - GENERAL

GENERAL Refer to the BPX General Drilling Policy Document. All wellhead BOPs, valves, failsafes and risers shall be pressure tested from the direction they would be exposed to well pressure. No personnel are to be in the vicinity of pressure testing operations or equipment. The Drilling Supervisor should ensure that ancillary BOP equipment, such as choke manifold, standpipe manifold, kelly cocks and stab-in valves, can be safely tested during normal rig operations, i.e. whilst POH or RIH. On production platforms, consult individual Platform Safety Manuals with reference to Permit to Work requirements and precautions for pressure testing. BOP Test Report and Accumulator Test Report Forms are to be completed after each test, and a copy sent to the Drilling Office (refer to page 5). If installed, the diverter function is to be witnessed, and opening times should be recorded against the annular closing time on the BOP Test Report Form. The Drilling Supervisor will witness the integrity of the tests and operation of all equipment. TEST PRESSURES All well control equipment, except annular BOPs, is to be pressure tested to the lowest of the following criteria: a) b) c) d) Maximum anticipated wellhead pressure, based on the casing design data included in the drilling programme. 80% of casing burst pressure. Wellhead rated working pressure. BOP rated working pressure.

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2. 2.1

N.B. Equipment not in direct contact with the well may be tested to its rated working pressure if required.
2.2 2.3 The annular preventer must only be closed when pipe is in the hole and must never be tested to more than 70% of the manufacturers rated working pressure. If a retrievable packer is set to test the BOPs, the test pressure must not exceed 80% of casing burst pressure. FREQUENCY AND TEST DURATIONS The BOP test frequency will be: a) b) c) d) e) f) Prior to installation of the BOP stack, on the test stump where applicable or after installation if no test stump is available. Every 14 days thereafter. Following any BOP repair. Following the reinstallation of the stack after wellhead spool installation. Following the breaking of any pressure seal, e.g. ram change. Within 7 days of the commencement of perforating or well testing operations.

3. 3.1

N.B. BOP must always be function tested after installation.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0420/FIX 5 (9/91) 2 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
3.2

Page

SURFACE BOP TESTING - GENERAL

Each test shall consist of two parts: a) b) A 5 minute, 300 psi low pressure test. A 10 minute, rated pressure test.

4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

TEST PROCEDURES Where possible all tests are to be done with clean water. When displacing BOP and manifolds from mud to water, the minimum amounts must be used to minimise contamination and losses. Before filling the stack with water or installing pipe through rams, perform a full function test. (Do not allow rams or annular to close fully.) Before the test can begin, the test line must be pressure tested to the highest planned pressure of the BOP test. Unless otherwise stated in the drilling programme, all BOP tests will be in two parts: a) b) A wellhead test using a cup type tester. A BOP test using a plug type tester.

4.5

When using a standard cup type tester: a) b) c) d) The strength of the drillpipe and support equipment must be checked to ensure that they are adequate for the loads induced by the test. The annular preventer would normally be closed around the pipe. The drillpipe must NOT be supported by slips in the rotary table. Reduce the annular manifold closing pressure to 500 psi, to allow the pipe to slip through the element once the pressure has been applied. For maximum closing pressures see manufacturers specifications.

4.6 4.7

When using the cup tester to test pack-offs, ensure the casing pack-off test port and the wellhead annulus valve are open, in order to check for leakage. When testing with plug type testers, side outlets below the seal face MUST BE LEFT OPEN to ensure stack test pressures do not pressure the wellbore and any leakage past the test plug is detected. Any valves or kelly cocks run below test plugs must previously have been tested and run closed. In drilling condition wellhead side outlets will be dressed as follows: a) Outlets exposed to the wellbore: Active Outlet: Non-Active Outlet: b) 2 off fully rated valves plus Weco Union crossover. Both valves closed at all times apart from periods of wellhead/BOP testing. Fully rated VR plug plus fully rated cap flange or hubbed cap c/w needle valve.

4.8

Outlets in casing/casing annuli: Active Outlet: Non-Active Outlet: Fully rated gate valve, blind flange and needle valve. Fully rated VR plug plus fully rated cap flange or hubbed cap c/w needle valve.

Note: No component - valve, needle valve, flange, VRP, cap flange/protector or crossover - may be installed on any wellhead outlet unless it has a working pressure rating at least equivalent to the spool it is being installled on.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0420/FIX 5 (9/91) 3 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
4.9

Page

SURFACE BOP TESTING - GENERAL

When running test plugs through the wellhead, ensure all tiedown bolts/wear bushing lock bolts are retracted and all placking/gland nuts are tight. Check the stand-off measurement for these lockdowns. When test plugs are landed off in the wellhead, check depth below rotary table is correct before testing. Record the volume of fluid pumped for each test, the closing/opening times of all functions and accumulator volume pumped for all BOP functions. After a BOP test is complete, function test the remote operating panel(s). Do not allow preventers to close fully. After each BOP test all rams are to be opened and the valves on the standpipe manifold and choke manifold set in the required positions for the following operations. Ensure all wellhead valves, needle valves and wellhead test ports are closed. Blind rams are to be functioned once every trip. The detailed test sequencing for stump and in-situ tests for each platform are in the appropriate Manual Section, and for Jack-Ups in Section 0440/JAK and 0441/JAK. TEST EQUIPMENT Refer to manufacturers specifications for BOP operating pressures. BOPs are to be tested utilising a plug type tester, ported drillpipe and an equipment arrangement as per the diagram in this Section. A chart recorder showing the test pressure should be on the rig floor. Two separate gauges, showing the test pressure, must be visible from the test pump to prevent overpressuring due to gauge failure or inaccuracy. The condition of all sealing faces of BOP test plugs must be checked before and after they are run. Cup type testers should be hollow bore type. When testing with cup type tools, no valves should be placed in the string below the cup tester. Ensure all drillpipe used for testing is in good condition, smooth and is of the correct weight and grade to take the pressure testing loads. All temporary high pressure lines must be fitted with cross coupling restraints and comply with platform regulations regarding their securing.

4.10 4.11 4.12

4.13 4.14

5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0420/FIX 5 (9/91) 4 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: SURFACE BOP TESTING - GENERAL

Page

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT FOR SURFACE BOP STACK TESTING


11 TEST LINE 10

12 9 3

ANNULAR

ANNULAR

KILL LINE

UPPER PIPE RAM

UPPER PIPE RAM

BLIND RAM

DP LANDING STRING

BLIND RAM

6 5 4 1 2 LOWER PIPE RAM

LOWER PIPE RAM

No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

DESCRIPTION
INNER CHOKE OUTER CHOKE 1st VALVE ON CHOKE MANIFOLD INNER KILL OUTER KILL KILL LINE N.R.V. PORTED SUB. PLUG TYPE TESTER TEST HEAD H.P. TEST TEE H.P. GATE VALVE MARTIN DECKER PRESSURE RECORDED C.H. SPOOL 13 OPEN OPEN

7 8

2179/138

CHOKE LINE

SUBJECT:

PLATFORM & JACK UP TEST SHEET


RIG WELL NO. R.T.E. WATER DEPTH CASING SIZE DEPTH CONTRACTOR GRADE BURST WEIGHT COLLAPSE DATE

STACK SIZE x PRESSURE RATING


OTHER EQUIPMENT TESTED UPPER KELLY COCK REMARKS LOWER KELLY COCK CHOKE MANIFOLD GRAY BOP STAND PIPE MANIFOLD CEMENT UNIT

SURFACE BOP TESTING - GENERAL

DATE LAST TEST

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

PLUG TESTER
TEST A PRESSURE PRESSURE TEST B PRESSURE TEST 1 PRESSURE 2 PRESSURE 3 PRESSURE 4 PRESSURE VALVE OPEN 5 VALVE CLOSED

C MAN

C MAN

KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL

NON RETURN VALVE LOADED

NON RETURN VALVE EMPTY

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM
CLOSED

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM
OPEN

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM
KL KILL LINE

CL CHOKE LINE

B.O.P. CONTROL POSITIONS ALTERNATE WEEKLY BETWEEN MAIN AND REMOTE POSITIONS B.O.P. PRESSURE ANNULAR PSI UPPER RAM PSI BLIND RAM PSI LOWER RAM PSI PSI PSI SIGNATURE CONTRACTOR SIGNATURE BP : TIME MINS MINS MINS MINS MINS MINS
NOTE: SEE STANDARD TESTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR HIGHER W/HEAD TEST PRESSURES

TIME TAKEN TO ACTIVATE UNIT AND VOLUME OF FLUID USED TO ACTIVATE MAIN PANEL REMOTE PANEL OPEN CLOSE OPEN CLOSE TIME VOLUME TIME VOLUME TIME VOLUME TIME VOLUME SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS

Page

Rev.

Section

ANNULAR BOTTOM RAMS UPPER RAMS OUT CHOKE BLIND RAMS

: 5 of 5

: 5 (9/91)

: 0420/FIX

NOTES:

1 TEST PRESSURES AS PROGRAMMED 2 THISTLE KILL LINE BELOW LOWER RAMS 3 BEATRICE KILL LINE BELOW BLIND RAMS 4 THISTLE TUBING HEAD SPOOL SIDE OUTLET VALVES TESTED TO 5000PSI USING CUP TESTER / PORTED PLUG TESTER ASSEMBLY

2179 /140

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0420/SEM 0 (7/90) 1 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2. 2.1

Page

SUBSEA BOP TESTING - GENERAL

GENERAL Refer to the BPX General Drilling Policy Document. All wellhead BOPs, valves, failsafes and risers shall be pressure tested from the direction they would be exposed to well pressure. Each rig is required to have a detailed pressure testing procedure which complies with BPPD Standard Health, Safety and Environment Regulations. No personnel are to be in the vicinity of pressure testing operations or equipment. Notices should be posted and an announcement made on the public address system to warn all personnel of the test. When test plugs are landed off in the wellhead, confirm the hang-off depth before commencing the test. Record the volume of fluid pumped for each test, the closing/opening times of all functions and accumulator volume pumped for all BOP functions. After a BOP test is complete, function test the remote operating panel(s). Do not allow preventers to close fully. After each BOP test all rams are to be opened and the valves on the standpipe manifold and choke manifold set in the required positions for the next operation. The Drilling Supervisor will witness the integrity of the tests and operation of all equipment. TEST PRESSURES All well control equipment, except annular BOPs and blind/shear rams is to be pressure tested to the lowest of the following criteria: a) b) c) d) Maximum anticipated wellhead pressure, based on the casing design data included in the drilling programme. 80% of casing burst pressure. Wellhead rated working pressure. BOP rated working pressure.

N.B. Equipment not in direct contact with the well may be tested to its rated working pressure if required.
2.2 2.3 2.4 The annular preventer must only be closed when pipe is in the hole and must never be tested to more than 70% of the manufacturers rated working pressure during routine testing. Blind/shear rams need only be pressure tested during casing pressure tests after installation of the BOP stack on the wellhead. If a retrievable packer is set to test the BOPs, the test pressure must not exceed 80% of casing burst pressure. FREQUENCY AND TEST DURATIONS The BOP test frequency will be: a) Prior to installation of the BOP stack, on the test stump.

3. 3.1

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0420/SEM 0 (7/90) 2 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
b) c) d) 3.2

Page

SUBSEA BOP TESTING - GENERAL

After installation of the BOP stack on the wellhead. Every 14 days thereafter. Following any BOP repair.

Each test shall consist of two parts: a) b) A 5 minute, 300 psi low pressure test. A 10 minute, rated pressure test.

4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

TEST PROCEDURES Where possible all tests are to be done with clean water. When displacing BOP and manifolds from mud to water, the minimum amounts must be used to minimise contamination and losses. Before filling the stack with water or installing pipe through rams, perform a full function test. (Do not allow rams or annular to close fully.) Before the test can begin, the test line must be pressure tested to the highest planned pressure of the BOP test. When testing with plug type testers, any valves or kelly cocks run below test plugs must previously have been tested and run closed. Whenever possible, routine testing is to be carried out with tools in the casing, and not when out of the hole. Once the BOP is landed and latched, conduct an overpull test to 30,000 lbs. Using the test plug, pressure test the connector and one set of 5 pipe rams to the maximum test pressure that will be experienced by that connector during all subsequent operations. This pressure will be specified in the data sheet for the well in question.

Note: a) b)
4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

Until the integrity of the connector seal is established, pressure testing volumes should be kept to a minimum to reduce the risk of washing out BOP/wellhead connectors. The connector should be monitored using the ROV/SSTV during the initial installation test. If a leak is detected pumping must cease immediately.

Once the BOP stack is landed and the connector seal confirmed, a full stack test will be performed. When various ram sizes are installed, only the rams that may be required in the current hole section need to be pressure tested during routine tests. When operations permit all rams should be function tested in rotation and the operating volumes recorded. When performing fortnightly routine BOP tests, the control pods must be alternated with each test. Test pressures are to be built-up in increments and stabilised at each stage prior to reaching the required test pressure.

Note: The BOP must be observed with the ROV/SSTV and the test plug landing string filled and monitored for leaks.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0420/SEM 0 (7/90) 3 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
4.12 4.13 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Page

SUBSEA BOP TESTING - GENERAL

All high pressure connections associated with the well control equipment are to be pressure tested upon the installation or re-installation of each connection. All test pressures will be specified on the data sheets. TEST EQUIPMENT Refer to manufacturers specifications for BOP operating pressures. Two separate gauges, showing the test pressure, must be visible from the test pump to prevent overpressuring due to gauge failure or inaccuracy. The condition of all sealing faces of BOP test plugs must be checked before and after they are run. Ensure all drillpipe used for testing is in good condition, smooth and is of the correct weight and grade to take the pressure testing loads. All temporary high pressure lines must be fitted with cross coupling restraints.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0440/JAK 0 (7/90) 1 of 1

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: PRESSURE TESTING 21 1/4" BOP

Page

For general pressure testing, refer to Section 0420/FIX. 1.0 The 21 1/4 stack may be used as: 1. 2. 1.1 1.2 A diverter system. A fully closing BOP system.

If used as a diverter system, the BOP will be tested to 500 psi only. If used as a fully closing BOP system, the test pressure will be advised in the Drilling Programme. The test assembly to consist of: 2 stands of 5 HWDP below test plug. Test plug. Ported sub above the test plug. 5 DP to surface. Circulating head c/w HP tee connected to the pressure recorder and shut-off valve.

1.3

Prior to running test assembly: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure hanger/wear bushing lock screws are fully retracted (check stand-off measurement). Ensure lock screw gland nuts are fully tightened. Open side outlet valves on CH housing and drain stack. Fill 20 casing to side outlet level. Inspect seals on test plug.

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Run and land test plug. Record landing height. Pump through test string and fill wellhead with water. Ensure no returns from CH housing outlets. Close the annular preventer, note closing time and operating pressure. Compare operating pressure with manufacturers recommended pressure for the relevant test pressure and pipe size. If BOP is to be used as a fully closing system, flush the kill and choke lines to water. Close the first valves on the standpipe and choke manifold to exposed pressure. Pressure up through the ported sub in 500 psi stages to the test pressure. 1. 2. If BOP is to be used as a diverter only, test to be against diverter spool outlet valves. If BOP is to be fully closing, test against choke manifold first valve and standpipe manifold first valve. Repeat tests against side outlet spools.

1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13

Open BOP. Record opening time. Pull test assembly and close CH housing side outlet valves. Make up drilling assembly and RIH to above top of cement. Test casing to 500 psi. Before drilling out, ensure that choke manifold valves are returned to correct configuration.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0441/JAK 0 (7/90) 1 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: PRESSURE TESTING 13 5/8" BOP

Page

For general pressure testing, refer to Section 0420/FIX. 1.0 All tests will be done in two stages: 1. 2. 1.1 Cup Type Tester run into the casing stub. Plug Type Tester run into CH Spool.

The Cup Type Tester Routine 1. Prior to running check the tester: a) b) c) d) 2. 3. Mandrel inner O rings in good condition. Packer is correct for casing size and weight. The mandrel packer sealing area is free from corrosion. Condition of pack-off element.

Run two stands of HWDP below the tester. With a new pack-off element additional weight may have to be used to ensure it enters the casing stub. a) b) Ensure all wear bushing locking bolts are fully withdrawn (check stand-off measurement). Ensure all locking bolt gland nuts are fully tightened.

4.

Run the Cup Type Tester on 5 S-135 DP. a) b) Check the tool joint seal areas are in good condition. Check the Cup Type Tester is fully entered into the casing stub but is not within close proximity to a casing collar.

5.

Open the CH Spool active side outlet valves below the relevant casing hanger. a) b) Ensure the outlet is not plugged, e.g. VR plug left in place. Ensure the casing annulus is fully to the side outlet level.

6. 7.

Fill the DP running string with water. Ensure the string is supported by elevators and travelling blocks, NEVER by slips in the rotary. Considerable tension can be produced in the running string, either by the test pressure or by inadvertent overpressuring. Slips can produce crushing of the DP.

8.

Pre-calculate the probable maximum tension. a) b) Ensure all lifting equipment is capable of safely supporting the load, i.e. elevator, links, blockline capacity. Check the dead man anchor gap is correct and clear of foreign material.

9.

Close the annular preventer, pipe movement under pressure loading can damage the ram packers. a) Record the closing time.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0441/JAK 0 (7/90) 2 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
b) c) d) e) f)

Page

PRESSURE TESTING 13 5/8" BOP


Check the annular operating pressure is as per the manufacturers recommendations for the relevant pipe size and test pressure. Flush through the BOP and choke manifold. Ensure the Martin Decker pressure recorder is rigged up on the choke manifold. Close the most direct valve to the choke line. Close the outside side outlet valves on the CH Spool above the casing stub.

10. Pressure up in 500 psi stages through the kill line and against the choke manifold. Ensure driller is holding the drawworks brake. He then has the opportunity to relieve any accidental overpressuring by lowering the tester. 11. Test the annular as indicated in Section 0420/FIX. 12. Observe for leaks. a) b) Tester element leak will give continuous returns from the DP. Casing annulus leak will give returns from lower CH Spool side outlets.

13. Close inside valves of CH Spool, open outside valves as per Test B, page 5. 14. After the annular is proved competent, bleed off the kill line pressure and check the kill line NRV is preventing serious flow. 15. To bleed off pressures ensure an adjustable choke is closed behind the choke manifold valve to be opened. Open the valve quickly to minimise washing of the seat. Bleed down the pressure across the choke. 16. Open the annular preventer. Record opening time. 17. Pull the Cup Type Tester carefully through the stack and bell nipple. 1.2 The Plug Tester Routine 1. Prior to running check the tester. a) b) c) d) e) 2. Seal element in good condition. Correct size tester for CH Spool. Plug tester fitted in spool prior to spool installation. If tester has a through bore ensure a pre-tested closed kelly cock is run below the tester.

On plug testers ensure cap bolts are not tight as this partially activates the seal elements causing incorrect test plug landing and results in frequent seal failure.

Below the tester run sufficient weight, to ensure plug fully lands in the CH Spool.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0441/JAK 0 (7/90) 3 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
3.

Page

PRESSURE TESTING 13 5/8" BOP

a) Ensure all wear bushing locking bolts are fully withdrawn (check stand-off measurement). b) c) d) Ensure all locking bolt gland nuts are fully tightened. If not already done, circulate stack to water. Ensure the test tee, mobile pressure recorder and test shut-off valve have been tested to the test pressure required.

4.

The test assembly above the Plug Tester: a) b) c) A 4 1/2 IF pin x box sub with a through bore and a 1/2 NPT threaded side port. DP to surface, the burst pressure of which to be minimum 1.1 times the test pressure. Ensure connection above the ported sub is hand tight only.

Mark the string below the Plug Tester at a point that corresponds to CH Spool side outlet when the plug is landed. Full landing can then be checked. 5. Run the plug tester and land. Ensure the depth below the rotary table is correct. Open the CH Spool side outlet and check that the position of the mark on the plug tester corresponds correctly. 6. Make up the test head on the DP running string. a) b) c) d) e) f) Open the first valve on the choke manifold. Fill stack with water. Close the top pipe rams around the DP and record closing time. Fill the DP with water. Make up test tee, pressure recorder and test valve to the test head. Preflush the test line and connect. Open the first valve on the choke manifold and flush through DP, BOP and choke line. Test as follows: Refer to test sheet on page 5. 7. 8. Ensure choke manifold has been pretested to the maximum required test pressure. Test 1 Ensure kill line open and kill line NRV unseated. Close the first valve (at end of choke line) on the choke manifold. Close inside valve on kill line. 9. Pressure through the DP, below the rams and against the closed valves.

10. When test pressure is on, close the test line shut-off valve at the DP test head. There is no need to bleed off behind the shut-off valve. Compare the mobile pressure recorder and test pump gauges. 11. Inspect wellhead, rams and choke line for leaks.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

0441/JAK 0 (7/90) 4 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
a) b) c)

Page

PRESSURE TESTING 13 5/8" BOP


If flanges are leaking, bleed off pressure and retighten. Leaks from CH Spool outlet indicate a leaking test plug seal or damaged CH Spool landing area. If leaks are detected from any lock bolt gland packings, bleed off pressure and retighten.

12. After completion of test, open shut-off valve and bleed off pressure at the test pump/cement unit. 13. Test 2 Reseat the kill line NRV and open inside kill line valve. Close HCR and open the first choke manifold valve. Ensure kill line vented/open on standpipe manifold. Repeat 9 through 12. 14. Test 3 Ensure kill line NRV is removed or lifted off its seat. Close outer stack mounted kill line valve. Close inner stack mounted manual choke line valve. Open HCR choke line valve. Repeat 9 through 12. 15. Test 4 Open upper pipe rams. Record time. Close lower pipe rams. Record time. Repeat 9 through 12. 16. Test 5 Open the outer stack mounted manual choke line valve. Open lower pipe rams. Record opening time. Rig down the test head etc. Back out running string leaving the plug tester set. Install the remote pressure recorder on the choke manifold. Rig up to pump through the choke line. Close blind rams. Record closing time. Close inner stack mounted kill line valve. Pressure test through the choke line. Bleed off pressures at test pump. Open blind rams. Record time. 17. Screw back into the plug tester and carefully retrieve tester through the stack. 18. Inspect the plug tester and prepare for storage. 19. Test the lower and upper kelly cocks from below to maximum 5000 psi whilst: a) b) Performing accumulator test. Function testing the remote BOP operating panel.

20. When the kelly cock test is complete, install the gray valve below the lower kelly cock and test from below to 5000 psi.

SUBJECT:

PLATFORM & JACK UP TEST SHEET


RIG WELL NO. R.T.E. WATER DEPTH CASING SIZE DEPTH CONTRACTOR
CUP TESTER
TEST A PRESSURE PRESSURE TEST B PRESSURE TEST 1

STACK SIZE x PRESSURE RATING


OTHER EQUIPMENT TESTED UPPER KELLY COCK REMARKS LOWER KELLY COCK CHOKE MANIFOLD GRAY BOP

DATE DATE LAST TEST GRADE BURST WEIGHT COLLAPSE

PRESSURE TESTING 13 5/8" BOP

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

STAND PIPE MANIFOLD CEMENT UNIT

PLUG TESTER
2 PRESSURE PRESSURE 3 PRESSURE 4 PRESSURE VALVE OPEN 5 VALVE CLOSED

C MAN

C MAN

C MAN

KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL KL ANNULAR

CL

NON RETURN VALVE LOADED

NON RETURN VALVE EMPTY

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM

UPPER RAM
CLOSED

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM

BLIND RAM
OPEN

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM

LOWER RAM
KL KILL LINE

CL CHOKE LINE

B.O.P. CONTROL POSITIONS ALTERNATE WEEKLY BETWEEN MAIN AND REMOTE POSITIONS B.O.P. PRESSURE ANNULAR PSI UPPER RAM PSI BLIND RAM PSI LOWER RAM PSI PSI PSI SIGNATURE CONTRACTOR SIGNATURE BP : TIME MINS MINS MINS MINS MINS MINS
NOTE: SEE STANDARD TESTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR HIGHER W/HEAD TEST PRESSURES

MAIN PANEL OPEN CLOSE TIME VOLUME TIME VOLUME SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS SECS GALLS

TIME TAKEN TO ACTIVATE UNIT AND VOLUME OF FLUID USED TO ACTIVATE REMOTE PANEL CLOSE OPEN TIME SECS SECS SECS SECS SECS SECS SECS VOLUME GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS TIME SECS SECS SECS SECS SECS SECS SECS VOLUME GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS GALLS

Page

Rev.

Section

ANNULAR BOTTOM RAMS UPPER RAMS OUT CHOKE BLIND RAMS

: 5 of 5

: 0 (7/90)

: 0441/JAK

NOTES:

1 TEST PRESSURES AS PROGRAMMED

2179 /150

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Index Prefixes
0000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Safety and Administration Drilling Casing and Tubing Cementing Drilling Fluids Wellheads, Packers, Tools and Equipment Stuck Pipe and Fishing Well Evaluation Marine and Miscellaneous

Index Suffixes
MST GEN SEM JAK FIX FOR CLY BEA MAG THI MIL DON BRU MAR RAV AME WYF HAR Master Index and User Guide General Semi-Submersible Drilling Units Jack-Up Drilling Units Fixed Drilling Units Forties Clyde Beatrice Magnus Thistle Miller Don Bruce Marnock Ravenspurn Amethyst Wytch Farm Harding

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Section
1000 1000/GEN 1010/GEN 1020/GEN 1050/JAK 1060/SEM 1070/SEM 1100/JAK 1100/SEM 1110/FIX 1130/FIX 1200/FIX 1200/SEM 1280/GEN 1300/GEN 1310/GEN 1320/JAK 1350/GEN 1400/GEN

Description
DRILLING Drilling - General Depth Referencing BP Pipe Tally Procedure Well Establishment - Dril-Quip 3 Well Spacer Template Well Establishment - Running TGB Well Establishment - 12.1/4" Pilot Hole Drilling 36" Hole - Jack-Ups Drilling 36" Hole - Semi-Submersibles Conductor Installation - Run/Drill/Run/Cement Conductor Installation - Drill/Drive Drilling Surface Hole - Multi-Well Installations Drilling 26" Hole - Semi-Submersibles Underreaming in Top Hole Drilling Vertical 17.1/2" Hole Drilling Deviated 17.1/2" Hole Drilling Deviated 17.1/2" Hole Using Spacer Template Drilling 12.1/4" Hole Drilling 8.1/4" Hole

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

1450/GEN 1500/GEN 1630/GEN 1640/GEN 1660/GEN 1700/GEN 1750/GEN 1800/GEN 1850/SEM

Drilling 6" Hole Drilling Casing Flotation Equipment with PDC Bits Mud Motors Mud Motors Used with MWD Tools Rebel Tools Turbodrilling Procedures Sidetracking Procedures Suspension and Abandonment Procedures Wellhead Severance

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

1160/CLY 1160/MAG 1160/THI 1160/MIL 1160/BRU 1160/AME 1160/HAR

Drilling Top Hole & Running Conductor Clyde Drilling Top Hole & Running Conductor Magnus Drilling Top Hole & Running Conductor Thistle Drilling Top Hole & Running Conductor Miller Drilling Top Hole & Running Conductor Bruce Top Hole & Conductor - Amethyst Drilling Top Hole, Running Conductor and Cementing Harding Drilling 24" Hole Forties Drilling 24" Hole Wytch Farm Drilling 24" Hole Bruce Drilling 17.1/2" Surface Hole - Amethyst Drilling Deviated 17.1/2" Hole Section Wytch Farm Drilling 12.1/4" Hole - Amethyst Drilling Deviated 12.1/4" Hole Section Wytch Farm Drilling 8.1.2" Hole - Amethyst Drilling Deviated 8.1/2" Hole Wytch Farm

1210/FOR 1210/WYF 1220/BRU 1310/AME 1310/WYF 1350/AME 1350/WYF 1400/AME 1400/WYF

NOTE: Sections highlighted in bold are those sections which have been modified (or inserted for the first time) in the most recent amendment to this Guidelines for Drilling Operations. Within each such section, the newly modified parts are identified by the bold black marker line on the right side of the text. A brief resume of the changes is provided at the end of this MST section. Sections underlined are those items which are available within this version of Acrobat.

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DRILLING GENERAL

THE EQUIPMENT 1. 2. All downhole tools to be visually inspected by the BP Drilling Supervisor prior to running in the hole, i.e. thread condition, seal areas, jet size and bit type. Ensure the Drilling Contractor and Service Company maintain records of equipment usage and inspections and records are available on the rig, i.e. block line ton miles, DP, DC and jar rotating hours, and pump hours. The dimensions of any item run in the hole are to be recorded and fishing tools are to be available on board to catch all sizes. DP and DC connections are often overlooked, these should be checked on deck and sorted so a single over shot grapple size will catch all DP used to a known point in the string. Items used continously in the hole to be checked periodically on trips, i.e. DP and DC connections. Pressure control equipment to be function tested daily and pressure tested every 14 days.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

When 13.5/8 BOPs in use: any line/outlet exposed to well pressure must have a double valve arrangement.
All mud volume monitoring equipment, i.e. flo-show and PVT, to be checked at various rates/volumes prior to drilling out casing and twice daily thereafter to ensure measurements indicated are correct and alarms are functioning. Ensure all gas detection equipment and alarms are functioning. Ensure all rig floor gauges, recorders and alarms are functioning.

8. 9.

10. Ensure the solids control system is serviced/cleaned immediately upon shutdown. 11. Ensure mud pumps and mud system are personally inspected by the Drilling Contractor Toolpusher on a daily basis. 12. The rig maintenance staff should have records of all scheduled maintenance. The Chief Engineer must personally make a daily inspection of major equipment and keep the BP Drilling Supervisor informed on work pending. 13. A Crown-o-matic or equivalent safety brake will be installed on the drawworks and be operational at all times whilst drilling and tripping. (It may occasionally be disconnected for short periods of time whilst handling BHAs). 14. Only drill pipe with either: a) b) No hard banding. Smooth grained, fine particle, flush ground hard banding may be used.

15. Only fit for purpose drill pipe must be used (as defined in the latest edition of API RP7G). 16. Drill pipe must be NDT inspected at least every three wells drilled, or 12,000 metres drilled whichever is the later. Bottom hole assembly components should be NDT inspected regularly on Category A wells. This is usually prior to each well. 17. No BHAs may be strapped or welded. 18. Inspection of drilling lifting equipment must be performed on all wells at five monthly intervals according to the BP colour code system.

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19. Any drilling elevators in use should be subjected to 6 monthly inspections using 100% MPI (wet mag) and a certificate of fitness issued as per BP Drilling Inspection Procedure No. 9 (Elevators). 20. Rotary tongs of a rating higher than normal break-out torque must be available on wells which experience high drilling torque. 21. The following safety equipment must be on the Drilling Unit at all times and be fully functional: a) b) c) d) Full-opening inside BOP counterbalanced appropriate. Surface installed NRV (i.e. Gray type). Crossovers to allow the installation of a) and b) into any type of connection to be used in the drill string, tubing or completion string. Drop-in-subs and darts (e.g. Hydril type) are to be available for each assembly run.

22. A trip tank must be available and be complete with a mechanically operated indicator of the trip tank level, visible from the Drillers position. 23. Continuous monitoring and recording of the following parameters must be available on the drilling site for any wells: Active pit volume. Mud weight in. Mud weight out. Total gas (in percentage) at the header box. H2S (in ppm) - Alarm. Weight on bit. Hookload. Rotary torque. Rotary speed. Standpipe pressure. Rate of penetration. Pump SPM. Flowline monitor. The mud logging unit on any well must be capable of direct communication with the rig floor at all times. 24. Kick detection equipment must be operational at all times. 25. The following minimum kick detection equipment is required to be operational: Active pit volume monitors. Gas detection at header box. ROP recorder. Mud weight in. Mud weight out. Trip tank with a system for accurately monitoring returns during tripping. 2. DRILLING OPERATIONS 1. The Drilling Supervisor must ensure he gives the Drilling Contractor written instructions prior to drilling any section. These instructions must include: a) The drilling parameters, e.g. WOB and maximum penetration rate.

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DRILLING GENERAL
Contingency operations if a known problem could be encountered, e.g. losses, connection overpull, etc.

The Drilling Contractor is to be given written instructions prior to any trip out of the hole. These instructions to include: a) b) c) d) Sequence of operation, i.e. flow check, drop survey. Maximum allowed overpull and procedures required if tight hole is encountered (refer to Section 6000/GEN). Preparation of equipment for following operations, e.g. prepare bit. Special instructions, e.g. check for swabbing.

3.

The successful drilling of any section of hole will depend to a large extent upon the personnel on board noticing the problem with equipment or hole conditions prior to it developing to a serious level and taking action appropriately, e.g. increasing levels of connection overpulls, slow deterioration of mud properties, increasing levels of background gas, etc. In all situations the BP Drilling Supervisor must ensure that he is informed immediately of any deviation from normal routine which threatens the continuity of the operation, safety or overall cost.

4. 5.

The efficiency of a rig will depend upon a high degree of organising and equipment preparation by the Drilling Supervisor. Ensure rig personnel are familiar with equipment and standard drilling practices, i.e. a) Perform a D5 well kill drill prior to drilling out the intermediate and production casing strings. This should never be carried out when open hole sections are exposed (refer to BP Well Control Manual, Volume I). Flow checks to be made prior to any trip out of the hole and again at the casing shoe if hydrocarbon bearing zones have been penetrated. Trip tank to be used on all trips.

b) c)

Note: Drilling Supervisor will be present on the rig floor to observe the first 10 stands pulled on every trip out of the hole, and until such time as he is satisfied that the hole fill volume is correct.
6. 7. 8. A trip sheet will be filled out by the Driller on every trip in and out of the hole. Any deviation from expected hole fill-up volumes must be investigated and resolved. Slow circulation rates must be taken at least: i) ii) iii) iv) Once per tour. At a bit change. At a BHA change. When the mud weight is changed.

A minimum of two pump rates will be used. Pressures must be recorded using the gauge to be used during well kill operations. 9. On floating drilling units, choke line pressure losses must be determined and recorded: i) ii) Prior to drilling out casing. On any significant increase in mud weight.

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10. On all wells the mud logging unit must be manned at all times, during drilling, testing, completion and workover operations. 11. Ensure at all times adequate weight material, chemicals and LCM are available on board for ongoing operations. A minimum of 100 tonnes of barytes and sufficient chemical is required on board if drilling is to continue. 12. Bore protectors must be installed in the wellhead during all drilling operations. The wellhead design should take this into account. Bore protectors should be inspected at regular intervals as determined by the Drilling Supervisor. 13. Daily meetings should be held between the Company Drilling Supervisor, Rig Geologist and contractors personnel to discuss topics including: i) The forward programme. ii) Equipment out of commission that may affect drilling operations. iii) Any other matter that may affect the ongoing operation or safety. 14. The time spent with pipe out of hole must be reduced to an absolute minimum. Whenever possible, operations such as routine BOP testing, repairs and slipping and cutting of blockline, should be undertaken with tools in the casing. 15. A minimum of one complete hole circulation is to be performed prior to pulling out of the hole after completing all well kills. 16. When a drop-in sub is used in the drill string, the dart should be checked to ensure that it will pass through the kelly cock, the full opening safety valve and all subs used in the string. The dart and the drop-in sub should be checked for compatibility. 17. Jars should be run when drilling 17 1/2 and smaller hole sizes. They should be run in the drill collars and be sized to the drill collars. 18. In fast drilling sections from 17 1/2 hole downwards, check trips should be considered every 300m. On exploration/appraisal wells, surveys will be taken on these trips. Surveys will always be taken on bit trips. 19. Consideration should be given to running a junk sub prior to drilling with diamond or PDC bits and coreheads. 20. Ensure that, at all stages during the drilling operation, the mud condition is appropriate to the task in hand; drilling, tripping, logging, casing or cementing. 21. Prior to entering a prognosed reservoir, or setting casing, a magnetic multishot may be required. This will be advised in the drilling programme. 22. While drilling critical hole sections: Keep the active mud system surface area as small as is practical to ease kick detection. Any reserve mud stocks in tanks should be positively isolated from the active system. Ensure that the gates on the trough are sealing properly. Adequate reserve stock of mud should be held; the volume and weight of which will be determined by the nature of the next hole section. Ensure all pit level systems and tank isolating valves are working correctly before drilling into possible gas-bearing zones.

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Keep all mud treatments and pit transfers to the absolute minimum at critical sections of the well. Ensure that the Driller and the Mud Logging Engineer are aware in advance of any changes to the system. Crew safety meetings should discuss the problem of gas kicks, especially if oil based mud is in use, and emphasise the importance of early detection. Mud engineering and logging personnel should attend these meetings. Possibilities of pipe sticking should be discussed and any concerns addressed.

3.

WELL CONTROL It is the BP Drilling Supervisors responsibility to ensure that AT ALL TIMES a flowing well can be controlled. Well control must be discussed with the contractor toolpusher to ensure: 1. 2. 3. 4. The BP Well Control Manual is understood and STRICTLY adhered to by all rig supervisory personnel. The rig and its ancillary equipment is competent and pre-tested to ensure a flowing well could be controlled. The well status and all operations are constantly reviewed to ensure well control is not impaired. That all relevant BOP Drills are conducted throughout drilling operations in accordance with the instructions included in the BP Well Control Manual.

4.

DRILLING PROGRAMME The Drilling Manual gives guidance and procedures to be adopted for drilling wells on a section by section basis. Any additional information required to drill a particular well, or any deviations from this Manual, will be highlighted in the Drilling Programme for that well.

BP EXPLORATION

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SUBJECT:
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DEPTH REFERENCING

DETERMINATION OF ROTARY TABLE TO SEABED ELEVATION Accurate measurement of rotary table to seabed is necessary to establish a datum point. Make up spud-in assembly and run in strapping the pipe. Perform a penetration test with 20,000 lbs weight. Record the distance between seabed and rotary table corrected to MEAN SEA LEVEL using the CURRENT tide tables issued from Drilling Office, Aberdeen. Record the drilling draft, water depth and mean sea level to rotary table elevation. Jump the ROV to confirm measurements.

1.3

If the current is strong, particularly in deep water, it will be necessary to wait on slack tide before confirming rotary table to seabed elevation. Extra drill collars may be required to overcome the effects of string bending caused by current action. The bottom of the permanent guide base is run and cemented 1.0 metre from the seabed. Once established, the top of the 18 3/4 wellhead becomes the well reference point. Once the permanent guide base is established and the guide wires are in use, paint a mark on each wire relative to a fixed point in the moonpool. Any change in the difference between the painted mark and the relative point can be used for depth correction to compensate for vessel draft and tide changes. DEPTH REFERENCING DURING DRILLING OPERATIONS On semi-submersible units, land off the BOP stack and riser equipment. Run the BOP test plug assembly using a painted single to confirm ram spacings. This measurement is used to determine the space-out for the emergency hang-off tool. On semi-submersible units, when running equipment which lands off in a specific position inside the wellhead, e.g. wear bushing, pack-off, test plug, etc., always use a painted single to confirm correct land-off.

1.4 1.5

2. 2.1

2.2

BP EXPLORATION

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Page

BP PIPE TALLY PROCEDURE

A master drill pipe Tally book to be set out as per page 2 of this section. Master drill pipe Tally book to be kept by the driller in the dog-house and updated throughout his shift. Separate lists to be made for differing pipe grades in the hole simultaneously, i.e. S135 and Grade G. Both the drill pipe single and stand columns to be totalled vertically and compared with the cumulative total. When totals show no discrepancy, the column is to be initialled by the driller on shift. The contractor rig superintendent/toolpusher will make a daily check and also initial the totals. When drilling or reaming, connection depths will be written on the geolograph recorder at time of connection. The Contract rig superintendent/toolpusher is to make physical check daily of the total drill pipe on board. Drillpipe checks to be made at each trip before and after reaching casing depths. The drilling assembly tally to be made in the same manner as the DP Tally. Each individual assembly item to be noted, i.e. 15 HWDP - 472.50 is not acceptable.

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TYPICAL LAYOUT OF TALLY SHEET 742.57 31.50 31.00 31.20 1 31.33 30.29 31.54 2 30.25 31.21 30.87 3 30.34 31.45 30.67 4 31.17 31.27 31.43 5 30.87 31.15 31.25 6 29.90 30.67 31.25 7 29.97 30.82 31.17 8 Total 742.57 91.96 742.57 742.57 Initials 16 Total Initials 91.82 650.61 15 93.27 558.79 14 93.87 465.52 13 92.46 371.65 12 92.33 279.19 11 93.16 186.86 10 93.70 93.70 9 31.24 29.95 29.82 91.01 925.52 31.13 30.94 29.87 91.94 834.51 742.57 742.57

N.B.

Double check system for lengths, cumulative lengths and bit depth must be used.

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BP EXPLORATION

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WELL ESTABLISHMENT - DRIL-QUIP 3 WELL SPACER TEMPLATE

The Dril-Quip three well spacer template is designed to be deployed from a cantilevered jack-up rig to space out two new wells at 90 to each other from an existing suspended well (Figure 1). The unit is run on HWDP using a J type running tool and landed on the existing 30 conductor Quick Jay box just above the mudline. Once orientated using surface readout gyro, the unit is locked in place hydraulically with three single acting hydraulic pistons that react on the 34 OD of the Quick Jay box. The pistons are activated via a manifold on the template by applying pressure down the drillpipe. This pressure is locked in at the manifold by means of two non-return valves when drillpipe pressure is released at surface. 1. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST The following equipment is required when running/retrieving the template:

Item
Temporary Abandonment Cap T A Cap Running Tool (4 1/2 IF Box) Three Well Spacer Template Template Running Tool (6 5/8 Reg Box) Ported Sub (6 5/8 Reg Pin/Box) UBHO Sub (6 5/8 Reg Pin/Box) X/O Sub (6 5/8 Reg Pin/4 1/2 IF Box) Split Centraliser for Drill String

Dril-Quip Part No.


852294-01 330012 852425-01 852348-01 852428-01 N/A N/A 852426-01

Surface Readout Gyro Equipment inc. wireline unit. ROV and appropriate tooling.

Note: In these procedures the use of an ROV is assumed as the template is designed to be ROV friendly. However, divers can be used in place of the ROV.
2. 2.1 EQUIPMENT PREPARATION All running tools should be visually inspected for obvious damage. In particular check the J slots for any damage that may interfere with the smooth running of the J running system. Repair the slots if necessary. The template itself should be thoroughly checked prior to running. Hydraulics: Visually inspect the three hydraulically operated gripper dogs located on the bottom OD of the template for any obvious damage. These gripper dogs lock the template to the OD of the 30 Quick Jay box connection on the 30 conductor when the template is run. Check all the hoses/connections on the gripper dog housings and the manifold. Actuate the gripper dogs hydraulically to ensure that they move out freely. Lubricate the mechanism, if necessary, with a quality grease. After checking the locking mechanisms retract each one to a fully open position, by opening the dump valve on the hydraulic manifold. Once the hydraulic pressure has been vented, each dog can be pushed back to the open position.

2.2

Note: The fitting on the supply side of the manifold should now be fitted with two non-return valves set at 300 psi cracking pressure. This is used to prevent hydrostatic pressure from prematurely activating the gripper dogs. Two valves are now run to provide back-up.

? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0Mf?I4@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0MhO2@6K?g?I4@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@fO2@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@6K?e?@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@@@? 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?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?7@@@@@@e?@@@1?e@@eJ@@@1??N@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@@@e?@@@@?e@5e7@@@5??J@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@@@e?@@@5??J@He@@@@H??7@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@@5e?@@0Y??7@?e@@@@e?@@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@@Hh?@@?h?@@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@@?e@@@@e?3@?gO2@@@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?3@@@@@?e@@@@e?V'?e?@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@LN@@@@@?e@@@@hJ@@@@@@@@5?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@1?@@@@@?e@@@5e?@f7@@@@@@@@HJ@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@W@@@@5?e@@0YeJ5f3@@@@@@@5?7@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@Y@@(Y?g?O&HfN@@@@@@@HJ@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@W@@Yg?O2@@?f?@@@@@@5?7@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@Y@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@HJ@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@W@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@T&@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@UI4@@@@@@@@@@@0MS@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@)K?W@@@@@@@@0M?O&@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@YW@@@@0M?O2@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@YW(M?O2@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@YO2@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1050/JAK 0 (7/90) 2 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

WELL ESTABLISHMENT - DRIL-QUIP 3 WELL SPACER TEMPLATE

J Lugs: Visually inspect the four jay lugs, located at the top of the template, for damage. These jay lugs are used by the template running tool to run the template. Be concerned with any damage that might interfere with the template running tool when it is made up to the jay lugs. Repair the jay lugs if necessary. 2.3 Check that the ROV has correct tooling for operating the dump valve on the template hydraulic manifold and for severing hydraulic hoses. RUNNING PROCEDURE Skid the rig directly over the existing well. Run the ROV to conduct a visual seabed survey within a 70m radius of the location. Position the Three Well Spacer Template on deck so that the rig can subsequently skid back in and be directly above the template. Make up the Temporary Abandonment Cap Running Tool to HWDP and RIH. J into the Temporary Abandonment Cap with right-hand rotation. (Stabbing over the cap may require ROV assistance.) Confirm proper engagement of the running tool. Pick up and recover the Temporary Abandonment Cap complete with any stinger below. Make up the Template Running Tool Assembly as follows: Template Running Tool Ported Sub UBHO Sub X/O Sub As the OD of the Template Running Tool is 42 it is unlikely to pass through the rotary table so it should be transferred below the rig floor and then lifted back up through the rotary table until the slips can be set on the running tool. Make up to a stand of HWDP. 3.6 3.7 3.8 Skid the rig back inboard to position the rotary table directly above the template. J the running tool onto the template. Make up the hydraulic hose connection from the template manifold to the 1/2 NPT port in the Ported Sub. Pick up the template and set the slips on the running tool. Breakout the stand of HWDP and set the tool face orientation of the UBHO sub to line up with the arm on the template of the first well to be drilled. Record the weight of template. Run the template on HWDP and locate over the existing Quick Jay box. Observe this operation with the ROV. (It may be necessary to wait on slack tide to conduct this operation.) Slack off the weight of the template on the Quick Jay box and set the slips. 3.10 Rig up the surface readout gyro and RIH to the UBHO sub. Rotate the template to the right until the desired orientation of the first well from the existing well is achieved. Lock the rotary table to avoid any movement of the template. Rig down surface readout gyro equipment.

3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

3.5

3.9

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?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?3@@@@@?e@@@@e?V'?e?@@@@@@@@@?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@LN@@@@@?e@@@@hJ@@@@@@@@5?@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@1?@@@@@?e@@@5e?@f7@@@@@@@@HJ@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@W@@@@5?e@@0YeJ5f3@@@@@@@5?7@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@Y@@(Y?g?O&HfN@@@@@@@HJ@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@W@@Yg?O2@@?f?@@@@@@5?7@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? 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?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1050/JAK 0 (7/90) 3 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

WELL ESTABLISHMENT - DRIL-QUIP 3 WELL SPACER TEMPLATE

(Using the ROV line up its camera on an axis through the centre of the existing well and first well to be drilled and record the ROV gyro reading. Due to inaccuracies of this method it may be different to that recorded for surface readout gyro, but it will be useful later as a quick check reference.) 3.11 Make up the top drive/kelly/circulating sub and apply 2000 psi pressure to the HWDP to activate the locking dogs. With pressure maintained at surface apply 5000 lbs overpull to confirm the dogs have activated and are gripping the Quick Jay connector. Observe with the ROV for any upward movement. If no movement, slack off the 5000 lbs overpull and bleed off the 2000 psi at surface. The 2000 psi should still be locked downhole by the non-return valves at the hydraulic manifold. Apply 5000 lbs overpull and hold for 5 minutes. Observe with the ROV for any upward movement. If no movement slack off the 5000 lbs overpull. 3.12 Prior to releasing the running tool assembly line up the ROV as per procedure in 3.10 and compare the ROV gyro reading with that previously recorded for the ROV gyro. (If there is any doubt that the template may have moved since orientation, then a check surface readout gyro should be run.) 3.13 Using the ROV sever the hydraulic hose connection from the template to the Ported Sub. Unjay the running tool by slacking off and rotating to the right and pick straight up. POH and lay down the running tool. Skid the rig directly over the first new well to be drilled and prepare to spud.

3.14

Note: A split centraliser must be used at all times when drilling the 36 hole to ensure it is maintained centrally with respect to the template guidecan. It is in two halves and must be bolted together at the Texas deck level behind the bit or other BHA items as appropriate.
4. 4.1 RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE After completing operations on the last well drilled through the guidecan skid the rig directly over the original well that the template is locked onto.

Note: At some point the Texas deck will have to be recovered so that the template can be retrieved. The best time to do this may vary from rig to rig.
4.2 Make up the Template Running Tool and RIH on HWDP. It will be necessary to transfer the running tool below the rig floor and then lift it back up through the rotary table until the slips can be set and the HWDP made up. J into the template with left-hand rotation (stabbing over the template may require ROV assistance). Confirm proper engagement of the running tool. Using the ROV, open the 1/4 turn dump valve on the template hydraulic manifold to vent the pressure behind the locking dogs. (If unable to turn the dump valve, use the ROV to sever a hydraulic hose on the hydraulic system.) 4.5 The template should now be lifted clear of the original well and the two new wells drilled.

4.3 4.4

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?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@Y@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@HJ@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@W@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@T&@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@>@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@UI4@@@@@@@@@@@0MS@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@)K?W@@@@@@@@0M?O&@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@YW@@@@0M?O2@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@YW(M?O2@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@YO2@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ?

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1050/JAK 0 (7/90) 4 of 5

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

WELL ESTABLISHMENT - DRIL-QUIP 3 WELL SPACER TEMPLATE

Note: If additional wells are to be drilled immediately, the template can be rotated 90 either way and lowered back down on the original well with one of the guidecans going over one of the two new wells. This leaves the second guidecan vacant for a third new well to be drilled. Alternatively, the rig could be skidded directly over one of the two new wells before lowering the template to give further options for positioning a third new well. In either case, the template does not require the hydraulic dogs to be locked as the template is now orientated by two existing wells and is prevented from tilting by the tight tolerance and length of swallow of the central locking can over the Quick Jay connector.
4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Recover the template to below the rotary table and skid the rig inboard. Lower the template onto the deck and release the running tool with right-hand rotation followed by a straight pick-up. Lay down the template running tool. Skid the rig back out directly over the original well. Make up the Temporary Abandonment Cap to the Temporary Abandonment Cap Running Tool and RIH on HWDP and stab into the Quick Jay box. (This operation may require ROV assistance.) Confirm the Temporary Abandonment Cap is landed correctly. Unjay from the cap with left-hand rotation and pick up. POH and lay out the Temporary Abandonment Cap Running Tool.

4.10

?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ? ?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? ? @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @? ?@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ ? @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ 2 @@ O @@ Y @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @? ? ? ?@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ 2 @2 O @O ? @? M @M 0 @( @W @Y @@ @@ W @@ Y @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @@ @? ? ? @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ & @ @ @0 @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @? 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SUBJECT:

WELL ESTABLISHMENT - DRIL-QUIP 3 WELL SPACER TEMPLATE

BP EXPLORATION

DRILLING MANUAL

Page

Rev.

Section

5 of 5

0 (7/90)

1050/JAK

FIGURE 1

2179 /101

COUNTERWEIGHT

175"

ESTIMATED WEIGHT: 5 TONNES HYDRAULIC PISTONS ARE OPERATED USING DRILL PIPE PRESSURE

ft

BULLSEYE

HYDRAULIC PISTONS (3) EXISTING WELL CONTROLS GUIDE POST 26" BIT

190"

90
HWDP TO SURFACE X/O 6 5/8 " REG PIN/4 1/2 " IF BOX UBHO 6 5/8 " REG PIN/BOX LOCK SUB 6 5/8 " PIN/BOX SPLIT GUIDE CENTRALISER

36" HOLE OPENER

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1060/SEM 0 (7/90) 1 of 1

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.0 1.1

Page

WELL ESTABLISHMENT - RUNNING TGB

A Temporary Guide Base (TGB) will normally only be run in deep water. Prior to moving the rig onto location site survey results will be available giving information on possible anchoring conditions, seabed slope and the general nature of the seabed to a depth of 30m. The rig will normally be positioned at a location where the seabed is clear of obvious debris and has a slope less than 1 degree.

1.2

The standard equipment is a Temporary Guide Base with J-slot running preparation. The base will have the following additional features: Eye hooks to allow guideline replacement with ROV. Holes drilled in 4 faces for the attachment of ballast box extensions if required. Two base plates for mounting bullseyes. Base plate for sonar beacon. 7 OD guide for remedial annular cementation.

1.3 1.4

The TGB should be positioned on the moveable beams on the cellar deck while under tow or running anchors and the guidelines worked. Attach the four guidelines with shackles ensuring the pins are wired secure. Paint the guidelines at 1m intervals for the first 4m above the TGB. This will assist in determining the proximity of the TGB when running BHAs. If required attach the 4 ballast box extensions. Attach 2 bullseyes. The TGB must be additionally loaded to allow working tension of about 6000 lbs on each guidewire while running the spud assembly and a minimum seabed loading of about 6000 lbs to prevent the TGB lifting as the guidewires compensate. Make up the J slot running tool to the TGB and to the drillpipe running string. Incorporate bumper subs in the string as required by rig heave. In deep water consideration should be given to tensile loads and to using a shrouded bumper sub to minimise the risk of bumper sub failure. Lower the TGB to seabed maintaining slight tension on the guidewires to avoid fouling. Mark the drillstring while running to ensure that it does not rotate while making connections. Confirm orientation with ROV compass/gyro. Prior to landing the TGB, launch the ROV to check that the seabed is clear of obstruction. (Alternatively, run the rigs SSTV camera.) If any obstruction is seen, move the rig as necessary on the anchors to avoid it. Land the base on seabed and allow the bumper sub to be partly closed to afford heave compensation. Check the slope indicator (bullseye) readings - the maximum acceptable angle is 2 degrees. For larger angles the guidebase should be picked up and repositioned. Mark the four guidelines in a horizontal plane above the cellar deck using a permanent fixture as a reference. Indications of the guidebase tilting or settling can then be observed immediately. Release the R. tool from the TGB (chain tong) taking care not to rotate the base. Adjust the guideline tensions to give about 1500 lbs tension above guideline buoyed weight. Retrieve the running tool. Ensure that the landing string is not rotated to avoid whipping action.

1.5 1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1070/SEM 0 (7/90) 1 of 1

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.0

Page

WELL ESTABLISHMENT - 12 1/4" PILOT HOLE

If there is a likelihood that shallow gas will be encountered, a 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled. Refer to Site Survey in well dossier and shallow gas procedures (Section 0410/EXP). The depth of the pilot hole will be specified prior to spud. Run BHA to seabed as datum for sonar. Jump ROV and conduct a seabed survey using sonar within a 70m radius of the location. Record the distance between the seabed and the rotary table. The following should be reported on the Daily Drilling Report and on the IADC report: Water Depth at Mean Sea Level (metres) Rotary Table Elevation (metres) Operating Draft for the reported rotary table elevation (metres)

1.1 1.2

1.3 1.4

If high currents are evident, wait on slack tide. Spud 12 1/4 assembly and drill to TD following shallow gas procedures (Section 0410/EXP).

Notes: a) b) c) d) e) f)
1.5 1.6 1.7

Any seismic anomaly must be penetrated during daylight. Spud the well with low flowrates until 30m below the seabed. Then increase flowrates to 600 GPM. The hole will be drilled using seawater. A 10 - 20 bbl viscous pill should be pumped and displaced to seabed as required, but at a minimum of every connection. Take a Totco/Teledrift survey 30m below seabed, further Teledrift surveys should be taken every 200m. If hole angle is above 1 deg. then ream hole as necessary. A pit full of 1.3 SG mud should be mixed and ready to pump should shallow gas be encountered.

At pilot hole TD, observe pilot hole with ROV for any signs of gas. POOH. If signs of gas are evident, follow shallow gas procedures (refer to Section 0410/EXP). If no gas is encountered, move the rig and spud the well (refer to Section 1100/SEM).

Note: In some cases the Drilling Programme may require the 30 conductor to be set prior to drilling the pilot hole.

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DRILLING 36" HOLE

PRE-SPUD OPERATIONS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 3, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to spud. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 36 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that casing running tools and operators are all on board prior to reaching the section TD. Ensure that drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of a FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. DRILLING - GENERAL Make up the recommended 36 spud BHA as follows: 26 bit (IADC 1-1-1) 36 hole opener with soft - medium cutters (7 5/8 reg. conn.) Bit sub c/w float valve 1 x 9 1/2 OD drill collar 36 stabiliser 3 x 9 1/2 OD drill collar 7 5/8 reg. pin x 6 5/8 reg. box crossover 2 x 8 OD drill collars

Add 5 HWDP and a dart sub as drilling proceeds.

Notes: a) b) c) The Tandem 26/36 assembly is selected to prevent ledges. If the formation is too hard, or if surveys show a tendency to drift, the assembly may be changed to 17 1/2 bit, 26 HO and 36 HO, or 17 1/2 bit and 26 HO. The 26 bit/36 hole opener should have a flow area such that the flow is diverted 2/3 to the bit and 1/3 to the hole opener. The Dril-Quip split centraliser will be run only if a TGB is run using the Dril-Quip wellhead system. d) If required, the centraliser is run loose on the string to centralise the drillstring within the 38 ID template guide. After drilling one single drill collar, pull back and move the split guide centraliser to above the stabiliser.
2.2 Tag the seabed and record the distance between the seabed and the rotary table. ROV should monitor the running of the string. The following should be reported on the Daily Drilling and IADC reports: Water Depth at Mean Sea Level (metres) Air Gap (metres) Rotary Table Elevation (metres) Spud Can Penetration (metres)

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DRILLING 36" HOLE

In areas experiencing high tidal currents it is advisable to wait on slack tide to ensure no lateral movement of the BHA occurs. Spud well and drill 36 hole to section TD (normally +/- 60m or four joints of conductor below seabed).

Notes: a) The well should be spudded using low circulation rates. A pump rate of 250 GPM should be used, increasing by 100 GPM for every 10m drilled, until the bit is 30m below the seabed. The pump rate can then be increased to 1000 GPM. The hole is to be drilled using seawater. A viscous (100 sec) pill should be pumped and displaced to seabed prior to each connection being made. The RPM and WOB should be varied to minimise the shock loading placed on the kelly or top drive. Surveys should be taken at every connection below seabed (refer to Section 7000/EXP). Maximum angle should be 0.5 degree at the mudline, and 2 degrees at section TD. If angle exceeds 1 degree, attempt to reduce by reaming.
2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 3. At hole section TD take a final survey as per Section 7000/EXP. Displace the hole to 1.15 SG viscous pre-hydrated bentonite mud, and POH to seabed. RIH and check for fill. Clean out hole if required. Drop survey. Re-displace the hole to 1.15 SG viscous pre-hydrated bentonite mud and POH. Rig up to run 30 conductor (refer to Section 2100/JAK). EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

b) c) d) e)

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Quantity
1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 (min.) 4 (min.) 2 2 30 (min.) 3 1 set

Description
36 H/O (soft-medium cutters) c/w nozzles and spare cutter (7 5/8 Reg box-pin). 26 H/O (soft-medium cutters) c/w nozzles and spare cutter (7 5/8 Reg box-pin). 26 bit c/w jets and bit breaker. 17 1/2 bit c/w jets and bit breaker. Dril-Quip split centraliser (47 OD x 10 3/4 ID) (if required). 36 string stabiliser. 26 string stabiliser. 17 1/2 string stabiliser. Bit sub c/w NRV. 9 1/2 UBHO sub (7 5/8 Reg) (if required). Totco ring (crows foot type). 9 1/2 steel drill collars (7 5/8 Reg conns). 8 steel drill collars (6 5/8 Reg conns). X/Over sub 7 5/8 Reg pin - 6 5/8 Reg box. X/Over sub 6 5/8 Reg pin - 4 1/2 IF box. 5 HWDP (4 1/2 IF conns). 9 1/2 DC lifting nipples. 9 1/2 DC slips/elevators.

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DRILLING 36" HOLE


1 set 1 1 1 set 2 1 lot 1 set Set 1 8 DC slips/elevators. Drill collar safety clamp. Dart sub. Totco equipment and overshot. DP elevators. Dope (drill pipe/drill collar). Survey equipment as required. Conductor running equipment. Fishing Tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN). 36 string roller reamer (to be considered as an alternative to the string stabiliser).

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DRILLING 36" HOLE

PRE-SPUD PREPARATIONS Ensure that programme, dossier and wallcharts are received.

Note: If the shallow gas seismic indicate bright spots, then a 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled. Refer to Section 0410/EXP.
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Confirm correct location of rig. Ensure that all equipment for this hole and casing section is on board the rig, as per the Group Loading. Inspect drill string components as necessary. Confirm that the ROV is fully operational and that a seabed survey of 70m radius is undertaken prior to spudding. Ensure that viscous mud for top hole section is mixed. Ensure that a Pre-Spud Meeting is held with the Rig Contractors and all Service Company Supervisory staff that are on board. SPUDDING AND DRILLING 36 HOLE Prepare the PGB in advance by installing the guideposts and Regan 0 - 5 Slope Indicators. Designate numbers to the guideposts and paint the corresponding number of stripes on each guidepost in black paint, with clockwise numbering from number one at port aft.

2. 2.1

Note: Ensure all dimensions of the PGB and guideposts are taken and recorded in the well file and a copy sent to town. Also all dimensions of 30 housing to be recorded and checked against Dril-Quip drawings.
Prior to making up the spud assembly, move the PGB to the moonpool and orientate it according to the numbered guide posts. Attach the guide wires.

Note: Ensure that 3 1/2 tubing can pass through the PGB if a top-up cement job is required.
2.2 Make up the specified 36 BHA and run in. A typical spud assembly would be: 26 bit - 36 hole opener - float valve - 9 1/2 Teledrift sub (bored out for float) - 36 stabiliser - 8 x 9 1/2 DC - X/O - 3 x 8 DC - X/O - HWDP.

Notes: a) b)
2.3 2.4

A non-ported float valve must be run at all times. If there is any possibility of hard drilling on rigs with a top drive, then a drilling shock sub should be considered.

Tag the seabed. Check and record the distance between the seabed and the rotary table, taking the tide and barge drift into account. Observe with ROV. If strong currents are evident, wait on slack tide.

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DRILLING 36" HOLE

Drill 26/36 hole to section TD in one pass.

Notes: a) The 36 hole should be drilled using low fluid flowrates. A circulation rate of 250 GPM should be used, increasing by 100 GPM for every 10m drilled until the bit is 30m below the seabed. The circulation rate can then be increased to 1,000 GPM. The hole is to be drilled using seawater. A viscous (100 sec) pill should be pumped and displaced to seabed as required, but at a minimum prior to every connection. A Totco/Teledrift survey should be taken when at 30m below seabed. If the hole angle is less than 1 deg. then continue drilling to section TD. If the hole angle is greater than 1 deg. then take surveys every connection. Ream the hole as necessary. e) f) g)
2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.

b) c) d)

If the hole angle increases, consider stopping and using a 17 1/2/26 drilling assembly. The maximum allowable angle on the PGB is 2 degrees. Average sump length is to be 1m.

At TD displace the hole to viscous mud of 1.15 SG unless specified otherwise and POH to seabed. Drop survey. POH to seabed. Wait one hour (recover survey). RIH and check for fill. Clean out hole if required. Re-displace the hole to viscous mud of 1.15 SG and POH. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Quantity
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 12 (min) 15 (min) 2 2 30 (min) 3 1 set 1 set 1 1 set 2

Description
36 H/O c/w nozzles and spare cutter (7 5/8 Reg box-pin). 36 string stabilisers. 26 bit, centre jet type c/w jets (24/32) + bit breaker. 26 string stabilisers. 17 1/2 bit c/w jets and bit breaker. 17 1/2 string stabilisers. 9 1/2 Teledrift sub c/w NRV. Totco Ring (crows foot type). 9 1/2 steel drill collars (7 5/8 Reg conns). 8 steel drill collars (6 5/8 Reg conns). X/Over sub 7 5/8 Reg pin - 6 5/8 Reg box. X/Over sub 6 5/8 Reg pin - 4 1/2 IF box. 5 HWDP (4 1/2 IF conns). 9 1/2 DC lifting nipples. 9 1/2 DC slips/elevators. 8 DC slips/elevators. Drill collar safety clamp. Totco equipment and overshot. DP elevators.

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Set Dope (drill pipe/drill collar). Casing equipment. Fishing equipment (refer to Section 6200/GEN).

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CONDUCTOR INSTALLATION - RUN/DRILL/RUN/CEMENT

INTRODUCTION Run/Drill/Run/Cement is the most common technique for conductor installation, currently in use in BP Platform Drilling Operations. The technique involves the running of part of the conductor through the jacket guides and hanging it off in the lower welldeck. A pilot hole is then drilled to the conductor setting depth and under-reamed for the conductor. The conductor is then run to depth and cemented, as per normal surface casing.

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25

PROCEDURE (TYPICAL) Preparation Carry out general casing checks as per Section 2000/GEN. Check correctly sized rotary bushings are installed, complete with conductor slips. Position conductor spider and baseplate on BOP deck. Prepare all conductor connectors, handling tools, make-up tools and power units. 5 drillpipe elevators to be used for pipe handling. A stand of 5 HWDP to be used for land-off. Rig up to run conductor. Run conductor. Tag seabed. Pull back 2 - 3m. Hang off conductor in lower welldeck or BOP deck dependent on Platform. Lock spider slips and recover the running string. Make up spud-in assembly. Whether or not the 36 hole is nudged or not will be dependent on individual well directional requirements. Drill 171/2"/26 pilot hole to conductor setting depth + 3m. Displace hole to viscous mud. Survey. POH. Underream 26 pilot hole to 36 (refer to Section 1280/GEN). Displace hole to viscous mud. POH. Exercise care when tripping underreamer tools through the conductor. Rig up to run conductor. Run conductor to setting depth. Check top joint datum at the wellhead. Land top joint in hang-off spider. Set slips. Lock spider and recover the running string. Cement conductor as per individual field instructions or as per Section 3100/DEV. Recover cementing stinger. Slack off conductor. Nipple up riser/diverter.

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CONDUCTOR INSTALLATION - DRILL/DRIVE

INTRODUCTION Drill/Drive is the least common of the conductor installation techniques in use in BP Platform Drilling Operations. The technique has application in variable seabed conditions of alternating hard and soft bands, where driving would not suffice but drilling/cementing are not favoured due towashout problems. The conductor is run to the seabed as per Section 1110/PLA. A pilot hole is then drilled through the conductor. The conductor is piled into this pilot hole and the procedure repeated as necessary to achieve conductor setting depth. This General Procedure is based on 27 diameter 1 1/4 wall conductor, with 24 pilot hole. Wide variations are possible, including initial piling followed by drilling. Drill/Drive Conductor Operations, due to the large quantity of Pile Driving Equipment involved, tend to be done in batches.

2.

CONDUCTOR STRING AND INSTALLATION The conductor is the first string of pipe to connect the surface diverter equipment to the production well being drilled and is installed to such a depth below seabed that it provides a positive foundation to which all surface wellhead and BOP equipment is attached. The conductor is 27 outside diameter, 1 1/4 wall thickness, grade X-52 pipe supplied in 40 ft lengths connected together using Vetco SR-20 connectors which are welded to the ends of each length of pipe. Each connector located above seabed level is protected against water ingress by the installation of a protective sleeve. All conductor pipe above the seabed level is also protected with coal tar epoxy paint. Options exist of installing the conductor strings by the Drill/Drive technique which entails establishing an initial penetration in the seabed by piling, drilling a 24 hole beneath the conductor shoe to a depth just short of the TD, running the conductor to the bottom of the predrilled hole and then piling to final TD to secure a firm foundation for the conductors. Alternatively, conductors can be installed by a modified procedure which is designed to avoid lost circulation problems if encountered and to minimise hammer handling time. Thus, the conductor string is run until the seabed is tagged whereupon the conductor is pulled back approximately 2 metres and hung off in slips on the BOP deck. A 12 1/4 hole is drilled directionally to 3 metres short of TD. Then the hole is opened out to 24 using a 24 hole opener assembly. Finally, the conductor is run to bottom and driven to refusal to establish a final TD. The depths of the shoes of adjacent conductors are usually staggered to prevent possible washout problems during drilling of the next hole selection, and to optimise directional requirements. The sequence of installation can be arranged to that where possible adjacent conductors are installed with sufficient time between installations to allow formations affected by constant piling to firm up and thereby ease condition of the hole during the drilling phase.

3. 3.1 3.2 3.3

INSTALLATION PROCEDURE (TYPICAL) Prepare the shoe joint (cut bevel as required). Lay shoe joint in V-door, pin up. (The first 10 joints run in each string including the shoe joint should be unpainted joints.) Pick up shoe joint on handling tool using drawworks.

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CONDUCTOR INSTALLATION - DRILL/DRIVE

Set shoe joint in slips in rotary table. Install safety clamp and remove handling tool. Using second handling tool, pick up next joint with drawworks, and make up to shoe joint using power clamp. Pick up the string and run down to set slips below top pin. Ensure shoe goes through power slips on BOP deck. Install safety clamp. Repeat steps 3.3 - 3.6 until the seabed has been tagged (approximately 9 joints). Run final joint on drillpipe and handling tool to avoid problems of having to break out connector. Pull back some 2 metres and hang the conductor string off in the slips on the BOP deck. Attach safety clamp. Lay down handling tool. Pick up the 12 1/4 pilot hole drilling assembly and RIH. Run in to seabed and drill the 12 1/4 hole to 3 metres short of planned shoe TD. Close control directional drilling may be required to ensure optimum conductor orientation. Circulate high viscosity pills as required to ensure proper hole cleaning. Drilling parameters will be dictated by directional drilling constraints. In particular, flowrates must be kept to a minimum in order to avoid eroding the hole.

3.8 3.9 3.10

3.11

Circulate the hole clean and POOH. Lay back the pilot hole BHA and pick up the 24 hole opening assembly. RIH and open the hole to TD (refer to Section 1280/GEN). A minimum bullnose length of 2m is required to ensure correct tracking of the hole opener in the pilot hole. Circulate hole clean, spot viscous mud in open hole. POOH. Pick up hammer and short chaser joint. Pull back conductor from BOP deck to rotary. Watch slips on BOP deck and watch connectors for hang-ups. Pick up and connect two conductor joints at the drill floor using handling tool below hammer/chaser. Release handling tool from top of conductor joint. Lay down handling tool using the attached tugger. Lower hammer/chaser joint assembly until chaser is engaged in the top of the conductor. Make up the chaser joint to the conductor pin as for the handling tool. Pick up the string from the slips, remove safety clamp. Lower the string. Ensure spider slips on the BOP deck are locked open. Continue lowering/driving the conductor monitoring blow count at all times. It is predicted that the blow count may increase typically by 5 blow/ft per 10m increment of depth shallow, to 90 blows/ft at depth. If the conductor can be driven to the bottom of the pilot hole with less than 190 blows/ft, it should be driven into virgin formation a minimum of 3m of until a blow count of approximately 250 blows/ft is reached. Should the blow count rise significantly above 250 blows/ft prior to penetrating virgin formation by 3m, then a further clean-out trip may be needed with the 24 bit after releasing chaser joint from conductor and setting conductor in slips on the BOP deck. Conductor is to be cut off a set height above the cellar deck. The cut-off joints are to be retrieved and laid out. A clean-out trip should be made to the shoe.

3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20

3.21

3.22 3.23

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CONDUCTOR INSTALLATION - DRILL/DRIVE

After the conductor strings have been run and cleaned out, they are to be surveyed as per Standard Surveying Instructions.

The following BHAs are recommended during the drilling phase: 1. Pilot Hole 12 1/4 sealed bearing bit (no jets) 7 5/8 turbine c/w float 1 1/2 bent sub UBHO sub 8 DCs 2. Hole Opening Assembly 8 bullnose Short DC, minimum length 8 feet 24 hole opener 24 stabiliser 2 x 8 DCs 24 stabiliser

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DRILLING SURFACE HOLE - MULTI-WELL INSTALLATIONS

INTRODUCTION Surface Hole is considered to be the first hole section drilled out of the conductor. This section will typically have a number of problems not normally associated with the other hole intervals: a) b) c) If shallow gas is present in the area, it is most likely to occur in Surface Hole. Close well spacing and near-well proximities result in tight directional control requirements. Weak, unconsolidated or damaged surface sediments can cause hole cleaning problems or lost circulation, in surface hole sections.

As a result of these potential problems, Surface Hole is normally pilot drilled with a 17 1/2 or 14 3/4 assembly, with close directional control applied to avoid dogleg conditions. The section will be drilled with a Diverter System, as a minimum. After conductor cleanout and prior to drilling ahead, the conductor should be surveyed with Gyro Multishot. All survey requirements for this and subsequent hole sections will be as per the Standard Surveying Instructions. It is rare for Surface Hole to be drilled straight; the section is often nudged and in some cases directional kick-off is done in Surface Hole. If, when drilling the pilot hole or hole opening, there are indications of gas, then pump out of hole on all trips - if in doubt pump out. Where there is a possibility of shallow gas, an 8 1/2 pilot hole may be required and will be included in the Drilling Programme. A shallow gas contingency plan will be in place for each individual platform where appropriate. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS Ensure that all Drilling Tools and equipment, as per Section equipment listings, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to conductor drillout. Ensure that all fishing tools, relevant to drilling operations on the Surface Hole Section, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to conductor drillout. Ensure all BOP, Diverter, and Drillstring Well Control Equipment is in a serviceable condition. Complete rig-up of Diverter, Diverter Lines and BOP Stack if required. Complete function testing of same, from all BOP control positions. See Section 0420/FIX and relevant Platform Section. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN - Drilling General, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP Drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of Surface Hole Drilling Operations. Ensure that all solids control equipment is available and in a fully operational condition.

2.7

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CONDUCTOR CLEANOUT The conductor will require to be surveyed after cleanout and a tie-in point obtained. If a steering tool is to be used at a later stage, have a working stand or side-entry sub prepared. a) 30 Conductor/30 Riser/30 Diverter Make up slick 26 cleanout assembly: 26 BIT (3 x 28) - BS - 3 x 9 1/2 NMDC - XO - 3 x 8 DC XO - 9 x HWDP. Install Diverter Packer Element and function test. RIH. Drill Shoe Track using mud, circulating at maximum rate. Wash/ream to bottom of 36 Rathole. Circulate hole clean with 100 bbl High Vis Pill. POH. Survey 30 conductor as per Drilling Programme. Make up kick-off assembly. b) 30 Conductor/21 1/4 Riser/21 1/4 Diverter/21 1/4 BOP Make up slick 17 1/2 cleanout assembly: 17 1/2 BIT - BS - 3 x 9 1/2 NMDC - XO - 3 x 8 DC XO - 9 x HWDP. RIH. Drill Shoe Track using mud, circulating at maximum rate. Wash/ream to bottom of 36 Rathole. Circulate hole clean with 100 bbl High Vis Pill. POH. Make up 26 underreamer cleanout assembly: 17 1/2 BIT - 17 1/2 SS - PONY - 26 UR - 3 x 9 1/2 NMDC - XO - 3 x 8 DC - XO - 9 x HWDP. RIH. Cleanout Shoe Track and Rathole, circulating at maximum rate (refer to Section 1280/GEN). Circulate hole clean with 100 bbl High Vis Pill. POH. Survey 30 conductor as per Drilling Programme. Make up kick-off assembly. c) 26 1/2 Conductor/21 1/4 Riser/21 1/4 Diverter/21 1/4 BOP (Assumes 26 1/2 conductor is piled.) Make up 17 1/2 cleanout assembly: 17 1/2 BIT - 17 1/2 NBS - 2 x 9 1/2 NMDC - XO - 3 x 8 DC - XO - 24 x HWDP.

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DRILLING SURFACE HOLE - MULTI-WELL INSTALLATIONS

RIH. Drill out 26 1/2 conductor, circulating at maximum rate. Wash/ream to conductor shoe depth. Circulate hole clean with 100 bbl High Vis Pill. POH. Make a check trip with a 24 underreamer, reaming from the mud line to the conductor shoe (refer to Section 1280/GEN). Circulate the hole clean with 100 bbl High Vis Pill. POH. Survey 26 1/2 conductor as per Drilling Programme. Make up drilling assembly. 4. 4.1 DRILLING Make up pilot hole drilling assembly: The 26 hole is normally piloted with a 17 1/2 or 14 3/4 assembly. This section is normally nudged and close deviation control is necessary as high dogleg severity over this shallow section of the well could result in excessive casing wear and excess torque build-up. The 14 3/4 assembly will be used where tighter directional control is required. Option A This option should be used wherever there are tight tolerance restrictions in order to get the survey tool as close to the bit as possible. Drill pilot hole as follows: 17 1/2 bit c/w centre nozzle - 11 1/4 mud motor - bent sub - UBHO sub - 3 x 9 1/2 DC - 3 x 8 DC HWDP - dart sub. The pilot hole is drilled under directional control using SRG cluster shots as detailed in the Standard Surveying Instructions, the section can be drilled to casing point in this manner. Option B Drill pilot hole as follows: 17 1/2 bit c/w centre nozzle - 11 1/4 mud motor - bent sub - 10 NMSDC - MWD - monel UBHO sub - 3 x 9 1/2 NMDC - 3 x 8 DC - HWDP - dart sub. The use of a 1 3/4 bent sub will ensure that adjustments are achieved quickly. If motor is fitted with a dump valve, this should be removed or plugged to prevent risk of backflow and possible plugging of the drillstring. Option C Drill pilot hole as follows:

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DRILLING SURFACE HOLE - MULTI-WELL INSTALLATIONS

17 1/2 bit c/w centre nozzle - steerable motor - 9 1/2 NMSDC - 17 NM stab - 9 1/2 MWD - 9 1/2 NMUBHO - 17 NM stab - 2 x 9 1/2 NMDC - 3 x 9 1/2 DC - 3 x 8 DC - HWDP - dart sub. This option is similar to Option B but has the advantage of providing more control when in rotary mode over a bent sub-motor combination.

Note: In Options B & C - where applicable. Ensure bit nozzles are compatible with MWD, additional HWDP are used to increase rigidity. DO NOT use nozzle in MWD restrictor sleeve; only tungsten restrictor sub is necessary.
Option D In certain circumstances and dependent on BOP configuration, this section can be drilled in one pass using a 26 bit beneath a motor and bent sub or a steerable motor. Directional control is limited and in general this option should not be attempted for long sections as bit life is limited. 4.2 The pilot hole is drilled under directional control, initially with minimal inclination the MWD can be used in High-Side Mode to obtain inclination and toolface. An orientating gyro, SRG or equivalent (Gyrodata), will be run every 30m to check azimuth and inclination. Once clear of magnetic interference, the MWD can be switched to Magnetic Mode to obtain both inclination and azimuth. The expected depth to be clear of magnetic interference will normally be stated in the drilling programme, this can be confirmed by obtaining 2 adjacent survey stations of MWD that are in agreement with the gyro survey results, after which only the MWD will be used. 4.3 Drill to required casing point keeping mud weight as per programme, using 50 bbl viscous pills as required. Flowrates should be controlled at 800 gpm initially to ensure oriented sections are not washed away in unconsolidated formations. 4.4 Control drilling rate if necessary so as not to overload annulus, bearing in mind circulation rate may be limited by flowrate through mud motor, otherwise pump at max. rate through this section to keep hole clean. If a tangent section of hole is called for, and providing there is no magnetic influence from adjacent casing strings, this section may be drilled with an MWD tool as follows: 17 1/2 bit c/w centre nozzle - NB stab - c/w NRV - 9 1/2 NMSDC - 17 1/4 NM stab - MWD - 9 1/2 NMDC - NM stab - 9 1/2 NMDC - 3 x 9 1/2 DC - 3 x 8 DC - 12 HWDP - dart sub. 4.6 4.7 At TD, circulate 100 bbls Hivis pill around and circulate clean. Displace to viscous mud. POH and strap pipe out. Open hole to 26/24 using: 17 1/2/14 3/4 bit (bullnose) - 17 1/2/14 3/4 stab - short DC - 26 hole opener (underreamer) - bit sub c/w NRV - 2 x 9 1/2 DC - 26 (17 1/2) stab - 1 x 9 1/2 NMDC - MWD - Totco - 2 x 9 1/2 NMDC - 3 x 8 DC - 12 HWDP - dart sub.

4.5

Note: a) Ensure nozzles are compatible with MWD. b) Refer to Section 1280/GEN.

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DRILLING SURFACE HOLE - MULTI-WELL INSTALLATIONS

26 sump below 20 shoe to be limited to 5m max., this reduces the cuttings build-up in the sump and subsequent problems that result. 4.8 4.9 4.10 SRG or equivalent check surveys may be taken during hole opening operations, every 100m, dependent on anti-collision tolerances. In the event of very tight tolerances, a high accuracy gyro will be run through DP where there is any doubt about borehole location. Circulate hole clean at TD and sweep with viscous mud. Make wiper trip, circulate hole clean and spot viscous mud. POH and strap pipe.

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DRILLING 26" HOLE - SEMI-SUBMERSIBLES

GENERAL The 26 hole section will be drilled riserless unless: a) b) c) It is a Government regulation to drill with a riser; or A mud system is required to drill the hole for surface casing; or Evaluation of the following factors indicates that it is safer to drill with a riser and diverter system: i) ii) iii) iv) Water depth. Sea current magnitude and characteristics. Diverter/riser system design. Mooring system design.

The decision to drill with a riser will be taken by the Drilling Office. 1.2 If the shallow seismic survey indicates the potential for shallow gas, a 12 1/4 pilot hole will be drilled (refer to Section 0410/EXP). PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 4, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout. Ensure that the gyro survey equipment is, if required, available after cementing the casing but before drilling out the shoe. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 26 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that casing running tools/operators are all on board prior to reaching the section TD. Ensure that all drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. If a riser is in use, ensure that the flex joint wear bushing is installed. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of a FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools. Prior to drilling out the conductor shoe, make up the 18 3/4 wellhead housing/running tool assembly to the 20 casing wellhead joint in the rotary table (refer to the Dril-Quip Manual and Section 2200/SEM). Make up the subsea launch mandrel to the bottom of the wellhead running assembly. A drill pipe pup joint may be installed between the running tool and the launch mandrel and cement plug if required. Lay the assembly down on the pipe deck, or rack back in the mast. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of 26 Hole Drilling Operations. DRILLING 26 HOLE RISERLESS Make up the specified BHA and RIH. As a precaution wash down to tag TOC. A typical 26 hole assembly would be: 26 bit - float sub (non-ported) Teledrift tool - Totco ring - 2 x 9 1/2 DC - 26 SS - 3 x 9 1/2 DC - X/O - 6 x 8 DC - X/O - 6 x HWDP - DS.

2. 2.1

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

2.8 2.9

3. 3.1

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Notes: a) b) c) d)
3.2 3.3

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DRILLING 26" HOLE - SEMI-SUBMERSIBLES

Paint bottom 3m of BHA white to aid observation of entry into 30 housing. Attach soft rope lines between the guidelines and BHA, approximately 3m above the bit. Ensure that the ropes run freely on the guidewires. Unlock the compensator and observe entry of the BHA into the 30 housing with the ROV/SSTV. A dart sub must be run when drilling below the conductor.

Drill out the conductor shoe with care to avoid damaging the cement job around the 30 shoe. Clean out the rathole and drill 26 hole to TD with seawater, pumping 50 bbl viscous slugs every 10m, or as required.

Notes: a) b) If shallow gas is present, follow the procedures detailed in Section 0410/EXP. Typical drilling parameters are: Circulation Rate WOB RPM ROP c) d)
3.4 3.5 3.6

: : : :

1200 gpm (once the BHA is clear of the conductor shoe). 10 - 20,000 lbs. 120. Limited to 30 m/hr.

Take Teledrift surveys at regular intervals. Minimise the casing sump.

At section TD displace the hole to weighted viscous mud as specified in the drilling programme (normally 1.2 SG). Drop the Totco survey barrel and POOH to the 30 shoe. Recover the survey barrel. RIH and check for fill. Clean out if required and deepen sump if necessary. Re-displace the hole to mud of required weight as indicated in the drilling programme. POOH strapping the pipe.

Note: Carefully jet inside the 30 housing on the way out of the hole.
3.7 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Observe the 30 housing with the ROV/SSTV for signs of gas. DRILLING 26 HOLE WITH RISER It may be necessary to drill the 26 hole with mud in order to provide greater hole stability. In this case the 30 conductor will be set at a depth allowing full returns of the mud required to drill the section. The programmed mud system in this case will normally be a bentonite/polymer system with the mud weight as low as possible (refer to Section 4120/GEN). This hole section will be underreamed to 26 after drilling the required pilot hole. Drill out the 30 shoe and clean out the sump with seawater using a pilot bit with 26 hole opener. Circulate a viscous pill to clean out the hole and displace to weighted bentonite mud. POOH. Make up the pilot assembly and RIH. A typical pilot assembly would be:

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Page

Bit - float sub (non-ported) - Teledrift tool - Totco ring - 2 x 9 1/2 DC - SS - 3 x 9 1/2 DC - X/O - 6 x 8 DC - X/O - HWDP - DS.

Note: A dart sub must be run when drilling below the conductor.
4.6 Drill the pilot hole to TD with mud. Typical drilling parameters are: Circulation Rate : 1100 gpm. WOB : 0 - 10,000 lbs. RPM : 120.

Note: The two common problems encountered in drilling the pilot hole are: a) b) An increase in mud weight in the annulus due to a build-up of drilled cuttings. This may cause losses. Shaker screen blinding due to large quantities of drilled cuttings or sand and the viscous nature of the mud. Some manufacturers supply sand screens for the shakers. If these are available, they should be on board prior to drilling the pilot hole.

To combat both of these problems, it may be necessary to limit penetration rate when drilling the pilot hole. Typically, penetration rate is limited to 30 m/hr and the hole circulated clean every 300m prior to taking a survey. When drilling long sand sections, the mud should be monitored closely for sand content to avoid equipment damage.
4.7 4.8 4.9 At TD circulate clean, drop a survey and POOH. Make up and RIH the bit/26 underreamer assembly. Underream the pilot hole using mud (refer to Section 1280/GEN).

Note: Ensure that the underreamer arms are fully opened before commencing underreaming.
4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 At TD perform a wiper trip to the 30 shoe. RIH and displace the hole to weighted, viscous bentonite mud. POOH to the 30 wellhead and circulate carefully the riser to seawater. Allow the riser contents to drop to sea level and observe for flow. If the well is static, POOH. Pull the riser. Rig up and run the 20 casing.

BP EXPLORATION

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5.

Page

DRILLING 26" HOLE - SEMI-SUBMERSIBLES

EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Quantity
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 12 (min.) 15 (min.) 2 2 30 (min.) 3 3 1 set 1 set 1 1 set 2 sets 1 1 1 2 2 2 Set

Description
26 hole opener c/w jets and spare cutters. 26 bit, centre jet type c/w jets and breaker. 26 string stabilisers. 17 1/2 bit c/w jets and bit breaker. 17 1/2 string stabilisers. Sub 7 5/8 Reg box - box (bored to take NRV). Float sub c/w NRV (7 5/8 Reg conns). Totco ring (crows foot type). 9 1/2 steel drill collars (7 5/8 Reg conn). 8 steel drill collars (6 5/8 Reg conn). X/Over 7 5/8 Reg pin - 6 5/8 Reg box. X/Over 6 5/8 Reg pin - 4 1/2 IF box. 5 HWDP (4 1/2 IF conns). 9 1/2 DC lifting nipple. 8 DC lifting nipple. 9 1/2 DC slips/elevators. 8 DC slips/elevators. DC safety clamp. Totco equipment and overshot. DP elevators/slips. Dope for DP and DC. Grey inside BOP 4 1/2 IF conn. Circ. head 4 1/2 IF pin - 2 Lo torque valve. Hydril kelly cock (4 1/2 IF conn). Casing equipment. Teledrift tools c/w surface equipment. 26 underreamers (if drilling pilot hole) c/w spare arms. Hydril drop-in dart sub (4 1/2 IF conns). Fishing tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN).

BP EXPLORATION

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SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

Page

UNDERREAMING IN TOP HOLE

The following practices should be adopted when underreaming large top hole sections: When underreaming with roller bearing cutters and controlled drilling or WOB cannot be maintained, reduce the RPM to between 50 - 80. This should avoid premature gauge wear on cutter cones and arm shirtails which could result in the loss of cones in a short period of time. If the underreamer arms will not close due to drilled debris blocking the arm pockets, pump at the highest rate possible and at the same time rotate at high RPM. It may be possible to bounce the drill string off bottom to loosen the material. Where very fast underreaming is possible, ensure enough RPM is used to prevent cutting a spiral hole at least 100 RPM is recommended. When hole opening, the use of an expanding blade stabiliser may assist in maintaining vertical hole. Placing a stabilised pilot hole assembly below the underreamer may not guarantee vertical hole. On making the initial underreamerr cut, rotate for at least 5 - 15 minutes at a reduced rate of 30 - 40 RPM and at full pump rate, prior to attempting to drill ahead. This should allow sufficient time for a full gauge initial cut to be made. The harder the formation, the longer the time required before drilling ahead. After having underreamed about 3m, stop rotating, pick up the string with the pump still on, and lower the string attempting to tag the ledge that should have been cut. If the formation is firm enough and has not washed out, this will give an indication that the hole is being cut. If the formation is very soft or badly washed out, this procedure will not work.

1.2

1.3 1.4 1.5

1.6

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SUBJECT:
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Page

DRILLING VERTICAL 17 1/2" HOLE

PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 3, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 17 1/2 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that logging tools/operators and casing running tools/operators are all on board prior to reaching the section TD. Ensure that BOP equipment and drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. Complete wellhead pressure testing, and carry out a BOP test as per Sections 0420/FIX and 0420/SEM. Set wellhead wear bushing. On semi- submersible units, install the flex joint wear bushing. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of a FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools. On floating units, make up and stand back the Emergency Hang-Off Tool. On floating units, prior to casing drillout, make up the 18 3/4 x 13 3/8 casing hanger to the running tool complete with pack-off and SSR plug mechanism (refer to Section 2300/SEM). Stand back in the derrick on HWDP. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of 17 1/2 Hole Drilling Operations. DRILLING GENERAL Make up 17 1/2 bit and assembly and RIH to +/- 20m above the plug/cement.

1.9 1.10

2. 2.1

Notes: a) A typical 17 1/2 straight hole assembly would be: 17 1/2 bit - Totco - NBS - 1 x 9 1/2 DC - 17 1/2 SS - 1 x 9 1/2 DC - 17 1/2 SS - 3 x 9 1/2 DC - 2 x 8 DC - Jars - 2 x 8 DC - 12 HWDP. b) c) Perform a D5 kick drill and record details on the IADC and Daily Drilling Reports. Be aware of the danger of the bit drilling through the centre of the plug, leaving the outer section to ride up above the bit. This may cause a hydraulic piston effect that can result in pumping the drillstring out of the hole.

2.2 2.3

Wash down as a precaution to tag TOC. Prior to drilling out the cement and 20 shoe, test the casing to the lower of: i) ii) Maximum anticipated wellhead pressure. 80% of casing burst.

2.4

Drill out to the shoe with seawater, pumping 50 bbl hi-vis slugs while drilling the cement. While drilling the shoe and 26 rathole, pump a 100 bbl hi-vis pill and displace to mud. If mud is OBM, pump a dye to observe the mud/seawater interphase.

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2.5 2.6 2.7

Page

DRILLING VERTICAL 17 1/2" HOLE

Drill 3m of new hole. Circulate to condition the mud. Carry out formation leak-off test as per Section 7100/GEN. Record the results in the well file and the Daily Drilling Report. Calculate the Limited Kick Tolerance based on the formation leak-off test results. Kick tolerances should then be updated every day. Refer to Section 0405/GEN. Take SCRs.

2.8 2.9 2.10

Drill ahead to section TD with wiper trips if hole conditions dictate. Surveys to be taken at least every 300m. Minimise casing sump at section TD. Prior to POOH, ensure that the hole is in good condition and circulated clean. At TD, flow check and drop a survey as specified.

Note: Ensure hole is in good condition before performing the survey.


3. SECTION NOTES i) ii) Pump 50 bbl hi vis pills prior to making connections if hole cleaning dictates. Maximise circulation rate to maintain annular velocity to optimise hole cleaning. Note: Account must be taken of the effect of ECD on weak formations. iii) iv) v) vi) Only run sufficient drill collars for the planned WOB. On deep 17 1/2 sections it may be necessary to shorten the BHA length to minimise the pressure drop in order to maintain the required circulation rates. All surveying to be undertaken as per BP Standard Surveying Instructions. Penetration rate should be limited to maximise hole cleaning. Refer to the 17 1/2 hole cleaning curves on pages 4 and 5. Good hole cleaning can be maintained by keeping YP at 30+ (but not less than 25). WOB and RPM will be determined by the ROP limit. If any major problems arise with the mud or solids control equipment, stop drilling and circulate until the problem is rectified. Adhere to the hydraulics programme, particularly the maximum required pump rate. Never drill ahead with one pump; pull to the shoe and repair. If the hole packs off, attempt to work the pipe down in order to regain circulation before attempting to jar out. It may be necessary to make a check trip before running casing. No wiper trip will be required if the hole condition is good. A gyro survey will normally be required in the 13 3/8 casing after the first 12 1/4 bit run. Alternatively, for wells where the 13 3/8 casing is set deep, a magnetic multishot may be programmed in which case 9 1/2 monel drill collars will be run on the check trip assembly. The survey tool/operator should be on board prior to reaching the 17 1/2 TD.

vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii)

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING VERTICAL 17 1/2" HOLE

EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Vertical Wells

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Quantity
Selection 2 3 2 2 2 12 (min.) 15 (min.) 2 2 30 3 3 1 set 1 set 1 1 set 2 sets 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 As required Set 2

Description
17 1/2 bits c/w jets (selection) + breaker. 17 1/2 near bit stabilisers. 17 1/2 string stabilisers/gauge tool. Sub 7 5/8 reg box-box (bored to take NRV). Float sub c/w NRV (7 5/8 reg conns). Totco ring (crows foot type). 9 1/2 steel drill collars (7 5/8 reg conns). 8 steel drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). X/over 7 5/8 reg pin - 6 5/8 reg box. X/over 6 5/8 reg pin - 4 1/2 IF box. 5 HWDP (4 1/2 IF conns). 9 1/2 DC lift nipples. 8 DC lift nipples. 9 1/2 DC slips/elevators. 8 DC slips/elevators. DC safety clamp. Totco equipment and overshot. DP elevators/slips. Gray inside BOP (4 1/2 IF conns). Circ. head 4 1/2 IF pin - 2 Lo torque valve. Hydril kelly cock (4 1/2 IF conn). 5 DP pup joints (1 x 1.5m and 1 x 3m). Dope for DP and DC. Junk sub (7 5/8 reg conns). Drilling jars. Circulating sub (7 5/8 reg conns). Casing equipment. 9 1/2 PONY DC. Mud savers (if OBM used). Dart sub c/w dart. MWD tool if required. 9 1/2 Monel drill collars (7 5/8 reg conns). Fishing tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN). 17 1/2 string roller reamers (to be considered as an alternative to the stabilisers).

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING VERTICAL 17 1/2" HOLE

Page

EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY DETERMINATION


PROJECTION LINE PROJECTION LINE 50

PROCEDURE
1. DRAW LINE FROM MUD YP THROUGH CUTTINGS SIZE TO INTERSECT LH PROJECTION LINE AT A* 2. DRAW LINE FROM A* THROUGH HOLE DIAMETER TO CROSS RH PROJECTION LINE AT B* 3. DRAW LINE FROM B* TO MUD PV

40 CUTTINGS SIZE (in) 1 /4 30

EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY (cP) 300 17 / 2


1

/2

20

121/ 4 8 /2
HOLE DIAMETER (in)
1

200

100 80 60

4. READ OFF EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY AT CROSS-OVER POINT

10

100 40 20

0 YIELD POINT (lb/100ft2 )

0 PLASTIC VISCOSITY (cP)

CUTTINGS SETTLING VELOCITY DETERMINATION


PROJECTION LINE PROJECTION LINE 2.1

60 50 40

SETTLING VELOCITY (ft/min)

2.2 MUD SG

1.0 2.3

30 300 20 60

5. DRAW LINE FROM EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY THROUGH MUD SG TO INTERSECT LH PROJECTION LINE AT C* 6. DRAW LINE FROM CUTTINGS SG THROUGH MUD SG TO INTERSECT RH PROJECTION LINE AT D* 7. JOIN C* AND D*. READ OFF SLIP VELOCITY FOR APPROPRIATE CUTTINGS DIAMETER 8. CONTINUE TO NEXT FIGURE

2.0 1.5

50

2.4

200

40 1.0 MUD SG 100 2.6 20


1

2.5 10 1 /4 " CUTTINGS 30 1.5

/2 " CUTTINGS 2.0 2.7 CUTTINGS SG

0 EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY (cP)

2179 /164

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
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Page

171/2" VERTICAL HOLE CLEANING

CUTTINGS SLIP VELOCITY (ft/min)


40 30 20 10 60 50

PENETRATION RATE (m/h) 50 40 30 20 10

PIVOT POINT

140 100 80

60

50

40

30

20

ANNULAR VELOCITY (ft/min)

PROCEDURE (CONT.) 9. DRAW LINE FROM CUTTINGS SLIP VELOCITY THROUGH PIVOT POINT TO CROSS PENETRATION RATE LINES. 10. FOR APPROPRIATE ROP, READ MINIMUM ANNULAR VELOCITY.

2179 /165

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
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Page

DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE

PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 4, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 17 1/2 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that logging tools/operators and casing running tools/operators are all on board prior to reaching the section TD. Ensure that BOP equipment and drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. Complete wellhead pressure testing, and carry out a BOP test as per Sections 0420/FIX and 0420/SEM. Set wellhead wear bushing. On semi-submersible units, install the flex joint wear bushing. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of a FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools. On floating units, make up and stand back the emergency hang-off tool. On floating units, prior to casing drillout, make up the 18 3/4 x 13 3/8 casing hanger to the running tool complete with pack-off and SSR plug mechanism (refer to Section 2300/SEM). Stand back in the derrick on HWDP. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of 17 1/2 Hole Drilling Operations. DRILLING GENERAL MU 17 1/2 bit and assembly and RIH to +/- 20m above plug/cement.

1.9 1.10

2. 2.1

Notes: a) b) c) Wash down as a precaution to tag TOC. Perform a D5 kick drill and record details on the IADC and Daily Drilling Reports. Be aware of the danger of the bit drilling through the centre of the plug, leaving the outer section to ride up above the bit. This may cause a hydraulic piston effect that can result in pumping the drillstring out of the hole.

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Drill out shoe track to float shoe with seawater, if changing to OBM. Drill out shoe and clean out sump with SW. Pump 70 - 80 bbl of base oil or base oil spacer. Displace to OBM circulating at highest possible rate. Drill 3m of new hole. Carry out formation leak-off test as per Section 7100/GEN. Record the results in the well file and the Daily Drilling Report.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE

Calculate the Limited Kick Tolerance based on the formation leak-off test results. Kick tolerances should then be updated every day. Refer to Section 0405/GEN. Take SCRs.

2.9 2.10 2.11

If gyro multishot is required on the surface casing, this is to be performed before drilling ahead. Drill ahead to section TD (13 3/8 shoe depth + 3m). Main Build-Up Section The main kick-off is generally planned for this section with a build/turn to final inclination and azimuth followed by a tangent section to 13 3/8 setting depth. Depending upon the final azimuth and inclination of the 26 section, there are various options open in which to drill the 17 1/2 build-up section. a) Mud Motor + MWD Drill kick-off section using MWD as a steering tool. Assembly: 17 1/2 bit - 11 1/4 mud motor - bent sub - 1 x 9 1/2 NMSDC - MWD - 2 x 9 1/2 NMDC - 1 x 8 DC - jar - 3 x 8 DC - 9 x HWDP. b) Steerable Motor Assembly There are two types of systems in use: i) ii) Bent motor housing type. Double tilted U-joint housing (DTU).

Both systems are stabilised and can be used to drill tangent sections in addition to the build-up section. The advantage being the ability to make corrections in azimuth and inclination, but a full economic review should be made prior to running the system. A typical assembly would be: 17 1/2 bit c/w centre nozzle - steerable motor - 9 1/2 NMSDC - 17 NM stab - 9 1/2 MWD - 17 NM stab - 2 x 9 1/2 NMDC - 3 x 9 1/2 DC - 8 DC - jar - 3 x 8 DC - HWDP - dart sub. When using a steerable system, it is imperative to determine its directional characteristics in rotary mode, both inclination and azimuth. Where possible, once a main build section has been 3/4 completed, drill say 2 stands in rotary mode, having determined its characteristics continue the build-up taking account of the systems natural tendencies to negate making numerous small corrections. From experience it has been found that numerous small corrections over a section result in an increased torque build-up, which on shallower wells is less of a problem but can become critical on deep high step out wells. c) Rotary Build Assembly 60 ft On completion of initial build-up using mud motor and bent sub, continue the build with the following assembly: 17 1/2 bit - 17 1/2 NB stab - 9 1/2 NMDC - MWD - 17 1/2 NM stab - 9 1/2 NMDC - 17 1/2 NM stab - 9 1/2 NMDC - 9 1/2 DC - stab - 1 x 9 1/2 DC - 8 DC - jar - 3 x 8 DC - 9 HWDP.

BP EXPLORATION

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d)

Page

DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE

Rotary Build Assembly 70 ft + If at the end of the 26 section there is 12 inclination and well is on final azimuth then the following assembly would normally be used to negate the use of a mud motor. 17 1/2 bit - 17 1/2 NB stab - 2 x 9 1/2 SNMDC - MWD - 9 1/2 NMDC - 17 1/2 NM stab - 1 x 9 1/2 NMDC - 17 1/2 NM stab - 1 x 9 1/2 DC - 8 DC - jar - 3 x 8 DC - 9 HWDP. It may be necessary if build rate becomes excessive to POH and shorten up to a 60 ft build assembly until required inclination is reached.

Note: If MWD tool is short, ensure pony MDC is installed to make up overall length to 30 ft.
2.12 Tangent Section The assembly is locked up in this section. 17 1/2 bit - 17 1/2 NB stab - 9 1/2 SNMDC - 17 1/2 NM stab - 1 x MWD - 9 1/2 NMDC - 17 1/2 NM stab - 1 x 9 1/2 NMDC - 17 1/2 NM stab - 1 x 9 1/2 DC - 8 DC - jar - 3 x 8 DC - 9 HWDP. Section Notes i) ii) iii) iv) v) Ream any motor drilled build-up sections on way in to bottom with tangent assembly or build assembly. Pump hole cleaning pills prior to making connections if hole conditions dictate. In high angle wells combined lo-vis and high weighted pills may be considered. Circulate at max. rate to maintain annular velocity for optimum hole cleaning, min. rate 1100 gpm. Account must be taken of the effect of ECD on weak formations. Make wiper trips every 180m unless advised differently from office. Where overpulls occur on trips, wipe out mechanically but if they persist on subsequent trips increase mud weight up to a maximum as advised in the Drilling Programme or from drilling office. Always circulate min. 140% bottoms up prior to any trips. Based on a 1/2 cutting, it has been calculated you need 140% annular volume to get bottoms up - check shakers clean. Position jars in the string with 3 x 8 DC above. Keep neutral point whilst drilling away from the jars. If MWD goes down in tangent section, drill ahead with single shot surveys every 75m. 17 1/2 bits will have centre nozzles. Only run sufficient number of DCs in assemblies for the planned/ desired WOB, do not run unnecessary numbers of DCs. On deep 17 1/2 sections it may be necessary to shorten BHAs to minimise the pressure drop in order to maintain high circulation rates. All surveying to be carried out as per the BP Standard Surveying Instructions. Penetration rate should be limited to aid good hole cleaning. Refer to the 17 1/2 hole cleaning curves on page 6. Good hole cleaning can be maintained by keeping YP at 30+ but not less than 25.

vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii)

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
xiv) xv) xvi) xvii)

Page

DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE


WOB and RPM will be determined by directional requirements and the ROP limit. If any major problems arise with the mud system or solids control equipment, stop drilling and circulate until rectified. Keep strictly to hydraulics programme, especially maximum pump rate. Never drill ahead with one pump; pull to the shoe and repair. Local variations in hole condition will be advised in the Well Drilling Programme. In general, wiper trips will be made every 3 stands, across problem areas. Backreaming should be considered. If hole packs off, attempt to work pipe down in order to regain circulation, prior to attempting to jar out. Ensure that the hydraulic configuration between bit and MWD restrictor sub is set up correctly.

xviii) xix) 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17

Circulate the hole clean at section TD. Condition mud as required. Make a wiper trip to shoe. Circulate hole clean prior to running logs or casing. Log as per Drilling Programme. Perform wiper trip as necessary. Recover wear bushing. On surface BOP stacks change top rams to 13 3/8 and pressure test the bonnet seals. Rig up to run 13 3/8 casing. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

3.

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Quantity
Selection 2 3 2 2 2 12 (min.) 15 (min.) 2 2 30 3 3 1 set 1 set 1 1 set 2 sets 1 1 2 2 1 2 1

Description
17 1/2 bits c/w jets (selection) + breaker. 17 1/2 near bit stabilisers. 17 1/2 string stabilisers/gauge tool. Sub 7 5/8 reg box-box (bored to take NRV). Float sub c/w NRV (7 5/8 reg conns). Totco ring (crows foot type). 9 1/2 steel drill collars (7 5/8 reg conns). 8 steel drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). X/over 7 5/8 reg pin - 6 5/8 reg box. X/over 6 5/8 reg pin - 4 1/2 IF box. 5 HWDP (4 1/2 IF conns). 9 1/2 DC lift nipples. 8 DC lift nipples. 9 1/2 DC slips/elevators. 8 DC slips/elevators. DC safety clamp. Totco equipment and overshot. DP elevators/slips. Gray inside BOP (4 1/2 IF conns). Circ. head 4 1/2 IF pin - 2 Lo torque valve. Hydril kelly cock (4 1/2 IF conn). 5 DP pup joints (1 x 1.5m and 1 x 3m). Dope for DP and DC. Junk sub (7 5/8 reg conns). Drilling jars. Circulating sub (7 5/8 reg conns).

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27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

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DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE


1 2 1 1 2 3 2 Selection 2 3 2 2 Set 2 Casing equipment. 9 1/2 PONY DC. Mud savers (if OBM used). Dart sub c/w dart. MWD tool if required. 17 NM stabilisers. 17 1/2 NM stabilisers. 11 1/4 mud motors if required. Bent subs as required. 9 1/2 PONY NM drill collars (7 5/8 reg conns). 9 1/2 NM drill collars (7 5/8 reg conns). Bent steerable motors if required. Double tilted U-joint housing motors (DTU) if required. Fishing tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN). 17 1/2 string roller reamers (to be considered as an alternative to the stabilisers).

Note: All equipment to be dimensionally checked and recorded before running in hole. Requisite fishing equipment should be on site.

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE

Page

DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE CLEANING CHART

Q(gpm) * ESG TRANSPORT INDEX = 100 40 TRANSPORT INDEX 17 2.3

EFFECTIVE SG (ESG) 1.4 1.2 1.3

1.5 MAXIMUM ROP (m/h) 30 CUTTINGS SG 16 15 14 10 13 12 11 10 9 30 40 50 HOLE ANGLE (DEGREES) 60 2.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 MUD SG 1.7

20

2.2

1.6

1.5

PROCEDURE 1. ENTER MUD SG AND CUTTINGS SG ON RH GRAPH. READ OFF ESG FROM FAMILY OF DIAGONAL LINES. 2. USE BOXED EQUATION TO DETERMINE TRANSPORT INDEX FOR SET FLOW RATE. 3. READ OFF MAX ROP FOR HOLE ANGLE

2179 /163

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.

Page

DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE USING SPACER TEMPLATE

The following assumes that the previous casing string is the 30 conductor and that no 20 casing has been run. PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 3, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 17 1/2 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that logging tools/operators and casing running tools/operators are all on board prior to reaching the section TD. Ensure that BOP equipment and drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. Once the diverter is installed ensure that a D3 diverter drill is performed. Record the details on the IADC and Daily Drilling Reports. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of a FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of 17 1/2 Hole Drilling Operations. DRILLING GENERAL Make up the following 30 cleanout assembly: 17 1/2 bit - 26 hole opener - bit sub - 9 x 8 DC - jar - 2 x 8 DC - X/O - 9 x 5 HWDP - DS.

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

3. 3.1

3.2 3.3 3.4

RIH and drill out 30 shoe and 36 rathole using seawater. Displace the well to a bentonite mud system. POOH and make up the following kick-off BHA: 17 1/2 bit (3 x 24s, 1 x 16) - 9 5/8 multilobe Magnodrill motor - bent sub - X/O - 8 SNMDC - X/O MWD - UBHO - 2 x 8 NMDC - 6 x 8 DC - jars - 2 x DC - X/O - 9 x 5 HWDP - DS.

3.5 3.6

Directionally drill 17 1/2 hole to section TD. Minimise 13 3/8 casing sump. Displace well to a mud with minimum density of 1.15 SG. Section Notes i) The 17 1/2 section will be surveyed whilst drilling using surface readout gyro shots until clear of magnetic influence. Once clear of interference and the inclination is above 5, the MWD may be used. Three consecutive MWD readings must correlate with the gyro surveys before the MWD readings will be accepted on their own. All surveying to be carried out as per the BP Standard Surveying Instructions. The mud density is to be maintained as low as possible (max. 1.11 SG).

ii) iii)

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iv) v) vi)

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DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE USING SPACER TEMPLATE


Bit balling is to be expected. Attempt to remove the problem by treating the mud with 2% detergent. A contingency stock of 40 x 25 kg sacks of Guar Gum is to be held on board. If the mud motor and bent sub need to be pulled for any reason, e.g. bit failure, the following rotary build assembly should be used to continue the build-up:17 1/2 bit - NB stab - 8 SNMDC - X/O - MWD - 17 1/2 NMSS - 8 NMDC - 17 1/2 NMSS - 8 NMDC - 9 x 8 DC - jars - 2 x 8 DC - X/O - 9 x 5 HWDP - DS.

Note: The expected right-hand walk with this assembly is 0.6 - 0.8 deg/30m.
vii) viii) ix) x) xi) If rotary build assembly is run, ream the motor drilled build-up section on the way into bottom. Pump hole cleaning pills as necessary prior to making connections if hole condition dictates. At high angles combined lo-vis and high weighted pills may be considered. Circulate at max. rate to maintain annular velocity for optimum hole cleaning. Account must be taken of the effect of ECD on weak formations. 17 1/2 bits will have centre nozzles. Penetration rate should be limited to aid good hole cleaning. Refer to the 17 1/2 hole cleaning curves on page 4. Good hole cleaning can be maintained by keeping YP at 30+ but not less than 25. WOB and RPM will be determined by directional requirements and the ROP limit. If any major problems arise with the mud system or solids control equipment, stop drilling and circulate until rectified. Keep strictly to hydraulics programme, especially maximum pump rate. Never drill ahead with one pump; pull to the shoe and repair. If hole packs off, attempt to work pipe down in order to regain circulation, prior to attempting to jar out. Ensure that the hydraulic configuration between bit and MWD restrictor sub is set up correctly.

xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) 4.

EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Quantity Selection 2 3 2 2 2 2 15 (min.) 2 30 2 2 3 Description 17 1/2 bits c/w jets (selection) + breaker. 17 1/2 near bit stabilisers. 17 1/2 string stabilisers/gauge tool. 26 hole opener. Sub 6 5/8 reg box-box (bored to take NRV). Float sub c/w NRV (6 5/8 reg conns). Totco ring (crows foot type). 8 steel drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). X/over 6 5/8 reg pin - 4 1/2 IF box. 5 HWDP (4 1/2 IF conns). X/over (7 5/8 reg pin/6 5/8 reg box). X/over (6 5/8 reg pin/pin). 8 DC lift nipples.

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14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

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DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE USING SPACER TEMPLATE


1 set 1 2 sets 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 Selection 2 3 2 Set 8 DC slips/elevators. DC safety clamp. DP elevators/slips. Gray inside BOP (4 1/2 IF conns). Circ. head 4 1/2 IF pin - 2 Lo torque valve. Hydril kelly cock (4 1/2 IF conn). 5 DP pup joints (1 x 1.5m and 1 x 3m). Dope for DP and DC. Junk sub (7 5/8 reg conns). Drilling jars. Circulating sub (6 5/8 reg conns). Casing equipment. Mud savers (if OBM used). Dart sub c/w dart. MWD tool (6 5/8 reg box/box). 17 1/2 NM stabilisers. 9 5/8 Magnadrill motors. Bent subs as required. 8 PONY NM drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). 8 NM drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). UBHO sub (6 5/8 reg conns). Fishing tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN).

Note: All equipment to be dimensionally checked and recorded before running in hole. Requisite fishing equipment should be on site.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

DRILLING DEVIATED 17 1/2" HOLE USING SPACER TEMPLATE

DEVIATED 171/2" HOLE CLEANING CHART

Q(gpm) * ESG TRANSPORT INDEX = 100 40 TRANSPORT INDEX 17 2.3

EFFECTIVE SG (ESG) 1.2 1.3 1.4

1.5 MAXIMUM ROP (m/h) 30 CUTTINGS SG 16 15 14 10 13 12 11 10 9 30 40 50 HOLE ANGLE (DEGREES) 60 2.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 MUD SG 1.7

20

2.2

1.6

1.5

PROCEDURE 1. ENTER MUD SG AND CUTTINGS SG ON RH GRAPH. READ OFF ESG FROM FAMILY OF DIAGONAL LINES. 2. USE BOXED EQUATION TO DETERMINE TRANSPORT INDEX FOR SET FLOW RATE. 3. READ OFF MAX ROP FOR HOLE ANGLE

2179 /162

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

Page

DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 5, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout. Ensure that the gyro survey equipment is available (if required), after cementing the casing but before drilling out the shoe. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 12 1/4 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that logging tools/operators and casing running tools/operators are all on board prior to reaching the section TD. Ensure all BOP equipment and drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. On fixed installations, complete wellhead pressure testing. On semi-submersible units, if the casing has been run with the full bore running tool, set and pressure test the pack-off in the wellhead (refer to Section 2300/SEM). Perform a BOP test as per Section 0420/FIX or 0420/SEM. Set wellhead wear bushing. On semi-submersible units install the flex joint wear bushing. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of a FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools. On floating units ensure that the emergency hang-off tool is made up in the derrick. On floating units, prior to casing drillout, make up the 9 5/8 casing hanger to the running tool complete with pack-off and SSR plug mechanism. Stand back in the derrick or lay down on the pipe rack (refer to Section 2400/SEM). Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of 12 1/4 Hole Drilling Operations. DRILLING - GENERAL Make up the 12 1/4 drilling assembly. Vertical Wells Typical drilling assemblies for the section are: a) Straight Well Drop-Off Assembly 12 1/4 bit - Totco - 2 x 8 DC - 12 1/4 SS - 1 x 8 DC - 12 1/4 SS - 11 x 8 DC - Jars - 3 x 8 DC 9 HWDP - DS.

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

1.6 1.7 1.8

1.9 1.10

2. 2.1

Note: Location of DS depends on ID of HWDP and OD of dart.


b) Straight Well Stiff Assembly 12 1/4 bit - Totco - 12 1/4 NBS - 1 x 8 DC - 12 1/4 SS - 2 x 8 DC - 12 1/4 SS - 11 x 8 DC Jars - 3 x 8 DC - 9 HWDP - DS. The normal practice is to run a stiff assembly unless there is angle in the hole or formations expected to be soft. For details on turbine drilling, refer to Section 1700/GEN.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

Page

Directional Wells a) Drill Collar Spacing to Minimise Wall Contact Using the graph of BHA Deflection and Wall Contact vs. Hole Angle (Figure 1, page 10), a stabiliser spacing of 80 ft if necessary to provide zero wall contact in wells up to 30 degrees. For well inclinations up to 60 degrees, 70 ft is the maximum spacing and over 60 degrees it is 60 ft. b) Quantity of Heavyweight in the Assembly A report entitled "A Review of Jar Placement Using Jarpro" Doc ID: AM/sb 6 recommends that if the prime consideration is to jar, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of differential sticking, use a BHA with a hammer composed of 2 off 8" DC's. For the WOB to be maintained, 5" HWDP can be added and is not too detrimental to jarring. Therefore with respect to jarring and differential sticking, the optimum quantity of 5" HWDP is 5 stands. Thus a typical directional tangent hold BHA in a 35 degree deviated hole would be: Bit - NBS - NMSDC - UGNMSS - MWD - 12 1/4" NMSS - 2 x 8" NMDC - 12 1/4" SS - 2 x 8" DC 12 1/4" BR - Jar - 2 x 8" DC - 15 x 5" HWDP - HDIS. Locked Up Rotary Assemblies At commencement of this section the well should be lined up on target, hence the majority of drilling will be with locked up tangent assemblies. Typical locked up rotary assemblies are: a) b) 12 1/4 bit - NB stab - SNMDC - NM stab - MWD - NM stab - 8 NMDC - NM stab - 1 x 8 NMDC stab - 2 x 8 DC - jar - 5 x 8 DC - 12 HWDP - dart sub. 12 1/4 bit - NB stab - 8 SDC - 11 3/4 to 12 1/4 Andergauge stab (wt. set 30K to 32K) - 8 NMDC - 12 1/4 NMSS - X/O - 8 1/4 MWD - 12 1/4 NMSS - 2 x 8 NMDC - 6 x 8 DC - Jars - 2 x 8 DC X/O - 1 x 5 HWDP - dart sub - 14 x 5 HWDP.

In assembly b) the Andergauge stabiliser is run to provide angle control. In certain situations it is possible to use a steerable turbine, or a stabilised mud motor. The advantages of the steerable turbine and stabilised mud motor are that small corrections in inclination and azimuth can be made. These motors would be used in conjunction with stratapax bits if it is determined to be economic with reduced cost/m. Turbine Assembly 12 1/4 bit - 9 1/2 turbine - NM stab - 8 NMDC - MWD - NM stab - 2 x 8 NMDC - jar - 2 x 8 DC - 12 HWDP - dart sub. For details on turbine drilling, refer to Section 1700/GEN. Mud Motor Assembly 12 1/4 bit - stabilised mud motor - SNMDC - 12 NM stab - SNMDC - MWD - 12 NM stab - 2 x 8 NMDC - 1 x 8 DC - jar - 2 x 8 DC - 12 HWDP - DS. For details of mud motors, refer to Sections 1630/GEN and 1640/GEN.

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

Page

Rebel Tool Assembly In certain situations it is necessary to correct the azimuth in this section after the GCT survey has been made. A typical assembly is as follows: Bit - 8 7/8 rebel tool - 8 SNMDC - MWD - 8 NMDC - 12 1/4 NM stab - 2 x 8 NMDC - 12 1/4 stab - 5 x 8 DC - jar - 3 x 8 DC - 12 HWDP - dart sub.

Notes: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) The most common spacing for the stabiliser is 30m from the bit, a drop of 0.4 deg/30m would be typical with walk rates of 4 deg/30m. The position of the first stabiliser above the bit generally controls the characteristics of the assembly. Field history with rebel tool runs should be used to determine exact assemblies in each case. For details of rebel tools, refer to Section 1660/GEN. Jars are to be run in the string, keeping the neutral point away from the jars whilst drilling. It is advisable to use the Jarpro programme to optimise jar placement. The minimum BHA length should be run, equal to the maximum WOB that is required. HWDP will always be run. i) ii) h) i) j) Minimum number of joints will be run to give adequate stress reduction. If possibility of differential sticking or losses exists, the amount of HWDP is to be increased and the number of DCs decreased.

On directional wells the rebel tool should be kept on site for any azimuth corrections c/w LH and RH paddles. A junk sub should be considered in the BHA prior to using a PDC or diamond bit (corehead), corebarrel or turbine. The OD, ID and length of each string component is to be recorded before it is RIH. Ensure that the ID of all downhole tools, such as bumper subs, jars and shock subs, etc., is large enough to allow FPI, back-off and survey recovery tools to pass. Ensure that the correct overshot grapples are on board to catch all tool ODs run in the hole. The length of the fishing necks of each string component are to be recorded.

k) l)
2.2

RIH. (Drill out stage cementer if installed and pressure test casing to 13 3/8 cement plug bump pressure.)

Note: a) Be aware of the danger of the bit drilling through the centre of the plug, leaving the outer section to ride up above the bit. This may cause a hydraulic piston effect that can result in pumping the drillstring out of the hole.
2.3 2.4 RIH and tag TOC (report TOC). Pressure test the casing if required. Perform D5 kick drill and record the details on the IADC and Daily Drilling Reports. Drill out 13 3/8 shoe track, closely monitoring torques. Note and report hardness of cement in shoe track. If required, after drilling half the shoe track, displace well to new mud.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
Notes: a) b) c) d) Ensure that the mud is pre-treated against cement contamination.

Page

DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

It is not recommended to drill the shoe track or stage cementer with a bit softer than that of the 1.3.4 IADC category. Confirm float equipment in PDC drillable prior to using PDC bit to drill out. Care must be taken when bedding in the bit (see Section 1500/GEN). Be aware of the danger of the bit drilling through the centre of the plug, leaving the outer section to ride up above the bit. This may cause a hydraulic piston effect that can result in pumping the drillstring out of the hole.

2.5

Clean out the pocket and drill 3m of new hole. Circulate to clean the hole and balance the mud. Pull back to the shoe and perform a leak-off test. (Refer to Section 7100/GEN.) This test may be limited on advice from the drilling office, depending on the mud weight and kick margin requirement for the 12 1/4 section. Fax the leak-off test graph to town and record the results in the well file and Daily Drilling Report. Re-calculate the kick tolerance and inform the Drilling Superintendent if less than 100 bbls. The kick tolerance should then be re-calculated every day (refer to Section 0405/GEN). Take SCRs.

Notes: a) b)
2.6

The leak-off test surface pressure is limited to the casing test or cup type test pressure, whichever is the least. On exploration wells a gyro survey may be required in the 13 3/8 casing - refer to the survey programme.

On exploration wells drill/core ahead to TD with magnetic single shot surveys and wiper trips as required. Pit drills are to be carried out every tour. On development wells drill ahead 230 - 300m into the section. This is the minimum length permissible for a GCT survey. The hole curvature should not change at more than 0.5 deg/30m. If the target size is big enough the bit can be dulled before making the survey. Run Schlumberger GCT or equivalent. Ensure hole is clean and mud is in good condition prior to running the GCT. After completing the GCT survey drill/core ahead to the section TD (refer to Section 7000/DEV). Section Notes i) On exploration wells BOP tests are to be carried out every 10 - 14 days maximum. On development wells a full BOP test is to be carried out prior to drilling through a reservoir (if present in this section). At the same time the MWD tool will be left out of the BHA unless otherwise instructed. Full scale kick drills are to be carried out on trips and reported. On exploration wells a tandem electronic multishot survey will be required, either prior to entering the reservoir, or at 12 1/4 TD. (Refer to the survey programme.) Ensure that the nonmagnetic drill collars, etc. are in the BHA prior to reaching the survey point. If the MWD fails on development wells, continue to drill ahead with single shot surveys every 90m, unless instructed otherwise. All surveying to be carried out as per the Standard Surveying Instructions. If any major problems arise with the mud or solids control equipment, stop drilling and circulate until rectified.

ii) iii)

iv) v) vi)

BP EXPLORATION

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vii) viii) 2.7

Page

DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE


When drilling with high ROPs, always circulate to ensure hole is clean prior to tripping. Normal circulation rates for this section are 650 - 750 gpm. For optimum circulation rates refer to the 12 1/4 hole cleaning curves on pages 8 and 9.

At section TD circulate to clean the hole and condition the mud. On development wells prior to POH for logging, drop a tandem solid state EMS.

2.8 2.9

POH confirming hole depth measurements. Log as programmed. A check trip may be required depending on hole conditions and the length of the logging programme. On exploration wells, this will afford the possibility of re-running the magnetic multishot if required. If hole conditions dictate, check trip prior to running the casing. Condition the hole and mud to reduce surge pressures.

2.10

Note: On exploration wells if the 12 1/4 section TD is the well TD, 9 5/8 casing will only be run in the event of a well test. If the well is to be plugged and abandoned after logging, RIH with the cementing stinger, circulate to condition the mud and set cement plugs as programmed (refer to Section 3600/GEN).
2.11 If 9 5/8 casing is to be run retrieve the wear bushing(s). On surface stacks change the top pipe rams to 9 5/8 casing rams unless advised otherwise in the Drilling Programme. Pressure test the bonnet seals against the annular preventer using the test plug assembly - ensure that the string is open when testing.

Note: If 13 3/8 casing has been omitted then a 21 1/4 BOP might be installed when running 9 5/8 casing. Top rams are likely to be blind/shear and therefore cannot be changed to 9 5/8 casing rams.
2.12 3. Rig up to run 9 5/8 casing. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Quantity
Selection 2 4 2 1 2 30 2 30 3 1 set 1 2 1 set 2 sets 1 1 2 -

Description
12 1/4 bits c/w jets (selection) + breakers. 12 1/4 near bit stabilisers. 12 1/4 string stabilisers/gauge tool. Andergauge stabiliser (11 3/4 to 12 1/4). 12 1/4 roller reamer plus spare cutters. Sub 6 5/8 reg box-box bored to take NRV. 8 steel drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). X/over 6 5/8 reg pin - 4 1/2 IF box. 5 HWDP. 8 DC lift nipples. 8 DC slips/elevators. DC safety clamp. Totco ring (ring type). MSS equipment. DP elevators/slips. Gray inside BOP (4 1/2 IF conns). Circ. head 4 1/2 IF pin - 2 Lo torque valve. Hydril kelly cock (4 1/2 IF conns). 5 DP pup joints. Dope for DP and DC.

BP EXPLORATION

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21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Page

DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE


2 2 1 1 3 As required Selection if applicable If applicable 2 if required 2 if required 2 if required If applicable Selection 1 Set 2 Junk sub with 6 5/8 reg conns. Drilling jars. Circulating sub (6 5/8 reg conns). Dart sub (4 1/2 IF conns). Casing equipment. Gyro survey equipment (if required). Magnetic multishot equipment. 8 non-magnetic drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). 12 1/4 non-magnetic string stabilisers (6 5/8 reg conns). 8 Pony non-magnetic drill collars (6 5/8 reg conns). MWD tools. 9 1/2 turbines. Stabilised mud motors. 8 7/8 rebel tools c/w LH and RH paddles. Corebarrel assembly. Coreheads. 13 3/8 RTTS plus storm valve (or equivalent) and safety joint. Fishing tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN). 13 3/8 bridge plug (exploration/appraisal wells) and setting tool.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1350/GEN 5 (12/91) 7 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

Page

EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY DETERMINATION


PROJECTION LINE PROJECTION LINE 50

PROCEDURE
1. DRAW LINE FROM MUD YP THROUGH CUTTINGS SIZE TO INTERSECT LH PROJECTION LINE AT A* 2. DRAW LINE FROM A* THROUGH HOLE DIAMETER TO CROSS RH PROJECTION LINE AT B* 3. DRAW LINE FROM B* TO MUD PV

40 CUTTINGS SIZE (in) 1/4 30

EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY (cP) 300 17 1/2

1/2 20

200 12 3/4 8 1/2


HOLE DIAMETER (in)

100 80 60

4. READ OFF EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY AT CROSS-OVER POINT

10

100 40 20

0 YIELD POINT (lb/100ft 2 )

0 PLASTIC VISCOSITY (cP)

CUTTINGS SETTLING VELOCITY DETERMINATION


PROJECTION LINE PROJECTION LINE 2.1

60 50 40

SETTLING VELOCITY (ft/min)

2.2 MUD SG

1.0 2.3

30 300 20 60

5. DRAW LINE FROM EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY THROUGH MUD SG TO INTERSECT LH PROJECTION LINE AT C* 6. DRAW LINE FROM CUTTINGS SG THROUGH MUD SG TO INTERSECT RH PROJECTION LINE AT D* 7. JOIN C* AND D*. READ OFF SLIP VELOCITY FOR APPROPRIATE CUTTINGS DIAMETER 8. CONTINUE TO NEXT FIGURE

2.0 1.5

50

2.4

200

40 1.0 MUD SG 100 2.6 20 2.5 10 1/4" CUTTINGS 30 1.5

1/2" CUTTINGS 0 EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY (cP) 2.0 2.7 CUTTINGS SG

2179 /159

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1350/GEN 5 (12/91) 8 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

Page

12 1/4" VERTICAL HOLE CLEANING

CUTTINGS SLIP VELOCITY (ft/min)


40 30 20 10 60 50

PENETRATION RATE (m/h) 60 50 PIVOT POINT 40 30 20

10

180 140 100 80

60

50

40

30

20

ANNULAR VELOCITY (ft/min)

PROCEDURE (CONT.) 9. DRAW LINE FROM CUTTINGS SLIP VELOCITY THROUGH PIVOT POINT TO CROSS PENETRATION RATE LINES. 10. FOR APPROPRIATE ROP, READ MINIMUM ANNULAR VELOCITY.

2179 /160

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1350/GEN 5 (12/91) 9 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

Page

DEVIATED 12 1/4" HOLE CLEANING CHART

Q(gpm) * ESG TRANSPORT INDEX = 100 50 TRANSPORT INDEX 11 2.5

EFFECTIVE SG (ESG) 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

40 MAXIMUM ROP (m/h) CUTTINGS SG

1.6

30

10

2.4 1.7

20

9 8 7

10

0 40 50 60 70 HOLE ANGLE (DEGREES) 80

2.3 1.2

1.3

1.4 1.5 MUD SG

1.6

PROCEDURE 1. ENTER MUD SG AND CUTTINGS SG ON RH GRAPH. READ OFF ESG FROM FAMILY OF DIAGONAL LINES. 2. USE BOXED EQUATION TO DETERMINE TRANSPORT INDEX FOR SET FLOW RATE. 3. READ OFF MAX ROP FOR HOLE ANGLE

2179 /161

SUBJECT:

FIGURE 1

PLOT OF BHA DEFLECTION AND WALL CONTACT 12 1/4" HOLE - 8" x 2 3/4" DC
WELL BORE

DRILLING 12 1/4" HOLE

BP EXPLORATION

DRILLING MANUAL

60FT
90

70FT

80FT

90FT

80

70

HOLE ANGLE (DEGREES)

60

50

40

30

Page

Rev.

Section

20

10

: 10 of 10

: 5 (12/91)

: 1350/GEN

0 0 1 2 5 10 15 20 25

BHA DEFLECTION (INS)

WALL CONTACT (FT)

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 1 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

Page

DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 4, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout. Ensure that the gyro survey equipment, if required, is available after cementing the casing but before drilling out the shoe. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 8 1/2 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that logging tools/operators, survey tools/operators (if required) and casing running tools/operators are all on board prior to reaching the 8 1/2 section TD. Ensure that BOP equipment and drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. Complete wellhead pressure testing, and carry out a BOP test as per Sections 0420/FIX and 0420/SEM. Set wellhead wear bushing. On semi-submersible units install the flex joint wear bushing. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of a FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools confirm passage of drop-in dart through jars. On floating units ensure that the emergency hang-off tool is made up in the derrick. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of 8 1/2 Hole Drilling Operations. Ensure that a 8 1/2 string reamer is on board for the duration of the 8 1/2 hole drilling and 7 casing operations. DRILLING - GENERAL Make up the 8 1/2 drilling assembly. Vertical Wells Where differential sticking is known not to be a problem. Typical drilling assemblies for this section are: Straight well drop-off assembly: 8 1/2 bit - bit sub - Totco - 2 x 6 1/4 DC - 8 1/2 SS - 1 x 6 1/4 DC - 8 1/2 SS - 11 x 6 1/4 DC - DS 6 1/4 jars - 2 x 6 1/4 DC - 3 HWDP. Straight well locked-up assembly: 8 1/2 bit - 8 1/2 NBS - Totco - 1 x 6 1/4 DC - 8 1/2 SS - 2 x 6 1/4 DC - 8 1/2 SS - 11 x 6 1/4 DC DS - 6 1/4 jars - 2 x 6 1/4 DC - 3 HWDP.

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

1.10

2. 2.1

Notes: If it is planned to run a turbine assembly, a stiff assembly should always precede the turbine BHA. For details on turbine drilling see Section 1700/GEN. If formation dips have been identified as a problem, then a stiffer assembly should be run. Drill collars below jar, number dependent on desired weight on bit.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 2 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

Page

Directional Wells On completion of the previous section, the hole will usually have been lined up on the target, and drilling will be carried out with a locked-up assembly. Since the 8 1/2 section is normally drilled through the pay, the assembly should be designed to minimise the possibility of differential sticking. This is done by: a) Minimising Wall Contact of the Drill Collars: A report entitled BHA Deflection in Deviated Holes (12/12/90) concluded that, in 8 1/2 hole, a stabiliser spacing of 60 ft is necessary to provide zero wall contact in wells of up to c. 35 degrees inclination. For inclinations greater than 35 degrees, a stabiliser every 30 ft is necessary. Jars are to be considered the same as drill collars. A series of curves showing wall contact for various hole angles and stabiliser spacings can be found at the end of this section. These are to be referenced when high inclinations are anticipated; and, since sticking of the Hevi-Wate can occur, b) Minimising the Quantity of Hevi-Wate in the Assembly: A report entitled Drilling Jar Optimisation in 8 1/2 BHAs (19/12/90) concluded that, from a jarring viewpoint, the optimum assembly above the jars consists of 2 collars and 3 Hevi-Wate drill pipe.

Note: Additional HWDP reduced jarring effectiveness.


Thus, typical assemblies would be: 1) Bit - NBS - SDC - SS - DC - SS - 2 DC - SS - 2 DC - SS - 2 DC - SS - Jar - DC - 7 3/4 SS - DC - 3 HWDP or, where directional information is required: 2) Bit - NBS - SNMDC - NMSS - MWD - NMSS - (TR) - 2 NMDC - SS - 2 DC - SS - 2 DC - SS - Jar DC - 7 3/4 SS - DC - 3 HWDP.

Note: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Any additional WOB required should be as DC plus stabilisers below the jar. A Totco ring should be run in addition to the MWD for single shot/ multi shot surveys. Jars will always be run. Keep the neutral point away from the jars while drilling (guideline - 80% for available weight on bit - neutral point from jar). Hevi-Wate DP will always be run. The minimum BHA lengths should be run to provide the maximum WOB required. A junk sub should be considered in the BHA prior to using a PDC or Diamond bit (corehead), core barrel or turbine. Consideration should always be given to using roller reamers in place of stabilisers, particularly directly above the bit, and definitely after coring. The modern sealed bearing roller reamer offers no disadvantages over stabilisers for this purpose, and can considerably reduce required rotating torque.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 3 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
h) i)

Page

DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

Stabilisers higher than the first three above the bit do not need to be full gauge, as they fulfil no directional purpose. The OD, ID and length of each string component is to be recorded before it is run in hole. Ensure that the ID of all downhole tools, such as bumper subs, jars and shock subs, etc. is large enough to allow FPI, back-off and survey recovery tools to pass. A slimhole wireline overshot may be required to recover survey instruments.

2.2

RIH and drill out Stage Cementer if installed. Pressure test casing to 9 5/8 cement plug bump pressure.

Note: a) b) If a gyro survey is required in the 9 5/8 casing, this will be run as instructed by the Drilling Office. Be aware of the danger of the bit drilling through the centre of the plug, leaving the outer section to ride up above the bit. This may cause a hydraulic piston effect that can result in pumping the drillstring out of the hole.

2.3 2.4

RIH and tag TOC (report TOC). Pressure test the casing, if required. Perform D4 and D5 kick drill and report the results on the IADC report. Drill out the 9 5/8 shoe track, closely monitoring torque. Note and report hardness of cement in shoe track.

Note: a) b) c) d) e) Ensure that the mud is pre-treated against cement contamination. It is not recommended to drill the shoe track or stage cementer with a bit softer than that of the 1.3.4 IADC category. If drilling out with a PDC bit, refer to Section 1500/GEN. If mud conditioning or mud changeout is programmed, peform this while drilling out the shoe track. Be aware of the danger of the bit drilling through the centre of the plug, leaving the outer section to ride up above the bit. This may cause a hydraulic piston effect that can result in pumping the drillstring out of the hole.

2.5

Clean out the pocket and drill 3m of new hole. Circulate to clean the hole and balance the mud. Pull back to the shoe and perform a leak-off test (refer to Section 7100/GEN). This test may be limited on advice from the drilling office, depending on mud weight and kick margin requirements in the 8 1/2 section. Fax the leak-off test graph to town. Re-calculate the kick tolerance and inform the Drilling Superintendent if less than 100 bbls (refer to Section 0405/GEN). Take SCRs.

Note: The leak-off test surface pressure is limited to the casing test or cup type test pressure, whichever is the least.
2.6 On exploration/appraisal wells drill/core to section TD taking surveys as required (refer to Section 7000/EXP). On development wells drill/core ahead to section TD taking single shot inclination surveys as required (refer to Section 7000/DEV - Standard Survey Instructions).

Note: a) Take SCRs every 500m drilled or when the mud weight is changed.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 4 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
b) c) d) e) f)
2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

Page

DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

The Drilling Programme will advise section TD, MWD requirements if any, any coring requirements, reservoir pressure data, mud weight data and potential drilling hazards. BOP tests are to be carried out every 10 - 14 days maximum. Pit drills are to be carried out every tour. Kick drills are to be carried out on trips and reported. On exploration/appraisal wells a tandem electronic multishot survey may be required at TD. If so, ensure that non-magnetic drill collars are in the BHA prior to reaching TD. Normal circulation rates for this section are 400 - 450 gpm. For optimum circulation rates refer to the 8 1/2 hole cleaning curves on pages 7 and 8.

At section TD circulate to clean the hole and condition the mud. Survey the hole as directed by the drilling programme. POOH confirming hole depth measurements. Log as programmed. A check trip may be required depending on hole condition and length of logging programme. Check trip prior to running the casing if required. Condition the hole and mud. POOH confirming hole depth measurements and laying out the dart sub if a liner is to be run. On development wells install NMDCs on the check trip and drop a tandem solid state EMS before POOH for casing. Rig up to run the 7 liner.

2.11

Note: a) On exploration/appraisal wells, a 7 liner will normally be run if it is decided to test the well. If the well is to be plugged and abandoned after logging, RIH with the cementing stinger, circulate to condition the mud and set cement plugs as programmed (refer to Section 3600/GEN). If a rotating 7 liner is programmed, ensure rotary torque readings are taken on bottom and inside 9 5/8 casing at 10, 15 and 20 RPM for use during liner cementing. In sidetracking or special directional situations, variations to the above will be advised in the Drilling Programme.

b) c)

3.

EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Quantity
Selection 1 2 4 2 if required 2 30 5 1 2 1 set 1 set 2 sets 1

Description
8 1/2 bits c/w jets (selection) + breakers. 8 1/2 junk mill. 8 1/2 near bit stabilisers. 8 1/2 string stabilisers/gauge tool. 8 1/2 roller reamer + NB roller reamer. Bit sub (4 1/2 Reg box/4 IF box). 6 1/4 drill collars. 5 HWDP. DC safety clamp. Totco ring (ring type). Totco equipment and overshot (slim hole o/shot/heat shield may be needed). DC slips/elevators. DP elevators/slips. Gray inside BOP.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 5 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Page

DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE


1 1 1 2 1 1 3 if required 1 if required 1 lot As required If required If required Selection 1 1 Set As required 1 Circ. head 2 torque valve. Hydril kelly cock. 5 DP pup joints. Dope for DP and DC. Junk sub (connections to match drill collars). 6 1/4 OD drilling jars. Circulating sub. Dart sub. Liner equipment (Section 2500). 6 1/4 non-magnetic drill collars. 8 1/2 non-magnetic string stabiliser. Undergauge stabilisers (if required). 6 1/4 Pony drill collars (steel and non-mag). Gyro survey equipment. Magnetic multishot equipment. Core barrel assembly (typically 6 3/4 OD x 4 3/8). 8 1/2 coreheads. (Note: a slimhole o/shot required for the core barrel assembly in 8 1/2 hole.) 9 5/8 bridge plug with DP running tool. 9 5/8 RTTS and storm valve (or equivalent). Fishing tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN). TD logging suite. 7 3/4 string stab.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 6 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

Page

EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY DETERMINATION


PROJECTION LINE PROJECTION LINE 50

PROCEDURE
1. DRAW LINE FROM MUD YP THROUGH CUTTINGS SIZE TO INTERSECT LH PROJECTION LINE AT A* 2. DRAW LINE FROM A* THROUGH HOLE DIAMETER TO CROSS RH PROJECTION LINE AT B* 3. DRAW LINE FROM B* TO MUD PV

40 CUTTINGS SIZE (in) 1/4 30

EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY (cP) 300 17 1/2

1/2 20

12 1/4 8 1/2
HOLE DIAMETER (in)

200

100 80 60

4. READ OFF EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY AT CROSS-OVER POINT

10

100 40 20

0 YIELD POINT (lb/100ft 2 )

0 PLASTIC VISCOSITY (cP)

CUTTINGS SETTLING VELOCITY DETERMINATION


PROJECTION LINE PROJECTION LINE 2.1

60 50 40

SETTLING VELOCITY (ft/min)

2.2 MUD SG

1.0 2.3

30 300 20 60

5. DRAW LINE FROM EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY THROUGH MUD SG TO INTERSECT LH PROJECTION LINE AT C* 6. DRAW LINE FROM CUTTINGS SG THROUGH MUD SG TO INTERSECT RH PROJECTION LINE AT D* 7. JOIN C* AND D*. READ OFF SLIP VELOCITY FOR APPROPRIATE CUTTINGS DIAMETER 8. CONTINUE TO NEXT FIGURE

2.0 1.5

50

2.4

200

40 1.0 MUD SG 100 2.6 20 2.5 10 1/4" CUTTINGS 30 1.5

1/2" CUTTINGS 0 EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY (cP) 2.0 2.7 CUTTINGS SG

2179 /156

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 7 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

Page

8 1/2" VERTICAL HOLE CLEANING


CUTTINGS SLIP VELOCITY (ft/min)
40 30 20 10 0 40 50 60

PENETRATION RATE (m/h)


30 20

PIVOT POINT

10

180 140 100 80

60

50

40

30

20

ANNULAR VELOCITY (ft/min)

PROCEDURE (CONT.) 9. DRAW LINE FROM CUTTINGS SLIP VELOCITY THROUGH PIVOT POINT TO CROSS PENETRATION RATE LINES. 10. FOR APPROPRIATE ROP, READ MINIMUM ANNULAR VELOCITY.

2179 /157

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1400/GEN 6 (12/91) 8 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

Page

DEVIATED 8 1/2" HOLE CLEANING CHART

Q(gpm) * ESG TRANSPORT INDEX = 100 40 TRANSPORT INDEX 2.7

EFFECTIVE SG (ESG) 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

MAXIMUM ROP (m/h)

30

6 CUTTINGS SG 2.2 2.6

20 5 10 4 0 30 40 50 60 70 HOLE ANGLE (DEGREES) 80 3 90

2.5 1.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 MUD SG

2.0

PROCEDURE 1.ENTER MUD SG AND CUTTINGS SG ON RH GRAPH. READ OFF ESG FROM FAMILY OF DIAGONAL LINES. 2.USE BOXED EQUATION TO DETERMINE TRANSPORT INDEX FOR SET FLOW RATE. 3. READ OFF MAX ROP FOR HOLE ANGLE

2179 /158

BP EXPLORATION Rev. : : 9 of 10 6 (12/91)

Section

1400/GEN

DRILLING MANUAL
Page

SUBJECT: FIGURE 1 PLOT OF BHA DEFLECTION AND WALL CONTACT 8 1/2 " HOLE 6 1/2 " x 2 3/4 " DRILL COLLARS

DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

90 FT

80 FT

30 1 10 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.25 0.50 0.75 HOLE ANGLE ( DEGREES ) BHA DEFLECTION ( INS ) WALL CONTACT ( FEET ) 20

WELL BORE

100

30 FT

50 FT

60 FT

70 FT

40

IAJ / 03 / KR-1 910032 / 2

BP EXPLORATION Rev. : : 10 of 10 6 (12/91)

Section

1400/GEN

DRILLING MANUAL
Page

SUBJECT: FIGURE 2 EFFECT OF DECREASING COLLAR O.D. IN 8 1/2 " HOLE 6" AND 6 1/2 " DRILL COLLARS WITH 2 3/4 " I.D.

DRILLING 8 1/2" HOLE

6 1/2 " O.D. DRILL COLLAR 6" O.D. DRILL COLLAR

90 FT

40 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 HOLE ANGLE ( DEGREES ) 20 WALL CONTACT ( FEET ) 30


IAJ / 03 / KR-06 910032 / 1

100

60 FT

70 FT

80 FT

50

60

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1450/GEN 2 (7/90) 1 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.

Page

DRILLING 6" HOLE

On exploration and appraisal wells drilling 6 hole is not a normal operation and a specific programme will be compiled as and when required. On development wells drilling 6 hole is commonly undertaken. If 6 hole is planned then the 7 liner must be drifted to suit, e.g. 32 lb/ft will have to be special drift unless 5 7/8 hole is drilled.

2. 2.1

PRE-DRILLOUT OPERATIONS - DEVELOPMENT WELLS Ensure that all drilling tools and equipment, as per the Equipment Check List on page 2, are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout. Ensure that the gyro survey equipment, if required, is available after cementing the casing but before drilling out the shoe. Ensure that all fishing tools relevant to Drilling Operations on the 6 hole section are on board, checked out and in a serviceable condition prior to Casing Drillout (refer to Section 6200/GEN). Ensure that logging tools/operators and casing running tools/operators are all on board prior to reaching the 6 section TD. Ensure that BOP equipment and drillstring well control equipment is in a serviceable condition. Complete wellhead pressure testing, and carry out a BOP test as per Section 0420/FIX. Set wellhead wear bushing. Check the ID of all downhole equipment for passage of FPI tool and survey instrument fishing tools. Ensure that all General Drilling Instructions, detailed in Section 1000/GEN, are in place and adhered to. Ensure that all relevant BOP drills, in accordance with the guidelines listed in the BP Well Control Manual, are understood by all rig personnel and are implemented at the relevant stages of 6 Hole Drilling Operations. Ensure that a 6 string reamer is on board for the duration of the 6 hole drilling and casing operations. 7 casing float equipment must be of a drillable nature. Therefore, equipment such as the Weatherford Type 724 SS float shoe must be used. If drilling 6 hole with high mud overbalances, MWD drilling and RFT logging are high risk and costly options to be avoided if at all possible. Prior to drilling out the 7 liner, positive testing and/or drawdown testing may be done at different stages of liner cleanout, depending on the objectives of the tests. Extreme care should be exercised with all wellbore pressure testing, especially with differing mud weights in hole. All pressure testing should be conducted as per Leak-Off Testing Section 7100/GEN. Individual Well Programmes will advise precise pressure testing requirements. DRILLING - GENERAL After completion of BOP testing and installation of the wear bushing, make up the 6 drilling assembly. Normally, there are no directional requirements to fulfill on 6 hole sections and the hole will be drilled with a packed rotary assembly. PDC bits have proved to be more effective at drilling the 6 reservoir section than insert tri-cone bits. A typical 6 packed assembly would be: 6 bit - 6 NBS - 4 3/4 NMDC - 6 NMSS - Totco - 4 3/4 NMDC - 6 NMSS - 4 3/4 NMDC - 2 x 4 3/4 DC - 6 SS - 7 x 4 3/4 DC - jar - 2 x 4 3/4 DC - 3 1/2 DP* - X/O - circ. sub - HDIS - 5 DP.

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

3. 3.1

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1450/GEN 2 (7/90) 2 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: DRILLING 6" HOLE

Page

* Run sufficient 3 1/2 DP to keep the X/O above the 7 PBR with the bit at the deepest prognosed TD. 3.2 3.3 RIH to +/- 20m above 7 float collar. Perform positive pressure test on 9 5/8/7 liner lap to the test pressure advised in the Drilling Programme.

Note: A JM tie-back packer assembly or equivalent will be available as a contingency in the event that a pressure test is not obtained.
3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Clean out liner as per Section 3450/GEN. Pressure test the 7 liner to the pressure advised in the Drilling Programme. Perform kick drill. Drill out the remainder of the shoe track and sump, plus 3m of new hole. Perform a leak-off test, as per Section 7100/GEN. Calculate the limited kick tolerance (refer to Section 0405/GEN). Work the junk subs (if run) and drill/core ahead 6 hole to TD.

Note: a) b) c) Non-magnetic drill collars will be run as part of all 6 drilling and coring assemblies, in case TD is called and a definitive ESI survey is dropped when POH. When 6 coring assemblies are in use, do not put a Totco ring in the string. The survey barrel will land on the drop-in ball. Core barrels with heavy duty threads must be used to reduce the chances of connection belling on these small diameter (4 3/4 x 2 5/8) barrels. Barrel lengths should generally be limited to 30m due to strength considerations.

3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 4.

Circulate and condition hole for logging. Check trip to the 7 shoe. RIH and circulate clean. POH, taking an ESI survey. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Quantity
Selection 1 1 2 4 2 2 24 3 String 1 set 1

Description
6 bits c/w jets and breakers. 5 7/8 junk mill. 4 3/4 junk sub. 6 NB stabiliser (3 1/2 IF conns). 6 string stabilisers (3 1/2 IF conns). 6 NM string stabilisers (3 1/2 IF conns). 4 3/4 OD sub 3 1/2 Reg box - 3 1/2 IF box. 4 3/4 drill collars (3 1/2 IF conns). 6 NM drill collars (3 1/2 IF conns). 3 1/2 drill pipe with 4 3/4 OD x 3 1/2 IF conns. (3 1/2 13.3 lb/ft S135). 4 3/4 DC slips/elevators. DC safety clamp.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1450/GEN 2 (7/90) 3 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Page

DRILLING 6" HOLE


2 sets 2 sets 2 sets 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 20 If required Set 1 3 1/2 DP elevators/slips (SDL). Type C BJ tongs. Conversion heads for rig tongs for 4 3/4 OD. 3 1/2 DP pup joints. 4 3/4 DC lifting subs. Junk subs (3 1/2 Reg conns). 4 3/4 OD Hydril kelly cock (3 1/2 IF conns). Gray inside BOP (3 1/2 IF conn). 4 3/4 dart sub (3 1/2 IF conns). 4 3/4 OD circ. sub (3 1/2 IF conn). 4 3/4 OD drilling jars. 3 1/2 HWDP (3 1/2 IF conns). DP and DC dope. Core barrels and coreheads (4 3/4 x 2 5/8). Fishing tools (refer to Section 6200/GEN). 6 near bit roller reamer.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

1500/GEN 2 (12/91) 1 of 1

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

Page

DRILLING CASING FLOATATION EQUIPMENT WITH PDC BITS

GENERAL It may be possible to drill out casing floatation equipment with a PDC bit using rotary or turbine drilling techniques. This eliminates the need to perform a separate casing clean-out trip. This will only be attempted if the next section of open hole is suited to PDC drilling. On exploration/appraisal wells, when the nature of the formations are uncertain, it may be advisable to drill out the float equipment and open hole with a re-run or repaired PDC bit in the first instance. It must be certain that there is no junk, such as rock bit teeth or CST bullets, lying below the casing shoe. The risk of casing accessories producing junk must also be taken into consideration. Beware of damaging a PDC bit where there is a high DLS in the shoe track. It is advisable to use a PDC bit with a minimum of PDC cutters on the gauge area. Gauge cutters, if present, should be of the flat profile type rather than the circular profile type in order to avoid damage while rotating in the casing. Casing float equipment must be threadlocked to overcome the greater right hand torque produced by the PDC cutting action. Consideration should be given to using non-rotating float and plugs. FLOAT EQUIPMENT There must be no ferrous metallic content in the float equipment, and the aluminium content must be kept to a minimum. Only single stage float equipment and drillable liner accessories are to be drilled with PDC bits. DRILLING PARAMETERS Recommended parameters for drilling float equipment with PDC bits are: WOB RPM SPM 5 - 20,000 lbs. 60 - 100. as for normal drilling.

1.2 1.3

1.4

1.5 1.6 2. 2.1 2.2 3. 3.1

Note: a) Be aware of the danger of the bit drilling through the centre of the plug, leaving the outer section to ride up above the bit. This may cause a hydraulic piston effect that can result in pumping the drillstring out of the hole.
3.2 The main indicator of progress is rotary efficiency. Off bottom torque must be recorded and the torque limit set to 2 - 3 times the corresponding amperage. The rotary torque gauge must indicate some value greater than the off bottom torque to indicate progress. Erratic torque will also be a good indication that progress is being made. Stalling of the rotary table may occur when drilling the rubber plugs. If this occurs, release the torque slowly, pick up and work the bit free of the obstruction before recommencing drilling. When drilling out of the casing with a PDC bit on a turbine, observe normal turbine drilling procedures and maintain the minimum WOB necessary to make progress (refer to Section 1700/GEN).

3.3 3.4

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MUD MOTORS

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MOTORS The PDM was developed to supply bottom hole rotation of a bit without the cost or complexity of turbodrills. The PDM operates on the Moineau principle, operating in the reverse fashion to a pump. Fluid driven motors are positive displacement if, for each volume of fluid passing through the motors, the output shaft turns a corresponding amount. The typical Moineau PDM consists of four basic components (refer to Figure 1): Bypass valve. Motor assembly. Universal joint assembly. Bearing assembly.

The bypass valve allows the string to fill and drain while tripping as the motor assembly will not allow drilling mud to pass through the tool under hydrostatic conditions. The motor assembly, which consists of a polished steel rotor inside an elastomeric stator which forms the outer body of the motor, converts hydraulic horsepower to mechanical horsepower. The torque and speed depends on the number of lobes, stage length and cross-sectional area of the void space between motor and stator. The polished steel rotor and elastomeric stator are formed in a helix with a round cross-section which is unique to the Moineau mechanism (see Figure 2). When the motor is assembled there is a continuous seal along its length between the rubber stator and the matching points on the spiral rotor shaft. As mud is pumped through the cavities between the rotor and stator, the hydraulic pressure causes the shaft to rotate within the stator. The universal joint assembly transmits the eccentric rotation of the motor to concentric rotation at the drive shaft which rotates the bit. The bearing assembly is made up of radial bearings, which centralise the output drive shaft and thrust bearings which, in turn, react against the downward force created by the pressure drop across the motor and the upward bit force. The PDM comes in a variety of sizes to drill hole sizes from 2 - 26. The RPM of the rotor is directly proportional to the flowrate. Each tool can operate under a wide range of flowrates to optimise for the particular use. 1.1 Types of PDM Most PDMs in use are of the 1-2 lobe system although multi-lobed systems are available, e.g. 9-10 lobe (see Figure 2). At present the 1-2 lobe systems are much easier to manufacture. It is much more difficult to match the rotors and stators in multi-lobed systems. The development of the multi-lobed system is very important, however, as they introduce a wider range of rpm to bring the speed down to that recommended for rock bits. Much higher available torque is also produced. The geometric arrangement acts as a gear reducer producing a slower rpm. Applications of Downhole Motors 1. 2. 3. 4. Kick off sections. Azimuth control in deviated wells - bent subs, offset stabilisers. Sidetracking past a fish, or to a new target, off a cement plug. Reduce hole angle and/or dog legs in vertical wells.

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5. 6. 1.2

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MUD MOTORS

Reduced casing wear - particularly in highly deviated production wells. Allows wells to be drilled where deviation/dogleg severity produces high torque values.

Kick Off Sections The PDM has been used extensively, particulary in the North Sea with its multiwell platforms, for the initial kick off section in a well. The PDM has been particularly efficient and cost effective in the kick off sections of a deviated well from a platform. The PDM is normally used with a bent sub and oriented in a particular direction. The size of the bent sub can be altered to provide the required build rate for the well. Table 1 (page 10) illustrates the rate of build achievable over 30m for various bent subs when using a Dynadrill PDM. As a general rule, when used with a bent sub the hole deflection achieved over 10m is about 75% of the bent sub angle. The rate of build is also achieved in a reasonably smooth fashion with no wide swings in dog leg severity. It is relatively easy to build and turn during the kick off using a PDM and a bent sub. When used with a double tilt unit (DTU) the PDM assembly can be used to drill straight, by rotating the drill string, or to deviate, by orienting the tool and drilling without rotation. The DTU housing replaces the standard U-joint housing in the conventional tool. As an example, Christensen quote the following theoretical BURs for their Navidrill (Mach 2)/DTU assembly: Tool Size 6 3/4 9 1/2 11 1/4 Hole Size 8 1/2 12 1/4 17 1/2 17 1/2 24 DTU Angle 0.32 0.64 0.38 0.59 0.41 0.78 BUR deg/30m 2 4 2 4 2 3.8

The well course can be monitored by using either an MWD tool or a steering tool to control the tool face setting. 1.3 Azimuth Control Rotary drilling is affected by the natural walk tendency of the well. This will vary according to the particular area or even the well direction in a particular field. Generally we find that wells tend to walk to the right. Well planning allows for a certain amount of walk while drilling, but where this proves excessive in a particular well the well course has to be turned back on its planned line. Using downhole motors, this can be achieved reasonably quickly using a PDM and bent sub and orienting the bent sub to the required azmiuth. The bent sub is pointed a certain number of degrees left of highside depending on whether hole angle has to be maintained or not. On occasions, where azimuth is such that the hole is still pointing within the target, a straight hole stabilised mud motor may be employed. Experience with Dynadrills and Navidrills in the Beatrice field

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shows that the azimuth tends to hold with the possibility of very minor RH walk where normal RH walk is excessive with normal rotary assemblies. Typical Navidrill Assembly 12 1/4 bit - 12 1/4 short N/B stab - navidrill (intergrally stabilised) - X/O - 11 1/2 stab - 8 MDC 12 1/4 NM stab - X/O - teleco - 12 1/4 NM stab - totco - 2 x 8 MDC - 12 1/4 stab - 3 x 8 DC - jars - 6 x 8 DC. This assembly would give a holding to slight drop tendency in a 65 well. The advantages of using the stabilised navidrill as opposed to a turbine are: i) ii) iii) iv) 1.4 Less pressure drop - less pump wear. Less RPM at bit sealed bearing rock bits can be used. More torque available at bit. Cheaper operation - hence less CPF.

Sidetracking Wells may need to be sidetracked for various reasons. a) b) c) Redrill the well to a new target. Sidetrack past a fish. Sidetrack due to hole problems.

The well is normally kicked off a cement plug by undercutting the hole and turning the bent sub to head in the new required direction. Again this is more efficient than, for example, a Whipstock, as the hole can be controlled more effectively. Where sidetracking out of a window in casing the Whipstock could feasibly rotate at some stage causing the pipe to stick. 1.5 Reduce Hole Angle Vertical holes invariably have some hole angle in them. If the angle builds too much to possibly miss the bottom hole target pendulum assemblies are run to drop off angle again. This may result in a loss of penetration rate due to reduce weights on bit while farming the bottom of the hole to try and drop angle. The PDM and bent sub can be used very effectively to reduce hole inclination. Drilling with a combination of rotary assemblies and use of PDM can be very effective. Comparison with Other Methods of Kicking Off a Well a) a) Badger bits. b) Whipstocks.

The badger bit is a two cone bit with one nozzle blocked off. More generally a three cone bit was used - with one large nozzle and the other two blocked off. The hole was jetted in one direction to create a ledge. Kick off was generally slower with this method and only really effective in soft formations where jetting is possible. Whipstock The whipstock basically acts as a 4 steel wedge which can be oriented to kick the bit off in a particular direction. This method is not very efficient if the well plan has to build and turn past other wells as several trips would be required.

b)

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Neither of these methods can provide the flexibility or ease of operation of a PDM + bent sub. 1.6 Wear in Casing The general procedure for reducing/minimising wear on casing has centred around minimising cont act by the use of drillpipe rubbers and by controlling dog legs below recommended limits. In deviated wells in particular, casing wear can be a serious problem, possibly resulting in complete failure of that string. The wear can be reduced significantly be reducing the total number of rotations in the casing by the use of a downhole motor. Drillpipe Rotations = 60 RP P R F P = = = rpm footage penetration rate

Therefore, the number of rotations can be reduced by reducing the rotary speed of the pipe and also by increasing the penetration rate. 1.7 Excessive Rotary Torque Multiwell platforms have increased the departure required from the platform to optimise drainage of a field. This leads to increased hole angles for a well and together with high dog legs which may be present, tends to increase the surface torque required to drill the well. In some cases torque has been so high that the rotary table can no longer be rotated. In this case downhole motors can be employed to provide torque directly at the bit to allow the well to be drilled. 1.8 Selection of Type of Mud Motor Consideration should be given to the following: 1. 2. 3. Hole size. Bit type, e.g. roller cone, PCD, diamond. Hydraulics limitation.

Tables 2 to 11 provide performance data for three of the major manufacturers motors. 1.9 Hole Size The motor should be able to handle flowrates suitable for hole cleaning. Some motors, such as the Drilex D950, incorporate a hollow rotor which may be used as a bypass to allow more flow through the tool, the amount of flow through the bypass is controlled by the use of a bit nozzle at the top of the motor. Comparing the data from Table 8 for the D950 with that in Table 12, one can see that an increase in flowrate of 150 gpm can be achieved by using a 1/2 nozzle. It is important to remember that unless otherwise stated on the performance chart, the figures quoted are those for the tool with the nozzle blanked off. The motor should also be capable of providing enough torque at the bit. The manufacturers quoted maximum operating torque is at 10% fluid of the slippage between rotor and stator. The stall torque is approximately 50% greater than the manufacturers recommended maximum torque. At stall torque, fluid slippage is 100%. Operating the tool above the maximum recommended torque will cause undue wear on the stator.

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1.10

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MUD MOTORS

Bit Type As roller cone bits require less rpm than PDC or diamond bits, their use with PDMs was limited until the multi lobe low speed motors were developed. As the rotational speed of the motor is solely dependent on the flowrate, a tool which matches hole cleaning with rotary speed is essential.

1.11

Hydraulics Limitations The motor must be compatible with the available pump hydraulic horsepower and it is important to remember that a motor will consume some of the hydraulic horsepower normally available for the bit. Therefore, it is necessary to select a motor which will still allow adequate hydraulic HP at the bit even when operating at maximum torque. It must be remembered that when using a motor resulting in high system pressure losses, the constant application of high pressures may lead to a higher incidence of power end failures.

1.12

Mud Motor Procedures 1. Checking the Mud Motor Before tripping in, the motor should be tested on the rig floor prior to installing the bit. a) b) c) d) Set motor in slips and install safety clamp. Test bypass valve by pressing the piston down to the internal stop. Release the piston and check its reset. Connect the kelly and lower the motor until the bypass valve is below the table. Secure with rig tongs. Start the pumps at 10% of maximum flow and check bypass is operating. Increase flowrate until bypass valve closes and make a note of flowrate. Pick up the motor until the drive sub is visible to check motor operating. Lower the bypass valve back below the table prior to turning off the pumps.

2.

Drilling with the Mud Motor All mud motors are subjected to a maximum differential pressure which, if exceeded will result in rapid stator and bearing wear. After reaching bottom with the PDM, the following procedure should be followed: i) ii) Record off bottom pressure at desired pump rate. Set the bit on bottom and gradually set down weight until the desired differential pressure is achieved.

Note: As WOB is applied, the standpipe pressure will increase.


This increase is known as the differential pressure and should not exceed the recommended maximum if bearing life is to be maximised. As the bit drills off the differential pressure will decrease. iii) When a suitable WOB is reached, drilling is best continued using the pump pressure gauge as a reference for maximum performance. As the bit speed is dependent only on the flowrate, the bit speed will remain constant as long as the pump rate is kept constant. iv) A sudden rise in differential pressure above the average level indicates stalling. If this happens, pick up off bottom and allow the motor to re-start prior to applying weight to the bit.

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FIGURE 1

BY-PASS VALVE

ROTOR STATOR

UNIVERSAL JOINTS

STABILIZER

NAVI-DRILL

MACH 1 Departmental Motor

Rotor Type Rotor Type

BEARING HOUSINGS

DRIVE SUB

BIT

2179 /149

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FIGURE 2

1/2 ROTOR/STATOR RELATIONSHIP

5/6 ROTOR/STATOR RELATIONSHIP

2179 /148

SUBJECT: MUD MOTORS


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DRILLING MANUAL

TABLE 1 Predicted Deflection Angle Change for 30m Drilled When Using a Bent Sub/Dyna Drill Combination BENT SUB ASSEMBLY 5" Dyna-Drill Tool Hole Size 6" Deflection Angle 330' 445' 530' 300' 300' 500' 545' 230' 330' 430' 530' 6 1/2" Dyna-Drill Tool Hole Size 8 1/4" Deflection Angle 230' 330' 430' 145' 330' 345' 500' 115' 200' 300' 400' 7 3/4" Dyna-Drill Tool Hole Size 9 7/8" Deflection Angle 230' 345' 500' 200' 230' 415' 530' 145' 230' 330' 500' 9 5/8" Dyna-Drill Tool Hole Size 13 1/2" Deflection Angle 200' 300' 430' 145' 345' 500' 17 1/2" 115' 215' 300' 430' 26" 12" Dyna-Drill Tool Hole Size 17 1/2" Deflection Angle 200' 400' 530' 200' 315' 400' 145' 300' 330'

Bent Sub Angle 1 1 1/2 2 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2

6 1/4"

9 7/8"

10 5/8"

15"

22"

7 7/8"

10 5/8"

12 1/4"

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SUBJECT:

TABLE 2 - Specifications NAVI-DRILL MACH 1

SPECIFICATIONS (Amer. Std.)

MUD MOTORS

ool Size OD inch 3 3/4 4 3/4 6 3/4 8 9 1/2

Recommended Hole Size inch 4 1/4 - 5 7/8 6 - 7 7/8 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 9 1/2 - 12 1/4 12 1/4 - 17 1/2

Pump Rate GPM min. 75 80 185 315 395 max. 145 185 370 610 635

Max. Bit Speed Diff. Max. Horsepower Range Pressure Torque Range Efficiency RPM 125 - 250 90 - 215 90 - 180 75 - 150 90 - 145 PSI 640 580 580 465 640 ft-lbs 740 1040 2540 4030 6160 HP 17 - 35 17 - 43 44 - 87 58 - 115 106 - 170 max. % 65 68 70 70 72

Thread Connection Bypass Valve Box Up 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg.* 7 5/8" Reg. Bit Sub Box Down 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. or 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Length ft 16.7 17.4 20.0 23.0 24.6 Weight lbs 440 710 1720 2430 4080

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11 1/4

17 1/2 - 26

525

1055

70 - 140

520

8850

118 - 236

73

7 5/8" Reg.

26.6

6070

* Available with 5 1/2" Reg. in USA only.

SPECIFICATIONS (Metric) ool Size OD inch 3 3/4 4 3/4 6 3/4 8 9 1/2 Recommended Hole Size inch 4 1/4 - 5 7/8 6 - 7 7/8 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 9 1/2 - 12 1/4 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 Pump Rate l/min. min. 280 300 700 1200 1500 max. 550 700 1400 2300 2400 Max. Bit Speed Diff. Max. Horsepower Range Pressure Torque Range Efficiency RPM 125 - 250 90 - 215 90 - 180 75 - 150 90 - 145 bar 44 40 40 32 44 Nm 1000 1400 3450 5450 8350 kW 13 - 26 13 - 32 33 - 65 43 - 86 79 - 127 max. % 65 68 70 70 72 Thread Connection Bypass Valve Box Up 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg.* 7 5/8" Reg. Bit Sub Box Down 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. or 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Length m 5.1 5.3 6.1 7.0 7.5 Weight kg 200 320 780 1100 1850

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11 1/4

17 1/2 - 26

2000

4000

70 - 140

36

12000

88 - 176

73

7 5/8" Reg.

8.1

2750

* Available with 5 1/2" Reg. in USA only.

SUBJECT:

TABLE 3 - Specifications NAVI-DRILL MACH 2

SPECIFICATIONS (Amer. Std.)

MUD MOTORS

ool Size OD inch 1 3/4 2 3/8 3 3/4 4 3/4 6 3/4 8 9 1/2 11 1/4

Recommended Hole Size inch 1 7/8 - 2 3/4 2 7/8 - 3 1/2 4 1/4 - 5 7/8 6 - 7 7/8 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 9 1/2 - 12 1/4 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 17 1/2 - 26

Pump Rate GPM min. 20 29 75 100 200 245 395 525 max.

Max. Bit Speed Diff. Approx. Horsepower Range Pressure Torque Range Efficiency RPM PSI 465 695 580 580 580 465 695 465 ft-lbs 26 85 385 585 1500 2090 3890 5380 HP 3.5 - 8.6 8.9 - 21 20 - 51 27 - 67 59 - 138 58 - 152 145 - 271 123 - 256 max. % 71 75 82 83 86 88 90 90

Thread Connection Bypass Valve Box Up AW Rod BW Rod 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg.* 7 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Bit Sub Box Down AW Rod BW Rod 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Length ft 8.9 13.1 19.4 20.0 26.6 26.9 32.8 32.2 Weight lbs 49 180 460 840 2160 2800 5200 7300

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45 720 - 1750 73 550 - 1370 185 280 - 700 240 245 - 600 475 205 - 485 635 145 - 380 740 195 - 365 1055 70 - 140

* Available with 5 1/2" Reg. in USA only.

SPECIFICATIONS (Metric) ool Size OD inch 1 3/4 2 3/8 3 3/4 4 3/4 6 3/4 8 9 1/2 11 1/4 Recommended Hole Size inch 1 7/8 - 2 3/4 2 7/8 - 3 1/2 4 1/4 - 5 7/8 6 - 7 7/8 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 9 1/2 - 12 1/4 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 17 1/2 - 26 Pump Rate l/min. min. 75 110 280 380 760 930 1500 2000 max. Max. Bit Speed Diff. Approx. Horsepower Range Pressure Torque Range Efficiency RPM bar 32 48 40 40 40 32 48 32 Nm 35 115 520 790 2030 2830 5280 7300 kW 2.6 - 6.4 6.6 - 16 15 - 38 20 - 50 44 - 103 43 - 113 180 - 202 93 - 191 max. % 71 75 82 83 86 88 90 90 Thread Connection Bypass Valve Box Up AW Rod BW Rod 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg.* 7 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Bit Sub Box Down AW Rod BW Rod 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Length m 2.7 4.0 5.9 6.1 8.1 8.2 10.0 9.8 Weight kg 22 80 210 380 980 1270 2360 3310

170 720 - 1750 275 550 - 1370 700 280 - 700 900 245 - 600 1800 205 - 485 2400 145 - 380 2800 195 - 365 4000 120 - 250

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TABLE 4 - Specifications NAVI-DRILL MACH 3

SPECIFICATIONS (Amer. Std.)

MUD MOTORS

ool Size OD inch 3 3/4 4 3/4 6 1/4** 6 3/4 8 9 1/2 9 1/2 N 11 1/4

Recommended Hole Size inch 4 1/4 - 5 7/8 6 - 7 7/8 7 7/8 - 9 7/8 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 9 1/2 - 12 1/4 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 17 1/2 - 26

Pump Rate GPM min. 60 80 170 160 200 240 395 290 max. 145 185 345 395 475 610 900 685

Max. Bit Speed Diff. Approx. Horsepower Range Pressure Torque Range Efficiency RPM 340 - 855 270 - 680 200 - 510 140 - 480 160 - 400 130 - 340 140 - 325 115 - 290 PSI 580 580 580 465 465 465 290 465 ft-lbs 245 415 1015 995 1475 2280 2210 2990 HP 16 - 40 21 - 54 39 - 98 27 - 91 46 - 113 56 - 148 59 - 137 66 - 165 max. % 81 85 85 85 87 90 90 89

Thread Connection Bypass Valve Box Up 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg.* 7 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Bit Sub Box Down 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Length ft 16.7 17.4 23.6 21.7 23.6 24.6 24.6 26.6 Weight lbs 400 680 1770 1770 2430 3970 3970 5960

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* Available with 5 1/2" Reg. in USA only.

** Available in the USA only.

SPECIFICATIONS (Metric) ool Size OD inch 3 3/4 4 3/4 6 1/4** 6 3/4 8 9 1/2 9 1/2 N 11 1/4 Recommended Hole Size inch 4 1/4 - 5 7/8 6 - 7 7/8 7 7/8 - 9 7/8 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 9 1/2 - 12 1/4 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 17 1/2 - 26 Pump Rate l/min. min. 230 300 650 600 750 900 1500 1100 max. 550 700 1300 1500 1800 2300 3400 2600 Max. Bit Speed Diff. Approx. Horsepower Range Pressure Torque Range Efficiency RPM 340 - 855 270 - 680 200 - 510 140 - 480 160 - 400 130 - 340 140 - 325 115 - 290 bar 40 40 40 32 32 32 20 32 Nm 330 560 1375 1350 2000 3090 3000 4050 kW 12 - 30 16 - 40 29 - 73 20 - 68 34 - 84 42 - 110 44 - 102 49 - 123 max. % 81 85 85 85 87 90 90 89 Thread Connection Bypass Valve Box Up 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg.* 7 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Bit Sub Box Down 2 7/8" Reg. 3 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 4 1/2" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 6 5/8" Reg. 7 5/8" Reg. Length m 5.1 5.3 7.2 6.6 7.2 7.5 7.5 8.1 Weight kg 180 310 800 800 1100 1800 1800 2700

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SUBJECT:

TABLE 5 - DYNA-DRILL SLO-SPEED TOOLS Dimensional and Operational Data

MUD MOTORS

BP EXPLORATION

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Tool Size OD Hole Size Range Thread Conn. Box Up Box Down in. (mm) API R API R ft (m) GPM (LPM) GPM (LPM) RPM PSI (BARS) ft-lbs (N-m) ft-lbs (N-m) HP (KW)

4 3/4" F2000S (5/6 Lobe) 6 1/2 - 7 7/8 (165 - 200) 3 1/2" 3 1/2" 21.4 (6.52) 180 - 250 (681 - 946) 110 - 150 250 (17) 1200 (1627) 2100 (2847) 25 - 34 (18.6 - 25.4) 2 PSI (BARS) lbs (KG) 200 - 2,000 (14 - 138) 1025 (465)

6 1/2" F2000S (5/6 Lobe) 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 (213 - 251) 4 1/2" 4 1/2" 22.8 (6.95) 250 - 450 (946 - 1704) 750 (2838) 100 - 180 455 (31) 2800 (3797) 4900 (6644) 53 - 96 (39.5 - 71.6) 3.5 200 - 2,000 (14 - 138) 1610 (730)

6 1/2" F2000S (9/10 Lobe) 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 (213 - 251) 4 1/2" 4 1/2" 19.7 (6.00) 300 - 500 (1136 - 1893) 800 (3028) 80 - 130 540 (37) 4000 (5424) 7000 (9492) 61 - 99 (45.5 - 73.8) 3 200 - 2,000 (14 - 138) 1730 (785)

7 3/4" F2000S (7/8 Lobe) 9 7/8 - 12 1/4 (251 - 311) 5 1/2" 6 1/2" 23.1 (7.04) 300 - 600 (1136 - 2271) 900 (3408) 75 - 150 860 (59) 7600 (10,305) 13,300 (18,034) 108 - 217 (80.5 - 161.8) 4.75 200 - 2,000 (14 - 138) 3290 (1492)

9 5/8" F2000S (5/6 Lobe) 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 (311 - 445) 6 5/8" 6 5/8" (7 5/8" Opt.) 30.7 (9.36) 800 - 1200 (3028 - 4542) 90 - 150 450 (31) 9200 (12,475) 16,100 (21,831) 140 - 245 (104.4 - 182.7) 2.5

Overall Length Motor Flowrate Range Max. Input Flowrate W/Nozzle in Rotor Bit Speed Range Motor Diff. Pressure Operating Torque Stall Torque Horsepower Number of Stages Bit Diff. Pressure Tool Weight

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TABLE 6 - DYNA-DRILL DELTA 1000 TOOLS Dimensional and Operational Data

MUD MOTORS

BP EXPLORATION

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Tool Size OD Hole Size Range Thread Conn. Box Up Box Down in. (mm) API R API R ft (m) GPM (LPM) RPM PSI (BARS) ft-lbs (N-m) ft-lbs (N-m) HP (KW)

2 3/4" Delta 1000 3 - 4 5/8 (76 - 118) Walker McDonald NW Thread 13 (3.96) 40 - 80 (151 - 303) 790 - 1590 940 (65) 112 (152) 224 (304) 16 - 33 (11.9 - 24.6) 6 PSI (BARS) lbs (KG) 200 - 1,000 (14 - 69) 145 (66)

3 7/8" Delta 1000 4 5/8 - 6 (118 - 152) 2 7/8" 2 7/8" 22.5 (6.85) 75 - 175 (284 - 662) 320 - 745 750 (52) 455 (617) 910 (1234) 28 - 65 (20.9 - 48.5) 5 200 - 1,000 (14 - 69) 530 (240)

5" Delta 1000 6 1/2 - 7 7/8 (165 - 200) 3 1/2" 3 1/2" 21.5 (6.55) 150 - 300 (568 - 1135) 345 - 690 450 (31) 525 (712) 1050 (1424) 34 - 69 (25.4 - 51.5) 3 200 - 1,000 (14 - 69) 1099 (499)

6 1/2" Delta 1000 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 (213 - 251) 4 1/2" 4 1/2" 24.8 (7.54) 250 - 400 (946 - 1514) 280 - 450 600 (41) 1340 (1817) 2680 (3634) 71 - 114 (53 - 85) 4 200 - 1,000 (14 - 69) 2020 (907)

7 3/4" Delta 1000 9 7/8 - 12 1/4 (251 - 311) 5 1/2" 6 5/8" 27 (8.22) 300 - 500 (1135 - 1893) 245 - 410 600 (41) 2160 (2928) 4320 (5856) 101 - 168 (75.3 - 125.3) 4 200 - 1,000 (14 - 69) 2825 (1281)

4 3/4" F 2000* 6 1/2 - 7 7/8 (152 - 200) 3 1/2" 3 1/2" 21.4 (6.52) 150 - 300 (568 - 1135) 300 - 570 485 (33) 750 (1017) 1500 (2034) 43 - 81 (32 - 60.4) 3.25 200 - 2,000 (14 - 138) 1025 (465)

9 5/8" F 2000* 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 (311 - 445) 6 5/8" 6 5/8" 30.7 (9.36) 600 - 1000 (2271 - 3785) 300 - 500 750 (52) 4000 (5423) 8000 (10,846) 228 - 381 (170 - 284)

Overall Length Motor Flowrate Range Bit Speed Range Motor Diff. Pressure Operating Torque Stall Torque Horsepower Number of Stages Bit Diff. Pressure Tool Weight

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5 200 - 2,000 (14 - 138) 5010 (2272)

: 13 of 16

: 3 (8/90)

: 1630/GEN

* Medium Speed Motor with Friction Bearing Assembly.

SUBJECT:

TABLE 7 - DYNA-DRILL DELTA 500 AND DELTA 500 PLUS 4 TOOLS Dimensional and Operational Data 6 1/2" Delta 500 Plus 4 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 (213 - 251) 4 1/2" 4 1/2" 23.7 (7.2) 250 - 400 (946 - 1514) 280 - 450 600 (41) 1340 (1860) 2680 (3632) 71 - 114 (53 - 85) 4 150 - 500 (10 - 34) 1905 (866) 7 3/4" Delta 500 Plus 4 9 7/8 - 12 1/4 (251 - 311) 5 1/2" 6 5/8" 25.2 (7.7) 300 - 500 (1135 - 1893) 245 - 410 600 (41) 2160 (2928) 4320 (5856) 101 - 168 (75.3 - 125.3) 4 150 - 500 (10 - 34) 2520 (1168)

MUD MOTORS

BP EXPLORATION

DRILLING MANUAL

Tool Size OD Hole Size Range Thread Conn. Box Up Box Down in. (mm) API R API R ft (m) GPM (LPM) RPM PSI (BARS) ft-lbs (N-m) ft-lbs (N-m) HP (KW)

5" Delta 500 6 1/2 - 7 7/8 (165 - 200) 3 1/2" 3 1/2" 19.8 (6.03) 150 - 250 (568 - 946) 335 - 560 360 (25) 425 (576) 850 (1152) 27 - 45 (20.1 - 33.6) 3 PSI (BARS) lbs (KG) 150 - 500 (10 - 34) 911 (413)

6 1/2" Delta 500 8 3/8 - 9 7/8 (213 - 251) 4 1/2" 4 1/2" 19.9 (6.06) 200 - 350 (757 - 1325) 275 - 480 360 (25) 690 (935) 1380 (1870) 36 - 63 (26.8 - 47) 3 150 - 500 (10 - 34) 1582 (718)

7 3/4" Delta 500 9 7/8 - 12 1/4 (251 - 311) 5 1/2" 6 5/8" 21 (6.4) 300 - 450 (1135 - 1703) 275 - 415 360 (25) 1130 (1532) 2260 (3064) 60 - 90 (44.7 - 67) 3 150 - 500 (10 - 34) 2350 (1066)

9 5/8" Delta 500 12 1/4 - 17 1/2 (311 - 445) 6 5/8" 7 5/8" 26.5 (8.07) 400 - 600 (1514 - 2271) 215 - 375 360 (25) 1935 (2623) 3870 (5246) 80 - 130 (59.6 - 103) 3 150 - 500 (10 - 34) 4350 (1973)

12" Delta 500 17 1/2 - 26 (445 - 660) 7 5/8" 7 5/8" 33.2 (10.1) 700 - 1200 (2650 - 4542) 130 - 225 360 (25) 6400 (8677) 13,800 (17,754) 160 - 275 (119.3 - 205) 3 150 - 500 (10 - 34) 8100 (3674)

Overall Length Motor Flowrate Range Bit Speed Range Motor Diff. Pressure Operating Torque Stall Torque Horsepower Number of Stages Bit Diff. Pressure Tool Weight

Page : 14 of 16

Rev. : 3 (8/90)

Section : 1630/GEN

SUBJECT:

TABLE 8 - Drilex Standard PDM Specifications


Motor Size OD inches 4 3/4 6 3/4 7 3/4 8 1/4 9 1/2 D475 D675 D775 D825 D950 Motor Ref. No. Max. Bit P psi 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 Maximum Allowable WOB lbs 25000 50000 60000 65000 75000 Flowrate Operating Range gpm 100-250 200-650 200-650 200-650 500-850 Bit Speed Range rpm 140-350 55-185 55-185 55-185 110-190 Maximum Operating Torque ft-lbs 1500-1800 4500-6000 4500-6000 4500-6000 5500-7500 Motor Pressure Drop at Max. Torque psi 800-1000 800-1000 800-1000 800-1000 800-1200

Motor Length ft 21.0 24.0 23.5 23.5 24.0

Motor Weight lbs 800 2100 2800 3200 4200

Top Connection Box Up 3 1/2" Reg 4 1/2" Reg 5 1/2" Reg 6 5/8" Reg 6 5/8" or 7 5/8" Reg

Bottom Connection Box Down 3 1/2" Reg 4 1/2" Reg 4 1/2" Reg 6 5/8" Reg 6 5/8" pr 7 5/8" Reg

Lobe Configuration Rotor/Stator 5/6 9/10 9/10 9/10 10/11

MUD MOTORS

BP EXPLORATION

DRILLING MANUAL

TABLE 9 - Drilex Directional PDM Specifications


4 3/4 6 3/4 7 3/4 DIR475 DIR675 DIR775 1500 1500 1500 25000 50000 50000 100-250 300-650 300-650 140-350 85-185 85-185 8500-9500 3300-4500 3300-4500 650-750 550-650 550-650 9.9 13.1 13.1 350 1050 1500 3 1/2" IF 4 1/2" Reg 5 1/2" Reg 3 1/2" Reg 4 1/2" Reg 6 5/8" Reg 5/6 9/10 9/10

TABLE 10 - Drilex Workover PDM Specifications


1 11/16 2 3/8 D170 D237 200 200 2200 3200 10-22 30-42 645-1435 580-850 300-380 950-1200 900-1100 900-1100 7.4 9.1 40 100 API NC12 1 1/4" Reg API NC12 1 1/4" Reg 3/4 5/6

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TABLE 11 - Drilex Speciality PDM Specifications


3 1/2 3 1/2 3 3/4 6 3/4 7 5/8 9 1/2 D350 D350HS D375 D675HS D775HS D950HT 200 200 1000 1500 1500 1500 7000 7000 14000 50000 65000 75000 80-110 40-90 90-150 200-400 200-400 700-1100 240-330 256-576 320-530 159-318 159-318 115-180 3000-4000 1950-2650 4250-5800 1800-2400 1800-2400 7200-10000 625-850 900-1000 900-1000 800-1000 800-1000 800-1000 10.7 11.8 13.4 25.0 25.6 31.5 240 270 364 2030 2665 5000 2 7/8" Reg 2 7/8" Reg 2 7/8" Reg 4 1/2" Reg 5 1/2" IF 7 5/8" Reg 2 7/8" Reg 2 7/8" Reg 2 7/8" Reg 4 1/2" Reg 6 5/8" Reg 7 5/8" Reg 9/10

7/8

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3 (8/90)

1630/GEN

5/6 6/7 6/7 7/8

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TABLE 12 D950 with 16/32" Nozzle Motor Performance Specification

Pressure Differential 100 psi 6.8 Bar

Q gpm Q l/min. ft-lbs Nm RPM

850 3,217 1,350 1,830 139 2,520 3,410 133 3,610 4,890 127 4,580 6,210 118 5,420 7,340 107 6,150 8,330 95 6,850 9,820 83

900 3,407 1,350 1,830 147 2,520 3,410 141 3,610 4,890 135 4,580 6,210 127 5,420 7,340 116 6,150 8,330 105 6,850 9,820 95

950 3,596 1,350 1,830 158 2,520 3,410 151 3,610 4,890 146 4,580 6,210 139 5,420 7,340 132 6,150 8,330 127 6,850 9,820 114

1,000 3,785 1,350 1,830 169 2,520 3,410 160 3,610 4,890 155 4,580 6,210 149 5,420 7,340 141 6,150 8,330 126 6,850 9,820 129

200 psi 13.6 Bar

ft-lbs Nm RPM

300 psi 20.4 Bar

ft-lbs Nm RPM

400 psi 27.2 Bar

ft-lbs Nm RPM

500 psi 34.0 Bar

ft-lbs Nm RPM

600 psi 40.8 Bar

ft-lbs Nm RPM

700 psi 47.6 Bar

ft-lbs Nm RPM

For continuous drilling operations, it is recommended that the differential pressure increase between on and off bottom is limited to 500 psi.

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SUBJECT:
1.

Page

MUD MOTORS USED WITH MWD TOOLS

USE OF MWD WITH MUD MOTORS Surveying using conventional wireline magnetic single shot equipment is time consuming and unreliable in high angle holes. The chances of drill pipe sticking are enhanced due to lack of string movement during running/pulling survey barrels. MWD tools can be successfully used with mud motors and the following is an example of the combination of the two tools and a description of the method of orientation.

1.1 1.2

Test mud motor at surface. Make up mud motor and MWD assembly: Bit - Mud Motor - Bent Sub - Pony Non-MAG Drill Collar - MWD Tool - NMUBHO Sub - 2 Monel Drill Collars - rest of assembly as required.

Notes: a) b) The length of the Pony NMDC should be such as to give a minimum length of 7.6m of monel below the magnetic sensor of the MWD tool. During kick-off and sidetracking, the MWD collar may be made up directly on top of the bent sub. The initial orientation and kick-off will be performed using the MWD tool in highside mode. When the deflection BHA is pulled to continue the build-up in rotary mode, the MWD collar will be positioned in its normal place and the kick-off section re-surveyed prior to drilling ahead.

1.3

Orienting (where manual input is required) Measure the difference between the bent sub scribe line and the MWD scribe line in a clockwise direction. Use the following formula to calculate the degrees (right) difference. Difference (in inches) (clockwise) x 360 = deg right from bent sub MWD circumference (in inches) e.g.

Teleco Scribe Line

Teleco Circumference = 30"

7.5 x 360 = 90 30

Diff. = 7.5"

Therefore, when MWD tool display (which is hi side mode) shows 90 bent sub is hi side (360).

BENT SUB SCRIBE LINE

1.4

Run in hole and proceed as per normal tool run. Bench mark as per standard surveying instructions.

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: REBEL TOOLS

Page

The Rebel Tool is one of the most under-used and underestimated directional aids. If the task and the tools capabilities are properly identified, smooth azimuth changes can be effected. The most prominent drawback in using rebel tool assemblies is their tendency to drop angle. The connections are reg. box/box. 1.1 When to Use the Rebel Tool For azimuth changes, left or right of hole direction, when hole inclination can be sacrificed. In 12 1/4 hole or smaller. The tool works best in gauge hole. When drilling with oil based mud gauge holes are drilled and predictible, repeatable results can be obtained when using the rebel tool. 1.2 Principle of Tool Two paddles are rigidly connected at fixed angles to either end of a shaft. The shaft is held onto the body proper of the tool by 2 bearing blocks. The shaft is free to move around an arc of some 40 degrees, within the bearing blocks. As the tool is rotated in the borehole the upper paddle (furthest from the bit) during one revolution will be, at one point, on the low side of the hole. In this position the upper paddle will be close to and touching the body of the rebel tool. As both paddles are rigidly connected by the shaft, the position of the lower steering paddle is directly determined by the upper paddle. The geometry of the paddles is arranged such that when the upper paddle is on the low-side of the borehole, the lower paddle, nearest the bit, will be sticking out from the main body of the tool. In this position the lower paddle forces the bit to the right or to the left, depending on how the tool is dressed. Thus for 1 revolution of the tool, the lower paddle will hammer the bit one blow sideways. The end result is to effect a gradual, smooth change in azimuth. 1.3 Checking and Maintenance of Tool The tool will be supplied from rental companies already dressed for right or left hand turn. Always insist that both right and left turn paddles are supplied. The condition of the single replaceable stabiliser on the lower end of the tool should be completely unworn. If the stabiliser is worn replace it before making up the assembly. Order a spare stabiliser as a back-up. The hardfacing on the lower paddle should be in an as new condition. If the hardfacing is worn or missing the paddle should not be run. The shaft should be free to move within the bearing blocks and absolutely no movement of the paddles on the shaft should be evident. 1.4 Identification of Right and Left Turn Paddles and Shaft

Note: It is possible to dress the rebel tool with the paddles upside-down and also to incorrectly identify right and left hand paddles. Dont assume that the tool is correctly dressed just because it arrives freshly painted from the rental company.
Left hand walk paddles are LONG and right hand walk paddles are SHORT. This is the reason for sending out BOTH right and left hand walk paddles to the rig. An immediate, indisputable comparison of both types can be made. The upper paddle (furthest from the bit) is always thinner in section and more curved than the lower paddle. Hardfacing is welded onto the lower paddle to reduce wear as it hammers against the wellbore. As a final check, once the tool is dressed, roll the tool on the catwalk until the upper paddle (furthest from the bit) is underneath the body of the tool, i.e. on the low side of the hole. With the tool in this position, the position of the lower paddle (nearest the bit) can be clearly seen, i.e. the paddle will either be to the right or to the left of the bit direction. 1.5 Changing Paddles and Shaft To remove the shaft, carefully mark the two bearing block caps. They are not interchangeable and should not be mixed. All the components securing the shaft to the main body are not interchangeable and should be carefully marked and replaced in their identical as shipped positions. The spring steel retaining pins are not positioned horizontally into the block caps but are fixed at an angle. This should be taken into account when removal/replacement is done. The paddles and shaft assembly are not

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SUBJECT: REBEL TOOLS

Page

field serviceable. When bolting the shaft back onto the main body, coat the bolts with copper based lubricant and carefully torque up.

Note: The Allen screws and washers used to bolt the bearing blocks are only used once and must be replaced for re-assembly.
1.6 Operating Parameters Consider the rate of turn as being dependent on the number of hammer blows per foot of formation drilled. The quicker the penetration rate, the smaller the number of hammer blows per foot drilled and hence the slower rate of turn. Therefore WOB, RPM, hydraulics and formation drillability are all factors affecting rate of azimuth change. Typically for running in 12 1/4 hole, directional assembly could be: Bit, Rebel Tool, 1 x 8 Monel DC, 18 x 8 Short Monel DC, MWD Tool, 12 1/4 Non Mag Stab, 2 x 8 Monel DC, 12 1/4 String Stab, 3 x 8 DC, etc. Depending on bit type, annular velocity required and formation, drilling parameters fall into the following ranges: WOB 30-40, RPM 80, GPM 650 Care must be exercised when handling the rebel tool. The paddles can be damaged on the catwalk with careless handling and/or slinging. Run the assembly carefully through the BOPs and wearbushing. When running the assembly to bottom always wash or lightly ream the last 60 ft to bottom. At the end of the run, bear in mind when pulling out of the hole that the paddles may be sticking out slightly from the main body. Thus limit any overpull to hole drag + 5000 lbs max. Pulling the assembly back into the casing shoe should be done with extreme care with the compensator, if available, unlocked. 1.7 Achievable Rates of Turn Analysis of 40 separate rebel tool results show that up to 3 deg/100 of turn is possible. For well planning purposes 1.75 deg of either right or left turn can be achieved. The overall tendency for rebel tool assemblies is to drop angle - anything up to 1.5 deg/100 but they can also build angle - average build being 0.5 deg. For well planning purposes the drop/build ratio can be estimated at a 70/30 split.

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SUBJECT: REBEL TOOLS

Page

Securing Thrust Pin Block / Spring Pin End Outboard Bearing Block Left Walk Arm Assembly or Right Walk Arm Assembly

Inside Split Bearing Block / Cap Screws / Lock Washers

Body Specifications
Body OD Length Bore Weight (lbs) Connection, A.P.I. Reg Box Down

4 13 /16 " 8' 1 3 /16 " 470 3 1/2 "

5 3/ 4 " 10' 1 1 /4 " 800 4 1/2 "

6 5/ 8 " 11' 1 9 /16 " 1250 4 1/2 "

7 5/ 8 " 13' 1 7/8 " 1850 5 1/2 " 6 5/ 8 "

8 7/ 8 " 16' 2 1/4 " 3600 6 5/ 8 " 7 5/ 8 "

Inside Split Bearing Block / Cap Screws / Lock Washers

BOTTOM PADDLE

TOP PADDLE

Left Walk Arm Assembly or Right Walk Arm Assembly

End Outboard Bearing Block Securing Thrust Pin Block / Spring Pin

Driltrol Stabilizer Blade

2233/6

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: TURBODRILLING PROCEDURES

Page

TUBRODRILLING 1. GENERAL Turbodrills are classified in two main groups: 1. 2. Short side tracking/kick off turbodrills. Straight hole turbodrills.

The following notes are applicable to straight hole turbodrills only. Straight hole turbodrills are supplied in multi sectional form. Depending on type and application, they will comprise one bearing section plus a back up bearing section and either one, two or three turbine motor drive sections. The separate sections will be made up on the rig floor prior to RIH. All relevant crossovers will also be supplied with the equipment. When used in deviated wells, their application will normally only be in the tangent sections. Straight hole turbodrills are constructed so as to enable the integral stabilisers to be adjusted to allow for building, holding, or slightly dropping hole angle, as well conditions require. The tendency of a turbodrilling assembly is to gradually turn the hole direction to the left, therefore an additional advantage of turbodrilling is that long correction runs may be made without having to resort to conventional methods of correction. It is generally accepted that the amount of left hand turn can be controlled by varying the bit/nearbit stabiliser configuration: the longer the gauge length, the greater the amount of turn. 1.1 Recommendations Prior to Turbodrilling If rotary drilling is to be carried our prior to turbodrilling, a stiff assembly should be run, otherwise it may be difficult to get the rigid turbodrill assembly to bottom. Ensure a DP wiper is used on the trip out prior to running the turbodrill, and on the trip in with the turbo. Remove the wiper prior to drilling. With the elevated pressures and discharges normally associated with turbodrilling, it is essential the pumps are checked and any suspect parts, i.e. piston/liners/valves/seats, and liner or valve cap gaskets are replaced prior to commencement of turbodrilling. Deficient pump condition will at best, stop the drilling operation, and could lead to bit failure. Liner size/pressure rating is usually the limiting factor on discharge volumes during a turbodrilling operation, as power output is a function of volume pumped. However, lower pressures, and consequently discharge volumes, can be used if, for some reason, on location conditions demand this, but performance figures will also be reduced. If coarse LCM, e.g. nut plug, has been used in the mud system, this should be cleaned up before commencement of turbodrilling. A junk sub should be run on the last rotary assembly to avoid any possible damage to the diamond bit. 1.2 Information Required Prior to Turbodrilling 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Maximum and minimum circulating rates. Pump discharge volume, pressures and HHP. Calculated circulating pressures when on bottom. Maximum pull and torque capacity of turbine. Maximum WOB for bit type.

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1.3

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TURBODRILLING PROCEDURES

Recommendations During Turbodrilling Circulating subs are supplied with the equipment and are run immediately above the turbodrill. However, in deviated hole work, consideration as to the method of surveying could affect the use of this item in the BHA. When used, a circulating sub is solely for the purpose of circulating LCM. Harsh LCM such as walnut shells or their derivatives should not be present in the mud system as this can lock the turbodrill and make it inoperable. If lost circulation problems are encountered fine mica pills can safely be pumped. Since the mud is lubricating the bearings, the life of the turbodrill can be reduced considerably by high sand/solids content. Maximum use should be made of solids control equipment. Should any section of the turbodrill be changed at the Company Representatives insistence, when the previously run unit is suitable for re-running, a part overhaul charge may be made for each section changed.

1.4

Checks Prior to Picking Up Turbodrill Immediately the Turbodrill Operator arrives on location, he should check the equipment out as per the Dispatch note. When a turbodrill is in operation, a filter screen is used in the top joint of drill pipe in the string. Two filters are supplied so that no time is lost during connections for cleaning. The filters should fit comfortably inside the drill pipe tool joints.

Note: The hydril retrievable dart will not pass through these filters and, therefore, well control considerations must be discussed prior to installing any filters in the drill string. An alternative to placing filters in the drill string is to install finer filters in the mud pump discharge lines.
When it is planned to use a circulating sub, the drop ball should be able to pass through any restrictions in the string, e.g. filter screens, jars, dart sub, etc. All dimensions must be recorded, complete with drawings, in the assembly book, i.e. lengths, ODs and IDs and also the length and gauge of the turbodrill stabilisers and the diamond bit. 1.5 Turbodrill Pick Up and Running Procedure The turbodrill body connection make up torque is critical, and every care should be taken to ensure that all rig equipment, tongs, gauges, etc. are functioning correctly. Excessive pipe dope should not be used. Every opportunity should be taken to rotate the shafts during pick up to ensure subsequent smooth operation. After all connections have been torqued up, the thrust bearing clearances should be measured and the shaft turned. Pick up kelly or circulating head and function test the turbine, recording pressure/strokes relationship prior to making up bit/nearbit stabiliser. Re-measure the shaft thrust bearing clearances (these will be the definitive clearances), make up bit/nearbit stabiliser and RIH. Proceed carefully when running in open hole. If reaming is required, the bit is liable to stick and considerable caution should be exercised during this operation. Reaming over excessively long intervals is not recommended as bits may become damaged, and the rate of turbodrill thrust bearing

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wear is higher than in a normal drilling condition. Reaming should only be carried out with a low WOB (0 - 3000 lb) and a maximum of 85% of the normal flowrate. The bit pattern should be drilled in with as light a weight as possible. Operating characteristics should be monitored continuously and these are mainly:a) b) c) d) Volume and Pressure. String RPM / Rotary Table Torque. Weight on Bit and Stall Weight. Pressure Drop Through Bit.

Tabulate the above records throughout drilling. If for any reason circulation alone is to take place, e.g. sampling, prior to surveys, washing down, etc., the thrust bearings are subject to the entire hydraulic thrust and full shaft runaway speed rpm. To avoid undue wear on the bearings and possibly other problems, the discharge should be reduced as compared with that used when drilling. A reduction of 50% compatible with the safety of the well is recommended. After each trip the following items should be checked:a) b) c) d) Bit and Nearbit Stabiliser. Stabilisers. Thrust Bearing Section Wear Clearances. Assembly Marks on Body of Turbodrill.

At the end of a turbodrilling operation the sections should be flushed through with water and oiled immediately they are pulled out of the hole. 1.6 Pressure Drop Through Bit - Lower Bearing Leakage The pressure drop through the bit on the bottom of the hole is generally indicated by the manufacturer in terms of discharge and mud weight. An increase in pressure drop lowers the power input to the turbodrill - for a given surface pressure - and also causes an increase in the volume of fluid passing through the turbodrills lower bearing, thus decreasing the volume of mud passing across the face of the bit. The bit T.F.A. must be checked to ensure it is compatible with the turbine. In hard formation, the pressure drop should normally be as low as possible. In soft rock, e.g. marl and clay, it should be high enough to permit satisfactory removal of cuttings. With present-day turbodrills, the pressure drop caused by the bit should not exceed the values given below. Nominal OD of Turbodrill Maximum pressure drop through the bit at nominal discharge with clean water 5 150 psi 7 1/4 450 psi 9 1/2 450 psi

The probable circulating rate, and consequent surface pressure, must be calculated before the turbine is run.

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SUBJECT:
FISHING 1.7 Freeing the String - Jars

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TURBODRILLING PROCEDURES

A jar should always be run in the string. Unlike rotary drilling, the shaft of the turbodrill is not fixed to the body and therefore the bit cannot be freed by simply rotating the pipe. A special operation is needed, as described in the subsection below. Turbodrills are not affected by short periods of jarring but after a period of several hours, the unit should be pulled. 1.8 Pull, Push and Torque The techniques used to free a stuck turbodrill body are the same as those used in rotary drilling. The Turbodrill Operator will be able to furnish the maximum pull, push and torque loads which may be applied to the equipment. If the load ranges permitting immediate re-use are exceeded, then the turbodrill should be backloaded, together with a record of the loads to which it was subjected. Torque loads may be applied, in the normal manner, when the turbodrill body is stuck. However, to free a stuck bit, the required number of steel balls to be dropped to key the top of the shaft with the body will be supplied by the turbodrill operator. With the shaft keyed to the body, torque applied at the surface is transmitted to the bit. Permissible pull loads on 7 1/4 and 9 1/2 units are usually higher than the maximum permissible tension in the drill string. 1.9 Oil Plug Oil plugs can be used, as with rotary drilling. 1.10 Acidising Acidising is feasible with turbodrills : the resistance of the turbodrill to acids is at least as great as the resistance of the pipe. Full details should be recorded in the turbodrilling report, including (a) amount, concentration and type of acid, and (b) time of exposure. Turbodrills subjected to acid should be carefully washed down on surface. Depending on the acidisation conditions, the Operator may recommend a factory inspection prior to re-use. 1.11 Back-Off Unscrewing the drill string by a back-off requires that the body of the turbodrill should not be free to rotate. This is when the body itself is stuck. When the bit is stuck but the body free, then the unit may be locked by dropping balls down the string, as indicated in the Pull, Push and Torque section.

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TURBINE FILTER, HANDLING TOOL AND CIRCULATION SUB

A FILTER
FILTER DIMENSIONS

mm PIPE HANDLING TOOL A C in mm in mm B C D TOOL JOINT in mm in mm in

127 5 1045
41.14

89 3 1/2

74
2.91

67
2 5/8

41
1.61

83
3 1/4

50 2 600

900

35 1/2 23 5/8

CIRCULATION SUB

CLOSED

OPEN

2179/90

UK Operations
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GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:
1.

SIDETRACKING PROCEDURES

BASIC PRINCIPLES There are several simple, but crucial, conditions which must be met before a successful normal (ie not an open-hole type) sidetrack can be completed: 1. A uniform, homogeneous plug of a hardness as comparable as possible to the formation hardness must be set. If it is harder than the formation all well and good, but this is generally rare except in soft top-hole formations, and the basic function of the plug is usually to provide support for the sidetrack assembly to lean against to guide it into the formation once a ledge has been started, ie to extend the ledge laterally. The sidetrack point must be chosen after looking at a mudlog of the original hole showing specifically formation and ROP data. A 30' to 50' section (hole size/condition dependent) is usually required to sidetrack without producing an unacceptably high dogleg. A suitable bit must be chosen that will get off given the formation hardness/abrasiveness, severity of the motor bend angle set and the expected time to be taken ie it should not lose its edge too quickly. The assembly should be selected depending on formation hardness, cement integrity and bit type chosen. It is always advantageous time-wise to use an assembly that can dress-off, sidetrack and drill ahead in one run.

2.

3.

4.

2.

SETTING THE CEMENT PLUG In order to facilitate a successful normal (not open-hole) sidetrack, the first and most crucial step is to set a good, homogeneous plug. The success of this is dependent on several factors and ideally the cement should have reached its full compressive strength within 24 hours a plug that requires longer than this to cure will rarely provide a solid enough base, especially if formations are hard. Spacer and slurry volumes should be large enough to clean up the hole (remove mud and filter cake), minimise contamination and then provide sufficient length of good plug to aid the sidetrack procedure over the chosen interval where the attempt will be made. The mud type, compatibility with the cement, hole size and hole inclination are all factors with an important bearing on being able to succeed in this. If there is any doubt, larger volumes have little potential downside. The cement plug required for sidetracking must always be of better quality than that expected to, for example, set casing or abandon a hole. It has to fulfil other requirements.

3.

TESTING THE PLUG The best procedure is always to use a dedicated dress-off assembly to do this, particularly if there is a history of poor cementation in a particular mud type, cement type, field, hole angle, hole size, formation etc. The parameters whilst dressing off should be kept constant to identify both overall hardness and uniformity. To confirm the latter, it may be necessary to drill up a fair section of cement. The temptation is always to stop immediately the plug firms, but this may hide its true integrity there could be hard and soft stringers within the cement. Normally, 15k WOB and 60 to 80 RPM with a mill-tooth bit should drill at 25m/hr maximum over one or two singles, but the Directional Driller would have his own preferential parameters to gauge whether the plug is good enough. If this is significantly lower than the formation ROP under comparable parameters, then sidetracking will be relatively easy, but this is rare.

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Ideally the sidetracking/drill ahead assembly may be used if there is enough information and experience in the area to confidently predict a decent plug this obviously gives a major time-saving over the dress-off only option. Depending on the assembly/bit combination (PDC/TCI/Mill-tooth and motor/rotary), the above parameters would require modification. Again, the Directional Driller will need to decide which parameters to use and whether the plug integrity is sufficient to allow him to proceed with the sidetrack. If the plug is suspect in any way, it should be drilled out and reset. Time is often lost making an attempt that stood little chance of success. As a final, often crucial, check the drilled cement samples should always be collected and analysed by the mudloggers to confirm their hardness. 4. SIDETRACKING ASSEMBLIES There are four potential assemblies that can be used to sidetrack. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the Directional Driller should choose that best suited to get off given formation type/hardness, desired toolface set and plug condition. This will also be governed by what the plan (well trajectory) might be once the hole has been successfully sidetracked. The first step is obviously to sidetrack and whether or not a drill ahead assembly may be used for this purpose will depend on the Directional Driller's judgement on what can be achieved overall. The following are assemblies that could be used in order of preference under most conditions: 4.1 Steerable (Stabilised) This is generally the first choice option as it can dress-off, sidetrack and drill ahead in one pass. It is probably not ideal for any single step of the operation, but will most often do all sufficiently well to ensure success. The choice of bit, bend angle and motor type will depend on all the considerations noted earlier. This assembly does rely fairly heavily on the plug integrity to give the motor stabiliser something to lean against to extend the sidetrack into the formation. Hanging up can be a problem, especially when the final jump off into formation occurs. Consists of bit, motor c/w U/G stab and ABH (adjustable bent housing) set 1 to 1 1/4 deg, Pony NMDC, U/G stab, MWD, U/G stab, etc. 4.2 Steerable (Slick) In problem formations, where hanging up can occur or when plug integrity is suspect (mimicking openhole sidetracks), this assembly, normally with a larger bend angle, will give a greater chance of success. Often, a slick adjustable assembly is also that preferred to drill ahead (and dress cement) and this type is almost interchangeable with the first option. It may also be run with large non-rotatable bend angles to give maximum lateral force and bit tilt to ensure the sidetrack, but obviously the dogleg potential is high and care should be used, especially once into the formation. Normally consists of bit, motor, slick c/w 1 to 1 3/4 deg ABH, Pony NMDC, MWD, etc. At smaller bend angles this also relies on reasonable plug condition to provide support to extend into the formation as for option 1. 4.3 Bent Sub Not often used in smaller hole sizes or harder formations these days, this assembly has been superseded by options 1 and 2. This relies solely on lateral force whereas those above rely on a combination of both lateral force and bit tilt. Normally consists of bit, motor, bent sub, stab (if desired), Pony NMDC, MWD, stab (if desired), etc. 4.4 Pendulum Run with either PDC or Rockbit, this can sidetrack in softer formations, but the plug generally needs to be as firm or firmer than the formation at the sidetrack depth. Normally this confines its use to shallow (eg tertiary and younger age) formations. Pendulum length is critical and to maximise it with a PDC, for example, can negate the very feature that the technique uses in that the belly produced allows the gauge pad to take all the lateral force, effectively lifting the cutters away from the wall. Once in formation, the assemblys directional tendency will increase and it should be used with caution, unless the well plan requires drop.

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Under normal circumstances options 1 and 2 are the assembly types to consider. Any bit can be matched to them, but the choice is formation and assembly dependent. Ideally the assembly should allow for rotary drilling after getting off to allow surveys to confirm the result and what is required as follow-up. A sidetracking bit should be considered if there are any potential problems they are made for a specific purpose and will ensure success in harder formations, open-hole sidetracks, etc. If the hole is lost close to a casing shoe, a whipstock should be seriously considered. Current technology includes one-trip systems which will often provide a successful sidetrack in less time than it would take to set a plug, allow it to harden and then time-drill off it. Whipstocks do introduce fairly high doglegs over a short interval and their use will depend on whether this is acceptable given the subsequent well trajectory ie its use close to surface is not generally recommended. 5. SIDETRACKING PROCEDURES The choice of toolface set is important and depends on the follow-up plan and what needs to be achieved. All things being equal (good plug, amenable formation, etc) it should be such that little orientation is required to correct the trajectory after the well is sidetracked. Another factor to be considered is hole condition if, for example, the hole was lost due to collapse, it may not be wise to go low side as there is probably a fair chance the sidetrack point could collapse later. There are few hard and fast rules as to how fast a sidetrack should be initiated. A general rule of thumb is that the initial ROP should be 10 to 20% of that made whilst drilling the original hole with a comparable bit. This allows the assembly to cut as much of a ledge as it can and extend it into the formation. Once the first 2 to 3m has been made then progress should be picked up in stages. At the same time, formation samples should be caught and percentages (formation vs cement) will indicate the rate at which the ROP should be increased. Generally, once 70% formation is noted then the sidetrack should be considered successful and it is then time to consider rotating ahead or pulling the assembly for one to drill ahead as per the well plan. 6. CONCLUSION As long as a decent plug has been set, the correct sidetrack point chosen and the most efficient assembly/bit combination has been run for the job, there is no reason why the sidetrack should not succeed first time, every time and drilling continue without the need for an assembly/bit change. Only special circumstances as detailed above will require further consideration.

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SUSPENSION AND ABANDONMENT PROCEDURES

GENERAL Prior to the suspension or abandonment of an exploration well, permission must be obtained from the Department of Energy, following procedures laid down in CSON No. 12. In the case of abandonments, it is a requirement that the seabed has been surveyed and certified clear of debris within a 70m radius of the wellhead (see 3.6). In the case of suspended wells, the wellhead must be marked with a buoy if the water depth is less than 45 metres. All necessary contact with DEn will be made by the DES/SDE in town. In addition to the requirements of CSON No. 12, there is an additional requirement that the MOD is provided with advance notice of underwater explosions. This follows their concern that submarines have experienced unidentified explosions when operating in the North Sea.

Telex notification of explosive wellhead cutting is to be sent at least 24 hours prior to the operation. This telex is to be sent directly from the rig and copied to the Drilling Superintendent.
2. 2.1 WELL SUSPENSION An exploration well may be suspended for one of the following reasons: 1. 2. 3. 2.2 The well has not been completed, but the rig has to move off location for some reason. The well has been successfully drilled but has not been fully tested. The well has been drilled and tested and may possibly be required in the future as part of a field development.

In all cases the main requirements of the well suspension (sometimes called temporary abandonment) are: 1. 2. 3. To leave the well in a safe condition downhole, such that if the wellhead is accidentally damaged or removed, the well will retain pressure integrity and will not flow. To allow the well to be re-entered at a subsequent date and a BOP installed without recourse to repair work. To leave a well in a condition such that subsequent abandonment can be carried out by a Diving Support Vessel which will be able to recover the wellhead without rig intervention (this means that there will be no requirement to cement off casing annuli when the casing strings are cut).

2.3

To cover the condition 2.2.1, it is usual to plan the well with the following features: a) b) c) d) e) Fluids left in the casing annuli are treated with biocide and corrosion inhibitor (no requirement for this with OBM). Top of cement in casing cementation is programmed so as to cement all potentially productive formations. Permeable formations of different geological ages are (usually) isolated by cement. Formations having different pressure regimes are isolated from each other. Silica blend cement is used where temperature effects may cause long term degradation of neat class G cement.

To cover 2.2.2, a corrosion cap is run to protect the wellhead and its sealing areas.

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In the plug back operation for a suspended well the following general guidelines apply: a) b) If the well has been tested then the different test intervals will normally be separated from each other by bridge plugs or by both bridge plugs and cement plugs if space allows. A cement plug will be placed above the topmost sand unit (or perforated zone) with a minimum acceptable depth of 30m above the unit or zone. This plug will be tagged and weight tested, or pressure tested to a value of 1000 psi above the formation intake of the tested unit. Where there is an open hole section, a cement plug will be placed across the casing shoe, 50 75m above and 50 - 75m below the shoe. This plug is normally tagged. Formations in the open hole section of different geological age are normally isolated by cement plugs. Where the open hole section is relatively short and small diameter (8 1/2), it is common practice to fill the entire section with cement. If the condition of the open hole precludes running pipe into it, then a bridge plug should be set 30m above the shoe with 50m of cement above the bridge plug. A bridge plug will normally be set in the production casing at approximately the same depth as the intermediate casing shoe, and a 100m cement plug set above this. If the open hole cement plug is extended to cover the shoe, then this bridge plug is to be set higher up (below surface cement plug).

c)

d)

Note: Refer to Table 1 for a summary of the minimum cement plug requirements.
2.5 2.6 The well will be suspended with a fluid (either mud-inhibited if required - or brine) of sufficient density to give a minimum 200 psi overbalance on known formation pressure with the BOP/riser removed. General Procedures 1. 2. 3. Refer to Section 3600/GEN for details on setting cement plugs. Prior to commencing the plug-back, ensure that the well is circulated clean of produced fluids. When tagging plugs use a minimum bit weight of 10,000 lbs and slow pump to ensure that the plug will not wash away. If the plug is soft, it may be necessary to WOC prior to tagging again. A casing scraper assembly can be used to tag the plug if it is planned to set a bridge plug higher in the casing string. Prior to running a bridge plug a wireline gauge ring should be run. If a casing scraper is run to tag a lower cement plug, then scrape bridge plug setting depth and cancel the gauge ring run. After setting the final cement plug, displace the riser to seawater at the wellhead and pull BOP/riser. Refer to the wellhead manual for procedures when running the corrosion cap. Use the ROV to monitor the procedure and ensure that the wellhead is filled with oil. Use the ROV to cut the guidewires and attempt to clear the post tops of wire debris.

4. 5. 6. 7. 2.7

A suspended status diagram must be completed by the Rig DE and approved by the SDE. This must show all information concerning casing strings and wellhead equipment and accurate depths of suspension plugs, etc. In particular, the wellhead type, connector type and type of corrosion cap installed must be detailed. WELL ABANDONMENT The main requirements for abandonment are:

3. 3.1

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To leave the well in a safe downhole condition such that there is no possibility of the well flowing when the BOP or wellhead is removed. To leave the seabed around the wellhead clear of drilling related debris.

To cover requirement 3.1.1, the following general guidelines apply to the plug-back operation: a) b) c) If the well has been tested the test intervals will be isolated by cement or bridge plugs or by a combination of both. A cement plug will normally be set across the shallowest test interval with a minimum acceptable TOC 30m above the top of the interval. The plug will normally be tagged and weight tested. Where there is an open hole section a cement plug will normally be placed across the casing shoe, 50m below to 50m above. This is normally tagged. In many cases where the well reaches TD in 8 1/2 hole and the section is reasonably short (say up to 300m), it is common practise to cement back continuously from TD to 50m inside the shoe. Formations of different geological age in the open hole section are normally isolated by cement plugs. A bridge plug is normally set in the production casing at the depth of the intermediate casing shoe and a 100m cement plug set above this. If the open hole cement plug is extended to cover the shoe, then a bridge plug is to be set below production casing cut point. Where a potentially productive formation exists behind casing and is not cemented off, it will be necessary to isolate the interval (by squeezing or circulating cement behind the casing) prior to cutting the casing string. (If the formation is known to be at normal gradient and has no hydrocarbon content then this will generally not be required.) Alternatively, the casing string may be cut deep and a cement plug set across the cut. If there is the possibility of pressure build-up in the annulus behind a casing string, then it may be necessary to perforate the casing below the wellhead while maintaining full BOP control prior to starting casing cutting operations. Any investigative work behind uncemented casing must be done with the BOP stack on.

d) e)

f)

g)

When cutting casing the shoe strength at the previous casing shoe must be high enough to withstand the mud in the hole. If it is not, then the mud weight will have to be reduced. However, the mud weight left in the hole should be sufficient to afford a minimum 200 psi over-balance over formation pressure with the riser removed. Where these two factors conflict, the cutting depth will have to be shallow enough to allow the mud weight to be reduced.

Note: Refer to Table 1 for a summary of the minimum cement plug requirements.
3.3 It is a legislative requirement that all strings are cut a minimum 3m below seabed (CSON 12). Casings are normally cut fairly shallow with the proviso that the production string is cut deep enough to allow a cement plug to be placed across the cut (usually about 100m). The same applies to the 13 3/8 casing if it has not been cemented back inside the 20, or if there are hydrocarbon bearing zones in the 13 3/8 - 20 annulus. There are two basic methods available to cut casing, i.e. mechanical or explosive cutting (refer also to Section 1850/SEM for details on Wellhead Severance). The choice of method will largely depend on water depth and past experience. The following points must be considered:

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If water depth is less than 100m, then the rig may have to move off station if explosive cutting is used. In deep water (say greater than 300m), mechanical cutting is probably best avoided due to the need to rotate a long unsupported drill string. (The intermediate and production strings can of course be mechanically cut prior to pulling the riser.) At intermediate depths either method is applicable although modern mechanical cutting methods have a high probability of success and will usually be the preferred option. If the first attempt to cut the 20/30 casing fails, provided all indications show that the mechanical cutters have been fully extended, then further attempts should be made to cut the casings explosively.

c)

3.4

Mechanical Cutting (Refer to Section 1850 : WELLHEAD SEVERANCE.)

3.5

Explosive Cutting (Refer to Section 1850 : WELLHEAD SEVERANCE.)

3.6

When abandoning a well an attempt is always made to recover the TGB, if installed. In some cases this has been found to be impossible due to the TGB being buried below the mudline and in this case it is sufficient to cut the guidewires at the seabed. After retrieving the PGB, a ROV survey (or equivalent) must be carried out to confirm that the seabed is clear of drilling related debris to within a 70m radius of the wellhead. If debris is present then BP is obliged to recover it, and the recovery operation should be agreed with the Drilling Superintendent. A Seabed Clearance Certificate must be issued by the ROV (or Diving) Supervisor stating that the seabed is clear (or alternatively that there is debris which has not been recovered). This should be signed by the Diving (ROV) Superintendent and countersigned by the BP Drilling Supervisor who should ensure that this certificate, together with a well abandonment drawing, is sent to the rigs DE Ops.

3.7

SUBJECT:

TABLE 1 - CEMENT PLUG/BRIDGE PLUG REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ABANDONMENT AND SUSPENSION OF WELLS

SUSPENSION AND ABANDONMENT PROCEDURES

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

Plug Setting Points 1. All porous/permeable zones and hydrocarbon zones isolated. Casing shoe (open hole below). Top of liner. Stage cementer/casing patch. Perforations.

Top of Cement min. 30m above

Bottom of Cement 30m below

Alternative Option For long permeable/interbedded sections not containing hydrocarbons, this requirement may be relaxed. If the hydrocarbon bearing zones have been tested, the zones must be separated by a bridge plug. If condition of open hole precludes running pipe into it, set a bridge plug 30m above shoe with 50m cement above bridge plug.

2. 3. 4. 5.

50 - 75m above 50 - 75m above 50 - 75m above min. 30m above

50 - 75m below 50 - 75m below 50 - 75m below 30m below

If the well is abandoned, normally a 15m cement plug will be squeezed into any perforations. In some cases, if good isolation is achieved above and below the perforations, it may not be necessary to cement off the perforations. If the well is suspended then the productive interval should not be squeezed. In exceptional circumstances where formations have been fractured/stimulated then cement across the perforations may be replaced by a bridge plug above with 50m of cement above the bridge plug. Cut casing 150 - 200m below seabed and revert to item 7.

6.

Annular space (there should be no communication between seabed and open hole). Top of cut casings. Surface plug (100m plug). Bridge plug.

7. 8. 9.

50m above 100m below seabed

50m below If the casing is cut shallow and plugged as in item 7, the requirement for a surface plug will have been satisfied. There should be a minimum of one bridge plug between the top of the liner (or perforations if no liner) and surface. Preferably, set the bridge plug just above the liner lap cement plug, or alternatively 250 - 500m below seabed.

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SUSPENSION AND ABANDONMENT PROCEDURES FIGURE 1

1100

1000

900

800

700
MINIMUM LATERAL OFFSET (FT)

600

500

400

300

200 10 100 15 20 25 30 40 50 75 100

0 200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

WATER DEPTH (FT) LATERAL OFFSET VS WATER DEPTH FOR VARYING CHARGE SIZE (LB NITRO METHANE) SEDCO 700 SERIES; 80 FT DRAFT; CHARGE 10 FT BELOW MUDLINE
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WELLHEAD SEVERANCE

GENERAL The following procedures apply to wellhead severance from semi-submersible rigs (refer also to Figure 1): 1. 2. The smaller diameter strings, i.e. 9 5/8 and possibly 7 should it be run to surface, should first be recovered by mechanical cutting and the BOPs pulled. In cases where unsuccessful attempts have been made to abandon a well, the following considerations should be borne in mind when deciding the future course of action: a) The Department of Energy expects companies to make a reasonable attempt at wellhead recovery at the time of well abandonment. Under normal circumstances, the 2 or 3 attempts recommended in the flowchart (Figure 1) can be considered reasonable. Prevailing weather conditions could severely influence matters. If bad weather is expected to delay anchor handling, then further attempts would be justified. However, if anchor handling could be completed before the onset of bad weather, then further severance attempts should stop. (Indeed in certain circumstances, this option may be considered prior to any severance attempts if a long period of WOW can be avoided.) c) The likely condition of the wellhead to be recovered and its suitability for refurbishment should be borne in mind, along with the existing wellhead stocking levels and any possible shortages.

b)

Note: At present wellheads are re-used for a total of 2 - 3 wells before being scrapped.
d) The economic implications of using the rig as opposed to a diving vessel. The use of a diving vessel to recover the wellhead at a fixed cost reduces the risk exposure when wellhead removal proves to be troublesome.

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FIGURE 1 WELLHEAD RECOVERY FLOW CHART


RECOVER SMALL DIAMETER STRINGS USING MECHANICAL CUTTER & PULL BOPS NOTE (i)

FIRE EXPLOSIVE CHARGE 10' (3M) BELOW SEABED

YES

CAN EXPLOSIVES BE USED WITHOUT MOVING RIG? NOTE (ii)

NO

MAKE MECHANICAL CUT AT 10' (3M) BELOW SEABED

WELLHEAD RECOVERED?

YES

COMPLETE ABANDONMENT

YES

WELLHEAD RECOVERED? NOTE (iii)

NO
FIRE 2ND EXPLOSIVE CHARGE 10' (3M) BELOW SEABED

NO
DO KNIVES INDICATE FULL CUT OF 30" CONDUCTOR ? NOTE (ii)

YES

NO YES
WAS A 30" TOP UP JOB PERFORMED ? NOTE (iii)

WELLHEAD RECOVERED?

YES

NO

NO
MAKE 2ND MECHANICAL CUT AT 10' (3M) BELOW SEABED

WELLHEAD RECOVERED? NOTE (iii)

NO

MOVE RIG OFF LOCATION AND FIRE EXPLOSIVE CHARGE 10' (3M) BELOW SEABED

YES YES
WELLHEAD RECOVERED?

NO

CONSIDER ALL OTHER FACTORS DEn, WEATHER, WELLHEAD STOCKS, RIG RATE, DIVING VESSEL RECOVERY ETC. NOTE (iv)

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WELLHEAD SEVERANCE

ONE TRIP ABANDONMENT TOOLS Introduction Mechanical cutting is BPs primary method of wellhead severance. Explosives will be the primary method in water depths exceeding 800 ft or if economics dictate that the use of explosives will result in reduced abandonment costs. Care should be exercised in all aspects of the operation. The recovered, undamaged wellhead can be re-used resulting in substantial savings. The overriding consideration, when cutting and grappling the assembly for recovery, is to minimise external or internal damage of the wellhead joint, such that it can be re-used with minimal refurbishment costs. If damage to the wellhead is severe, its pressure rating may have to be downgraded following repairs, or in the worse case scrapped. Care and time should be taken when cutting. An unsuccessful cut can jeopardise abandonment operations, leading to increased costs and wastage of rig time. The system used to carry out the cutting and recovery operation should be carefully studied. The object is to successfully cut and recover the 20 and 30 in one operation. In an effort to reduce wellhead damage, abandonment tools and techniques have been developed to reduce contact between the wellhead, the wellhead internal profiles and the cutting and pulling assembly. Cutting in tension is the preferred option. With the DCs and drill pipe in tension whilst cutting, there is no pipe buckling effect and current effects are virtually eliminated. A successful cut is readily noticed as a reduction in overpull at surface.

2.2

Stabilisation When the casing cutter is well stabilised above and below the cutting knives, cutting will be faster with a decreased chance of off-centre cutting. Drift sized stabilisers should be placed above and below the cutter. If casing design includes a reduced swaged diameter below the wellhead, a stabiliser should be included in the reduced diameter. Note the minimum diameter of the wellhead when gauging stabilisers for the cutting assembly. Stabiliser blades should be of the non-rotating type tapered top and bottom. Blades can have a thin skin of brass or similar material brazed onto their leading edges. This acts as a sacrificial layer when the stabiliser is passed through the sealing bore areas of the wellhead reducing contact damage.

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WELLHEAD SEVERANCE

PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CUTTING AND RETRIEVING

Note: If any special 20/30 centralisers were run, the cut must be at least 5 above or below the centraliser.
1. If after cutting the casings, no progress is made in pulling the casings and guide bases, unlatch the retrieval mechanism and pull the cutting assembly. Carefully inspect the knives to check that they have been cutting at their maximum diameter. If the knives show e.g. only the 20 has been cut, re-run the assembly with new knives and cut the 30. If both casings have been cut satisfactorily but the wellhead cannot be pulled free, consider running a fishing assembly to jar the wellhead and casings free. Economics may dictate that running an explosive charge rather than a fishing assembly to jar free the casings and guide bases may be more cost effective. 2. The idea associated with cutting casings in tension is well established. As long as the equipment is working satisfactorily, cutting should be continued for a minimum of 6 hours, until the casings and wellhead can be pulled free. For simultaneous cutting of the 20 and 30, if surface indications are such that both casings are cut, rotation should be stopped and the string overpulled in an attempt to pull the wellhead and both strings free. Circulation should be continued whilst pulling to assist in washing away formation or cement from the 30 and guide bases. If it is recognised at any time during the cutting operation that the knives are either worn or have broken, the spear should be released and the assembly pulled for inspection. 3. Poorly cemented or uncentralised 20 when cut will have a tendency to move when cutting the 30. If this occurs, off-centre cutting may occur, resulting in the 30 being partially cut on one side only. If after repeated pulling and cutting no progress is made, unlatch the spear and pull the cutting assembly for inspection. After examination of the knives, indications will be evident as to how large a diameter the knives have been cutting. If both strings have not been cut, redress the cutter with new knives and run the assembly back into the hole. If both casings have been cut, a cement sheath around the conductor may be preventing the casing coming free. An explosive charge should be run to fracture the cement sheath. A spear is then run to retrieve the casings and guide bases. Economic considerations may overrule a second run with a cutting assembly to complete the cutting of the 30 conductor. In that case an explosive charge is used to sever the conductor and to ensure that any cement sheath is fractured. Cutters can be fitted with a flotel device. This device can be adjusted to show a pressure decrease when the knives have reached their maximum cutting diameter. Usually if the casings are completely cut, and depending whether cutting was done in tension or under compression, the pipe will fall on top of the knives. A pressure drop will be noticed if the 30 is well cemented as the knives shear into the cement sheath. It is optional whether the flo-tel device is used. The decision to stop cutting should not be made on the basis of a pressure drop alone. If it is decided to release the spear or grappling mechanism from the wellhead on the seabed, problems can occur when attempting to release the grappling tool. If the knives are jammed in the cut pipe it may be difficult to release the spear from the wellhead, when using tension cut assemblies. To overcome this possibility a bumper sub can be placed in the assembly between the pipe cutter and the spear. This allows the spear to travel downwards the length of the stroke of the bumper sub. However a bumper sub placed in this position introduces a weak point in the assembly. Each situation should be given careful thought. Do not run a bumper sub in this position without consultation with the rigs superintendent.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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FIGURE 2 SCHEMATIC OF A "ONE PASS" CUT AND RETRIEVE SYSTEM

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 30" CONDUCTOR ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 20" CASING ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 17 1/2" STAB ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, PIPE CUTTER ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, 20" / 13 / " SWAGE ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 13 / " CASING ,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
38 38

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 12 1/4" STAB ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

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WELLHEAD SEVERANCE

RED BARON AND SERVCO SYSTEM The Red Baron and Servco offer a one pass 20/30 pipe cutting and wellhead retrieval system. Both operate in a similar fashion.

4.1

System Description The catch assembly is run in through the wellhead. On 18 3/4 wellhead equipment, the grapple locates under a profile immediately below the sealing areas contained within the wellhead. An overpull is taken on the wellhead of 10 - 25,000 lbs and the 20 and 30 pipe cut. Rotation of the string whilst the grapple is in tension is via a heavy duty bronze thrust bearing housed within the spear assembly. Minimum damage is done to the wellhead by the grappling mechanism resulting in minimum refurbishment costs, enabling the wellhead to be re-used if required. With the 20 and 30 satisfactorily cut, the wellhead and guide base are recovered simultaneously.

4.2

Equipment Preparation 1. The casing cutter and spear should arrive on the rig site already made up. This saves rig time. All connections should be checked as the rest of the assembly is made up. Paint the lower 15 of the assembly in advance. This will aid in ROV identification when stabbing into the wellhead. Gauge all stabilisers ensuring they will pass through minimum wellhead ID. Check spear is dressed with correct grapple to locate under profile in wellhead. Inform ROV team of operations well in advance. If logistically possible, organise a supply boat to receive recovered wellhead and guide bases to avoid deck space problems.

2. 3. 4. 5. 4.3

Operating Procedure For cutting and retrieving 20 and 30 in one pass, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 17 1/2 NR stab, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, rotating spear, 6 x 8 DC, HWDP to surface. If the wellhead consists of 20 casing swaged down to 13 3/8 casing, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 12 1/4 NR stab, 1 x 8 DC, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, rotating spear, 6 x 8 DC, HWDP to surface. All connections below the cutter should be made up to the maximum recommended torque of 43,500 ft.lbs. 1. Set the knives for maximum cut of 38. Push the knives fully back into the mandrel recesses. To ensure the knives do not come out of the recess and cause problems when going through the wellhead, wedge each knife in place using a piece of soft-line. Run the assembly into the moon-pool area and centralise the string with 4 soft lines attached to the guide wires. Carefully note the distance of the spear stop ring locating profile inside the wellhead from the extreme top of the wellhead. With the spear in the fully engaged position, paint a reference point mark on the assembly above the spear stop ring corresponding to this measurement. This mark can then be used to confirm the stop ring has located in the proper position when the assembly has been landed off inside the wellhead.

2. 3.

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Run the assembly to 50 above the guide posts. Do not rotate the string in open water. Jump the ROV. With ROV guidance, stab the bullnose into the wellhead. Carefully run the assembly through the wellhead and land the spear stop collar off with minimum weight. Use the ROV to check the position of the paint mark relative to the wellhead. This will confirm if the stop collar is in the correct position within the wellhead. Pull back and engage the spear in the wellhead pulling profile. Overpull 50,000 lbs to ensure grapple securely engaged and holding properly. Slack off overpull to working tension of 20-25,000 lbs. Set guide line tensions to slightly less than the combined weight of the cut casings and the guide bases.

8. 9.

10. Retrieve the ROV back to surface. 11. Rotate string bringing RPM up to 100. 12. Bring pumps slowly up to 400 GPM noting increase in torque as knives are pushed outwards into casing. The knives will begin cutting immediately. Note torque pattern which will tend to fluctuate around an average value. This indicates that the pipe is being cut rather than torn. If large torque variations are seen, rpm and circulation rate should be fine-tuned until the pattern smooths out. Once a regular cutting torque pattern has been established, set the rotary table or top-drive torque limiter to slightly above this value. In the event of the cut casings dropping onto the knives, the rotary or top-drive will stall out. This will prevent twist-offs and/or damage to the knives. 13. If a flotel is fitted, when the knives are fully extended, a pressure drop will be evident, indicating the 20 and 30 have been successfully cut. If the 30 is poorly cemented the cut pipe may drop onto the knives. The rotary or top drive should be immediately stopped. Stop circulation. 14. At the end of cutting operations, switch the pumps off to drop the knives back into their recesses. 15. Stop the rotary table or top-drive. If weather conditions permit, lock the compensator. Work the pipe to the maximum recommended for the string using the heave of the vessel for assistance to free the casings and guide bases. Do not shock load the assembly as this will only result in damage to the spear and/or bearing possibly leading to a fish in the open water. 16. Jump the ROV. Cut and retrieve the guide wires. Retrieve the ROV to surface. 17. Pull the wellhead and cut pipe to surface. 18. With the wellhead and guide base secured on the moonpool beams, slack off weight on the rotating spear. Turn the string 1/8 turn to the right. This will close the clutch on the spear allowing the assembly to be pulled free from the wellhead.

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TRI-STATE SYSTEM Tri-State offers a one pass 20/30 pipe cutting and wellhead retrieval system.

5.1

System Description The cutting assembly is run into the wellhead and the spear is landed off with the stop ring on top of the wellhead. The spear is locked into the internal running threads of the wellhead with 4 mechanically activated dogs. An overpull is taken on the wellhead and the pipe is cut in tension. Rotation of the string whilst the spear dogs are locked into the wellhead is via a heavy duty bronze thrust bearing housed within the spear assembly. Minimum damage is done to the wellhead by the grappling mechanism resulting in minimum refurbishment costs enabling the wellhead to be re-used if required. With the 20 and 30 satisfactorily cut, both the wellhead and guide base are recovered simultaneously.

5.2

Equipment Preparation 1. The casing cutter and rotating spear assembly should arrive on the rig site already made up. This saves rig time. All connections should be checked as the rest of the assembly is made up. Paint the lower 15 of the assembly in advance. This will aid in ROV identification when stabbing into the wellhead. Gauge all stabilisers, ensuring they will pass through minimum wellhead ID. Inform ROV team of operations well in advance. If logistically possible, organise a supply boat to receive recovered wellhead and guide bases to avoid deck space problems.

2. 3. 4. 5.3

Operating Procedure For cutting and retrieving 20 and 30 in one pass, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 17 1/2 NR stab, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, rotating spear assembly, bumpersub, 6 x 8 DC, HWDP to surface. For cutting swaged 20/13 3/8, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 12 1/4 NR stab, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, rotating spear assembly, bumpersub, 6 x 8 DC, HWDP to surface. All connections below the cutter should be made up to the maximum recommended torque of 43,500 ft.lbs. 1. Set the knives for maximum cut of 42. Push the knives fully back into the mandrel recesses. To ensure the knives do not come out of the recess and cause problems when going through the wellhead, wedge the knife in place using a piece of soft-line. Ensure the locking dogs are fully back, flush with the body of the spear. The spear mandrel is turned fully anti-clockwise to locate the key away from the keyway slot. Run the assembly into the moon-pool area and centralise the string with 4 soft lines attached to the guide wires. Run the assembly to 50 above the guide posts. Do not rotate the string in open water. Jump the ROV.

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With ROV guidance, stab the bullnose into the wellhead. Carefully land off the assembly on the spear stop ring on top of the wellhead with 10,000 lbs. Confirm with the ROV that the bumper sub is fully closed and the stop ring has fully landed off on top of the wellhead. With the string fully landed off and the bumper sub closed, put 10,000 lbs on top of the stop ring. Turn string 1/4 to 1/2 turn to the right. This aligns the mandrel key and keyway slot. Pick string up. On lifting the string a taper on the mandrel forces out the locking dogs into the wellhead running tool threads. Set guide line tensions to slightly less than the combined weight of the cut casings and the guide bases.

7. 8.

9.

10. Retrieve the ROV back to surface. 11. Pull 20-25,000 lbs tension on the string. Rotate string bringing RPM up to 100. 12. Bring pumps slowly up to 400 GPM noting increase in torque as knives are pushed outwards into casing. The knives will begin cutting immediately. Note torque pattern which will tend to fluctuate around an average value. This indicates that the pipe is being cut rather than torn. If large torque variations are seen, rpm and circulation rate should be fine-tuned until the pattern smooths out. Once a regular cutting torque pattern has been established, set the rotary table or top-drive torque limiter to slightly above this value. In the event of the cut casings dropping onto the knives the rotary or top-drive will stall out. This will prevent twist-offs and/or damage to the knives. 13. If a flotel is fitted, when the knives are fully extended, a pressure drop will be evident, indicating the 20 and 30 have been successfully cut. If the 30 is poorly cemented the cut pipe may drop onto the knives. The rotary or top drive should be immediately stopped. Stop circulation. 14. At the end of cutting operations, switch the pumps off to drop the knives back into their recesses. 15. Stop the rotary table or top-drive. 16. If weather conditions permit, lock the compensator. Work the pipe to the maximum recommended for the string using the heave of the vessel for assistance to free the casings and guide bases. Do not shock load the assembly as this will only result in damage to the spear and catching mechanism, possibly leading to a fish in the open water. 17. Jump the ROV. Cut and retrieve the guide wires. Retrieve the ROV to surface. 18. Pull the wellhead and cut pipe to surface. 19. With the wellhead and guide base secured on the moonpool beams, slack off to neutral weight and turn the string 1/4 to 1/2 turn to the left. Lower the string 10 inches to allow the locking dogs to disengage from the wellhead running tool threads. 20. Pull assembly from the wellhead.

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A-1 M.O.S.T. SYSTEM A-1 M.O.S.T. (mechanically outside single trip) offers a one pass 20/30 pipe cutting and wellhead retrieval system.

6.1

System Description The cutting and retrieving assembly is run in through the wellhead. The M.O.S.T. retrieval tool is located on top of the wellhead and landed off. Pipe rotation, whilst the M.O.S.T. tool is landed off, is via a marine swivel placed above the tool. The 20 and 30 are cut in compression with weight on the swivel. Once the pipe is cut, the mechanically activated arms are latched onto the outside wellhead profile. The cut pipe and guide bases are then pulled to surface with the cutting assembly. Minimum wellhead damage is incurred in the cutting and grappling procedure. The refurbished wellhead can be re-used if required.

6.2

Equipment Preparation 1. The casing cutter and M.O.S.T. tool should arrive on the rig site already made up. This saves rig time. All connections should be checked as the rest of the assembly is made up. Paint the lower 15 of the assembly in advance. This will aid in ROV identification when stabbing into the wellhead. Gauge all stabilisers, ensuring they will pass through minimum wellhead ID. Inform ROV team of operations well in advance. If logistically possible, organise a supply boat to receive recovered wellhead and guide bases to avoid deck space problems.

2. 3. 4. 6.3

Operating Procedure For cutting and retrieving 20 and 30 in one pass, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 17 1/2 NR stab, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, M.O.S.T. tool/marine swivel, 6 x 8 DC, HWDP to surface. For cutting swaged 20/13 3/8, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 12 1/4 NR stab, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, M.O.S.T. tool/marine swivel, 6 x 8 DC, HWDP to surface. The string above the swivel is composed of enough collars to have available 20,000 lbs downweight on the swivel and the rest of the HWDP kept in tension. This will minimise string buckling in the open water. The pipe cutter has 4 knives and as such will greatly aid stabilisation. All connections below the cutter should be made up to the maximum recommended torque of 43,500 ft.lbs. 1. Set the knives for maximum cut of 42. Push the knives fully back into the mandrel recesses. To ensure the knives dont come out of the recess and cause problems when going through the wellhead, wedge the knife in place using a piece of soft-line. Run the assembly into the moon-pool area and centralise the string with 4 soft lines attached to the guide wires.

2.

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WELLHEAD SEVERANCE

Run the assembly to 50 above the guide posts. Do not rotate the string in open water. Jump the ROV. With ROV guidance, stab the bullnose into the wellhead. Carefully land off the M.O.S.T./marine swivel on top of the wellhead with 10,000 lbs. Set guide line tensions to slightly less than the combined weight of the cut casings and the guide bases. Retrieve the ROV back to surface. With 10-15,000 lbs weight on the swivel, rotate string bringing RPM up to 100.

10. Bring pumps slowly up to 400 GPM noting increase in torque as knives are pushed outwards into casing. The knives will begin cutting immediately. Note torque pattern which will tend to fluctuate around an average value. This indicates that the pipe is being cut rather than torn. If large torque variations are seen, rpm and circulation rate should be fine-tuned until the pattern smooths out. If the wellhead turns during cutting operations, slack off more weight on the marine swivel. Once a regular cutting torque pattern has been established, set the rotary table or top-drive torque limiter to slightly above this value. In the event of the cut casings dropping onto the knives the rotary or top-drive will stall out. This will prevent twist-offs and/or damage to the knives. 11. If a flotel is fitted, when the knives are fully extended, a pressure drop will be evident, indicating the 20 and 30 have been successfully cut. If the 30 is poorly cemented, the cut pipe may drop onto the knives. The rotary or top drive should be immediately stopped. Stop circulation. 12. At the end of cutting operations, switch the pumps off to drop the knives back into their recesses. 13. Stop the rotary table or top-drive. 14. Pick up string 6 inches and rotate 1/2 turn to the left. This engages the arms on the outside wellhead profile. 15. Stop the rotary table or top-drive. If weather conditions permit, lock the compensator. Work the pipe to the maximum recommended for the string using the heave of the vessel for assistance to free the casings and guide bases. Do not shock load the assembly as this will only result in damage to the M.O.S.T. tool and/or marine swivel, possibly leading to a fish in the open water. 16. Jump the ROV. Cut and retrieve the guidelines. Retrieve the ROV back to surface. 17. Pull the wellhead and cut pipe to surface. 18. With the wellhead and guide base secured on the moonpool beams, slack off weight and locate the release mechanism for the mechanical arms on the M.O.S.T. tool. Turn string 1/2 turn to right. This releases the spring loaded arms. Pull assembly from wellhead.

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WELLHEAD SEVERANCE

DEEPWATER SYSTEM Deepwater offer a one pass 20/30 pipe cutting and wellhead retrieval system.

7.1

System Description The cutting assembly is run in through the wellhead and landed off on top of the wellhead with 8-10,000 lbs weight. The 20 and 30 are cut in compression with weight on the swivel. Rotation of the string is via a marine type swivel which is housed within the upper part of the land-off and grappling assembly. To retrieve the cut casings and wellhead, 6 segmented dogs on the land-off/swivel unit are mechanically forced outwards into the internal running tool threads of the wellhead. With the 20 and 30 satisfactorily cut, the pipe and wellhead are retrieved together. Minimum wellhead damage is incurred in the cutting and grappling procedure. The refurbished wellhead can be re-used if required.

7.2

Equipment Preparation 1. The casing cutter and land-off/marine swivel unit should arrive on the rig site already made up. This saves rig time. All connections should be checked as the rest of the assembly is made up. Paint the lower 15 of the assembly in advance. This will aid in ROV identification when stabbing into the wellhead. Gauge all stabilisers, ensuring they will pass through minimum wellhead ID. Inform ROV team of operations well in advance. If logistically possible, organise a supply boat to receive recovered wellhead and guide bases to avoid deck space problems.

2. 3. 4. 7.3

Operating Procedure For cutting and retrieving 20 and 30 in one pass, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 171/2 NR stab, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, land-off/marine swivel unit, 6 x 8 DC, HWDP to surface. For cutting swaged 20/13 3/8, make up the following assembly: 8 bullnose, 12 1/4 NR stab, 11 3/4 pipe-cutter, 17 1/2 NR stab, land-off/marine swivel unit, 6 X 8 DC, HWDP to surface. The string above the swivel is composed of enough collars to have available 20,000 lbs downweight on the swivel and the rest of the HWDP kept in tension. This will minimise string buckling in the open water. All connections below the cutter should be made up to the maximum recommended torque of 43,500 ft.lbs. 1. Set the knives for maximum cut of 42. Push the knives fully back into the mandrel recesses. To ensure the knives dont come out of the recess and cause problems when going through the wellhead, wedge the knife in place using a piece of soft-line. Paint 3 large vertical lines on the marine swivel unit and upper mandrel to correspond with the three dog locating keyways within the tool. Run the assembly with the spear in the fully locked disengaged position, i.e. the vertical paint lines should be at 60 degrees to each other, into the moon-pool area and centralise with 4 soft lines attached to the guide wires.

2.

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WELLHEAD SEVERANCE

Run the assembly to 50 above the guide posts. Do not rotate the string in open water. Jump the ROV. With ROV guidance, stab the bullnose into the wellhead. Carefully land off the marine swivel/land-off unit on top of the wellhead with 10,000 lbs. Set guide line tensions to slightly less than the combined weight of the cut casings and the guide bases. Retrieve the ROV back to surface. With 10,000 lbs weight on the swivel, rotate string bringing RPM up to 100.

10. Bring pumps slowly up to 400 GPM noting increase in torque as knives are pushed outwards into casing. The knives will begin cutting immediately. Note torque pattern which will tend to fluctuate around an average value. This indicates that the pipe is being cut rather than torn. If large torque variations are seen, rpm and circulation rate should be fine-tuned until the pattern smooths out. If the wellhead turns during cutting operations, slack off more weight on the marine swivel. Once a regular cutting torque pattern has been established, set the rotary table or top-drive torque limiter to slightly above this value. In the event of the cut casings dropping onto the knives the rotary or top-drive will stall out. This will prevent twist-offs and/or damage to the knives. 11. If a flotel is fitted, when the knives are fully extended, a pressure drop will be evident, indicating the 20 and 30 have been successfully cut. If the 30 is poorly cemented the cut pipe may drop onto the knives. The rotary or top drive should be immediately stopped. Stop circulation. 12. At the end of cutting operations, switch the pumps off to drop the knives back into their recesses. 13. Stop the rotary table or top-drive. 14. Rotate the string 1/3 of a turn to the right. Pick up the string 4-6 inches. The swivel unit mandrel is then allowed to move upwards and forces out 6 segmented dogs into the wellhead running tool thread profile. The 3 vertical paint marks on the swivel and mandrel should now be aligned. The wellhead is now locked in place and ready for pulling. 15. If weather conditions permit, lock the compensator. Work the pipe to the maximum recommended for the string using the heave of the vessel for assistance to free the casings and guide bases. Do not shock load the assembly as this will only result in damage to the grappling tool and swivel, possibly leading to a fish in the open water. 16. Jump the ROV. Cut and retrieve the guide wires. Retrieve the ROV back to surface. 17. Pull the wellhead and cut pipe back to surface. 18. With the wellhead and guide base secured on the moonpool beams, slack off weight and allow the swivel unit mandrel to be further lowered by 4-6 inches. Turn the string 1/3 to the right. In this position, with the paint marks at approx. 60 degrees to each other, when the string is picked up the mandrel is unable to travel upwards. The 6 locating dogs are then free to disengage and fall away from the wellhead running tool thread profile. 19. Remove the cutting and retrieval assembly from the wellhead.

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Index Prefixes
0000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Safety and Administration Drilling Casing and Tubing Cementing Drilling Fluids Wellheads, Packers, Tools and Equipment Stuck Pipe and Fishing Well Evaluation Marine and Miscellaneous

Index Suffixes
MST GEN SEM JAK FIX FOR CLY BEA MAG THI MIL DON BRU MAR RAV AME WYF HAR Master Index and User Guide General Semi-Submersible Drilling Units Jack-Up Drilling Units Fixed Drilling Units Forties Clyde Beatrice Magnus Thistle Miller Don Bruce Marnock Ravenspurn Amethyst Wytch Farm Harding

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Section
2000 2000/GEN 2005/GEN 2010/GEN 2100/SEM 2100/JAK 2105/FIX 2200/SEM 2200/FIX 2300/FIX 2300/SEM 2400/FIX 2500/FIX 2510/GEN 2515/GEN 2520/GEN

Description
CASING AND TUBING Prep. & Running Casing - General Casing Design Casing Centralisation Prep. & Running 30" Conductor/PGB - Dril-Quip SS15 System Prep. & Running 30" Conductor and Stab-In Cement Stinger Assy Cutting & Preparation of Casing to Accept Wellhead Spools Prep. & Run 20"/18.5/8" Casing - Dril-Quip SS15 System Prep. & Run 20"/18.5/8" Casing - General Prep. & Run 13.3/8" Casing Prep. & Run 13.3/8" Casing - Dril-Quip SS15 System Prep. & Run 9.5/8" Casing Prep. & Run 7" Casing Prep. & Run 7" Baker (Brown) HMC Liner Hanger Prep. & Run 7" Baker (Brown) HSR Rotating Liner Hanger Prep. & Run 7" Baker (Brown) HSR Liner Hanger with CPH Packer Prep. & Run 7" TIW Liner Hanger Prep. & Run 7" TIW Liner Hanger with Integral Packer

2525/GEN 2530/GEN

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

2535/GEN 2540/GEN

Prep. & Run 7" Nodeco Rotating Liner Hanger with TSP Packer Prep. & Run 7" Lindsey-Arrow HSB-SC Liner Hanger with WM-P Packer Prep. & Run 7" Enaco/TIW Rotating Liner Hanger with 'S' Packer and SJ-T mechanical Rotating Tool Prep. & Run 4.1/2" Nodeco Rotating Liner Hanger with TSP Packer Prep. & Run 5" Baker HMC Liner Hanger with CPH Packer External Casing Patch Operations Connectors: Hunting Merlin Connectors: Hunting Lynx Connectors: Vetco SR-20 Connectors: Vetco ALT Series Connectors: Vetco RL-4S BP Standard Casing Data Tubing Preparation & Running Procedures Chrome Tubular Handling 13% Duplex 25% Chrome Tubular Handling/Running Procedure

2545GEN

2550/GEN

2560/GEN 2600/GEN 2700/GEN 2705/GEN 2715/GEN 2720/GEN 2725/GEN 2800/GEN 2900/GEN 2950/GEN 2960/GEN

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

2250/CLY 2250/THI 2250/AME 2260/FOR 2260/MAG 2260/BRU 2260/WYF 2300/WYF 2350AME 2400/WYF 2450/AME 2550/WYF

Prep. & Run 20" Clyde Prep. & Run 20" Thistle Prep. & Run 20" Contingency String - Amethyst Prep. & Run 18.5/8" Forties Prep. & Run 18.5/8" Magnus Prep. & Run 18.5/8" Bruce Prep. & Run 18.5/8" Casing Wytch Farm Prep. & Run 13.3/8" Casing Wytch Farm Prep. & Run 13.3/8" Casing - Amethyst Prep. & Run 9.5/8" Casing Wytch Farm Prep. & Run 9.5/8" Casing - Amethyst Prep. & Run 5.1/2" Nodeco Rotating Liner Hanger with TSP Packer Wytch Farm

NOTE: Sections highlighted in bold are those sections which have been modified (or inserted for the first time) in the most recent amendment to this Guidelines for Drilling Operations. Within each such section, the newly modified parts are identified by the bold black marker line on the right side of the text. A brief resume of the changes is provided at the end of this MST section. Sections underlined are those items which are available within this version of Acrobat.

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Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING OF CASING: GENERAL

GENERAL ROUTINES AND PREPARATIONS FOR RUNNING CASING It is the responsibility of the Drilling Supervisor to ensure that all equipment has been ordered and is on site prior to the casing job. On exploration wells at each new location the initial load-out will usually consist of the drilling equipment for the 36 and 26 sections plus two sets of guide bases and wellheads, two strings of 30 conductor and one string of 20 casing. This load-out will usually be timed to arrive at the rig as the anchors are being run. On exploration wells telex orders for subsequent casing strings should be sent when drilling commences on the new hole section. Check that the casing weight/grade/connection is correct for the well programme and where a mixed string is being run that sufficient pipe of each type is available. When using subsea wellheads check that the casing hanger extension is the correct grade of pipe. Refer to page 7 for details of colour code marking for tubing and casing. When casing is delivered and racked, remove protectors and thoroughly clean and check casing threads. For further information, refer to Section 2800/GEN - Tubular Preparation and Running Guide. On completion of each layer, the BP Drilling Supervisor/Engineer and Contractor TP will independently measure the casing, after which the numbers are painted on. It is essential that there are two independent measurements which correlate. For each row the lowest numbered pipe should be farthest from the catwalk. The BP casing tally sheet must be used to list the pipe as laid down. Only corrected lengths should be marked on the tally. When measuring is completed the BP Drilling Supervisor should count the total amount of joints on board, and compare this with the pipe tally and consignment figures. He then should add up all columns on the pipe tally and check the totals with those of the Contractor TP. Casing to be drifted with the correct sized API drift - any failures to be clearly marked. Ensure that the drift mandrel dimensions conform to API RP 5A5: 8 5/8 casing and smaller: 9 5/8 casing and larger: Tubing (all sizes): mandrel length 6 mandrel length 12 mandrel length 42

1.3 1.4

1.5 1.6

1.7 1.8

1.9

1.10

After the casing has been drifted the BP Drilling Engineer should then make up the casing running programme and have it checked by the BP Drilling Supervisor. As soon as the BP Drilling Supervisor has agreed with the programme, a running list is to be prepared stating exactly the joints to be run and to be left out. Joints to be excluded from the string should be clearly marked, and the running list should indicate clearly the joints where centralisers should be attached. After the casing has been measured and drifted, dope the pin and box ends with API modified dope and replace the thread protectors (hand tight).

1.11

Note: This does not apply to 20 and 30 connectors.


1.12 Check placement of shoe and collar, or special casing equipment. Welding on casing is not permitted. The collars of the joints making up the shoe track should be removed and made up again with the proper torque and a thread locking compound should be used. Float collars, shoes and DV collars should be made up similarly. Collars that have been threadlocked in town will arrive with the collars painted yellow. Threadlocking of collars in the rotary table is to be avoided, and whenever possible should be carried out on deck beforehand.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.13

Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING OF CASING: GENERAL

When threadlocking on the rig floor, make sure both pin and box are clean and dry, only place the locking compound on the pin of the connection with the joint pulled to one side, spatulas have been known to drop into the casing as well as dope brushes. Threadlock may not be used on some quick connector threads, e.g. Vetco LS. Single joint and side door elevators to be tried on several casing joints on deck to check fit. All accessories should be made up on casing pin ends to ease fishing operations should the casing drop through the slips into the hole.

1.14

Both shoe and collar joint should be fitted with a blanked off casing thread protector as soon as shoe/collar have been installed. This is to prevent foreign objects from entering joint during storage/handling. Casing OD Tolerances The standard API tolerance on casing OD (all grades) is +1.0%, -0.5%. Casing centralisers are currently manufactured to fit the 1% tolerance. Some casing grades (e.g. HC95 and HC110) have additional tolerances: For 13 3/8 72 lb/ft HC95 and HC110 with 12 1/4 drift there is an additional 0.080 above API, making maximum OD = 13.589. These casings require special elevators and accessories. For 9 5/8 43.5 lb/ft and 47 lb/ft HC95 and HC110 there is no additional tolerance, making maximum OD = 9.721. For 9 5/8 53.5 lb/ft HC95 and HC110 with 8 1/2 drift there is an additional 0.075 above API, making maximum OD = 9.796. Note that for 9 5/8 53.5 lb/ft with 8 1/2 special drift in other grades there is an additional 0.025 above API, making maximum OD = 9.746. This variance in tolerance depends upon manufacturer and advice should be obtained from DTD, Dyce.

1.15

1.16 1.17

Determine the amount of cement required; from the caliper or experience, and the drilling programme. Order cement and additives well in advance, and notify cementers in time to have the cement equipment rigged up and tested prior to landing the casing. Take samples of newly arrived cement and send in to town along with samples from the liquid additives, drill water and seawater for slurry testing. See that sufficient water and displacing fluid is available and that adequate supply lines are provided for the cementers. Have Mud Engineer check mud is in good condition prior to pulling out of hole for casing (low viscosity YP and PV/YP ratio). Where tank capacity allows, ensure that displacement fluid is pumped from and received into separate tanks. This provides a positive method of measuring losses and displacement volumes. Mud pumps should be fitted with the proper size liners and be in good mechanical condition. Ensure that the mud pump relief valve is correctly set and tested. Have a low pressure mud fill up line rigged up with a quick opening valve for high rate casing fill. The hole depth must be checked by measuring out of the hole at least once prior to reaching a critical depth such as casing point, logging point, etc. and if these measurements do not agree the pipe should be remeasured. It is the responsibility of the Drilling Supervisor to check that all running tools and equipment are in good condition and are the correct rating for the job and covered by valid certification. In particular:

1.18 1.19

1.20

1.21

1.22

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
a)

Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING OF CASING: GENERAL

Side door elevators should be checked for uneven wear on the bearing surface and for correct operation of the door latch. Elevators should be checked by trial latching before the casing is run. Grinding of elevators is dangerous and should be avoided. Spider and elevator slips and guides should be checked for size, condition and the ability to operate evenly. Load capabilities of the block line.

b) c) 1.23

Stabbing board to be checked out as per the safety check list, duly signed by the person making the inspection, Senior Toolpusher and Drilling Supervisor. This must be carried out prior to any use of the stabbing board.

1.24

On returning casing to supply base all joints should be protected, therefore, keep behind sufficient pin and box protectors for the estimated return load. A Casing Return Telex should be sent notifying backload. Any damaged joints should be clearly marked with red paint and manifested separately. Any joints failing the drift check should be clearly marked NO DRIFT in red paint and manifested separately. If a slip-type Casing Hanger is to be used, check 3 casing joints for ovality and set aside for use across the wellhead spool. Ensure all power tongs and conventional tongs are checked out before the job. If Wellhead Casing cutting is to be used, check and prepare the casing cutter on the wellhead deck (see Section 2105/FIX). Well Control Rigfloor BOPs : : Ensure that a full opening valve (Lower Kelly Cock or similar) made up to a casing crossover is held on the rigfloor. On surface stacks, ensure that the upper pipe rams are dressed with the correctly sized casing rams and the bonnet seals pressure tested to the stack test pressure, unless a specific dispensation is issued by the Drilling Superintendent.

1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28

1.29 1.30 1.31

Check all Wellhead Equipment to be used on the Casing Installation is as per Wellhead Sections. Check compatibility/suitability of all cementing accessories, shoe float, stage cementer equipment, cementing stingers, etc. If using any type of quick connector, either threaded or snap lock system, clean pin and box ends thoroughly, inspect threads and seal faces/shoulders, inspect and replace any damaged elastomers, lubricate with a light oil. DO NOT USE THREAD DOPE, METALLIC GREASE COMPOUNDS OR ANY LOCKING COMPOUNDS ON THESE TYPES OF CONNECTOR.

2. 2.1

CASING RUNNING OPERATIONS Visually check the inside of each joint of casing on the rack to see that all joints are clear of foreign materials. Both shoe joint and collar joint should be fitted with a blanked off casing thread protector as soon as shoe/collar have been installed. This is to prevent foreign objects from entering joint during storage/ handling.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
2.2 2.3

Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING OF CASING: GENERAL

On liner jobs and 20 casing cementations drift all drillpipe used with the proper size rabbit. Ensure that all plugs used in SSR and liner operations are the correct size for the drillpipe. Place short joint(s) in the casing string near the pay zone(s) to aid later in checking depths with a casing collar locator (CCL), if required. On exploration wells two pup joints are generally required, one within the reservoir and one +/- 50m above the top of the reservoir. Check conventional casing float equipment and surface mud lines after the shoetrack is run in. Fill up casing every joint and completely every 5 joints via a low pressure mud line rigged up with a quick opening valve. Ensure the casing is made up to the correct torque, in the case of buttress couplings the following procedure is to be adopted: The routine to obtain the average power tight make-up torque is to bring the face of the collar to the base of the triangle on each of the first 10 joints after the pipe locked shoetrack and establish the average make-up torque for these. This average is applied to make-up the remaining joints using spot checks on the position of the face of the collar relative to the triangle base. Provided the position falls within -0.2 and +0.375 of the base, the power tight make-up is acceptable. Refer to sketch shown below.

2.4 2.5 2.6

0.375 in. Collar position for 1st 10 joints 0.2 in.

Range of collar position on subsequent joints at average make-up torque.

CASING COLLAR FACE


VAM Couplings: Note that the make-up torque on VAM connections has been changed as of October 1988 to account for the introduction of NEW VAM. All VAM couplings will be made up to the new ratings. NEW VAM can be made up into OLD VAM as long as the make-up torque for NEW VAM is used. For further information on VAM connections, refer to Section 2711/GEN Casing Connection Data NEW VAM.
2.7 2.8 Refer to Section 2800/GEN for data on tubulars used in BPs operations. Regulate casing lowering speed to 30 sec/jt (0.4 m/sec) or to the optimum speed as indicated by pressure surge/swab calculations. Caution driller of possible lost circulation if casing is run too fast and check for full returns every joint. When the side door elevator is in use, avoid impact loading, which can open this type of elevator. Particular care must be taken when centralisers are entering rotary or BOP/wellhead. When the hook load becomes large and always when leaving casing shoe, use slip type elevators (not for 20 casing).

2.9

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
2.10 2.11

Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING OF CASING: GENERAL

Wherever possible or practical, wash down the last 1 - 2 joints of casing. Break circulation slowly. Record free hanging weight of the string. Circulate at least casing contents + 20% (or annular content, whichever is greater). Record circulating pressures and rates up to a maximum rate allowable from pressure considerations, i.e. 85% of formation breakdown, casing test pressure, losses, etc. Pump and displace cement at rates as indicated by the drilling programme. (High displacement rates prior to landing the bottom plug could cause plug collapse at landing due to mud column inertia.)

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

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2000/GEN 4 (10/91) 6 of 6

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING OF CASING: GENERAL

UK Operations
BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev. Page

: : :

2005/GEN 1 (10/98) 1 of 1

GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

CASING DESIGN

Refer to BPX Casing Design Manual (PSR-X06).

BP EXPLORATION

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2010/GEN 5 (5/92) 1 of 9

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

GENERAL Casing centralisation is a critical parameter in ensuring the objectives of primary cementing can be achieved. The degree to which a casing has been centralised in open hole is referred to as stand-off. This is defined as: 100 x (Width of narrowest part of annulus) (Diameter of hole - diameter of casing) / 2

The most common centralisers are bow spring and solid/positive/rigid centralisers. As hole angle increases the effective weight of the casing on the low side of the hole increases. The higher wall forces generated require additional centralisers to prevent casing resting on the low side of the hole. The recommendations in this section should be used to determine a centralisation programme required for wells for hole angles up to 50 deg. When the hole angle exceeds this or centralisation is required in a build section, the casing wall forces should be calculated using the Drill String Simulator and the suppliers of the centralisers contacted to determine the type of centraliser required and the optimum positions. Should a separate programme be run to determine centraliser placement, ensure that the actual restoring force of the centraliser is used and not the API value. Centralisers usually exceed the restoring force of the API specification. Rigid centralisers only have application where the hole is not more than 1/4" larger than the OD of the centraliser or where the wall forces preclude the use of a bow spring centraliser. Hence the most common applications will be inside casing and across build sections. 2. RECOMMENDED CENTRALISERS AND INSTALLATION The Weatherford range of centralisers are currently on a Purchase Agreement. Table 1 details the centralisers which should be used and the options on installation. The OD of a positive centraliser, if used, should be at least 1/8" smaller than the minimum OD of the casing in which it is run. The recommended installation procedures are: 2.1 Spring Bows

Type
STVIII STIV STIII STI 2.2 Positives

Position
Over casing coupling. Over casing coupling. Over stop collar (if placed between coupling and stop, separation must be greater than the compressed length of the centraliser). Between stop collar and coupling (see note above).

Type
PO I-PO X

Position
Between stop collar and casing coupling.

SUBJECT:

TABLE 1 Centralisers and Installation Procedure


Previous Casing Size 30", 1.5" Wall 30", 1" Wall 26", 1" Wall Open Hole Type Stop Collar Type

TABLE 2 Type of Centraliser and Running, Starting and Restoring Forces


Centraliser Spring Type Csg. & Hole Sizes Centraliser Type 20-26 STVIII Rigid C,D 20-24 STIV 4048 1176 2664 Starting Force (lbs) 3700 Running Force (lbs) 1706 Restoring Force (lbs) 4000 +

CASING CENTRALISATION

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

Casing Size 20"

Centraliser Rigid Type PO X PO X PO VIII

Installation

26" 24" 18 5/8" 26", 1" Wall PO IX 26" 24" 23" 17 1/2" 16" 9 5/8" 7" 13 3/8" (72) 9 5/8" (53.5) PO V 12 1/4" PO I 8 1/2"

STVIII STIV STVIII STIV STIII STIV STIII

J10H

Spring A,B,C,D Rigid C,D Rigid C,D 18 5/8" - 26" STVIII 18 5/8" - 24" STIV 1448 872 1018 548 4646 3032

J10H

Spring A,B,C,D Rigid C,D

13 3/8"

18 5/8" (87.5)

PO VIII JSH

Spring A,B,C,D Rigid C,D Spring B,C,D Rigid C,D Spring C,D

13 3/8" - 17 1/2" STIV 13 3/8" - 16" STIII 9 5/8" - 12 1/4" STIII 7 - 8 1/2" STI 4 1/2" - 6" STIM

1149 1128 951 698 375

665 1189 513 506 245

1783 3513 1684 2648

STIII STI STIM

JSH JSH

Page

Rev.

Section

886

NOTES:

STI STIM

= =

STRAIGHT BOW WELDED STRAIGHT BOW/ROTATING LINERS

* RESTORING FORCE AT 67% STAND-OFF

: 2 of 9

: 5 (5/92)

: 2010/GEN

INSTALLATION KEY:

A B C D

OVER A CASING COUPLING OVER A STOP COLLAR BETWEEN STOP COLLAR AND CASING COUPLING BETWEEN TWO STOP COLLARS

BP EXPLORATION

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2010/GEN 5 (5/92) 3 of 9

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
3.

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

DETERMINING CENTRALISATION REQUIREMENTS

OVER WHAT INTERVALS IS GOOD ISOLATION ESSENTIAL?

IN THESE SECTIONS AIM FOR 80% STAND-OFF ASSUMING GAUGE HOLE. IF THIS ZONE IS TO BE CEMENTED ALONE, OPTIMISE PLACEMENT USING WEIGHTED SPACERS AND REDUCED MUD GELS.

ARE THERE ZONES WHERE CASING COULD GET STUCK IF STATIC FOR MORE TIME THAN MAKING A CONNECTION CENTRALISE AT THESE POINTS?

DO YOU HAVE TO PUMP CEMENT OVER ANY OTHER SECTION?

YES IS PROBLEM SOLVED BY PUMPING FASTER/SLOWER? NO IS PROBLEM SOLVED BY REDUCING CEMENT EXCESS? NO YES YES

IF NO CENTRALISERS ARE USED, COULD CEMENT CHANNEL AND RETURN TO SURFACE OR FRAC A WEAK ZONE? NO

COMPARE THE COST OF THE FOLLOWING THREE OPTIONS: A B C IMPROVE STAND-OFF WITH MORE CENTRALISERS, CONSIDER THE EFFECT ON RUNNING CASING. MODIFY THE DENSITY OF SPACER AND/OR CEMENT. TREAT MUD GELS CONSIDERING TIME TAKEN AND CHEMICALS REQUIRED.

CHOOSE STAND-OFF DISPLACEMENT RATE AND FLUID PROPERTIES.

DO NOT CENTRALISE.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
4. 4.1 4.1.1

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

CENTRALISATION PROGRAMMES 20" and 18 5/8" Casing Vertical Wells Two spring centralisers on shoe joint, one 2m above the shoe and the other around or below the collar. Spring centralisers on second and fourth joint and first 2 joints inside the 30" casing. Rigid centraliser above and below seabed on jack-ups and platforms. Rigid centraliser on first 2 joints below the wellhead on jack-ups and platforms.

4.1.2

Deviated Wells Two spring centralisers on shoe joint, one 2m above the shoe and the other around or below the collar. One spring centraliser every second joint for hole angles between 5 - 30 deg. At larger hole angles a separate analysis should be performed. Spring centralisers on first 2 joints inside the 30" casing. Rigid centraliser above and below seabed on jack-ups and platforms. Rigid centraliser on first 2 joints below the wellhead on jack-ups and platforms.

4.2

13 3/8" Casing To determine centralisers required in open hole section, use Figure 1. In the event that there is no knowledge of actual hole size, programme greater than 80% stand-off where isolation is critical. If calliper data is available, programme to achieve greater than 70% after allowing for hole OD using Figure 1. If centralisation is required in any section where the wall forces exceed 4,000 lbs per joint, rigid centralisers must be used if centralisation is required.

NO MLS EQUIPMENT BEING USED


Centralisers on first two joints inside 20" shoe. Rigid centraliser on first two joints above seabed. Rigid centraliser on first two joints below wellhead.

MLS EQUIPMENT IS BEING USED


Centralisers on first two joints inside the 20" shoe. Spring centralisers on first two joints below hanger assembly. Rigid centralisers on first two joints above the hanger assembly. Rigid centralisers on first two joints below the wellhead.

4.3

9 5/8" Casing To determine centralisers knowledge of actual hole calliper data is available, Figure 2. If the well force centralisation is required. required in open hole section, use Figure 3. In the event that there is no size, programme greater than 80% stand-off where isolation is critical. If programme to achieve greater than 70% after allowing for hole OD using in any section exceeds 3,500 lbs per joint, rigid centralisers must be used if

BP EXPLORATION

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2010/GEN 5 (5/92) 5 of 9

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

NO MLS EQUIPMENT BEING USED


Rigid centraliser one joint below the wellhead.

MLS EQUIPMENT IS BEING USED


Centralisers on first 4 joints inside previous casing. Spring centralisers on first two joints below the hanger assembly. Rigid centraliser on first two joints above the hanger assembly. Rigid centraliser one joint below the wellhead.

4.4 4.4.1

7" Casing and Liner Casing Spring centraliser two per joint to 10 joints above the reservoir, then one per joint to 30m above planned TOC in 9 5/8" - 7" annulus. Centralisation above TOC as for 9 5/8".

4.4.2

Liner Non-Rotating Two straight bow centralisers per joint, this will ensure casing stand-off greater than 80%. Stop collars must be installed whilst pipe is on the deck to minimise lost rig time. Rotating If greater than 80% stand-off can be achieved, there will not be any significant benefits to be obtained from rotation. However, where the mud and cement weights are close (less than 2 ppg), or displacement rates are constrained to less than 3 bbl/min or less than 2 centralisers per joint are run, rotation should be considered. In this case a welded bow centraliser must be used. The minimum rate at which rotation is likely to benefit is 10 rpm.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
FIGURE 1

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

Centralisation Chart for 13 3/8" Casing with Weatherford ST IV Centralisers in 17 1/2" O.H.

90

20 ft. SPA CI

80

2 PER JOINT 30 ft. SP AC ING 4


0f t. S PA CI NG

NG

70

50 ft. SP

1 PER JOINT

60 STAND-OFF (%)

AC

IN G

50

40

60 ft. SP AC ING

30
80 f t. SP ACI

20

MINIMUM STAND-OFF FROM 14 3/8" COUPLING

NG

10

1 EVERY SECOND JOINT

0 0 10 20

HOLE ANGLE (degrees) 30 40 50

BP EXPLORATION

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2010/GEN 5 (5/92) 7 of 9

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
FIGURE 2 13 3/8" Centralisation v. O.H. Diameter

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

90

80

STAND-OFF IN GAUGE HOLE

70

STAND-OFF IN GAUGE HOLE

60 STAND-OFF (%)

STAND-OFF IN GAUGE HOLE

50

40

30

20

10

0 17 18

OPEN HOLE DIAMETER (inches) 19 20 21

BP EXPLORATION

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2010/GEN 5 (5/92) 8 of 9

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
FIGURE 3

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

Centralisation Chart for 9 5/8" Casing with Weatherford ST III Centralisers in 12 1/4" O.H.

90

20 ft. SPACING 30 ft. SP AC ING

2 PER JOINT

80

70 60 STAND-OFF (%)

40 ft. SP AC IN G

50 40 30
60 ft. SPA
50 ft. S CIN PA

1 PER JOINT

MINIMUM STAND-OFF FROM 10 5/8" COUPLING

20

80 ft. S G PACIN

CING

10

0 0 10 20 30 40

HOLE ANGLE (degrees) 50

BP EXPLORATION

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2010/GEN 5 (5/92) 9 of 9

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
FIGURE 4 9 5/8" Centralisation v. O.H. Diameter

Page

CASING CENTRALISATION

90

80

70

60 STAND-OFF (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0 12 13

OPEN HOLE DIAMETER (inches) 14 15

BP EXPLORATION

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2100/JAK 0 (7/90) 1 of 2

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR & STAB-IN CEMENT STINGER ASSEMBLY

SPACE-OUT AND RUNNING ORDER Normally 30 conductor will be run to approximately 60m (five joints) below seabed. The conductor should be spaced out to place the top of the Dril-Quip Quick Jay Box at 1 (one) metre above the seabed. This depth will be the definitive depth for the conductor space-out. The mudline hanger suspension ring joint should be located one full joint below the seabed. This will allow further casing strings to be backed out of their mudline hangers during abandonment/suspension, avoiding casing cutting, but still complying with DEn depth restrictions above seabed.

1.2

The following running order should be used for 1 wall conductor: 30 OD x 1 WT shoe joint w/stab-in float shoe x Lynx SA pin up. 2 x 30 OD x 1 WT conductor joint w/Lynx SA box down x Lynx SA pin up. (Numbers may vary depending on programmed 30 shoe depth.) 30 OD x 1 WT MLH suspension ring joint w/Lynx SA box down x Lynx SA pin up. 30 OD x 1 WT crossover joint w/Lynx SA box down x Quick Jay box up. 30 OD x 1 WT landing joint w/Quick Jay pin down x Lynx SA pin up. 30 OD x 1 WT conductor joints w/Lynx SA box down x Lynx SA pin up. (Numbers to suit water depth).

2. 2.1

PREPARATION Inspect all lip and O ring seals and seal areas on the Lynx SA and Quick Jay connectors. If there is any doubt as to the integrity of the seals, remove and discard them. Clean the seal housing and seal face using a steam gun, high pressure water gun or degreasing agent. Ensure seal housings are dry and free from degreasing agent before installing new seals. A light coating of grease on the seals will assist in installation. Lightly grease seal and seal areas. Note that 2 O ring seals should be installed on the Quick Jay pin.

Note: If for any reason the 30 conductor needs to be retrieved, then all seals should again be inspected and replaced if required. Ensure adequate spare seals are on board to re-run the conductor assuming all seals would need to be replaced.
2.2 2.3 All Lynx SA connectors (as a minimum those above the Quick Jay connector) should have anti-rotation dowells in the box and corresponding slots in the pin to allow for disconnection at the Quick Jay box. Check IDs of the mudline hanger suspension rings to ensure a 26 bit can pass. Accurately measure the distance from the top shoulder of the mudline hanger suspension ring to the shoulder of the Lynx SA pin above. This measurement will be required for subsequent wellhead/mudline hanger space-out calculations. 2.4 2.5 Ensure that no connections coincide with 30 cutting depths for the jack-up, both for installation of the diverter system or subsequent cut for installation of starter wellhead on first casing string. Check the 30 stab-in float shoe and if appropriate the installation of the debris plug.

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

PREPARATION & RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR & STAB-IN CEMENT STINGER ASSEMBLY

Ensure that the stab-in stinger is compatible with the 30 stab-in guide shoe and seals are in good condition (spare seals should be on board, if required). 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 RUNNING CONDUCTOR Run conductor in correct order as indicated above. Fill the conductor to sea level with seawater after running each joint. When making up the Quick Jay connector, install locking wedge and attach a cable to be run back to surface. (Once the 30 is landed this cable should finally be secured below the rig floor until required when suspending the well.) Ensure ROV or divers are deployed to monitor and assist stabbing of the guide shoe into the 36 hole.

3.4

Note: a) b)
3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

Whenever possible a large ROV capable of nudging the conductor should be available so that stabbing of the 30 into the 36 hole is less dependent on slack water. It is normal to use divers in water depths of 50m or less.

Run the conductor to the required depth (top of Quick Jay box, 1m above seabed) and confirm position above seabed with ROV or divers. Land conductor in slips. If necessary cut conductor so that stick-up is +/- 1m above rig floor and cut eyes to allow slings to be attached. Make up stab-in stinger to first joint of drillpipe and install 5/30 balloon centraliser 1m above the stabin sub. Run first joint into conductor. Rig up and run remainder of drillpipe cement stinger assembly. If there is no latch mechanism on the stab-in stinger, it may be necessary to use HWDP for the cement stinger to ensure the cement stinger assembly cannot be pumped out of the float shoe. The preferred method is to use a 30 spider adapter plate w/bowl and slips. Alternatively a C plate w/double elevators can be used.

3.9 3.10 3.11

Refer to Section 3100/FIX for details of stabbing in, circulating and cementing. Pull drillpipe cement stinger assembly and rig down elevators. Pick up the 30 conductor only enough to recover the 30 slips and hold in place until surface samples have set. (If the conductor was cut above the rig floor, then slings will be required to lift the conductor.)

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

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2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 1 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System

GENERAL On an exploration well a four joint conductor is normally run, placing the shoe at 50m BSB. In instances where it is planned to run the Marine Riser/30 hydraulic latch assembly after setting the conductor, the shoe depth may be deepened to 75m BSB to enable drilling the 26 hole with returns to surface. The standard conductor string comprises: Shoe Joint : 30 x 1 WT Grade X52 - 12m Welded Guide Shoe (a welded float shoe may be considered) Vetco RL-4 or Lynx SA Pin 30 x 1 WT Grade X52 - 12m Vetco RL-4 or Lynx SA Box-Pin 30 x 1 1/2 WT Grade X52 Vetco RL-4 or Lynx SA Box-Pin 30 x 1 1/2 WT Grade X52 - 9m Vetco RL-4 or Lynx HD Box - Drilquip SS15 Housing

1.2

Inter Joint Inter Heavy Wall Joint W/Head Joint 1.3

: : :

The conductor is run with the Permanent Guide Base (PGB) attached. The PGB is supplied with the following standard features: Two mountings for slope indicators. Guide post tops with Regan latch profile. Annulus cementing guide. Socket attachment for guide posts. Basket for sonar beacon.

1.4

All the conductor joints are supplied with 2 lifting/handling lugs which facilitate handling and allow the joints to be landed on the rotary table to make up the next joint.

Note: See Section 5000 for details of wellhead equipment.


2. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
PGB (2 off). Conductor string as 1.1 (2 off). Spare O rings for connectors. 30 wellhead housing for the 18 3/4 Rigid Lockdown Wellhead Housing. 30 elevator (2 off). 50 ton strops and shackles. 30 rotary slips (2 off). 30 Cam actuated running tool (6 5/8 Box/4 1/2 IF Pin). 3. 3.1 PREPARATION Depending on the connectors used, check for: a) b) c) Condition of O rings. Lock ring free to move in groove. Ensure alignment lug is not loose.

Dril-Quip Part No.


342059 380010

420000

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 2 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
d) 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System


Thread damage.

Lightly grease the connectors (do not use metallic dope - i.e. pipe or casing dope). Tack weld four small chain links to a steel band, restricted on vertical movement by lugs (this allows conductor to rotate without snagging/snapping softline guides), 1.5m and 3m above the shoe. One joint of drillpipe or fibre-glass pipe to be made up below the running tool as a cement stinger. Record the serial numbers of all subsea equipment run. Make up 30 running tool and rack back in derrick on drifted HWDP. Mark the position of the hole with two Grimsby buoys tethered to clump weights perpendicular to the rig heading. RUNNING CONDUCTOR Position the PGB on the cellar deck hydraulic beams and secure the guidelines into the guideposts. Tension the guidelines to 5000 - 7000 lbs equal all round. Ensure that the guideposts are marked 1, 2, 3, 4 clockwise with No. 1 being forward starboard position. Pick up shoe joint, lower through the rotary table and stab through the PBG. Land on RT. Attach softline to the guide rings on the shoe and through small shackles on the guide wires to provide guidance for the shoe. Note that it is better to have the guide ropes shorter rather than longer. Pick up the second joint and suspend above the RT. If there is a lock ring groove in the box, check that it is free of debris. If required align orientation/non-rotation key and stab second joint into shoe joint. Cut off the landing pad eyes on the shoe joint and continue to run the string in this way up to and including the wellhead joint.

4. 4.1

4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Note: Clearly mark the wellhead joint with paint marks every 0.5m from wellhead to assist observations when landing the conductor at seabed.
4.7 Make up the 30 wellhead housing to the conductor string. Pick up the running tool and lower the running tool into the 30 wellhead housing. Align and engage the 4 anti-rotation alignment pins on the OD of the running tool into the mating slots in the housing. Rotate the running tool approximately 5 turns to the left. This moves the split lock ring out to engage into its mating profile inside the 30 housing. Turn the running tool back to the right 1/8th of a turn. Do not exceed 1/4 turn. Confirm the running tool is properly made up by checking the height of the indicator rod - it should measure 7/8 from the top plate of the running tool. 4.8 4.9 Pick up the running tool and wellhead housing assembly and make up onto the conductor string. Land off housing assembly at RT. Land the 30 housing/running tool assembly in the PGB ensuring engagement of the 4 anti-rotation alignment bolts in the PGB. Make up the 8 anchor bolts which move the lockdown ring out into the mating profile on the 30 wellhead housing OD. Remove the 30 running tool from the wellhead housing.

4.10

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 3 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
4.11

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System

Make up and run the inner cementing string through the conductor. The cementing string should be as follows: 2 joints x 5 1/2 fibreglass tubing X/O 5 DP pup 5 DP Make up the stinger to the running tool and the running tool/stinger assembly to the wellhead housing.

Note: The length of drillpipe should be such that the bottom of the inner string is 15m above the 30 shoe when the running tool is made up to the wellhead housing.
4.12 4.13 4.14 Circulate through the running tool to ensure circulation through the shoe. Replace 2 of the flowby plugs with the fill and vent ball valve assemblies (in the open position). Retract the spider beams and RIH the 30 wellhead housing and PGB on HWDP until the running tool is just below the splash zone and stop. Circulate and observe that all the air is displaced from the conductor. When the casing is vented of air, pick back up clear of the splash zone and close the ball valves. Run the 30 wellhead housing and PGB on 5 HWDP. Stab into the open hole (or TGB if run) monitoring the operation with the ROV or SS TV camera. When the last joint of the running string is made up, activate the motion compensator to support the weight of the complete conductor assembly. Set the PGB 1m above seabed (if a TGB is used, this will place the PGB gimbal on the TGB guide cone without loading the TGB). Check the orientation and angle of the PGB. The maximum allowable angle for SWOPS wells is 1 degree and generally 2 degrees for other wells. If necessary, manoeuvre the rig to achieve the required verticality. If this is not possible, then the conductor will have to be retrieved and the hole rereamed. Cement the conductor to seabed with the string weight taken on the compensator. Observe cement returns at seabed with the ROV or SS TV (see Section 3150/SEM). Wait on cement until surface samples are hard, maintaining the verticality of the PGB. Once hard, slack off string weight observing the conductor to ensure no movement. Adjust the motion compensator to support the weight of the running string, cement stinger and running tool with a 10,000 lbs overpull. Rotate the running string 5 turns to the right. When the split lock ring retracts from its mating profile in the wellhead housing, the motion compensator will stroke shut pulling the running tool from the 30 wellhead housing. Pull the landing string to place the bottom of the cement stinger +/- 3m inside the wellhead. Flush the wellhead and PGB with the stinger, observing with the ROV.

4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19

4.20 4.21 4.22

4.23 4.24

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 4 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
5. 5.1

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System

RUNNING CONDUCTOR WITH TITUS AUTOMATIC TOP-UP General The cement top-up system is run as an integral part of the guide base and top conductor joint. After performing the primary cementation, a shear sub is opened allowing cement to be diverted from the landing string to a cement distribution ring 9m below seabed. This allows a top-up cement job to be performed while waiting for the primary cement job to harden. When using the system the 30" shoe should be fitted with a float valve.

5.2

System Description a) b) The 30" wellhead housing is shipped with a cement distribution ring and pipework already fitted to the conductor joint. The pipework is fitted with a quick connect coupling. The guide base is shipped with a cement hose male stab and 3m of connecting hose already fitted. The connecting hose is fitted with a quick coupling compatible with the pipework on the 30" wellhead housing/conductor joint. A cementing swivel with internal shear sub and 2" 1502 Weco side outlet is supplied for installation above the 30" running tool. A grouting hose with 1502 Weco fitting and female stab fitting is required. The female stab is equipped with a latch allowing ROV disconnect.

c) d) 5.3

Running Procedure a) Run the 30" conductor and latch into guide base ensuring that the 3m connecting hose will reach the pipework on the side of the 30" housing. Connect the quick latch coupling on the connecting hose. Make up the cementing stinger and 30" running tool. Install the cementing swivel above the running tool. Make up the running tool to the 30" housing. Connect the grouting hose to the cementing swivel side outlet. Connect the other end to the stab on the guide base.

b) c)

Note: Check with ROV Supervisor that the lock handle on the female sub is suitable for ROV release.
d) Run 30" conductor until housing is at sea level, filling casing with seawater. Pull back to give a 6' air gap at top of conductor and close bleed valve on running tool.

Note: This is to reduce the tendency for the 30" housing running tool to become pressure locked on top of the conductor, by the hydrostatic head of seawater.
e) Continue running conductor as per programme.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 5 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System

Automatic Top Up Cement System Schematic


Conductor Running String

1502 WECO Connection 1 1/2" Nominal Flexible Hose Cementing Swivel X-Over 30" Running Tool ROV Operated Quick Connect Coupling

Permanent Guide Base 1 1/2" Nominal Flexible Hose Quick Connect Coupling

Fixed 1 1/2" Nominal Diameter Cement Injection Line Cement Distribution Ring Welded to 30" Conductor
Note: Float Shoe Required on Conductor

S.Morrison, Dec. 1993, 01110047

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 6 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System

PGB for Cement Top-Up System : Assembly/Weldment


, , ,, , ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , ,, , , , , , ,, ,, , , , , ,, ,, , , , ,, ,, ,, ,, , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, , , , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,, ,, ,, , ,, ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, , , ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , ,, ,,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, , ,, ,, ,,

Detail of Grouting Operation


Position of Webs & Support to Suit Elbow

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,
9' 10 1/16"(118.06") 8' 5 13/16"(101.81")

11' 1 5/8" (133.62)

41.25" Dia. 37.285" Dia. 36.29" Dia.

, ,, , , , ,, ,, , ,

, , ,,, ,, ,,,, , ,,,,


,,,, ,,,, ,,,,
Gimbal is Optional

S.Morrison, Dec. 1993, 01110075

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 7 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System

Subsea Wellhead Systems Cement Top-up System 30" Casing Assembly

Stressless Stamp Dril-Quip P/N 4 - 400182 - 02 Rev 1 S/N Assembly 2 See Detail 'A'

Notes:

1 Stamp latest revision letter from parts list

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

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, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, ,, , ,
,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,,

,,, , ,, , ,, ,, , , ,, , ,, ,, , , ,, , ,, ,, , , ,, ,, , , , , , ,, ,, , , ,, , ,, ,, , , , , , , ,,, , , , , , , ,, ,, , , ,, ,, , , , , ,, ,, , , , , , , , , , ,, ,, , , , , , ,,, ,

, ,, , ,, ,, , , , , , , ,,, , , ,, ,, , , , ,,, ,
,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,,

, , , , , ,

Detail 'A'

S. Morrison, Dec 1993, 01110048

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2100/SEM 4 (1/94) 8 of 8

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 30" CONDUCTOR/PGB Dril-Quip SS15 System


9.875 7.875

,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, , ,,,,,, , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , ,,,,,,,,,,,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , ,,,,,,,,,,,, , ,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , ,,,,,,,,,,,, , ,, , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , ,,,,,,,,,,,, , ,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , ,,,,,, ,, , ,,,,,,,, ,,,,,, , ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, Box & Pin Ends ,,,,,, 4 1/2" I.F. Thread ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,, ,,,,,,
S.Morrison, Dec. 1993, 01110049

,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,, ,,,,, , , ,,,,, , ,,,,, ,, , ,,,,, , , ,,,,, , ,,,,, ,, , ,,,,, , , ,,,,, , , ,,,,, ,, , , ,,,,, , , , ,,,,, , , ,, , ,,,,, , ,,,,, , , , ,,,,, , , ,, , ,,,,, , ,,,,, , , , ,,,,, , , , ,,,,, , , , ,,,,, , , , ,,,,, , , , ,,,,, , , ,,,,, , , ,,,,, , , ,,,,, , , ,,,,, ,, , , ,,,,, ,, , , ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,,

34.250

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2105/FIX 0 (8/91) 1 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.

Page

CUTTING AND PREPARATION OF CASING TO ACCEPT WELLHEAD SPOOLS

Casing can be cut externally using split type (wrap-around) precision cutting equipment. The cutting equipment is not complicated to use. The drilling crew, after initial instruction and demonstration by a service company, caneasily accomplish a satisfactory cut. Care must be exercised in handling the equipment and time taken to ensure the cutter is correctly clamped and squared up to the casing joint. Figure 1 illustrates the casing cutter secured to 2 different styles of flanges.

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

KEY POINTS IN ACHIEVING A SATISFACTORY CUT All equipment to be thoroughly checked long in advance of cutting operation. Check rotating parts are debris-free and cutting tools in perfect condition. Clear all debris from working area and ensure good access to wellhead. Take particular care not to damage or impact any part of the cutting equipment when offering split rings around casing. Take extra time to get cutting equipment perfectly square around the casing. Check height of casing cut to wellhead flange corresponds to swallow in throat of spool to be added. Ensure seal ring dimensions have been taken into consideration when cut-off height is checked. N.B. Drilling programme should state casing cut-off heights. Prior to commencing cut, BP Representative must check casing cut-off height with casing cutter fully clamped up. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF EXTERNAL CASING CUTTER The casing cutter has two main sections - the body and the mounting flange. The body rotates and carries the cutting tools. The mounting flange carries the air powered drive and secures the equipment to the wellhead flange. Both sections of the machine are split into 2 halves, allowing the casing cutter to be wrapped around the casing. The mating faces of each half are accurately machined for location to each other and dowelled. The air motor located on the mounting flange drives the inner body through a spur gear into a split gear which is mounted on the outside diameter of the inner body.

2.6

3. 3.1

Note: Ensure that the cutter is provided with a cover to protect the point where the drive pinion engages the toothed ring on the rotating table.
Two machine tool slides are mounted on the top face of the inner body 180 degrees apart. These slides carry cutting tools to cut through the casing and to form a chamfer on the outside leading edge of the remaining casing stub. One tool has a vee shaped cutting point to break the surface of the casing slightly ahead of the cutting square pointed tool. A chamfering tool is mounted on the underside of the cutting tool. This forms a chamfer immediately the casing is cut through.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2105/FIX 0 (8/91) 2 of 3

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
4. 4.1

Page

CUTTING AND PREPARATION OF CASING TO ACCEPT WELLHEAD SPOOLS

CUTTING PROCEDURE Establish casing cut-off height. Pre-set and lock the cutting tools on the machine slides.

Note: It is the responsibility of the Drilling Supervisor to check that the cut-off height has been correctly set.
4.2 Position the cutter in 2 halves, on either side of the wellhead prior to running casing. Cover the equipment with a tarpaulin to prevent debris or mud falling on top of the gear whilst running and cementing the casing. With the casing hung off in the wellhead, remove the fluid inside the casing from the wellhead to the rotary table. This can be done by: a) b) 4.4 4.5 4.6 Run pipe into the casing to displace enough fluid down to the wellhead; or If a permit has been obtained, burn a hole in the casing 2 ft above the wellhead and allow the fluid to drain out.

4.3

Secure the casing cutter on the wellhead flange and to the casing. The cutter, depending on the wellhead type, is secured by either a clamp or is bolted. Check the machine is rotating concentrically and the final cut-off stub height is correct. Cut the casing. If the casing cutter is of the type which requires the cutting tools to be manually fed, then position a man close to the air supply. If a problem occurs and safety is compromised the air supply can quickly be turned off. Patience and time are required to carry out the cutting operation. Feed the cutting tools slowly to achieve a neat cut rather than a tear.

4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

Once the cut has penetrated the casing, stop the machine and allow any excess fluid to drain out. Complete the cutting operation. Remove the cut casing from the rotary table. Remove the casing cutting equipment. The final cut may have to be gently dressed off with a grinder to remove any razor edges which may damage the next casing head spool seals. Clean all the cutting equipment and pack ready for return to the onshore supplier.

Note: It is the responsibility of the Drilling Supervisor to ensure the equipment is cleaned and returned onshore properly. Any broken or missing equipment should be recorded and the supplier informed.

BP EXPLORATION Rev. : : 3 of 3 0 (8/91)

Section

2105/FIX

DRILLING MANUAL
Page

SUBJECT: SPLIT TYPE CASING CUTTING MACHINE 13 3/8" CASING CUTTING


FEED ARRANGEMENT

CUTTING AND PREPARATION OF CASING TO ACCEPT WELLHEAD SPOOLS FIGURE 1

CUTTING TOOLS

TOOL SLIDE

BEARING SURFACES

SPLIT GEAR

13 3/8" CASING

13 5/8" 5000 PSI MSP API FLANGE

MOTOR PINION

MOTOR AND GEARING

5000 PSI MSP WELLHEAD S137 CONNECTION IDLER GEAR


911208/14

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2200/FIX 7 (10/90) 1 of 2

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 20"/18 5/8" CASING - GENERAL

PREPARATION Carry out General Casing Checks as per Section 2000/GEN. If inner string cementing is programmed, make up and rack back cementing stinger, see Cementing Section 3200/FIX. a) b) If it is programmed to run the casing through the stack and diverter, remove the diverter packer. If it is programmed to nipple down the stack and diverter, it may be necessary to adjust the compensator for loss of the riser hydrostatic head. Prior to rigging up; drain riser, flowcheck for 15 minutes. Nipple down 21 1/4 riser and BOP. It is essential that the fluid level be continuously monitored and, if necessary, topped up using a fill-up line.

1.4 1.5

Rig up to run surface casing. Ensure that all platform and rig specific criteria, landoff heights, wellhead orientation and conductor slump loads are known and met. RUNNING Position the float collar one joint from the shoe. If buttress casing is in use, Bakerloc all connections up to and including the pin connection on the third joint of casing. If any other type of connector is in use, do not use Bakerloc; clean threads and ensure they are free of grease. Make up connectors with light oil to maximum torque, as specified by the manufacturer.

2. 2.1 2.2

2.3 2.4

Run the casing, installing centralisers as per Section 2010/GEN. Run the casing slowly to prevent surging the hole, monitor returns for losses, if practical. Fill the casing every joint. Make up the wellhead housing or wellhead joint as required. On platforms refer to Section 5000 for Specific Notes on wellhead make-up and casing land-off and space-out details. Attempt to keep the stick-up at the rotary table to a maximum of 1m for ease of running the cement stinger.

Note: - Ensure that a casing collar is not situated at the casing cutting depth. - Do not rotate the casing as this might back out the running tool.
2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 Land-off casing, washing the last joint in wherever practical. Mark off casing datum at rotary and/or bell nipple. Run cementing stinger as per Cementing Section 3200/FIX or 3210/FIX. Rig up to cement casing. Drain riser. On jack-ups the conductor must remain full so that leaking seals on the cement stinger can be detected. Circulate hole prior to cementing. Flowcheck hole. Cement the casing as per Cementing Section 3200/FIX or 3210/FIX. Check for backflow. If backflow occurs, hold pressure until no flow occurs. Keep this time to a minimum to avoid problems circulating the 20/30 annulus. Flush stinger, at maximum pump rate. On platforms, refer to Platform Specific Sections.

2.11 2.12

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2200/FIX 7 (10/90) 2 of 2

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
3.

Page

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 20"/18 5/8" CASING - GENERAL

EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Quantity
1 1 1 1 1 set 1 4 1 1 1 1 lot 1 1 1 As required As required As required 1 set 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 lot 1 1 1 set 1 1 lot 1 1 1 1 lot

Description
20/18 5/8 safety clamp. 20/18 5/8 side door elevators. 20/18 5/8 single joint elevators. 20/18 5/8 hand slips. Casing tongs c/w necessary jaws. 20/18 5/8 circulating swedge with Lo-torc valve. 20/18 5/8 Klampon protectors. 20/18 5/8 power tong (not required for RL-4S). Power unit for tong (not required for RL-4S). Casing spool running tool if required. 20/18 5/8 casing and pups as required. 20/18 5/8 landing joint or MLH/running tool assembly. 20/18 5/8 float shoe. 20/18 5/8 float collar. 20/18 5/8 centralisers. Stop collars c/w spiral nails. Centraliser nails. Split casing bushing for rotary table. 20/18 5/8 casing drift. Bakerlok Set. Casing dope. Cementing stinger sub (4 1/2 IF box conn). O rings for cementing stinger sub. 20/18 5/8 x 5 spring bow centraliser. 20/18 5/8 casing plate for running cementing stinger (guide plates on outside). 5 drillpipe slips. Casing head housing equipment as required. 20/18 5/8 wear bushing, if required. Wear bushing running tool, if required. Cementing darts. 4 1/2 IF pin x 2 well plug dropping head. Spare O rings for 20 connections (if required). Hilti gun complete with spare cartridges (for RL-4S connections - if required). 18 5/8/20 water bushing (4 1/2 IF box). 20/18 5/8 BOP test plug with spare seals. Cement and chemicals.

UK Operations
BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev. Page

: : :

2200/SEM 4 (09/96) 1 of 4

GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:
1.0

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 20"/18 5/8" CASING Dril-Quip SS15 System

The 20 surface string is normally set around 600m BRT. The exact setting depth will be specified in the drilling programme. The casing used for the surface string is 133 lb/ft, X56 with Vetco RL-4S connections. The float equipment (usually consisting of a double valve shoe) is normally sent out made up to the pipe and the 20 string typically comprises: Shoe Joint Inter Joints X/O Joint W/H Joint : : : : 20 133#; double valve shoe - Vetco RL-4S 20 133#; Vetco RL-4S pin/box 20 133#; Vetco RL-4S pin - RL-4S pin Drilquip SS15 18 3/4 (20 OD x 1.5 WT) Extension 2m long with 0.812 WT RL-4S box

1.1

Note: 1. 2. A float collar will be run if a wiper plug is to be used. In this case the FC joint will be: 20 133# VRL-4S pin - VRL-4S box. Depending upon application in some wells 20 x 1 WT extension joints are run to provide increased bending resistance.

See Section 5000 for details of wellhead equipment.


2.0 EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
Shoe joint (2 off). F. Collar joints (2 off) (if required). Intermediate joints, X56, 133# (incl. spare joints). Wellhead joint with 18 3/4 rigid lockdown wellhead (2 off). 20 springbow centralisers/stop rings (6 off). 20 casing rotary slips. 20 elevator. Spare O rings for RL-4S connector. Hydraulic rigid lockdown tool and 18 3/4 wellhead running tool assembly (6 5/8 Reg Box/4 1/2 IF Pin). Spare O rings for R. tool. Rigid lockdown actuating dart. Bleeder sub lock plate. 20 casing spear. 20 circulating head with X/O. 20 casing tong and crew. 18 3/8 nominal bore protector. 18 3/4 multi-purpose running tool. 18 3/4 adaptor for multi-purpose running tool: Running Pulling Hotline. 3.0 PREPARATION 1.

Dril-Quip Part No.

380530

346014/420002

852286

420007 420010

Perform the general checks as outlined in Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN.

UK Operations
BP EXPLORATION

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GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 20"/18 5/8" CASING Dril-Quip SS15 System


Swab/surge pressures should be calculated for various running speeds, and an acceptable running speed selected to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. Draw a graph of casing joints run versus hookload. Use this graph to check if the casing is being filled correctly as it is being run. Remove thread protectors, clean and lightly grease the connections (do not use metallic compounds such as pipe/casing dope). Check the condition of the O rings and replace if necessary. Replace the protectors prior to picking up the pipe. Tack weld 4 chain links to steel bands restricted from moving vertically by lugs 1m and 3m above the float shoe for soft line guidance as with the 30. Visually check the shoe joint and float joint if run to ensure no debris inside. Ensure that the wellhead running tool and landing string have been drifted to allow the modified 2.593 launching dart to pass through. The ID of the running tool is 3. A gauge is provided by Dril-Quip for checking the dart dimensions.

10. Install one springbow centraliser 2m above the shoe and one 2m above the F. collar if run. 11. Perform the following additional checks: i) 18 3/4 Rigid Lockdown Wellhead Housing a) b) c) d) e) ii) Visually inspect the anti-rotation holes on the top of the housing. Check the condition of the ring gasket seal area located at the top of the 18 3/4 wellhead. Check the O ring on the OD of the retainer nut. Visually inspect the lockdown ring mechanism around the centre section of the wellhead OD. Check that the 10 shear pins below the lockdown mechanism have been correctly installed.

Hydraulic Rigid Lockdown Tool and 18 3/4 Wellhead Running Tool a) These two tools will be supplied to the rig made up as one unit. Make up a 6 5/8 Reg pin x 4 1/2 IF box crossover and an S135 drillpipe pup joint to the top of the running/ lockdown assembly for ease of handling. This can be done on the pipe deck. Visually inspect all hoses and fittings on the unit. Check that the position indicator plate functions correctly. Check that the pressure gauge which is plumbed into the hydraulic circuitry between the 5 gallon accumulator and the hydraulic cylinder is showing between 700 and 800 psi. Install the bleeder sub lock plate between the bleeder sub and control sub. If the cement is to be displaced with cement wiper plugs, check that a modified 2.593 cement plug releasing dart is available. The minimum clearance through the hydraulic lockdown tool is 2.62.

b) c) d) e) f)

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 20"/18 5/8" CASING Dril-Quip SS15 System


g) Perform a pressure/function test of the hydraulic rigid lockdown tool in its transportation skid. Ensure that the full stroke of the tool is 2 1/2.

12. Whenever possible efforts should be made to make up the lockdown/ running tool, 18 3/4 wellhead with wellhead joint and plug launching mechanism prior to running the casing string. The assembly will normally be made up in the rotary table and laid down on the pipe rack ready for use. Making Up the Assembly a) Make up the plug launching mechanism and a pup joint below the lockdown/running tool. Ensure that the cement plug is spaced out to be in the wellhead extension. Once completed lay down the assembly on the pipe rack. Set the 18 3/4 wellhead in the RT on 30 bushings or a split plate. Pick up the lockdown/running tool and install the wiper plugs on the plug launching mechanism. Make up the running tool into the wellhead. Once made up rotate the drillpipe stem of the lockdown tool +/- 5 turns to the left to engage the split lock ring. Back out the lockdown tool 1/8th of a turn to ensure easy release after the cement job. Confirm the running tool is properly made up by checking the height of the indicator rod. It should measure 7/8 from the top plate of the running tool. Ensure that the position indicator plate on the sleeve of the lockdown tool is in the fully raised position. Measure 2 1/4 from the bottom of the plate and mark with paint to confirm stroke of the actuator sleeve. Lay down the wellhead and extension with the running tool on the pipe rack.

b) c) d) e)

f)

g) 4.0

RUNNING THE CASING 1. The torque range for make-up of the 20 RL-4S connector is 18000 - 25000 ft lbs. If it becomes necessary to break out an RL-4S connector, the anti-rotation tab can be prised out with a screwdriver (the torque required to break out a single tab is 12,000 ft lbs). Refer to Section 5104/GEN for data on RL-4S connectors. After making up the float shoe joint and one joint of casing, check the float equipment is clear by flushing through with water. Confirm float equipment functioning. The four anti-rotation tabs on the float shoe joint and the one above it should be locked with the Hilti gun. Ensure standard hotwork procedures are followed.

2.

Note: Do not apply threadlocking compounds to these connectors.


3. 4. Attach soft line guide ropes to the shoe joint and to each guideline. Paint the bottom few metres white for ease of observation with the ROV when entering the 30 housing. RIH filling up every joint with seawater.

Note: Use only light oil or solid free grease on the connectors.
5. Observe the shoe stabbing into the 30 wellhead by ROV or SSTV.

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6. 7. 8. 9.

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 20"/18 5/8" CASING Dril-Quip SS15 System


RIH monitoring casing running speeds. Ensure that the speed does not exceed the value previously calculated. Pick up the 18 3/4 wellhead assembly/running tool assembly. Attach the 20 top cement plug and make up the assembly to the casing string. Install the hot line to the hydraulic lockdown tool. Remove the bleeder sub locking plate to prevent pulling a wet string after the cementation.

10. Run the casing string on 5 HWDP (drifted to 2 3/4). The running string must be filled every joint until landed. When the last joint of the drillpipe running string has been made up, activate the motion compensator to support the weight of the string. Record up and down drag prior to landing. 11. Make up the kelly to the landing string, wash down and land the 18 3/4 wellhead in the 30 wellhead. Apply an overpull of 30,000 lbs to confirm that the 18 3/4 wellhead is fully seated in the 30 wellhead. Set down weight on the wellhead assembly. 12. Activate the hydraulic lockdown mechanism (the mechanical system is preferred, although the hydraulic system may be used instead, via a hot line). Disconnect with the ROV. Confirm lockdown by observing outer sleeve indicator plate downward movement and applying 100,000 lbs overpull to wellhead. Dril-Quip to confirm.

Note: The wellhead locating pins will shear out with 75,000 lbs overpull.
13. Cement the casing to seabed (see Section 3200/SEM). Check for backflow. 14. After cementing set the motion compensator to support the weight of the running string. Rotate the running string 10 turns to the right to release the running tool and open the drain ports on the bleeder sub. 15. Using the motion compensator lift the running tool clear of the wellhead. Be careful that the plug launcher/stinger does not score wellhead sealing area. 16. With the lockdown tool at surface check that the travel of the indicator plate relative to the indicator screw has been a minimum of 2 1/4. 17. Run rubber-nosed jet sub and jet wellhead/PGB clean. 18. Install the 18 3/4 nominal bore protector before drilling out the casing.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 13 3/8" CASING

PREPARATION Carry out General Casing Checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. Change rams and test unless a well specific written instruction is issued by the Drilling Superintendent. Recover wear bushing. Ensure any hold-down screws are fully backed out. Float shoe and float collar to be 2 joints apart, threadlocked, including the first connection above the float collar. If a shut-off baffle is in use, this will normally be located a pup joint above the float collar. All connections up to the first connection above the shut-off baffle to be threadlocked. If a stage cementer is in use, connections either end of the cementer to be threadlocked. Casing centralisation will be as per Section 2010/GEN unless advised otherwise in the Drilling Programme. If a 20 x 13 3/8 casing hanger is used, it will be made up to a 13 3/8 pup joint. Check that the sealing faces of the seal assembly are undamaged. Keep well protected. Check hanger dimensions. Make up hanger to casing hanger running tool and a joint of 13 3/8 casing. Drift the assembly. If a slip-type casing hanger is used, select and check 3 joints of casing for ovality and set aside for use across the wellhead. RUNNING Rig up and run 13 3/8 casing as per programme. Ensure that the casing is completely filled every joint. Monitor mud displacement throughout the run. Avoid high surge pressures caused by running pipe too quickly. Observe and record pulling and running weights at regular intervals in open hole. Make up the casing hanger assembly, if used, landing joints and circulating head. Break circulation slowly. Run casing to shoe depth, circulating at least the last joint in. Take care when hanger is run through the riser and landed off in the casing head spool. Check land-off depth. If unable to run casing to depth, due to stuck casing, an emergency slip type hanger will be used. See Wellhead Section. Circulate casing. Check for losses throughout circulation, record pressures at various circulating rates. (Minimum circulation volume will be the greater of 120% Annular Volume or 120% Casing Volume.) Cement 13 3/8 casing as per Section 3300/GEN. Check for backflow. If stage cementing is programmed, cement second stage as per Section 3700/GEN. Check for backflow. a) If a slip-type hanger is in use, drain riser, nipple down 21 1/4 riser. Lift BOP and riser. Install 13 3/8 casing hanger and pack-off as per manufacturers procedure and Manual Section relevant to the particular wellhead.

1.9

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 13 3/8" CASING

If an integral type hanger is in use, back out running tool and displace the riser to seawater. Flush hanger area. Drain the riser and recover the landing string. Run jetting tool and jet the pack-off setting area. Ensure fluids are collected into the drain system. Make up and install 13 3/8 packoff as per the manufacturers procedure. Set pack-off. Close pipe rams and pressure test the pack-off to the test pressure stipulated in the Drilling Programme.

2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 3.

Ensure that the casing head spool side outlet is open throughout pressure testing. Retrieve running tool. Nipple down 21 1/4 BOPs and riser. Cut and dress 13 3/8 casing as required. Install and test 13 5/8 wellhead spool as per manufacturers procedures and Manual Wellheads Section (Section 5000). Nipple up and pressure test 13 5/8 BOPs as per Section 0420/FIX. Install wear bushing. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Quantity
1 1 1 2 2 1 set 1 1 set 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 lot 1 lot 1 lot 1 lot 6 1 drum 1 1

Description
13 3/8 side door elevators. 13 3/8 single joint elevators. 13 3/8 hand slips. 350T 13 3/8 spider elevator slips. 13 3/8 spider slips. BJ Type BB tongs, dressed to 13 3/8. 13 3/8 plug dropping head. 13 3/8 top and bottom cementing plugs. 13 3/8 circulating swedge c/w 2 lo-torq valve. 13 3/8 Klampon protectors. 13 3/8 power tong. Power unit for tong. 13 3/8 casing drift. Test pump. Travel cutter dressed for 13 3/8 casing if required. Air powered grinder. Plastic injection gun. Plastic packing sticks. 13 3/8 casing as required. Buttress couplings. 13 3/8 cement float shoe. 13 3/8 cement float collar. 13 3/8 dual stage cementing set c/w plugs, if required. 13 3/8 bow spring centralisers. 13 3/8 positive centralisers. 13 3/8 stop rings c/w spiral nails. Centraliser nails. Bakerlok. Casing dope. 13 3/8 landing joint. Slip type casing hanger.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 13 3/8" CASING


1 lot 1 1 1 1 1 1 Wellhead equipment, as required. Bore protector. Bore protector running tool/combination tool. Test plug. 13 3/8 cup tester c/w spare cup. Stage cementer closing tool, if required. Tam casing circulating packer, if required.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 9 5/8" CASING

PREPARATION Carry out General Casing Checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. Change pipe rams to casing rams and test unless a well specific written instruction is issued by the Drilling Superintendent. Recover wear bushing. Ensure any hold-down screws are fully backed out. Float shoe and float collar to be at least 2 joints apart, threadlocked, including the first connection above the float collar. If a shut-off baffle is in use, this will normally be located a pup joint above the float collar. All connections up to the first connection above the shut-off baffle to be threadlocked. If a stage cementer is in use, connections either end of the cementer to be threadlocked. Casing centralisation will be as per Section 2010/GEN unless advised otherwise in the Drilling Programme.

Note: On jack-up wells a positive centraliser should be run close to the wellhead to minimise the risk of the welder accidentally cutting through an inner casing string.
1.8 If a 12 3/4 x 9 5/8 casing hanger is used, it will be made up to a 9 5/8 pup joint. Check that the sealing faces of the seal assembly are undamaged. Keep well protected. Check hanger dimensions. Make up hanger to casing hanger running tool and a joint of 9 5/8 casing. Drift the assembly. If a slip-type casing hanger is used, select and check 3 joints of casing for ovality and set aside for use across the wellhead. If 13 3/8 casing has been omitted, check that the 9 5/8 x 20 centralisers will pass through the MLH prior to running on jack-up wells. RUNNING Rig up and run 9 5/8 casing as per programme. Ensure that the casing is completely filled every joint. Avoid high surge pressures caused by running too quickly. Monitor mud displacement throughout the run. Observe and record pulling and running weights at regular intervals in open hole. Make up the casing hanger assembly, if used, landing joints and circulating head. Note string weight. Break circulation slowly. Run casing to shoe depth, circulating at least the last joint in. Take care when hanger is run through the riser and landed off in the casing head spool. Check land-off depth.

1.9 1.10

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Note: Do not rotate the casing as this might back out the running tool.
2.8 If unable to run casing to depth, due to stuck casing, an emergency slip-type hanger will be used. See Wellhead Section.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 9 5/8" CASING

Circulate casing. Check for losses throughout circulation. Record pressures at various circulating rates. (Minimum circulation volume will be the greater of 120% Annular Volume or 120% Casing Volume.) Cement 9 5/8 casing as per Section 3350/GEN. Check for backflow. If stage cementing is programmed, cement second stage as per Section 3700/GEN. Check for backflow. a) If a slip-type hanger is in use, drain riser, nipple down 13 5/8 riser. Lift BOP and riser. Install 9 5/8 casing hanger and pack-off as per manufacturers procedure and Manual Section relevant to the particular wellhead. If an integral type hanger is in use, back out running tool. Open annulus port below the hanger, and wash around the wellhead area. Ensure fluids are collected into the drain system. Make up and install 9 5/8 pack-off as per the manufacturers procedure. Set pack-off. Pressure test pack-off as per Wellheads Section.

2.10 2.11 2.12

b)

2.13 2.14 2.15 3.

Ensure that the 9 5/8 x 13 3/8 annulus is open throughout pressure testing. Nipple up and pressure test BOPs as per Section 0420/FIX. Install wear bushing. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Quantity
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 set 1 1 set 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2

Description
9 5/8 side door elevators. 9 5/8 single joint elevators. 9 5/8 casing drift. 9 5/8 hand slips. 350T 9 5/8 spider elevator/slips. 9 5/8 spider slips. BJ Type DB tongs, dressed to 9 5/8. 9 5/8 plug dropping head. 9 5/8 top and bottom cement plugs. 9 5/8 circulating swedge c/w 2 Lo-torc valve. 9 5/8 Klampon protectors. 9 5/8 power tong. Power unit for tong. Test pump. Travel cutter dressed to 9 5/8, if required. Air powered grinder. Plastic injection gun. Plastic packing sticks. 9 5/8 casing as required. 9 5/8 casing pup joints. 9 5/8 couplings. 9 5/8 cement float shoe. 9 5/8 cement float collar. Dual stage cementing set c/w plugs, if required. 9 5/8 bow centralisers. 9 5/8 positive centralisers. 9 5/8 stop rings c/w spiral nails. Centraliser nails.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 9 5/8" CASING


Bakerlok. Casing dope. 9 5/8 landing joint or MLH/running tool assembly. Slip casing type hanger. Wellhead equipment, as required. Bore protector. Bore protector running tool/combination tool. BOP test plug, complete with spare seals. 9 5/8 cup tester c/w spare cup. Stage cementer closing tool, if required. 9 5/8 x 20 special centralisers (2 x small OD and 2 x large OD - if required). 9 5/8 retrievable packer complete with circulating valve and safety joint. 9 5/8 water bushing (4 1/2 IF box). 9 5/8 wireline set bridge plugs. Cement and chemicals. TAM packer for casing fill-up/circulation.

1 1 1 lot 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 lot 1

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The 9 5/8 casing string is normally set as a production string at total depth (in which case the casing is only run in the event of a well test) or above the objective formation with a 7 liner run to TD in the event of a test. Perform all standard checks and procedures as outlined in Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. The string is run with a 2 joint shoe track utilising conventional float equipment. All connections in the shoe track up to and including the first one above the float collar are to be threadlocked. The casing hanger is normally sent to the rig made up to an appropriate pup joint to match the casing string. The lock ring is normally removed, but this will be confirmed in the drilling programme.

1.1 1.2 1.3

Note: See Section 5000 for details of wellhead equipment.


1.4 Centralisation Refer to Section 2010/GEN for minimum centralisation scheme.

Note: The string will be centralised according to the formation which has been encountered. For example, if a significant sand body is present in the 12 1/4 hole the 9 5/8 string may be centralised with one springbow per alternate joint to the top of the sand body. This will reduce the possibility of differential sticking while running casing and ensure good stand-off across the sand body when cementing. The programme must always be confirmed prior to running casing.
2.0 EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST General - Single and Dual Stack Systems Casing shoe joints (2 off). Float collar joints (2 off). Casing as required + 10%. Springbow centralisers/stop collars/pins. Rotary casing slips (2 off). Single joint elevator (2 off). Side door elevator (2 off). Slip type elevator (2 off). Slip type spider (2 off). Spare casing collars (2 off). API modified dope. Threadlock. Gyro multishot equipment (if required). Power tong/crew. Klampon protectors (5 off). SSR cement mandrel. Surface cement head with swivel. Top and bottom cement plugs (2 each). Launching ball and dart (2 each). Tam casing circulating packer (if required). Casing spear. Circulating swedge. 9 5/8 retrievable packer complete with storm valve.

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Single Stack System

Item
18 3/4 x 9 5/8 casing hanger with 9 5/8 pup joint installed. 18 3/4 seal assembly. 18 3/4 casing hanger and seal assembly running tool (6 5/8" Reg Box/ 4 1/2 IF Pin). Dual Stack System

Dril-Quip Part No.


390004 400000 420028

Item
13 5/8 x 9 5/8 casing hanger with 9 5/8 pup joint installed. 13 5/8 seal assembly. 13 5/8 casing hanger and seal assembly running tool (6 5/8" Reg Box/ 4 1/2 IF Pin). 3.0 PREPARATION 1. 2. 3. 4.

Dril-Quip Part No.


390019 400003 420079

Perform the general checks as outlined in Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. Prior to running the casing, calculate surge/swab pressures and select an acceptable casing running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown is not exceeded. Ensure that the landing string is drifted. Perform the following additional checks: Casing Hanger a) b) c) d) e) f) Inspect the tapered seal area on the upper OD of the hanger to be sure that it is free from damage. Ensure that the threads of the pup joint made up to the casing hanger are compatible with the threads of the casing string. Inspect the 3 anti-rotation slots in the top ID for damage. Inspect the full bore tool/tieback threads in the top ID of the hanger for damage. Inspect the 2 running tool lock ring grooves in the ID of the hanger for damage. Inspect the running tool seal area, located below the lock ring grooves, for damage.

Seal Assembly g) h) i) j) Inspect the two metal seal lips on the seal assembly OD and ID for damage. Check that the seal assembly outer lock ring is removed. Inspect the retrieval profile on the top ID of the locking sleeve. Ensure that the 8 grooved shear pins are correctly installed above the outer lock ring. These pins prevent premature activation of the locking sleeve and have a combined shear value of 9,920 lbs.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 9 5/8" CASING - Dril-Quip SS15 System


Inspect the running profile and wear bushing locking profile on the ID of the assembly for damage. Check that the two lead impression pins located in the ID of the seal assembly extend 1/8 beyond the shoulder where they are installed. These pins provide a positive indication of seal location relative to the hanger in the event the seal assembly does not lock down.

m) Inspect the inner lock-down ring (that locks the seal assembly to the casing hanger) for correct installation and that it is free from damage. The ring should be free to rotate. Casing Hanger Seal Assembly Running Tool n) o) p) q) r) s) 5. Ensure that the actuator sleeve/inner body strokes open and closed. Full travel of the tool is 11 1/4 for the 18 3/4 running tool and 11 for the 13 5/8 running tool. Inspect the condition of the O ring and polypack seals on the bottom of the running tool body. Confirm that the split lock ring is retracted and that its OD is no greater than the OD of the body seal area. Ensure that the cap screws in the anti-rotation keys are tight. Ensure that the 8 shear pins on the inner body are correctly installed. Ensure that the cap screws on top of the running tool are tight.

Whenever possible efforts should be made to make up the running tool, seal assembly, casing hanger and plug launching mechanism prior to running the casing string. The assembly will normally be made up in the rotary table and laid down on the pipe rack ready for use. Making Up the Assembly a) b) c) Pick up the running tool and make up the crossover for the SSR cementing wiper plugs. Do not install the plugs at this stage. Stand the assembly back in the derrick. Pick up the 9 5/8 casing hanger and pup joint and set it in the RT. Lower the running tool into the casing hanger while aligning the anti-rotation keys into their slots in the hanger. Allow the running tool to stroke closed and put the full weight of the drill pipe on the running tool. Pick up and stroke the running tool open, but do not lift the main body out of the casing hanger. Insert the torque bars into the torque bar holes of the running tool and rotate the running tool to the right until no more movement is possible. Excessive force is not required. Rotate the running tool a minimum of 5 1/2 to 6 turns to the left until a positive torque build-up is felt. This moves the actuator sleeve down behind the split lock ring and locks the running tool to the casing hanger. Slack off all the drill pipe weight. The running tool strokes in approximately 5 cm and stops. Pick back up on the running tool until it strokes out fully (5 cm). Rotate the running tool to the right 3 turns. Remove the torque bars from the running tool and lift the running tool from the casing hanger. Lift the seal assembly onto the running tool until the shear pins on the running tool snap into a mating groove on the ID of the seal assembly. Ensure that the seal assembly is properly snapped over the 8 shear pins of the running tool. The seal assembly should rotate freely. Install the cement wiper plugs on the bottom of the running tool.

d) e)

f)

g)

h)

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Lower the running tool assembly into the casing hanger aligning the anti-rotation keys with the matching slots in the casing hanger. Set the entire weight of the running tool and drill pipe on the hanger. Re-install the torque bars. Rotate the running tool 3 turns to the left relocking the running tool to the casing hanger. Turn the running tool back to the right 1/8th of a turn (do not exceed 1/4 of a turn). To check that the running tool is correctly made up observe the body of the running tool through the gap between the bottom of the seal assembly and the top of the casing hanger. A knurled band should be visible and centred (+/- 1/4) within the gap.

j)

k)

Lay down the running tool, casing hanger, seal assembly and wiper plugs on the pipe rack ready for use or rack back in the derrick.

4.0 4.1

RUNNING THE CASING It is normal practice to make a wiper trip prior to running 9 5/8 casing. Confirm the section TD (with logging depth) and ensure a minimum 5m pocket below the planned shoe depth (unless otherwise instructed). Ensure that mud properties are suitable for running casing, conditioning if required (if not already carried out). Retrieve the Nominal Bore Protector from the wellhead. If the BOP stack has a flex joint with a restrictive wear bushing installed retrieve that wear bushing. Run the shoe track, check the float equipment for obstruction and correct operation.

4.2 4.3 4.4

Note: The shoe track connections should be Bakerlocked.


4.5 Run the casing filling it with mud. Draw a graph of casing joints run versus hookload and use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. Circulate at the 13 3/8 shoe while changing over to slip type elevator/spider. Install the casing hanger/running tool assembly on the casing string. Ensure that the hook on the travelling block is unlocked at this point and that it remains unlocked until the casing hanger has landed. Activate the motion compensator and adjust it to support the weight of the running string only. Run the landing string to +/- 25m above the wellhead. Be prepared to wash down the last few joints if necessary. Note the up and down drag weights. Ensure that the kill and choke lines are open to atmosphere prior to running the casing hanger through the BOP to avoid pressure surges damaging the pack-off seal. Land the 9 5/8 casing hanger in the wellhead. Slack off all of the casing string weight. Allow the compensator to stroke to the mid-point position and verify the landing string/casing hanger elevation. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% casing volume (whichever is greater) noting circulating pressure/rates for both pumps. Cement the casing as in Section 3350/GEN. If the plugs bump test the casing to 3500 psi*. Note: Do not pick up or attempt to rotate the casing string during circulating, cementing or displacing. At the conclusion of the cementing operation and after removing the cement lines from the running string, adjust the motion compensator to put a minimum weight of 15,000 lbs down on the casing hanger seal assembly running tool. Rotate the running string to the right 5 to 6 turns or until the running string drops +/- 25 cm. Do not rotate the running string past this point. Adjust the motion compensator

4.6 4.7

4.8 4.9 4.10

4.11

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to put the entire running string weight on the running tool. This weight further energises the seal assembly. 4.12 4.13 With the running string and choke (kill) line open, close the pipe rams and test the seal assembly to 5000 psi* through the kill (choke) line. The test on the seal assembly must be done with the cement unit and the volumes pumped observed. Avoid applying pressure to the casing annulus if the pack-off is leaking by calculating the required fluid volume to obtain the test. If problems are encountered testing the seal assembly, consult Table 1, page 6. After testing the seal assembly pick straight up to recover the running tool. Apply a minimum overpull of 60,000 lbs to shear the pins on the running tool, releasing the running tool from the locked down seal assembly. POOH without rotating the string. Test the BOP stack as per the procedure in Section 0420/SEM. If drilling is to continue below the 9 5/8 shoe, install the bore protector.

4.14

4.15

* NOTE: THESE PRESSURES MAY BE VARIED.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 9 5/8" CASING - Dril-Quip SS15 System


TABLE 1

SEAL ASSEMBLY TEST TROUBLESHOOTING CHART Symptoms Fluid loss at test pump unit. Fluid returns in the wellbore. Possible Problem Test pump unit. Test rams. Suggested Solution Repair leak in test pump unit and test again. Open and close test rams and test again. Select new test rams and test again. Fluid returns at the choke/ kill manifold. Valve in the choke/kill manifold. Choke/kill valves at the BOP. Open and close valves and test again. Open and close valves and test again. Close back-up choke/kill valves at the BOP and test again. Continuous fluid returns through the drill pipe running string. Fluid noticed through the camera between the wellhead and wellhead connector. Fluid noticed through the camera from the main BOP. Fluid noticed through the camera from the test line connections. No visible fluid loss. Test seals on the Casing Hanger Running Tool. Wellhead ring gasket. Retrieve Running Tool and Seal Assembly and rerun Seal Assembly Running Tool with Seal Assembly and test again. Replace wellhead ring gasket and test again. Retrieve stack, replace ring gasket(s), rerun BOP and test again. Retrieve riser, replace packing, rerun riser and test again. Check weight on Running Tool (must be 15,000 lbs minimum). Pull Running Tool and Seal Assembly, run Mill and Flush Tool, run a new Seal Assembly Running Tool and perform the test again.

Ram body/wellhead connections. Packing in choke/kill test line. Seal assembly.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" CASING

PREPARATION Carry out General Casing Checks as per Section 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. Change pipe rams to casing rams and test unless a well specific written instruction is issued by the Drilling Superintendent. Recover wear bushing. Ensure any hold-down screws are fully backed out. Float shoe and float collar to be 2 joints apart, threadlocked, including the first connection above the float collar If a shut-off baffle is in use, this will normally be located a pup joint above the float collar. All connections up to the first connection above the shut-off baffle to be threadlocked. If a stage cementer is in use, connections either end of the cementer to be threadlocked. Casing centralisation will be as per Section 2010/GEN unless advised otherwise in the Drilling Programme. If a 12 3/4 x 7 casing hanger is used, it will be made up to a 9 5/8 pup joint. Check that the sealing faces of the seal assembly are undamaged. Keep well protected. Check hanger dimensions. Make up hanger to casing hanger running tool and a joint of 7 casing. Drift the assembly. If a slip-type casing hanger is used, select and check 3 joints of casing for ovality and set aside for use across the wellhead. RUNNING Rig up and run 7 casing as per programme. Ensure that the casing is completely filled every joint. Avoid high surge pressures caused by running too quickly. Monitor mud displacement throughout the run. Observe and record pulling and running weights at regular intervals in open hole. Make up the casing hanger assembly, if used, landing joints and circulating head. Break circulation slowly. Run casing to shoe depth, circulating at least the last joint in. Take care when hanger is run through the riser and landed off in the casing head spool. Check land-off depth. If unable to run casing to depth, due to stuck casing, an emergency slip- type hanger will be used. Circulate casing. Check for losses throughout circulation. Record pressures at various circulating rates. (Minimum circulation volume will be the greater of 120% Annular Volume or 120% Casing Volume.) Ensure Corrosion Inhibitor is added to all mud that will remain in the 7 x 9 5/8 Annulus ahead of the cement. Cement 7 casing as per Section 3400/GEN. Check for backflow. If stage cementing is programmed, cement second stage as per Section 3700/GEN. Check for backflow.

1.9

2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

2.10 2.11

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" CASING

If a slip-type hanger is in use, drain riser, nipple down 13 5/8 riser. Lift BOP and riser. Install 7 casing hanger and pack-off as per manufacturers procedure and Manual Section relevant to the particular wellhead. If an integral type hanger is in use, back out the running tool. Open annulus port below the hanger, and wash around the wellhead area. Ensure fluids are collected into the drain system. Make up and install 7 pack-off as per the manufacturers procedure. Set pack-off. Pressure test pack-off as per Wellheads Section.

b)

2.13 2.14 2.15 NOTE

Ensure that the 7 x 9 5/8 annulus is open throughout pressure testing. Nipple up and pressure test BOPs as per Section 0420/FIX. Install wear bushing.

In the event that Mudline Suspension Equipment is in use, then a Well Specific Programme will be issued. 3. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Quantity
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 set 1 1 set 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2

Description
7 side door elevators. 7 single joint elevators. 7 casing drift. 7 hand slips. 350T 7 spider elevator/slips. 7 spider slips. BJ Type DB tongs, dressed to 7. 7 plug dropping head. 7 top and bottom cement plugs. 7 circulating swedge c/w 2 Lo-torc valve. 7 Klampon protectors. 7 power tong. Power unit for tong. Test pump. Travel cutter dressed to 7, if required. Air powered grinder. Plastic injection gun. Plastic packing sticks. 7 casing as required. 7 casing pup joints. Radioactive marker, if required. 7 couplings. 7 cement float shoe. 7 cement float collar. Dual stage cementing set c/w plugs, if required. 7 bow centralisers. 7 positive centralisers. 7 stop rings c/w spiral nails. Centraliser nails. Bakerlok. Casing dope. 7 landing joint.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" CASING


1 1 lot 1 1 1 1 1 1 Slip casing type hanger. Wellhead equipment, as required. Bore protector. Bore protector running tool/combination tool. Test plug. 7 cup tester c/w spare cup. Stage cementer closing tool, if required. Tam casing circulating packer, if required.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HMC LINER

Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is highly unlikely that single cone hanger equipment will satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment. 1.2 1.3 An Isolation Packer may or may not be used in conjunction with the 7 liner. This will be advised in the Drilling Programme. On exploration wells the 7 liner will normally form a production string with 9 5/8 casing and will usually only be run in the event of a well test. In some high pressure applications, it may be necessary to tie back the liner to the wellhead. When 7 casing is onboard complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to +/- 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to casing test pressure as outlined in the programme. The drilling office will confirm if test is required. 1.6 It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe to confirm DP tally. The DP running string must be drifted to a minimum of 2 1/2 (the OD of the metal body of the pump-down plug) on the way out of the hole on the pre-liner check trip. If the pipe is not drifted when POH then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Baker (Brown) HMC Liner Hanger Equipment 1. 7 x 9 5/8 liner hanger assembly comprising: 7 LS sleeve with PBR extension. Profile nipple with RPSA profile. HMC hanger. Length of PBR to be 6 ft for vertical wells and 15 ft for deep or deviated wells. 2. Liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: CS setting tool with RS pack-off assembly or inverted swab cup assembly. Upper slick tail pipe assembly (2 7/8 EUE Pin - 2 7/8 Hydril CS pin). Lower tail pipe assembly with swivel and type 1 liner wiper plug.

1.4 1.5

1.7 2. 2.1

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Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and to be shipped to the rig in protective cradles.
3. Plug dropping cement head and heavy duty swivel or top drive liner cementing system (see Figure 1): Flag sub (4 1/2 IF). Lift nipple (4 1/2 IF). 2 Nos. Float collars with baffle plate. 2 Nos. Type 2 landing collar with shear-out sleeve. 2 Nos. Type V set shoe. 2 Nos. Drill pipe pump down plug. 2 Nos. 1 3/4 setting ball.

Connections to match casing.

Notes: a) The liner hanger utilises VAM connections throughout. b) Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required. c) If a standard float collar is supplied by BP, then a catcher sub will be required.
4. 2.2 Cement Kelly and drive bushings.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 7 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 7 rotary hand slips. (If non-upset casing is run then YC elevators and spider are required.) 4 Nos. 7 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 7 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 7 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 7 springbow centralisers (as required). 7 stop collars (2 per centraliser). 1 No. 7 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimension and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 2 on page 8 of this procedure. Measure all lengths, ODs and IDs. PBR size and pressure rating.

Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied.


4. 5. Hanger pins: 2 Nos. 3/8 pins (giving shear rating 1166 psi). Shear pins in ball seat of landing collar - 5 Nos. 1/2 pins (shear rating 2500 psi).

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HMC LINER

Ensure left hand thread on floating nut is properly engaged inside setting sleeve. Mark the tool and sleeve extension with paint to show if tool begins to back off at any time prior to running. Make up slick tailpipe and check for damage at sealing area. Check swivel on tailpipe. Type 1 liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 7 casing. Size and number of Type 1 liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure (normally 6 Nos. 3/8 giving shear pressure +/600 psi).

10. Free passage of setting ball through the assembly including the Type 1 wiper plug. 11. Seating of the setting ball in the landing collar and shear-out sleeve. 12. Bore of PBR is compatible with outside diameter of compression set packer seal stem. 13. Free passage of pump down dart and setting ball through all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
14. Pressure test plug dropping head and flag sub assembly against kelly cock to the casing test pressure. 15. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the V shoe and float collar. 16. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 17. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold and torque the lift sub to 12,000 ft/lbs. Mark the body and lift sub with white paint to indicate backing out. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. 18. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 19. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 4. RUNNING THE LINER 1. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 2 on page 8 of this Section. The shoe track is to consist of the following: Side Exit Shoe. 2 joints of 7 casing. Float collar with baffle plate. 1 joint 7 casing. 1 joint of casing. Type 2 landing collar with shear out seat.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HMC LINER

Notes: a) If drilling out of liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with bakelite internals to be used. b) All connections including casing collars to one joint above the landing collar to be threadlocked.
2. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into the sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective. Liner length to be such that when set 2m off bottom, the top of the tie-back packer will be a minimum of 1m below the nearest casing collar. Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

3. 4. 5. 6.

Notes: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
7. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment.

Note: Bakerlok all connections on the first 4 joints.


8. Run the liner filling every joint.

Notes: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) Install pup joints and radio-active markers as indicated in the drilling programme. c) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
9. Make up hanger/setting tool assembly. Ensure no rotation of tool and setting sleeve. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on hanger bottom or top subs.

Note: a) Start threads using a chain tong. b) Leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up.
10. Circulate through the completed liner assembly. Pressure is not to exceed 800 psi. Visually check hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates. 11. Note weight of full liner on Martin Decker. 12. RIH on 5 DP (do not use HWDP). Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe have protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2 minimum. Use the drill pipe wiper rubber and ensure string does not turn in table.

Note: a) Do not exceed the calculated running speed. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.

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13. Check up and down drags at the 9 5/8 casing shoe. 14. Continue RIH. Pick up cement kelly/plug holder/kelly cock. Ensure running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, the kelly is at mid point, thus allowing enough overstand to set on bottom if necessary.

Note: Wash and work pipe through any tight spots but beware of packing off the annulus which may prematurely set the hanger. (If the differential pressure inside the liner is greater than 1200 psi, the hanger may be set.)
15. Check string weight and up/down drags. 16. Lock the elevators and install the plug holder with kelly cock below. Wash down (with the compensator open on floating units). Do not exceed 600 psi. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the kelly cock.

Note: Use sufficient chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.
17. Break circulation slowly. Tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 2m. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is greater. Increase the circulation rate but do not exceed 1000 psi surface pressure. In high temperature wells extended circulation may be required. 18. Check string weight up and down, with and without circulation. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating.

Note: a) Do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight. b) Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
5. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the 3 bull plug in the plug launching head or pull back and break out the kelly if hole conditions allow. Allow time for the ball to seat in the landing collar/shear-out sub. The setting ball may be pumped down at a flowrate of 3 bbl/min. Limit pressure to 1000 psi.

Note: While pumping the ball down, check the pick-up and slack-off weights, tag bottom and pick up to the liner setting depth, i.e. full-up stroke weight (total stroke of running tool is 1.5m).
2. When the ball lands, pressure up in 500 psi stages to 1600 psi to set the hanger. (Setting pressure should be 1200 - 1400 psi.) Hold pressure for 10 minutes.

Note: If 1600 psi does not set the hanger, pick up and increase the pressure in 200 psi increments, checking for a set after each increase.
3. Check that the hanger has properly activated by slacking off 30 - 40,000 lbs. Liner weight should be lost before the shoe reaches bottom. a) b) If hanger has set, shear ball from the shear sub, with a pressure of +/- 1,800 psi. If hanger has not set, sit liner on bottom and shear ball from the shear sub.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HMC LINER

Establish circulation and circulate at various rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150, 250, 300, 350 and 400 gpm) and record surface pressures. Check for losses. If losses are observed, it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical neutral running string weight. Rotate the running string 10 turns to the right. The hanger should release after 6 turns. Pick up the running string weight plus 0.5m to ensure that the tool is released.

5. 6.

Note: a) Pick-up must be less than the length of the tailpipe which extends below the hanger. b) When using an RS pack-off, the running tool cannot be re-engaged.
7. Prior to cementing, set down 10,000/15,000 lbs weight on the hanger if the RS pack-off assembly is being used. If the inverted cup type setting tool is being used, 40,000/50,000 lbs above plug bump pressures must be set down on the hanger. Break circulation and cement as per Section 3450/GEN.

8.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
9. After checking for backflow, then POOH quickly to 500m above the top of the liner hanger.

Note: If there are indications of cement inside the string, e.g. the string is pulling wet, then pump a slug to clear the string.
10. Continue POOH. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume. If string is still pulling wet, then circulate clean conventionally.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
11. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HMC LINER FIGURE 1


BAILS TOP DRIVE CONNECTION

ELEVATOR

5" DRILL PIPE PUP JOINT 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN 10-15FT LONG

5" DRILL PIPE PUMP DOWN PLUG KELLY VALVE TO HOLD PUMP DOWN PLUG. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

SETTING BALL

KELLY VALVE TO HOLD SETTING BALL

3" WECO CONNECTION

TOP DRIVE LINER CEMENTING SWIVEL. 3" ID WITH 3" 1502 WECO INLET. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN, 3" ID TENSILE LOAD RATING: - 1,000,000 LBS PRESSURE RATING: - 15,000 PSI TEST - 10,000 PSI WORKING PRESSURE 3" WECO CONNECTION

2 7/8" OD TORQUE TUBE BETWEEN GUIDE RAILS 90 BEND OPTIONAL

SAFETY LINE/CHAIN

3" M x 2" F WECO 1502 ADAPTOR

2" x 2" 1502 LOW TORQUE VALVE

FLAG INDICATOR SUB.. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

911208/15

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SUBJECT: PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER
1.1 Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is possible that single cone hanger equipment will satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment.

Note: The HSR hanger is a single line hanger.


1.2 1.3 An Isolation Packer may or may not be used in conjunction with the 7 liner. This will be advised in the Drilling Programme. On exploration wells the 7 liner will normally form a production string with 9 5/8 casing and will usually only be run in the event of a well test. In some high pressure applications, it may be necessary to tie back the liner to the wellhead. When 7 casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to +/- 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to casing test pressure as outlined in the programme. The drilling office will confirm if test is required. 1.6 On the last trip out of the hole, conduct a flow check and record torque readings with the bit on bottom and just off bottom at 10, 15 and 20 RPM. Repeat this with the BHA positioned at the same depth as the hanger (cased hole torque).

1.4 1.5

Note: The maximum allowable surface torque is 80% of this value.


1.7 It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe while POH to confirm DP tally. The liner running string must be drifted to a minimum of the OD of the metal body of the pump-down plug. A wireline retrievable dart/survey tool may be dropped as a drift. If the pipe is not drifted when POH, then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Baker (Brown) Rotating Liner Hanger Equipment 1. 7 x 9 5/8 HSR rotating liner hanger assembly comprising: 7 LS sleeve with PBR extension. Profile nipple with RS profile. HSR rotating hanger.

1.8 2. 2.1

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SUBJECT: PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER
Length of PBR to be 6 ft for vertical wells and 15 ft for deep or deviated wells. 2. Rotating liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: Shear-out junk bonnet assembly. 2 RH rotating setting tool with retrievable or drillable pack-off bushing. Slick tailpipe assembly with swivel and type 1 liner wiper plug.

Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and shipped to the rig in protective cradles.
3. Plug dropping cement head and heavy duty swivel or top drive liner cementing system (see Figure 1): Flag sub (4 1/2 IF). Lift nipple (4 1/2 IF). 2 Nos. Float collar with baffle plate. 2 Nos. Type 2 landing collar with shear-out sleeve. 2 Nos. Type V set or side exit shoe. 2 Nos. Drill pipe pump down plug. 2 Nos. 1 3/4 setting ball.

Connections to match casing.

Note: a) The liner hanger utilises VAM connections throughout. b) Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required. c) If standard float collar is supplied by BP, then a catcher sub will be required.
4. 2.2 Cement Kelly and drive bushings.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 7 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 7 rotary hand slips. (If non-upset casing is run then YC elevators and spider are required.) 4 Nos. 7 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 7 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 7 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 7 springbow centralisers (as required). 7 stop collars (2 per centraliser). 1 No. 7 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimensions and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 2 on Page 8 of this procedure. Measure all lengths, ODs and IDs.

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SUBJECT: PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER
3. PBR size and pressure rating.

Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Hanger pins: 2 Nos. 3/8 pins (shear rating 1166 psi). Shear pins in ball seat of landing collar - 5 Nos. 1/2 pins (shear rating 2500 psi). Ensure left hand thread on floating nut is properly engaged inside setting sleeve. Mark the tool and sleeve extension with paint to show if tool begins to back off at any time prior to running. Make up slick tailpipe and check for damage at sealing area. Check swivel on tailpipe. Type 1 liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 7 casing. Size and number of Type 1 liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure (normally 6 Nos. 3/8 giving shear pressure +/600 psi).

10. Free passage of setting ball through the assembly including the Type 1 wiper plug. 11. Seating of the setting ball in the landing collar shear out sleeve. 12. Bore of PBR is compatible with outside diameter of compression set packer seal stem. 13. Free passage of pump down dart and setting ball through all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
14. Pressure test plug dropping head and flag sub assembly against kelly cock to 5000 psi. 15. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the V shoe and float collar. 16. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 17. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold and torque the lift sub to 12,000 ft/lbs. Mark the body and lift sub with white paint to indicate backing out. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. 18. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 19. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 4. RUNNING THE LINER 1. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 2 on page 8 of this section. The shoe track is to consist of the following:

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SUBJECT: PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER
Side Exit Shoe. 2 joints of 7 casing. Float collar with baffle plate. 1 joint 7 casing. 1 joint of casing. Type 2 landing collar with shear-out seat.

Notes: a) If drilling out of liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with bakelite internals to be used. b) All connections including casing collars to one joint above the landing collar to be threadlocked.
2. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective. Liner length to be such that when set 2m off bottom the top of the tie-back packer will be a minimum of 1m below the nearest casing collar. Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

3. 4. 5. 6.

Note: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
7. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment.

Note: Bakerlok all connections on the first 4 joints.


8. Run the liner filling every joint.

Notes: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) Install pup joints and radio-active marker as indicated in the drilling programme. c) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
9. Make up hanger/setting tool assembly. Ensure no rotation of tool and setting sleeve. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on hanger bottom or top subs.

Notes: a) Start threads using a chain tong. b) Leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up.
10. Circulate through the completed liner assembly. Pressure is not to exceed 700 psi. Visually check hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates. 11. Note weight of full liner on Martin Decker. 12. Check hanger for any damage to casing collar. Check the 4 x 3/8 shear pins on the split junk bonnet. Lower hanger assembly through rotary and set DP slips on the 5 lift nipple - do not set

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slips on the setting sleeve. Be careful to keep the hanger centred while lowering through the table to avoid damage to the piston, slips, etc. 13. RIH on 5 DP (do not use HWDP). Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe have protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2 minimum. Use the drillpipe wiper rubber and ensure string does not turn in the table.

Notes: a) Do not exceed calculated running speed. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.
14. Check up and down drags at the 9 5/8 casing shoe. 15. Continue RIH. Pick up cement kelly/plug holder/kelly cock. Ensure running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, the kelly is at mid point, thus allowing enough overstand to set on bottom if necessary.

Note: The 2RH Running Tool and HR Hydraulic Rotating Liner Hanger assembly allow the liner to be rotated while washing down through bridges in open hole as long as the 4 x 3/8 brass shear pins in the split junk bonnet in the PBR top remain intact (Baker do not recommend this). The shear screws are sheared out only if the liner weight is lost and 12,400 lbs force is applied to the liner top. This could occur either if a) the entire weight of the liner is lost due to a bridge whilst washing down, or b) by catching an upset on the hanger assembly (slips, cylinder, etc.) on the BOP stack, wellhead or other obstruction. To prevent shearing the pins, beware when running the liner assembly through the BOP and wellhead and limit slack-off weight when washing down through bridges to 80% of the liner weight. If the junk bonnet pins are sheared prematurely, rotation should not be applied until the hanger has been set.
16. Check string weight and up/down drags. 17. Lock the elevators and install the plug holder with kelly cock below. Wash down (with the compensator open on floating units) rotating only if necessary. Do not exceed 600 psi. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the kelly cock.

Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.
18. Break circulation slowly. Tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 2m. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is the greater. Increase the circulation rate, but do not exceed 1000 psi surface pressure. In high temperature wells, extended circulation may be required. 19. Check string weight up and down, with and without circulation. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating.

Note: a) Do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight. b) Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
5. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the 3 bull plug in the plug launching head or pull back and break out the kelly if hole conditions allow. Allow time for the ball to seat in the landing collar/shear out sub.

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Setting ball may be pumped down at a flowrate of 3 bbl/min. Limit pressure to 1000 psi.

Note: While pumping the ball down, check the pick-up and slack-off weights, tag bottom and pick up the liner to setting depth, i.e. full-up stroke weight (total stroke of running tool is 1.5m).
2. 3. When the ball lands pressure up in stages and set the hanger, setting pressure should be 1600 psi. Hold pressure for 10 minutes. Check hanger has set by slacking off running string. Liner weight should be lost before shoe reaches bottom. If 1600 psi does not set the hanger, pick up and increase pressure in 200 psi increments, checking for a set after each increase. a) b) 4. When hanger has set, set down +/- 30000 lbs DP weight, mark the pipe and shear ball and seat at a pressure of +/- 2700 psi. If hanger has not set, sit the liner on bottom and shear ball and seat.

Establish circulation and circulate at various rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150, 250, 300, 350 and 400 gpm) and record surface pressures. Check for losses. If losses are observed it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical running string weight. Rotate the running string 10 turns to the right. The hanger should release after 6 turns. Pick up the running string weight plus 0.5m to ensure that the tool is released.

5. 6.

Notes: a) Pick-up must be less than the length of the tailpipe which extends below the hanger. b) When using an RS pack-off, the running tool cannot be re-engaged.
7. Prior to cementing, set down 10,000/15,000 lbs weight on the hanger if the RS pack-off assembly is being used. If the inverted cup type setting tool is being used, 40,000/50,000 lbs above plug bump pressures must be set down on the hanger. Break circulation and commence right hand rotation. 4-5 turns will transmit torque to the liner. Limit torque total to (cased hole torque + liner thread torque) x 80%. Establish rotation of liner at 15-20 rpm. Only rotate the liner when circulating.

8.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
9. Cement the liner as per Section 3450/GEN.

10. After checking for backflow, then POOH quickly to 500m above the top of the liner hanger.

Note: If there are indications of cement inside the string, e.g. the string is pulling wet, then pump a slug to clear the string.
11. Continue POOH. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume. If string is still pulling wet, then circulate clean conventionally.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
12. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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SUBJECT: PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER FIGURE 1
BAILS TOP DRIVE CONNECTION

ELEVATOR

5" DRILL PIPE PUP JOINT 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN 10-15FT LONG

5" DRILL PIPE PUMP DOWN PLUG KELLY VALVE TO HOLD PUMP DOWN PLUG. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

SETTING BALL

KELLY VALVE TO HOLD SETTING BALL

3" WECO CONNECTION

TOP DRIVE LINER CEMENTING SWIVEL. 3" ID WITH 3" 1502 WECO INLET. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN, 3" ID TENSILE LOAD RATING: - 1,000,000 LBS PRESSURE RATING: - 15,000 PSI TEST - 10,000 PSI WORKING PRESSURE 3" WECO CONNECTION

2 7/8" OD TORQUE TUBE BETWEEN GUIDE RAILS 90 BEND OPTIONAL

SAFETY LINE/CHAIN

3" M x 2" F WECO 1502 ADAPTOR

2" x 2" 1502 LOW TORQUE VALVE

FLAG INDICATOR SUB.. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER

Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is possible that single cone hanger equipment will not satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment.

Note: The HSR hanger is a single cone hanger.


1.2 The CPH packer is run to avoid sole reliance on the cement in the liner lap. It is weight set and gives the advantage that the cement above the lap can be circulated out immediately that the cement job is completed. The preferred option is to run an integral packer with the liner. On exploration wells the 7 liner will normally form a production string with 9 5/8 casing and will usually only be run in the event of a well test. In some high pressure applications, it may be necessary to tie back the liner to the wellhead. When 7 casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to +/- 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to casing test pressure as outlined in the programme. The drilling office will confirm if test is required. 1.6 On the last trip out of the hole, conduct a flow check and record torque readings with the bit on bottom and just off bottom at 10, 15 and 20 RPM. Repeat this with the BHA positioned at the same depth as the hanger (cased hole torque). It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe while POH to confirm DP tally. The liner running string must be drifted to a minimum of 2 1/2 (the OD of the metal body of the pump-down plug). A wireline retrievable dart/survey tool may be dropped as a drift. If the pipe is not drifted when POH, then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Baker (Brown) HSR Liner Hanger with CPH Packer 1. 7 x 9 5/8 liner hanger assembly comprising: CPH liner packer, RH type with PBR. HSR rotating liner hanger. Length of PBR to be 6 ft for vertical wells and 15 ft for deep or deviated wells.

1.3

1.4 1.5

1.7

1.8 2. 2.1

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER
Liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: Shear-down junk bonnet. 2RH setting tool with retrievable pack-off bushing. Slick cementing stinger (2 7/8 EUE pin up).

Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and to be shipped to the rig in protective cradles.
3. Plug dropping cement head and heavy duty swivel or top drive liner cementing system (see Figure 1): Flag sub (4 1/2 IF). Lift nipple (4 1/2 IF). 2 Nos. Plug holder bushing. 2 Nos. Type 2 landing collar with shear-out sleeve. Connections 2 Nos. Float collar with baffle plate. to match 2 Nos. Type V set or side exit shoe. casing. 2 Nos. Type 2 liner wiper plug. 2 Nos. Drill pipe pump down plug (max. OD 4.563, min. OD 2.25). 2 Nos. 1 3/4 setting ball.

Notes: a) The liner hanger utilises VAM connections throughout. b) Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required. c) If standard float collar is supplied by BP, then a catcher sub will be required.
4. 2.2 Cement Kelly and drive bushings.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 7 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 7 rotary hand slips. (If non upset casing run then YC elevators and spider required.) 4 Nos. 7 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 7 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 7 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 4 1/2 IF connections (semi-submersibles). 7 springbow centralisers (as required). 7 stop collars (2 per centraliser). 1 No. 7 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimension and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 2 on Page 9 of this procedure. Measure all lengths, ODs and IDs.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER
PBR size and pressure rating.

Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Hanger pins: 2 Nos. 3/8 pins (giving shear rating 1166 psi). Shear pins in ball seat of landing collar - 5 Nos. 1/2 pins (shear rating 2500 psi). Ensure left hand thread on floating nut is properly engaged inside setting sleeve. Mark the tool and sleeve extension with paint to show if tool begins to back off at any time prior to running. Make up slick tailpipe and check for damage at sealing area. Check swivel on tailpipe. Type 1 liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 7 casing. Size and number of Type 2 liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure (normally 6 Nos. 3/8 giving shear pressure +/600 psi).

10. Free passage of setting ball through the assembly including the Type 2 wiper plug. 11. Seating of the setting ball in the landing collar and shear out sleeve. 12. Bore of PBR is compatible with outside diameter of compression set packer seal stem. 13. Free passage of pump down dart and setting ball through all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
14. Pressure test plug dropping head and flag sub assembly against kelly cock to 5000 psi. 15. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the V shoe and float collar. 16. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swival to confirm that it is heavy duty. 17. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold and torque the lift sub to 12,000 ft/lbs. Mark the body and lift sub with white paint to indicate backing out. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. 18. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 19. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER

RUNNING THE LINER 1. 2. Ensure all hanger and setting tool assembly connections are torqued up prior to running the liner. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 2 on page 9 of this section. The shoe track is to consist of the following: Side Exit Shoe. 2 joints of 7 casing. Float collar and baffle plate. 1 joint 7 casing. Type 2 landing collar with shear-out seat. Check the float equipment before RIH.

Notes: a) If drilling out of liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with bakelite internals to be used. b) The distance between the catcher sub and landing collar may be increased dependent upon advice from drilling office. All connections including casing collars to one joint above the landing collar to be threadlocked.
3. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective. Liner length to be such that when set 2m off bottom, the top of the tie-back packer will be a minimum of 1m below the nearest casing collar. Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

4. 5. 6. 7.

Notes: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
8. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment.

Note: Bakerlok all connections on the first 4 joints.


9. Run the liner filling every joint.

Notes: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) Install pup joints and radio-active marker as indicated in the drilling programme. c) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
10. Make up hanger/setting tool assembly onto liner. Ensure no rotation of tool and setting sleeve. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on hanger bottom or top subs. Ensure that the setting tool and all other connections are made up properly.

Note: a) Start threads using a chain tong.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER
Leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up.

11. Circulate the contents of the liner assembly. Pressure is not to exceed 700 psi. Visually check hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates up to 250 gpm. 12. Note weight of full liner on Martin Decker. 13. Check hanger for any damage to casing collar. Check the 4 x 3/8 shear pins on the split junk bonnet. Lower hanger assembly through rotary and set DP slips on the 5 lift nipple - do not set slips on the setting sleeve. Be careful to keep the hanger centred while lowering through the table to avoid damage to the piston, slips, etc. 14. RIH on 5 DP (do not use HWDP). Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe has protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2 minimum. Use the drillpipe wiper rubber and ensure string does not turn in the table.

Note: a) Do not exceed calculated running speeds. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.
15. Check up and down drags at the 9 5/8 casing shoe. Break circulation at the shoe. Ensure top drive swivel or cement head and cement lines made up before going into open hole. 16. Continue RIH. Pick up cement head or top drive swivel. Ensure running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, there is enough overstand to set the liner on bottom if necessary. Drift all pup joints and singles picked up from the pipe deck.

Note: The 2RH Running Tool and HR Hydraulic Rotating Liner Hanger assembly allow the liner to be rotated while washing down through bridges in open hole as long as the 4 x 3/8 brass shear pins in the split junk bonnet in the PBR top remain intact (Baker do not recommend this. The shear screws are sheared out only if the liner weight is lost and 12,400 lbs force is applied to the liner top. This could occur either if a) the entire weight of the liner is lost due to a bridge whilst washing down, or b) by catching an upset on the hanger assembly (slips, cylinder, etc.) on the BOP stack, wellhead or other obstruction. To prevent shearing the pins, beware when running the liner assembly through the BOP and wellhead and limit slack-off weight when washing down through bridges to 80% of the liner weight. If the junk bonnet pins are sheared prematurely, rotation should not be applied until the hanger has been set.
17. Check string weight and up/down drags. 18. Lock the elevators and install the plug holder with kelly cock below. Wash down (with the compensator open on floating units), rotating only if necessary. Do not exceed 600 psi. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the kelly cock.

Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.
19. Break circulation slowly. Wash and tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 2m. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is the greater. In high temperature wells, extended circulation may be required. Do not exceed 600 psi initially and gradually increase circulation rate to a maximum of 250 gpm or 1000 psi.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER
Note: 250 gpm to avoid problems with the CPH packer and 1000 psi to avoid early setting of the liner.

20. Check string weight, with and without circulation. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating and do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
5. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the 3 bull plug in the plug launching head or pull back and break out the kelly if hole conditions allow. Allow time for the ball to seat in the landing collar/shear out sub. Setting ball may be pumped down at a flowrate of 3 bbl/min. Limit pressure to 1000 psi. During this time check the pick-up and slack-off weights, tag bottom and pick up to the liner setting depth, i.e. full up stroke weight (total stroke of running tool is 1.5m).

Note: Standard 7 HSR hanger, 2 x 3/8 pins = 1166 psi shear.


2. 3. When the ball lands pressure up in stages to 1600 psi and set the hanger. Hold pressure for 10 minutes. Check hanger has set by slacking off running string. Liner weight should be lost before shoe reaches bottom. If 1600 psi does not set the hanger, pick up and increase pressure in 200 psi increments, checking for a set after each increase. a) b) 4. When hanger has set, set down +/- 30000 lbs DP weight, mark the pipe and shear ball and seat at a pressure of +/- 2700 psi. If hanger has not set, sit the liner on bottom and shear ball and seat.

Establish circulation and circulate at various rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150 and 250 gpm) and record surface pressures. Check for losses. If losses are observed it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical running string weight. Rotate the running string 10 turns to the right. The hanger should release after 6 turns. Note the rotary torque. Pick up the running string weight plus 0.5m (use compensator on floating rigs) to ensure that the tool is released.

5. 6.

Note: a) Pick-up must be less than the length of the tailpipe which extends below the hanger. b) When using an RS pack-off, the running tool cannot be re-engaged. Note: As the allowable distance of travel with the standard running tool and PBR is very small, pulling any substantial distance will engage the packer setting dogs in the setting profile and result in premature setting of the packer and preclude cementing of the liner. When running the liner in deeper high angle wells, controlling the movement of the string over such small distances is impractical, even the inaccuracy of establishing the neutral point for release can, at these depths, leave stretch in the string which could potentially engage the packer setting dogs. Consideration must therefore be given to the following: a) Not picking up the running string to ensure it is free from the liner. Hardly any instances of stuck running tools are recorded.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER
Lengthen the setting sleeve and stinger to give a greater allowance for movement of the string without engaging the setting dogs or pulling the stinger and bushing out of the RS profile. CONSULT WITH DS ONSHORE. Such action will need to be taken as the equipment is being ordered.

7.

Prior to cementing, set down 20,000 lbs weight on the hanger.

Note: Set down weight is dependent upon the pump-out forces when shearing out and bumping the liner wiper plug. This shear-out force increases considerably if inverted cups are used instead of the retrievable pack-off bushing.
8. Break circulation and commence right hand rotation. 4-5 turns will transmit torque to the liner. Limit torque total to (cased hole torque + liner thread torque) x 80%. Establish rotation of liner at 15-20 rpm. Only rotate the liner when circulating. If rotation is not practical continue with cement operation.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
9. Cement the liner as per Section 3450/GEN.

10. After checking for backflow following the cement job, set the CPH packer by picking up the running tool 2.5m at the liner top. This will place the packer setting dogs above the CPH packer tie-back extension which is 3.4m long. Maintain 500 psi on the running string as the tailpipe is pulled as an indication when free. 11. Rotate the running string 6-10 turns to the right to ensure that the tool is free. Pick up on the running string but do not pull above the previous up stroke weight before the liner was set. If pickup weight exceeds the previous value, set down 20,000 lbs on the liner and put in additional righthand turns while observing rotary torque. If this does not work then the tool is stuck in the liner or cement.

Note: The pipe may be worked to 80% of pipe yield strength when the top drive swivel head is in use.
12. Pull the running tool above the CPH packer tie-back extension, then move the tool down until weight is taken on the packer top. 13-17,000 lbs down will shear the first pins and start to set the packer. 40,000 lbs down will shear the second set of pins and force the packer hold-down slips against the 9 5/8 casing. 13. Reverse circulate out the excess cement and spacer after pulling the stinger to just above the PBR. Avoid running into the PBR.

Note: Do not carry out casing test at this point, the liner lap will be tested on the cleanout trip.
14. On deviated wells, reciprocate pipe to ensure any low side cement is circulated out. 15. Monitor for contaminated cement returns (if OBM in use, refer to Section 3780/GEN). Pull out of hole with the running tool. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
16. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER FIGURE 1
BAILS TOP DRIVE CONNECTION

ELEVATOR

5" DRILL PIPE PUP JOINT 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN 10-15FT LONG

5" DRILL PIPE PUMP DOWN PLUG KELLY VALVE TO HOLD PUMP DOWN PLUG. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

SETTING BALL

KELLY VALVE TO HOLD SETTING BALL

3" WECO CONNECTION

TOP DRIVE LINER CEMENTING SWIVEL. 3" ID WITH 3" 1502 WECO INLET. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN, 3" ID TENSILE LOAD RATING: - 1,000,000 LBS PRESSURE RATING: - 15,000 PSI TEST - 10,000 PSI WORKING PRESSURE 3" WECO CONNECTION

2 7/8" OD TORQUE TUBE BETWEEN GUIDE RAILS 90 BEND OPTIONAL

SAFETY LINE/CHAIN

3" M x 2" F WECO 1502 ADAPTOR

2" x 2" 1502 LOW TORQUE VALVE

FLAG INDICATOR SUB.. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

911208/15

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" BAKER (BROWN) HSR ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" TIW LINER

Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is highly unlikely that single cone hanger equipment will satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment. 1.2 1.3 An Isolation Packer may or may not be used in conjunction with the 7 liner. This will be advised in the Drilling Programme. On exploration wells the 7 liner will normally form a production string with 9 5/8 casing and will usually only be run in the event of a well test. In some high pressure applications it may be necessary to tie back the liner to the wellhead. When 7 casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN, 2900/GEN and 2950/GEN for chrome tubulars. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 casing integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to the programmed casing test pressure. The drilling office will confirm if the test is required. 1.6 It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe to confirm DP tally and drift the DP on the way out of the hole, on the pre-liner check trip to a minimum of 2 1/2 (the OD of the metal body on the pump-down plug). If the pipe is not drifted when POH then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST TIW Liner Hanger Equipment 1. 7 x 9 5/8 liner hanger assembly comprising: 7 LG-6 setting collar with tie-back sleeve. RPOB nipple. Tandem cone hydro-hanger. Length of tie-back sleeve to be 6 ft for vertical wells and 15 ft for deep or deviated wells. 2. Liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: Running tool with retrievable pack-off bushing. Upper slick tailpipe assembly. Lower tailpipe assembly with swivel and 7 liner wiper plug.

1.4 1.5

1.7 2. 2.1

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Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and to be shipped to the rig in protective cradles.
3. Plug dropping cement head (4 1/2 IF conn) and heavy duty swivel. 2 Nos. HSSR landing collar with shear out ball seat. Connections 2 Nos. LS-2 set shoe. to match 2 Nos. Float collar. casing. 2 Nos. Drill pipe pump down plug. 2 Nos. Setting ball.

Note: Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required.


4. 2.2 Cement Kelly and drive bushings.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 7 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 7 rotary hand slips. (If non upset casing run then YC elevators and spider required.) 4 Nos. 7 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 7 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 7 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 7 springbow centralisers (as required). 7 stop collars (2 per centralisers). 1 No. 7 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimensions and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 1 on page 7 of this procedure. Measure all lengths, ODs and IDs. PBR size and pressure rating.

Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied


4. 5. 6. TIW liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 7 casing. Size and number of liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure. Free passage of the setting ball through the assembly including the liner wiper plug.

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Seating of setting ball in the HS landing collar shear out seat. Bore of PBR is compatible with the outside diameter of the LG seal nipple, run below the compression set packer. Free passage of the setting ball and pump down plug through all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of the bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
10. Pressure test the plug dropping head against the kelly cock to 5000 psi. 11. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the set shoe and float collar. 12. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 13. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold and torque the lift sub to 12,000 ft/lbs. Mark the body and lift sub with white paint to indicate backing out. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. 14. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 15. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 4. RUNNING THE LINER 1. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 1 on page 7 of this Section. The shoe track is to consist of the following: Side exit shoe. LS set shoe. 2 joints of casing. Conventional float collar. 2 joints of casing. Type HS landing collar with shear out seat.

Notes: a) If drilling out of liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with Bakelite internals is to be used. b) The distance between the float collar and the landing collar may be increased dependent on advice from the drilling office. All connections including casing collars to one joint above the landing collar are to be threadlocked.
2. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective.

3. 4.

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Liner length to be such that when set 2m off bottom the top of the tie-back packer will be a minimum of 1m below the nearest casing collar. Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

Note: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
7. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment.

Note: Bakerlok all connections up to one joint above the landing collar.
8. Run the liner filling every joint.

Note: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) Install pup joints and radio-active marker as indicated in the driling programme. c) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
9. Make up hanger/setting tool assembly. Ensure no rotation of tool and setting sleeve. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on the hanger bottom or top subs.

Note: a) Start threads using a chain tong. b) Leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up.
10. Circulate through the completed liner assembly. Pressure is not to exceed 750 psi. Visually check hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates. 11. Note weight of full liner on Martin Decker. 12. RIH on 5 DP (do not use HWDP). Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe have protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2 minimum. Use the drillpipe wiper rubber and ensure string does not turn in table.

Note: a) Do not exceed the calculated running speed. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.
13. Check up and down drags at the 9 5/8 casing shoe. 14. Continue RIH. Pick up cement kelly/plug holder/kelly cock. Ensure running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, the kelly is at mid point, thus allowing enough overstand to set on bottom if necessary.

Note: Wash and work pipe through any tight spots but beware of packing off the annulus which may prematurely set the hanger.
15. Check string weight and up/down drags. 16. Lock the elevators and install the plug holder with kelly cock below. Wash down (with the compensator open on floating units). Do not exceed 750 psi surface pressure. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5,000 psi against the kelly cock.

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Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.
17. Break circulation slowly. Tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 2m. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is greater. Do not exceed 750 psi surface pressure. In high temperature wells extended circulation may be required. 18. Check string weight up and down, with and without circulation. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating.

Note: a) Do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight. b) Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
5. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the plug launching head or pull back and break out the kelly if hole conditions allow. Allow time for it to seat in the HS landing collar.

Note: While the ball is dropping check the pick-up and slack-off weights, tag bottom and pick up the liner to setting depth, i.e. full up stroke weight.
2. 3. When the ball lands, pressure up in 500 psi stages to set the hanger. Setting pressure should be 1,200 psi. Check that the hanger has properly activated by slacking off the weight of the liner plus 5000 lbs. Liner weight should be lost before the shoe reaches bottom. If 1200 psi does not set the hanger, pick up and increase pressure in 200 psi increments, checking for a set after each increase. a) b) 4. If hanger has set, mark the pipe and shear ball from shear sub by increasing pressure in 200 psi stages to 2,500 psi when seat will shear and ball and seat will fall to float collar. If hanger has not set, sit liner on bottom and shear ball from the shear sub.

Establish circulation and circulate at various rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150, 250, 300, 350 and 400 gpm) and record surface pressures. Check for losses. If losses are observed it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical running string weight. Rotate the running string 15-20 turns to the right. After 6-8 turns the hanger should release and further rotation will be torque free. Pick up the running string weight plus 1m to ensure that the tool is released.

5. 6. 7.

Note: Pick-up must be less than the length of the tailpipe which extends below the hanger.
8. Prior to cementing, set down 10,000/15,000 lbs weight on the hanger.

Note: Set down weight is dependent upon the pump-out forces when shearing out and bumping the liner wiper plug. This shear-out force increases considerably if inverted cups are used instead of packoff bushing.
9. Break circulation and cement as per Section 3450/GEN.

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Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
10. After checking for backflow, then POOH quickly to 500m above the top of the liner hanger.

Note: If there are indications of cement inside the string, e.g. the string is pulling wet, then pump a slug to clear the string.
11. Continue POOH. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume. If string is still pulling wet, then circulate clean conventionally.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
12. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is highly unlikely that single cone hanger equipment will satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment. 1.2 The Type S liner packer is run to avoid sole reliance on the cement in the liner lap. It is weight set and provides the advantage that the cement above the lap can be circulated out immediately that the cement job is completed. The preferred option is to run an integral packer with the liner. On exploration wells the 7 liner will normally form a production string with 9 5/8 casing and will usually only be run in the event of a well test. In some high pressure applications, it may be necessary to tie back the liner to the wellhead. When 7 casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 casing integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to the programmed casing test pressure. The drilling office will confirm if the test is required. 1.6 It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe to confirm DP tally and drift the DP on the way out of the hole, on the pre-liner trip to a minimum of 2 1/2 (the OD of the metal body of the pump-down plug). If the pipe is not drifted when POH then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST TIW Liner Hanger Equipment 1. 7 x 9 5/8 liner hanger assembly comprising: Type S liner packer with tie-back sleeve. RPOB nipple. Tandem cone RRP hydro-hanger. Length of tie-back sleeve to be 6 ft for vertical wells and 15 ft for deep or deviated wells. 2. Liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: Running tool with retrievable pack-off bushing. Upper slick tailpipe assembly. Lower tailpipe assembly with swivel and 7 liner wiper plug.

1.3

1.4 1.5

1.7 2. 2.1

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Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and to be shipped to the rig in protective cradles.
3. Plug dropping cement head (4 1/2 IF conn) and heavy duty swivel. 2 Nos. HSSR landing collar with shear-out ball seat. Connections 2 Nos. LS-2 set shoe. to match 2 Nos. Float collar. casing. 2 Nos. drill pipe pump down plug. 2 Nos. setting ball.

Note: Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required.


4. 2.2 Cement Kelly and drive bushings (if required).

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 7 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 7 rotary hand slips. (If non upset casing run then YC elevators and spider required). 4 Nos. 7 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 7 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 7 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 7 springbow centralisers (as required). 7 stop collars (2 per centralisers). 1 No. 7 casing drift (nylon if using chrome liner). API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimensions and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 1 on page 8 of this procedure. Measure all lengths, ODs and IDs. PBR size and pressure rating.

Note: On occasions a longer PBR will be supplied for deep or deviated wells.
4. 5. 6. TIW liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 7 casing. Size and number of liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure. Seals and packer elements for scoring or other damage.

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Packer slips for cracks. Running tool pack-off seals fit the RPOB profile below the PBR. Free passage of the setting ball through the assembly, including the liner wiper plug.

10. Seating of the setting ball in the HSSR landing collar shear out seat. 11. Bore of PBR is compatible with the outside diameter of the LG seal nipple, run below the compression set packer. 12. Free passage of the setting ball and pump down plug through all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of the bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
13. Round off the nose of the DP dart. 14. Check release mechanism of the running tool from the hanger. 15. Pressure test the plug dropping head against the kelly cock to the casing test pressure. 16. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the set shoe and float collar. 17. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 18. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold and torque the lift sub to 12,000 ft/lbs. Mark the body and lift sub with white paint to indicate backing out. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. 19. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 20. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 4. RUNNING THE LINER 1. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 1 on page 8 of this Section. The shoe track is to consist of the following: Side exit shoe. LS set shoe. 2 joints of casing. Conventional float collar. 2 joints of casing. Type HSSR landing collar with shear-out seat.

Note: a) If drilling out of the liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with Bakelite internals is to be used. b) The distance between the float collar and the landing collar may be increased dependent on advice from the drilling office.

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All connections including casing collars to one joint above the landing collar are to be threadlocked. 2. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective. Liner length to be such that when set 2m off bottom the top of the tie-back packer element will be a minimum of 1m below the nearest casing collar. On Clyde wells ensure that a chrome pup joint is placed at the top of the reservoir and place a radio-active collar on the first carbon steel joint above the chrome tubing. Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Note: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
8. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment. Note: Bakerlok all connections to one joint above the landing collar. 9. Run the liner filling every joint.

Note: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) Install pup joints and radio-active marker as indicated in the drilling programme. c) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
10. Make up hanger/setting tool assembly and liner wiper plug. Check the number and rating of the shear pins on the wiper plug. Ensure no rotation of tool and setting sleeve. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on hanger bottom or top subs.

Note: a) Start threads using a chain tong. b) Leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up.
11. Circulate through the completed liner assembly. Pressure is not to exceed 750 psi. Visually check hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates. 12. Note weight of full liner on Martin Decker. 13. RIH on 5 DP (do not use HWDP). Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe has protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2 minimum. Use the drill pipe wiper rubber and ensure string does not turn in the table.

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Note: a) Do not exceed the calculated running speed. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.
14. Check up and down drags at the 9 5/8 casing shoe. 15. Continue RIH. Pick up cement kelly/plug holder/kelly cock. Ensure running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, there is sufficient overstand with the liner set on bottom.

Note: Wash and work pipe through any tight spots but beware of packing off the annulus which may prematurely set the hanger.
16. Check string weight and up/down drags. 17. Lock the elevators and install the plug holder with kelly cock below. Wash down (with the compensator open on floating units). Do not exceed 750 psi surface pressure. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the kelly cock.

Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.
18. Break circulation slowly. Tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 2m. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is greater. Do not exceed 750 psi surface pressure. In high temperature wells extended circulation may be required. 19. Check string weight up and down, with and without circulation. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating.

Note: a) Do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight. b) Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
5. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the plug launching head or pull back and break out the kelly if hole conditions allow. Allow time for the ball to seat in the HSSR landing collar.

Note: While the ball is dropping, check the pick-up and slack-off weights, tag bottom and pick up the liner to the setting depth, i.e. full up stroke weight.
2. 3. Pressure up in 500 psi stages to set the hanger. Setting pressure should be 1200 psi. Check that the hanger has properly activated by slacking off the weight of the liner plus +/- 5000 lbs. Liner weight should be lost before the shoe reaches bottom. If 1200 psi does not set the hanger, pick up and increase the pressure in 200 psi increments, checking for a set after each increase. a) If hanger has set, mark the pipe and shear the ball from the shear sub by increasing pressure in 200 psi stages to 2500 psi when the seat will shear and ball and seat will fall to the float collar. If hanger has not set, sit the liner on bottom and shear the ball from the shear sub.

b)

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Establish circulation and circulate at various rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 gpm) and record surface pressures. Check for losses. If losses are observed it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical running string weight. Rotate the running string 15-20 turns to the right. After 6-8 turns the hanger should release and further rotation will be torque free. Pick up the running string weight plus 0.5m (use the compensator on floating rigs) to ensure that the tool is released.

5. 6. 7.

Note: 1m travel puts the setting dogs very close to engaging the tie-back packer. Note: As the allowable distance of travel with the standard running tool and PBR is very small, pulling any substantial distance will engage the packer setting dogs in the setting profile and result in premature setting of the packer and preclude cementing of the liner. When running the liner in deeper high angle wells, controlling the movement of the string over such small distances is impractical, even the inaccuracy of establishing the neutral point for release can, at these depths, leave stretch in the string which could potentially engage the packer setting dogs. Consideration must therefore be given to the following: a) b) Not picking up the running string to ensure it is free from the liner. Hardly any instances of stuck running tools are recorded. Lengthen the setting sleeve and stinger to give a greater allowance for movement of the string without engaging the setting dogs or pulling the stinger and bushing out of the bushings profile. CONSULT WITH DS ONSHORE. Such action will need to be taken as the equipment is being ordered.

8.

Prior to cementing set down 10,000/15,000 lbs weight on the hanger.

Note: Set down weight is dependent upon the pump-out forces when shearing out and bumping the liner wiper plug. This shear-out force increases considerably if inverted cups are used instead of the retrievable pack-off bushing.
9. Break circulation and cement as per Section 3450/GEN.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
10. After checking for back flow, pick up the running string 2m (or more if PBR has been extended) to engage packer setting dogs in the recess. Slack off 30,000 lbs to set the packer (allowing for pipe stretch and hole drags). 11. Reverse circulate out the excess cement and spacer after pulling the stinger to just above the PBR. Avoid running into the PBR.

Note: Do not carry out casing test at this point, the liner lap will be tested on the cleanout trip.
12. On deviated wells, reciprocate pipe to ensure any low side cement is circulated out. 13. Monitor for contaminated cement returns (if OBM in use refer to Section 3780/GEN). Pull out of hole with the running tool. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume.

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Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
14. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER

Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is highly unlikely that single cone hanger equipment will satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment. 1.2 The TSP packer is run to avoid sole reliance on the cement in the liner lap. It is weight set and gives the advantage that the cement above the lap can be circulated out immediately that the cement job is completed. The preferred option is to run an integral packer with the liner. On exploration wells the 7 liner will normally form a production string with 9 5/8 casing and will usually only be run in the event of a well test. In some high pressure applications, it may be necessary to tie back the liner to the wellhead. When 7 casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to +/- 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to casing test pressure as outlined in the programme. The drilling office will confirm if test is required. 1.6 On the last trip out of the hole, conduct a flow check and record torque readings with the bit on bottom and just off bottom at 10, 15 and 20 RPM. Repeat this with the BHA positioned at the same depth as the hanger (cased hole torque). It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe while POH to confirm DP tally. The liner running string must be drifted to a minimum of 2 1/2 (the OD of the metal body on the pump-down plug). A wireline retrievable dart/survey tool may be dropped as a drift. If the pipe is not drifted when POH, then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Nodeco MHR Liner Hanger with TSP Packer 1. 7 x 9 5/8 liner hanger assembly comprising: TSP liner packer with PBR. MHR multicone hydraulic rotating hanger. Length of PBR to be 6 ft for vertical wells and 15 ft for deep or deviated wells.

1.3

1.4 1.5

1.7

1.8 2. 2.1

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Liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: Shear-down junk bonnet. Type R running tool with RSM retrievable pack-off bushing. Slick cementing stinger (3 1/2 8-ACME pin up).

Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and to be shipped to the rig in protective cradles.
3. Plug dropping cement head and heavy duty swivel or top drive liner cementing system (see Figure 1): Flag sub (4 1/2 IF). Lift nipple (4 1/2 IF). 2 Nos. Plug holder adaptor. 2 Nos. WLC landing collar with shear-out ball seal and catcher. 2 Nos. Float collar. 2 Nos. Type V set or side exit (double valve) shoe. 2 Nos. Liner wiper plug. 2 Nos. Drill pipe pump down plug (OD of metal body 2.50). 2 Nos. 1 3/4 setting ball. Radio-active marker, if required.

Connections to match casing.

Note: Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required.


4. 2.2 Cement Kelly with drive bushings.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 7 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 7 rotary hand slips. (If non upset casing run then YC elevators and spider required.) 4 Nos. 7 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 7 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 7 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 7 springbow centralisers (as required). 7 stop collars (2 per centraliser). 1 No. 7 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimension and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 2 on Page 9 of this procedure. Measure all lengths and ODs. PBR size and pressure rating.

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Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Hanger pins: 4 Nos. brass screws (giving shear rating 1400 psi). Shear pins in ball seat of landing collar - 5 Nos. pins (shear rating 2600 psi). Packer shear pins: 3 Nos. (shear rating 16,000 lbs) plus 7 Nos. (shear rating 37,000 lbs). Mark the tool and sleeve extension with paint to show if tool begins to back off at any time prior to running. Type 1 liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 7 casing. Size and number of liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure (normally +/- 1175 psi/4 screws).

10. Free passage of setting ball through the assembly including the Type 1 wiper plug. 11. Seating of the setting ball in the back-up landing collar ball seat. 12. Bore of PBR is compatible with outside diameter of compression set packer seal stem. 13. Free passage of pump down dart and setting ball by drifting all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc. Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs. 14. Pressure test plug dropping head and flag sub assembly against kelly cock to 5000 psi. 15. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the shoe and float collar. 16. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 17. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack.

Note: Using the Nodeco cement Kelly, the lift sub is not backed out.
18. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 19. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 20. On shallow or deviated wells, HWDP may be required to allow the TSP packer to be set with 37,000 lbs downward force.

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RUNNING THE LINER 1. 2. Ensure all hanger and setting tool assembly connections are torqued up prior to running the liner. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 2 on page 9 of this section. The shoe track is to consist of the following: Side Exit Shoe. 1 joint of 7 casing. Float collar. 2 joints of 7 casing. WLC landing collar c/w catcher and shear-out ball seat. Check the float equipment before RIH.

Notes: a) If drilling out of liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with bakelite internals to be used. b) The distance between the landing collar and the float collar may be increased dependent upon advice from drilling office. All connections including casing collars to one joint above the landing collar to be threadlocked.
3. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into the sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective. Liner length to be such that when set 2m off bottom the top of the tie-back packer will be a minimum of 1m below the nearest casing collar. Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

4. 5. 6. 7.

Note: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
8. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment.

Note: Bakerlok all connections on the first 4 joints. Bakerlok friction factor = 1.6.
9. Run the liner filling every joint.

Note: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) Install pup joints and radio-active marker as indicated in the drilling programme. c) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
10. Make up hanger/setting tool assembly complete with liner wiper plug onto liner. Ensure no rotation of tool and setting sleeve. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on hanger bottom or top subs. Ensure that the setting tool and all other connections are made up properly.

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Note: a) Start threads using a chain tong. b) Leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up.

11. Circulate the contents of the liner assembly and record pressures at 2, 4, 6 and 8 BPM to determine the approximate liner ECD in the 9 5/8 casing. Pressure is not to exceed 500 psi. Visually check hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates up to 250 gpm. 12. Note weight of full liner on Martin Decker. 13. Check hanger for any damage. Check the shear pin on the split junk bonnet. Lower hanger assembly through rotary and set DP slips on the 5 lift nipple - do not set slips on the setting sleeve. Be careful to keep the hanger centred while lowering through the table to avoid damage to the piston, slips, etc. 14. RIH on 5 DP. Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe has protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2 minimum. Use the drillpipe wiper rubber and ensure string does not turn in the table.

Note: a) Do not exceed calculated running speeds. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.
15. Check up and down drags at the 9 5/8 casing shoe. Break circulation but do not exceed 1000 psi surface pressure. Ensure top drive swivel or cement head and cement lines made up before going into open hole. 16. Continue RIH. Lock the elevators and pick up cement head or top drive swivel. Ensure running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, there is enough overstand to set the liner on bottom if necessary. Drift all pup joints and singles picked up from the pipe deck.

Note: The Type R Running Tool and MHR Hydraulic Rotating Liner Hanger assembly allow the liner to be rotated while washing down through bridges in open hole as long as the brass shear pin in the split junk bonnet in the PBR top remains intact. The shear screw is sheared out only if the liner weight is lost and force is applied to the liner top. This could occur either if a) the entire weight of the liner is lost due to a bridge whilst washing down, or b) by catching an upset on the hanger assembly (slips, cylinder, etc.) on the BOP stack, wellhead or other obstruction. To prevent shearing the pin, beware when running the liner assembly through the BOP and wellhead and limit slack-off weight when washing down through bridges to 80% of the liner weight. If the junk bonnet pin is sheared prematurely, rotation should not be applied until the hanger has been set.
17. Check string weight and up/down drags. 18. Wash down (with the compensator open on floating units), rotating only if necessary. Do not exceed 1000 psi. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the cement head.

Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.
19. Break circulation by staging up pressure in 500 psi increments every 5 minutes. Wash and tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 2m. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is the greater. In high temperature wells, extended circulation may be required.

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Do not exceed 1000 psi initially. Slowly increase the circulating pressure to a maximum of 1500 psi and condition the mud as required.

Note: 1400 psi internal pressure will set the liner if circulation is not achieved.
20. Check string weight, with and without circulation and record circulating pressures. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating and do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
5. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the ball launcher in the plug launching head. Allow time for the ball to seat in the landing collar/shear out sub. Setting ball may be pumped down at a flowrate of 3 bbl/min. Limit pressure to 700 psi. During this time check the pick-up and slack-off weights, tag bottom and pick up to the liner setting depth.

Note: a) The ball should take approximately 2 - 3 minutes per 300m to land on its seat. b) Standard 7 MHR hanger, 4 screws = 1400 psi shear.
2. 3. When the ball lands pressure up in stages to 1600 psi to set the hanger. Check hanger has set by slacking off running string. Liner weight should be lost before shoe reaches bottom. If 1600 psi does not set the hanger, pick up and increase pressure in 200 psi increments, checking for a set after each increase. a) When hanger has set, set down +/- 20000 lbs DP weight, mark the pipe and shear ball and seat at a pressure of +/- 2600 psi. Shear-out is indicated by the ability to circulate at a similar rate and pressure as noted prior to dropping the ball. If hanger has not set, sit the liner on bottom and shear ball and seat.

b) 4.

Establish circulation and circulate at various rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150 and 250 gpm) and record surface pressures. Check for losses. If losses are observed it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical running string weight. Rotate the running string 10 turns to the right (the setting tool should be released after 6 turns at the tool). Note the rotary torque and check for residual torque. Pick up the running string weight plus 0.5m (use the compensator on Floating Rigs) to ensure that the tool is released.

5.

6.

Note: a) Pick-up must not exceed half the distance from the packer actuator to the top of the PBR or half the distance from the pick-up sub to the retrievable pack-off bushing, whichever is less. b) Confirm that the pick-up weight is minus the weight of the liner. Note: As the allowable distance of travel with the standard running tool and PBR is very small, pulling any substantial distance will engage the packer setting dogs in the setting profile and result in premature setting of the packer and preclude cementing of the liner.

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When running the liner in deeper high angle wells, controlling the movement of the string over such small distances is impractical, even the inaccuracy of establishing the neutral point for release can, at these depths, leave stretch in the string which could potentially engage the packer setting dogs. Consideration must therefore be given to the following: a) b) Not picking up the running string to ensure it is free from the liner. Hardly any instances of stuck running tools are recorded. Lengthen the setting sleeve and stinger to give a greater allowance for movement of the string without engaging the setting dogs or pulling the stinger and bushing out of the RS profile. CONSULT WITH DS ONSHORE. Such action will need to be taken as the equipment is being ordered.

7.

Prior to cementing, set down 25,000 lbs weight on the hanger.

Note: Set down weight is dependent upon the pump-out forces when shearing out and bumping the liner wiper plug. This shear-out force increases considerably if inverted cups are used instead of the retrievable pack-off bushing (Nodeco do not normally supply swab cups).
8. Break circulation and commence right hand rotation. 2-3 turns will transmit torque to the liner. Limit torque total to (cased hole torque + liner thread torque) x 80%. Establish rotation of liner at 15-20 rpm. Only rotate the liner when circulating. If rotation is not practical continue with cement operation.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
9. Cement the liner as per Section 3450/GEN.

10. After checking for backflow following the cement job, set the TSP packer by picking up the running tool 3m at the liner top. This will place the packer setting dogs above the tie-back extension which is 3.4m long. 11. Slack off and set weight down to set the TSP packer. Approximately 16,000 lbs will shear the first set of pins and allow the packer to begin setting. Increasing the set down weight to 37,000 lbs will shear the second set of pins and force the packer hold-down slips against the 9 5/8 casing. 12. Reverse circulate out the excess cement and spacer after pulling the stinger to just above the PBR. Avoid running into the PBR.

Note: Do not carry out casing test at this point, the liner lap will be tested on the cleanout trip.
13. On deviated wells, reciprocate the string to ensure any low side cement is circulated out. 14. Monitor for contaminated cement returns (if OBM is in use refer to Section 3780/GEN). Pull out of hole with the running tool. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
15. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER FIGURE 1
BAILS TOP DRIVE CONNECTION

ELEVATOR

5" DRILL PIPE PUP JOINT 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN 10-15FT LONG

5" DRILL PIPE PUMP DOWN PLUG KELLY VALVE TO HOLD PUMP DOWN PLUG. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

SETTING BALL

KELLY VALVE TO HOLD SETTING BALL

3" WECO CONNECTION

TOP DRIVE LINER CEMENTING SWIVEL. 3" ID WITH 3" 1502 WECO INLET. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN, 3" ID TENSILE LOAD RATING: - 1,000,000 LBS PRESSURE RATING: - 15,000 PSI TEST - 10,000 PSI WORKING PRESSURE 3" WECO CONNECTION

2 7/8" OD TORQUE TUBE BETWEEN GUIDE RAILS 90 BEND OPTIONAL

SAFETY LINE/CHAIN

3" M x 2" F WECO 1502 ADAPTOR

2" x 2" 1502 LOW TORQUE VALVE

FLAG INDICATOR SUB.. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

911208/15

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" LINDSEY-ARROW HSB-SC LINER HANGER WITH WM-P PACKER

Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is highly unlikely that single cone hanger equipment will satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment. 1.2 The WM-P liner packer is run to avoid sole reliance on the cement in the liner lap. It is weight set and provides the advantage that the cement above the lap can be circulated out immediately that the cement job is completed. On exploration wells the 7 liner will normally form a production string with 9 5/8 casing and will usually only be run in the event of a well test. In some high pressure applications, it may be necessary to tie back the liner to the wellhead. When 7 casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to +/- 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 casing integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to the programmed test pressure. The drilling office will confirm if the test is required. 1.6 It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe to confirm the DP tally and drift the DP on the way out of the hole to a minimum of 2 1/2 (the OD of the metal body of the pump down plug) on the pre-liner trip. If the pipe is not drifted when POH, then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Lindsey-Arrow Liner Hanger Equipment 1. 7 x 9 5/8 liner hanger assembly comprising: Model WM-P weight set packer with 15 ft tie-back receptacle. Model HSB-SC single cone hydraulic hanger. 2. Liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: Model D setting tool and tamping dog assembly (4 1/2 IF conn). Retrievable cement bushing and polished slick joint.

1.3

1.4 1.5

1.7 2. 2.1

Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and to be shipped to the rig in protective cradles.

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Cementing manifold with ball dropping sub and swivel and flag sub. 2 Nos. 2 Nos. 2 Nos. 2 Nos. 2 Nos. 2 Nos. Float shoe with double ball float. Float collar with single ball float. BCB landing collar. Liner wiper plug. Drill pipe wiper plug. Setting ball.

Connections to match casing.

Note: Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required.


4. 2.2 Cementing kelly complete with drive bushing and locking dogs.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 7 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 7 rotary hand slips. (If non upset casing run then YC elevators and spider required.) 4 Nos. 7 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 7 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. Crossover 4 1/2 IF pin x 6 5/8 full hole box. 1 No. Crossover 6 5/8 FH pin x 4 1/2 IF box with 10 internal taper. 1 No. Liner polishing/dressing mill assembly. 1 No. 7 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 7 springbow centralisers (as required). 7 stop collars (2 per centraliser). 1 No. 7 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimensions and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 1 on Page 7 of this procedure. Measure all lengths, ODs and IDs. PBR size and pressure rating. Correct liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 7 casing. Size and number of liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure. Seals and packer elements for scoring or other damage. Packer slips for cracks. Free passage of the setting ball through the assembly, including the liner wiper plug.

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Seating of the setting ball in the landing collar shear-out seat.

10. Free passage of the setting ball and pump-down plug through all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
11. Check release mechanism of the running tool from the hanger. 12. Pressure test the plug dropping head against the kelly cock to the casing test pressure. 13. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the shoe and float collar. 14. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 15. Prior to running the liner, make up the cementing manifold onto the cementing kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. 16. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 17. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 4. RUNNING THE LINER 1. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 1 on page 7 of this section. The shoe track is to consist of the following: Shoe with double float. 2 joints of casing. Conventional float collar. 1 joint of casing. Model BCB landing collar.

Notes: a) If drilling out of the liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with Bakelite internals is to be used. b) The distance between the float collar and the landing collar may be increased dependent on advice from the drilling office.
2. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into the sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective. Liner length to be such that when set +/- 2m off bottom the top of the tie-back packer element will be a minimum of +/- 1m below the nearest casing collar.

3. 4. 5.

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Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

Note: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
7. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment.

Note: a) On Miller producer wells, the landing collar is incorporated in the 7 x 6 5/8 crossover. b) Check that 10 shear screws on the landing collar are installed giving a shear value of 2800 3000 psi. c) Threadlock all connections to 1 joint above the landing collar.
8. Run the liner filling every joint.

Note: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) If a high chrome liner is in use, refer to Section 2950/GEN. c) Install pup joints and radio-active marker as indicated in the drilling programme. d) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
9. Make up the hanger/setting tool assembly.

Note: a) Ensure that there is no rotation of the tool and setting sleeve on make-up. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on the hanger bottom or top subs. Start threads using a chain tong and check that all left hand threads on the running tool are all made up. After make-up and leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up. b) Ensure that the hanger shear screws collate with the shear valve on the setting piston. Each hanger shear screw is 1/4 x 20mm with a 300 psi shear value. There are normally 5 shear screws per hanger. However, brass shear screws have a shear tolerance of +/- 15% which may mean that more or less than 5 shear screws are required to achieve a shear pressure of 1500 psi. c) Check the number and rating of the shear pins on the liner wiper plug.
10. Circulate the liner contents through the complete liner assembly. Pressure is not to exceed 700 psi. Visually check the hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates. 11. Note the up and down weights of the full liner. 12. RIH on DP (do not use HWDP). Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe has protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2 minimum. Use the drillpipe wiper rubber and ensure the string does not turn in the table.

Note: a) Do not exceed the calculated running speed. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.
13. Check up and down drags at the 9 5/8 casing shoe. 14. Continue RIH. Pick up cement manifold/kelly assembly to tag bottom (with the compensator open on floating rigs). Ensure that the running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, there is sufficient overstand with the liner set bottom. Once bottom is tagged, pull back 2m.

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Note: Wash and work pipe through any tight spots but beware of packing off the annulus which may prematurely set the hanger.

15. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the kelly cock. Break circulation slowly and circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is greater. Do not exceed 800 psi surface pressure. In high temperature wells, extended circulation may be required.

Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.
16. Check string weight up and down, with and without circulation. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating.

Note: a) Do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight. b) Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
5. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the plug launching head. Circulate the ball down at 2 - 3 bbls/min. or as recommended by the service operator.

Note: a) Watch the flag sub closely when dropping the ball to ensure that it has been released. b) While the ball is dropping, check up/down weights and ensure that the liner is at the correct setting depth.
2. 3. Once the ball has seated, slowly increase the pump pressure to 1500 psi. Check that the hanger has properly activated by slacking off the total weight of the liner. The liner weight should be lost before the shoe reaches bottom. If the hanger has set, increase the set down weight to the weight of the liner plus 10,000 lbs of drillpipe weight. This causes the rotational locking dogs on the running tool to move out of the locking slots in the setting adapter with the thrust bearing moving down against the bearing shoulder in the setting adapter. With the locking dogs and thrust bearing in this position, load can be taken by the bearing and the left hand releasing nut is now in the neutral position. Slowly increase the pump pressure to +/- 3000 psi until the seat in the landing collar shears. A pressure drop will indicate a successful shear and allow circulation to resume. Verify that pressures and circulation rates are similar to those prior to setting the hanger. Record surface pressures at various circulation rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 gpm). If losses are observed, it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. With the liner weight plus 10,000 lbs of drillpipe weight remaining on the hanger slipos, rotate the running string 30 torque-free turns to the right to disengage the running tool. Pick up the setting tool 2m (using the compensator on floating units) to confirm that the setting tool is released.

4.

5. 6.

Note: As the allowable distance of travel with the standard running tool and PBR is very small, pulling any substantial distance will engage the packer setting dogs in the setting profile and result in premature setting of the packer and preclude cementing of the liner. When running the liner in deeper high angle wells, controlling the movement of the string over such small distances is impractical, even the inaccuracy of establishing the neutral point for

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release can, at these depths, leave stretch in the string which could potentially engage the packer setting dogs. Consideration must therefore be given to the following: a) b) Not picking up the running string to ensure it is free from the liner. Hardly any instances of stuck running tools are recorded. Lengthen the setting sleeve and stinger to give a greater allowance for movement of the string without engaging the setting dogs or pulling the stinger and bushing out of the bushing profile. CONSULT WITH DS ONSHORE. Such action will need to be taken as the equipment is being ordered.

7.

Prior to cementing, set down 10,000 lbs weight on the hanger.

Note: Set down weight is dependent upon the pump-out forces when shearing out and bumping the liner wiper plug. This shear-out force increases considerably if inverted cups are used instead of the retrievable pack-off bushing.
8. Break circulation and cement as per Section 3450/GEN.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 8 1/2 hole.
9. After checking for backflow, pick up the running string to move the Tamping Dog Assembly from inside the Tie-Back Receptacle to allow the dogs to spring out to a diameter greater than the PBR bore.

Note: The distance to be picked up is determined by the length of the Tie-Back Receptacle.
10. Set down +/- 60,000 lbs which will allow the dogs to engage the top of the PBR. Repeat the process of picking up and setting down twice more to ensure complete packing off of the weight set packer. 11. Pick up the running string so that the tailpipe is +/- 10m above the top of the PBR. The lower end of the slick joint has a reduced OD which allows the dogs of the retrievable cement bushing (RCB) to retract from the RCB profile in the setting adapter. Picking up moves the reduced OD to a position directly under the RCB dogs. The coupling at the bottom of the slick joint then picks up the RCB, allowing the dogs to collapse onto the reduced OD of the slick joint. This enables the RCB to be pulled out of the setting adapter and retrieved along with the running tool. 12. Reverse circulate out the excess cement and spacer after pulling the stinger to just above the PBR. Avoid running into the PBR.

Note: Do not carry out casing test at this point, the liner lap will be tested on the cleanout trip.
13. On deviated wells, reciprocate the string to ensure any low side cement is circulated out. 14. Monitor for contaminated cement returns (if OBM in use refer to Section 3780/GEN). Pull out of hole with the running tool. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
15. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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1. 1.1

PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" ENACO/TIW ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH 'S' PACKER AND SJ-T MECHANICAL ROTATING TOOL

PRE-RUNNING CHECKS Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be cumulative: a) b) c) d) e) Liner hanging weight in mud. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than (b)). Running string setdown weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme). Setdown weight on integral liner packer.

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15% of casing design loads, ie calculated hanger load rating, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. If single cone hanger equipment will not satisfy casing loading criteria, multicone equipment will be used. 1.2 TIW 'S' packer is run to avoid sole reliance on the cement in the liner lap. It is weight set and gives the advantage that the cement above the lap can be circulated out immediately that the cement job is completed. The preferred option is to run an integral packer with the liner. Note: Do not pressure test the packer before the cement has set, as this also imposes high additional forces on the hanger and casing. 1.3 1.4 When 7" casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. Prior to running the liner, baseline torque needs to be established in order to develop safe surface torque limitations while maintaining sufficient torque to account for wellbore resistance. The following procedure is recommended: 1) During the clean-up trip, rotate the drillstring 5 to 10ft off bottom at 10, 15 and 20rpm and circulate at the required rate for liner cementation. Usually, the torque required for this operation is comparable to the torque required for liner rotation. Rotate the drillstring with the bit inside the casing at a depth equal to the liner top. Using this information, the maximum allowable surface torque may be calculated by adding the maximum casing make-up torque to the torque required for drill string rotation at or near the liner top. The Operator may elect to use either 80 or 90% of the total as the maximum allowable surface torque.

2) 3)

1.5

It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe while POH to confirm DP tally. The liner running string must be drifted to a minimum of 2 1/2". A wireline retrievable dart/survey tool may be dropped as a drift. If the pipe is not drifted when POH, then it must be drifted whilst running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole.

1.6

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" ENACO/TIW ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH 'S' PACKER AND SJ-T MECHANICAL ROTATING TOOL

EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST TIW Rotating Liner Hanger with Integral Packer 7" x 9 5/8" liner hanger assembly comprising: A) i) ii) B) i) 2 x TIW 'S-10' integral packer c/w RPOB profile and 'C' clutch and 10ft. Tieback receptacle. New Vam pin or box down connections. 2 x TIW RRP-tandem cone rotating liner hanger. New Vam box x pin or pin x pin connections. TIW SJ-T rotating liner running tool c/w junk bonnet, RPOB and slick joint. Note: Items 2.1 A) i) and ii) will be supplied assembled with Item 2.1 B) i) having been pressure and function tested at Enaco PLC's workshop facility. C. Two of each of the following items will also be supplied to run and cement the liner. These will be along with the items detailed in 2.1 A) and B) in a certified cargo basket: i) ii) 7" TIW HS-SR landing collar c/w shear-out ball seat and catcher, New Vam box x pin connections (2500psi standard shear). 7" TIW liner wiper plug c/w latch ring pinned with 4 x 3/8" shear pins to give 1200psi shear.

iii) 5" TIW drillpipe pumpdown plug. Note: Items detailed in 2.1 C) i), ii), iii) above will be supplied incorporating the TIW PDC drillable anti-rotation system when it is likely the shoetrack is to be drilled out. iv) 7" TIW float collar w/single valve, New Vam box and pin connections. v) 7" TIW float shoe w/double valve, New Vam box connection.

vi) 1 3/4" TIW setting ball - bronze or 2.45 SG Bakerlite material for PDC drillout. Radioactive marker. Note: Pup joints and a radioactive marker will be required. Surface Equipment: a) Top drive manifold c/w 10ft pup joint, ball dropping sub facility and flag indicator incorporating a plug release system. See Figure 1. The drillpipe pumpdown plug will normally be installed at Enaco PLC's workshop facility. OR b) 2.2 Cement Kelly c/w heavy duty, cement head and heavy duty swivel c/w indicator sub (as an alternative to (a)).

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 7" side-door elevators 2 Nos. 7" single joint elevators c/w swivel sling 2 Nos. 7" rotary hand slips 4 Nos. 7" Klampon protectors 2 Nos. power tong dressed for 7" casing 2 Nos. hydraulic power unit for above 2 Nos. torque-turn units (if required)

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6 Nos. spare casing collars 1 No. 7" casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring (specify weight) 7" bow spring centralisers (as required) 7" stop collars (2 per centraliser) 1 No. 7" casing drift API modified dope Threadlock 3. PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. Weight and grade of hanger and packer. Dimensions and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 2. Measure all lengths and ODs. PBR size and pressure rating. Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Hanger pins: 3 Nos. 1/4" brass screws (giving shear rating 1200psi standard); or optional 4 Nos. 1/4" brass screws (giving shear rating 1600psi standard). Ball seat in landing collar; 2500psi standard - 3000psi option available. Packer shear pins: 8 Nos. x 3/8" (shear rating 37,000 lbs). Mark the tool and lower packer body with paint to show if tool begins to back off any time prior to running. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plugs with the weight of the 7" casing. Size and number of liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in QA/QC documentation with an estimated shear pressure of +/- 1200 psi 4 x 3/8" screws.

10. Free passage of setting ball through the wiper plugs. 11. Seating of the setting ball in the back-up landing collar ball seat. 12. Bore of PBR is compatible with outside diameter of compression set packer seal stem. 13. Free passage of pumpdown dart and setting ball by drifting all tools, ie Kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc. 14. The top drive manifold has been tested to 5000psi onshore. 15. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the shoe and float collar. 16. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 17. Prior to running the liner, if a top drive manifold and swivel is not to be utilised, install the pumpdown plugs and setting ball in the cement manifold. Make up the cement manifold to the cement Kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. If utilising the TIW top drive cementing system, the drillpipe dart should have been loaded onshore at Enaco workshop.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" ENACO/TIW ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH 'S' PACKER AND SJ-T MECHANICAL ROTATING TOOL

18. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. In deviated wells this may be difficult. 19. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 20. On shallow or deviated wells, HWDP may be required to allow the 'S' packer to be set with 60,000 lbs downward force. 4. RUNNING THE LINER 1. 2. Ensure that all hanger and setting tool assembly connections are torqued up prior to running the liner. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 2. The shoe track is to consist of the following: TIW float shoe 1 joint of 7" casing TIW float collar 2 joints of 7" casing TIW HS-SR landing collar c/w catcher and shear-out ball seat. Check the float equipment before RIH. Note: If drilling out of liner shoe is programmed, a TIW PDC drillable float collar and shoe to be used. 3. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump for the TCP guns to be dropped into the sump. Liner lap will be 500ft unless otherwise specified. A pup joint is to be set at the top of the reservoir. A radioactive collar will be positioned at the crossover from 13% chrome to the conventional pipe. Chrome pipe must be used from the landing collar to two joints above the anticipated completion packer setting depth. The completion packer will be set +/- 200ft above the top perforation. Two extra joints are run to allow for workovers. High collapse casing must be used in the salt section, special 22% chrome duplex 32 lb/ft joints will be available. If used, the Duplex will require New Vam to Vam Ace crossovers. 6. 7. 8. Liner length to be such that when set the shoe is +/- 6ft off bottom and the top of the tieback packer will be a minimum of +/- 3 ft below the nearest 9 5/8" casing collar. Centraliser programme as per Drilling Programme. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment. Notes: a) b) c) d) Use the stabbing guide. Install pup joints and radioactive marker as indicated in the Drilling Programme. If a radioactive marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel. Check surge pressures/running speeds.

4. 5.

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e) At the crossover to HC.95 check the number of chrome joints remaining on the pipe deck. Check the number and grade of joints on the pipe deck prior to picking up the hanger assembly.

9.

Make up and Bakerlok TIW setshoe on first joint of liner.

10. Make up and Bakerlok TIW float collar on top of first joint of liner. Check floats are functioning properly. 11. Make up and Bakerlok TIW HS-SR landing collar, normally two joints above float collar. 12. Make up remainder of liner. Fill every joint. Run in hole controlling the running speed. If centralisers are used, they must be the type that permit the liner to be rotated through the centraliser. 13. After making up last joint of liner, fill pipe and check string weight. 14. The TIW hanger assembly should now be picked up, the liner wiper plug installed on the bottom of the slick joint and the hanger assembly made up to the liner. 15. Record up and down weights of the liner. 16. Rabbit all stands of drillpipe and run in hole. Control running speed. Fill pipe every five stands. 17. Run in hole on 5" drillpipe. Ensure that the first 15 stands of pipe have protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). Run in hole filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 1/2" minimum. Use the drillpipe wiper rubber and ensure that the string does not turn in the table. Notes: a) b) Do not exceed calculated running speeds. Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly.

18. Before setshoe starts out in open hole, break circulation, record rate and pressure. Do not exceed 800psi. Note up/down weights at this time. Establish rotation, record torque at 10, 15 and 20rpm (do not exceed maximum allowable torque). 19. Continue in hole with liner. Wash last stand to approximately 30ft from bottom. Do not exceed 60% of the pre-set hanger shear pressure which can be found on the QA/QC drawings provided to the rig and onshore EDSL Engineer. Note: The TIW SJ-T type running tool and TIW hydraulic rotating liner hanger assembly allow the liner to be rotated while washing down through bridges in open hole as long as the brass shear pins in the tool remain intact. The shear screw is sheared out only if the liner weight is lost and force is applied to the running tool. This could occur either if (a) the entire weight of the liner is lost due to a bridge whilst washing down, or (b) by catching an upset on the hanger assembly (slips, cylinders, etc) on the BOP stack, wellhead or other obstruction. To prevent shearing the pin, beware when running the liner assembly through the BOP and wellhead and limit slack-off weight when washing down through bridges to 80% of the liner weight. If the running tool pins are sheared prematurely, rotation should not be applied until the hanger has been set.

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20. Check string weight and up/down drags. Wash down rotating only if necessary. Do not exceed 800psi. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the cement head. Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for pick-up clear of the PBR.

Break circulation by staging up pressure in 500psi increments every 5 minutes. Wash and tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 6ft. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is the greater. In high temperature wells, extended circulation may be required. Do not exceed 1000psi initially. Slowly increase the circulating pressure to a maximum of 1500psi and condition the mud as required. 21. Tag TD, position liner at desired depth approximately 5ft off TD and slowly reciprocate while circulating to condition the hole. Recheck up and down weights. SETTING PROCEDURE 1. 2. Once circulation is complete, stop reciprocation. To hang the liner, inject the setting ball into the setting string and circulate slowly until the ball seats in the HSSR landing collar, slowly increase pressure to 1500psi. Hold pressure constant and slack off until the weight of the liner is resting on the hanger slips plus 10,000 lbs. Increase pressure on setting string to shear the ball seat in the landing collar. When this occurs the pressure will drop and circulation will be regained, correlate rates. (The QA/QC drawing will show the shear pressure required. A copy of this will be provided on the rig and to the shore based BDPS Engineer.) Resume circulation and establish that a circulation rate which will be required to cement the liner can be achieved.

3.

4.

RELEASE PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. 4. Stop circulation. Slack off to shear pins in setting tool, standard 4 x 5/8" pins = 40,000 lbs. With 10,000 lbs on liner rotate setting string to release liner 20 turns. Rotate a further 10 turns to shoulder C clutch nut. When nut shoulders up a torque increase will be noted. Stop rotating and release torque. Pick up 3 to 4ft to note loss of liner weight (ensure pick-up distance is less than that required to expose the packer setting dogs to the PBR top). Record up and down weights. (If necessary, rotate setting string at 10, 15 and 20rpm and monitor torque; any necessary adjustments to the maximum allowable torque should be made at this time.)

To Rotate Liner 1. Lower setting string until the C spline drive is engaged. Slack off until 5,000 lbs of setting string weight is applied to the liner top, establish circulation. Rotate string and liner, ensuring that you do not exceed the maximum rotating torque which has been previously calculated. If the liner will not rotate, stop circulation, pick up 1 to 2ft at the tool and rotate the drillpipe slowly, record the torque and adjust the maximum allowable torque as necessary per step 1.4.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 7" ENACO/TIW ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH 'S' PACKER AND SJ-T MECHANICAL ROTATING TOOL

Test cement lines to company specifications. Mix and pump spacer. Commence cementing. After the cement has been pumped, release drillpipe pumpdown plug and commence displacement. Continue to rotate liner maintaining a continuous monitor or rotating torques and rpm. Slow down displacement 15bbls prior to plug latching. When plug latches, increase to 1600psi approximately and this will shear liner wiper plug.

3.

Resume displacement of liner until approximately 15 barrels before total displacement is pumped, slow pump rate down to 1 to 2bpm. Continue to displace until the liner wiper plug seats and latches into the landing collar. This will be indicated by rapid increase in pressure. Stop rotating 5bbls before plugs bump. Bump plug with 2500psi and hold for five minutes. Bleed off pressure and check for backflow. Pick up setting string 8 to 10ft, to enable packer setting dogs to be exposed to the PBR top, slack off 60,000 lbs to set type 'S' liner packer. Apply 500psi backpressure, pick up string. Make sure liner running tool is free. Note pressure loss. Pick up clear of liner top, reverse circulate if required, record cement returns. Pull out of hole with string, liner running tool and RPOB. Check same.

4. 5. 6. 7.

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FIGURE 1

A B

Size: 41/2" IF

Thread Up 41/2" IF Thread Down 41/2" IF

Tensile Load 959,000 lbs


C

All Dimensions Shown in Inches

A 6.375 B 3.750 C 6.375


S. Morrison, June 1994, 01112262

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FIGURE 2

S.Morrison, Jul. 1994, 01112263

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 4 1/2" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER

Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is highly unlikely that single cone hanger equipment will satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment. 1.2 The TSP packer is run to avoid sole reliance on the cement in the liner lap. It is weight set and gives the advantage that the cement above the lap can be circulated out immediately that the cement job is completed. The preferred option is to run an integral packer with the liner. When 4 1/2 casing is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. On the last trip out of the hole, conduct a flow check and record torque readings with the bit on bottom and just off bottom at 15, 20 and 25 RPM. Repeat this with the BHA positioned at the same depth as the hanger (cased hole torque). It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe while POH to confirm DP tally. The liner running string must be drifted to a minimum of 2 (the OD of the metal body on the pump-down plug). A wireline retrievable dart/survey tool may be dropped as a drift. If the pipe is not drifted when POH, then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. Ream once or twice through the hanger packer setting area with 6 bit. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Nodeco MHR Liner Hanger with TSP Packer 1. 4 1/2 x 7 liner hanger assembly comprising: TSP liner packer with PBR. MHR multicone hydraulic rotating hanger. Length of PBR to be 10 ft. 2. Liner hanger running tool assembly comprising: Shear-down junk bonnet. Type R running tool with RSM retrievable pack-off bushing. Slick cementing stinger (2 7/8 PAC pin up).

1.3 1.4

1.5

1.6 1.7 2. 2.1

Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and to be shipped to the rig in protective cradles.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 4 1/2" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER
Plug dropping cement head and heavy duty swivel or top drive liner cementing system (see Figure 1): Flag sub (4 1/2 IF). Lift nipple (3 1/2 IF). 2 Nos. Plug holder adaptor. 2 Nos. WLC landing collar with shear-out ball seal and catcher. 2 Nos. Float collar. 2 Nos. Double valve float shoe. 2 Nos. Liner wiper plug. 2 Nos. Drill pipe pump down plug (OD of metal body 2). 2 Nos. 1 1/2 setting ball. Radio-active marker, if required.

Connections to match casing.

Note: a) Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required. b) If shoe joints are assembled in town, slip-on centralisers should be installed at that time.
4. 2.2 Cement Kelly with drive bushings.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 4 1/2 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 4 1/2 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 4 1/2 rotary hand slips. (If non upset casing run then YC elevators and spider required.) 4 Nos. 4 1/2 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 4 1/2 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 4 1/2 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 4 1/2 springbow centralisers (as required). 4 1/2 stop collars (2 per centraliser). 1 No. 4 1/2 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimension and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 2 on Page 9 of this procedure. Measure all lengths and ODs. PBR size and pressure rating.

Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied.


4. 5. 6. Hanger pins: 4 Nos. brass screws (giving shear rating 1500 psi). Shear pins in ball seat of landing collar - 4 Nos. pins (shear rating 2800 psi). Packer shear pins: 2 Nos. (shear rating 11,000 lbs) plus 4 Nos. (shear rating 21,000 lbs).

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 4 1/2" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER
Mark the tool and sleeve extension with paint to show if tool begins to back off at any time prior to running. Type 1 liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 4 1/2 casing. Size and number of liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure (normally +/- 1500 psi/4 screws).

10. Free passage of setting ball through the assembly including the Type 1 wiper plug. 11. Seating of the setting ball in the back-up landing collar ball seat. 12. Bore of PBR is compatible with outside diameter of compression set packer seal stem. 13. Free passage of pump down dart and setting ball by drifting all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
14. Pressure test plug dropping head and flag sub assembly against kelly cock to 5000 psi. 15. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the shoe and float collar. 16. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 17. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack.

Note: Using the Nodeco cement Kelly, the lift sub is not backed out.
18. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 19. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 20. On shallow or deviated wells, HWDP may be required to allow the TSP packer to be set with 31,000 lbs downward force. 4. RUNNING THE LINER 1. 2. Ensure all hanger and setting tool assembly connections are torqued up prior to running the liner. Run the liner assembly as per Figure 2 on page 9 of this section. The shoe track is to consist of the following: Side Exit Shoe. 1 joint of 4 1/2 casing. Float collar. 2 joints of 4 1/2 casing. WLC landing collar c/w catcher and shear-out ball seat.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 4 1/2" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER
Note: 4 1/2 liner is typically Range 3 (circa 9.5m long).
Check the float equipment before RIH.

Notes: a) If drilling out of liner shoe is programmed, a side exit shoe with bakelite internals to be used. b) The distance between the landing collar and the float collar may be increased dependent upon advice from drilling office. All connections including casing collars to one joint above the landing collar to be threadlocked.
3. The required setting depth of the landing collar should be checked with the drilling office prior to the pre-liner clean-out trip. This will depend on the lowermost test/completion interval and the required sump below this for logging (usually 20m). This may have to be extended if TCP guns are required to be dropped into the sump. Liner lap will be 150m unless otherwise specified. One or more casing pup joints will normally be positioned in the string at depths to be specified by the drilling office. Also a radioactive collar may be positioned above the objective. Liner length to be such that when set 2m off bottom the top of the tie-back packer will be a minimum of 1m below the nearest casing collar. Centraliser programme to be confirmed by drilling office (refer also to Section 2010/GEN).

4. 5. 6. 7.

Note: a) Centralisers should never be positioned across a collar or stop collar on a liner. b) Gauge the centralisers prior to running.
8. Make up the shoe track and check the float equipment.

Note: Bakerlok all connections on the first 4 joints. Bakerlok friction factor = 1.6.
9. Run the liner filling every joint.

Note: a) Use the stabbing guide. b) Install pup joints and radio-active marker as indicated in the drilling programme. c) If a radio-active marker is installed, ensure that it is only handled by service company personnel.
10. Make up hanger/setting tool assembly complete with liner wiper plug onto liner. Ensure no rotation of tool and setting sleeve. Do not apply torque across the hanger assembly, i.e. tong only on hanger bottom or top subs. Ensure that the setting tool and all other connections are made up properly.

Note: a) Start threads using a chain tong. b) Leaving the slips on the liner joint, pick up 1m to check that the connection is correctly made up.
11. Circulate the contents of the liner assembly and record pressures at 2, 4 and 6 BPM to determine the approximate liner ECD in the 7 liner. Pressure is not to exceed 500 psi. Visually check hanger for leaks and record pressures at various circulation rates up to 250 gpm. 12. Note weight of full liner on Martin Decker.

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13. Check hanger for any damage. Check the shear pin on the split junk bonnet. Lower hanger assembly through rotary and set DP slips on the 3 1/2 lift nipple - do not set slips on the setting sleeve. Be careful to keep the hanger centred while lowering through the table to avoid damage to the piston, slips, etc. 14. RIH on 3 1/2/5 DP. Ensure the first 15 stands of pipe has protectors removed (to reduce the chance of cementing up the string and to allow the facility to washover if required). RIH filling every stand. Drift every stand to 2 minimum. Use the drillpipe wiper rubber and ensure string does not turn in the table.

Note: a) Do not exceed calculated running speeds. b) Always use a back-up tong when running the complete liner assembly. c) Exercise caution entering 7 liner lap.
15. Check up and down drags at the 7 casing shoe. Break circulation but do not exceed 1000 psi surface pressure. Ensure top drive swivel or cement head and cement lines made up before going into open hole. 16. Continue RIH. Lock the elevators and pick up cement head or top drive swivel. Ensure running string is spaced out such that with the liner shoe 2m off bottom, there is enough overstand to set the liner on bottom if necessary. Drift all pup joints and singles picked up from the pipe deck.

Note: The Type R Running Tool and MHR Hydraulic Rotating Liner Hanger assembly allow the liner to be rotated while washing down through bridges in open hole as long as the brass shear pin in the split junk bonnet in the PBR top remains intact. The shear screw is sheared out only if the liner weight is lost and force is applied to the liner top. This could occur either if a) the entire weight of the liner is lost due to a bridge whilst washing down, or b) by catching an upset on the hanger assembly (slips, cylinder, etc.) on the BOP stack, wellhead or other obstruction. To prevent shearing the pin, beware when running the liner assembly through the BOP and wellhead and limit slack-off weight when washing down through bridges to 80% of the liner weight. If the junk bonnet pin is sheared prematurely, rotation should not be applied until the hanger has been set.
17. Check string weight and up/down drags. 18. Wash down (with the compensator open on floating units), rotating only if necessary. Do not exceed 1000 psi. Rig up cementing lines and test to 5000 psi against the cement head.

Note: Use sufficient Chiksan swings to allow for tailpipe pick-up clear of the PBR.
19. Break circulation by staging up pressure in 500 psi increments every 5 minutes. Wash and tag bottom with liner, mark the pipe and pull back 2m. Circulate bottoms up + 20% or 120% string volume whichever is the greater. In high temperature wells, extended circulation may be required. Do not exceed 1000 psi initially. Slowly increase the circulating pressure to a maximum of 1500 psi and condition the mud as required. Limit flow past TSP to 6 bpm.

Note: 1500 psi internal pressure will set the liner if circulation is not achieved.
20. Check string weight, with and without circulation and record circulating pressures. To prevent packing off, do not move the liner without circulating and do not slack off more than 80% of the liner weight.

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Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved when drilling the 6 hole.

5.

SETTING PROCEDURE 1. Drop the setting ball through the ball launcher in the plug launching head. Allow time for the ball to seat in the landing collar/shear out sub. Setting ball may be pumped down at a flowrate of 3 bbl/min. Limit pressure to 700 psi. During this time check the pick-up and slack-off weights, tag bottom and pick up to the liner setting depth.

Note: a) The ball should take approximately 2 - 3 minutes per 300m to land on its seat. b) Standard 4 1/2 MHR hanger, 4 screws = 1500 psi shear.
2. 3. When the ball lands pressure up in stages to 1700 psi to set the hanger. Check hanger has set by slacking off running string. Liner weight should be lost before shoe reaches bottom. If 1700 psi does not set the hanger, pick up and increase pressure in 200 psi increments, checking for a set after each increase. a) When hanger has set, set down +/- 15000 lbs DP weight, mark the pipe and shear ball and seat at a pressure of +/- 2800 psi. Shear-out is indicated by the ability to circulate at a similar rate and pressure as noted prior to dropping the ball. If hanger has not set, sit the liner on bottom and shear ball and seat.

b) 4.

Establish circulation and circulate at various rates (i.e. 50, 100, 150 and 250 gpm) and record surface pressures. Check for losses. If losses are observed it may be necessary to restrict the cement displacement rate. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical running string weight. Rotate the running string 6 turns to the right. Note the rotary torque and check for residual torque. Pick up the running string weight plus 0.5m (use the compensator on Floating Rigs) to ensure that the tool is released.

5. 6.

Note: a) Pick-up must not exceed half the distance from the packer actuator to the top of the PBR or half the distance from the pick-up sub to the retrievable pack-off bushing, whichever is less. b) Confirm that the pick-up weight is minus the weight of the liner. Note: As the allowable distance of travel with the standard running tool and PBR is very small, pulling any substantial distance will engage the packer setting dogs in the setting profile and result in premature setting of the packer and preclude cementing of the liner. When running the liner in deeper high angle wells, controlling the movement of the string over such small distances is impractical, even the inaccuracy of establishing the neutral point for release can, at these depths, leave stretch in the string which could potentially engage the packer setting dogs. Consideration must therefore be given to the following: a) b) Not picking up the running string to ensure it is free from the liner. Hardly any instances of stuck running tools are recorded. Lengthen the setting sleeve and stinger to give a greater allowance for movement of the string without engaging the setting dogs or pulling the stinger and bushing out of the RS profile. CONSULT WITH DS ONSHORE. Such action will need to be taken as the equipment is being ordered.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 4 1/2" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER
Prior to cementing, set down 15,000 lbs weight on the hanger.

Note: Set down weight is dependent upon the pump-out forces when shearing out and bumping the liner wiper plug. This shear-out force increases considerably if inverted cups are used instead of the retrievable pack-off bushing (Nodeco do not normally supply swab cups).
8. Break circulation and commence right hand rotation. 2-3 turns will transmit torque to the liner. Limit torque total to (cased hole torque + liner thread torque x 80%). Establish rotation of liner at 15-20 rpm. Only rotate the liner when circulating. If rotation is not practical continue with cement operation.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 6 hole.
9. Cement the liner as per Section 3500/GEN.

10. After checking for backflow following the cement job, set the TSP packer by picking up the running tool 3m at the liner top. This will place the packer setting dogs above the tie-back extension which is 3.4m long (dependent on PBR length). 11. Slack off and set weight down to set the TSP packer. Approximately 16,000 lbs will shear the first set of pins and allow the packer to begin setting. Increasing the set down weight to 31,000 lbs will shear the second set of pins and force the packer hold-down slips against the 7 casing. 12. Pump 5 bbl to lift cement whilst rigging up. Reverse circulate out the excess cement and spacer after pulling the stinger to just above the PBR. Avoid running into the PBR.

Note: Do not carry out casing test at this point, the liner lap will be tested on the cleanout trip.
13. On deviated wells, reciprocate the string to ensure any low side cement is circulated out. 14. Monitor for contaminated cement returns (if OBM is in use refer to Section 3780/GEN). Pull out of hole with the running tool. Ensure hole is kept full. Monitor fill volume.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
15. Refer to Section 3500/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 4 1/2" NODECO ROTATING LINER HANGER WITH TSP PACKER FIGURE 1
BAILS TOP DRIVE CONNECTION

ELEVATOR

5" DRILL PIPE PUP JOINT 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN 10-15FT LONG

5" DRILL PIPE PUMP DOWN PLUG KELLY VALVE TO HOLD PUMP DOWN PLUG. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

SETTING BALL

KELLY VALVE TO HOLD SETTING BALL

3" WECO CONNECTION

TOP DRIVE LINER CEMENTING SWIVEL. 3" ID WITH 3" 1502 WECO INLET. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN, 3" ID TENSILE LOAD RATING: - 1,000,000 LBS PRESSURE RATING: - 15,000 PSI TEST - 10,000 PSI WORKING PRESSURE 3" WECO CONNECTION

2 7/8" OD TORQUE TUBE BETWEEN GUIDE RAILS 90 BEND OPTIONAL

SAFETY LINE/CHAIN

3" M x 2" F WECO 1502 ADAPTOR

2" x 2" 1502 LOW TORQUE VALVE

FLAG INDICATOR SUB.. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

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1.1

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 5" BAKER HMC LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER

Hanger Loading Forces Determine the maximum loading possible on the casing during the hanger setting procedure. Take into account the following forces, which will be accumulative: a) b) c) d) Liner hanging weight. Internal pressure to initially set the hanger and shear the ball seat. Pressure to bump plug (if greater than b)). Running string set-down weight prior to cementing (if required and stated in the programme).

If calculations indicate loadings are within 15 percent of casing design loads, alternative hanger designs may have to be considered. It is possible that single cone hanger equipment will not satisfy casing loading criteria. Multi cone equipment should be the first choice when selecting hanger equipment.

Note: The HSR hanger is a single line hanger.


1.2 1.3 1.4 An Isolation Packer may or may not be used in conjunction with the 5 liner. This will be advised in the Drilling Programme. When 5 liner is onboard, complete all general casing checks as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. If a casing test is required prior to running the liner, run a positrieve packer to +/- 50m above the 9 5/8 shoe. Test the 9 5/8 integrity by pressuring the 5 x 9 5/8 annulus to casing test pressure as outlined in the programme. The drilling office will confirm if test is required. 1.5 On the last trip out of the hole, conduct a flow check and record torque readings with the bit on bottom and just off bottom at 10, 15 and 20 RPM. Repeat this with the BHA positioned at the same depth as the hanger (cased hole torque).

Note: The maximum allowable surface torque is 80% of this value.


1.6 It is essential that TD is confirmed accurately prior to running the liner. Strap the pipe while POH to confirm DP tally. The liner running string must be drifted to 2. A wireline retrievable dart/survey tool may be dropped as a drift. If the pipe is not drifted when POH, then it must be drifted when running the liner. Ensure that the dart sub is laid out on the last trip out of the hole. EQUIPMENT CHECK LIST Baker (Brown) Rotating Liner Hanger Equipment 1. 5 x 7 HSR rotating liner hanger assembly comprising: 5 LS sleeve with PBR extension. Profile nipple with RS profile. HSR rotating hanger. Length of PBR to be 6 ft for vertical wells and 15 ft for deep or deviated wells. 2. Rotating liner hanger running tool assembly comprising:

1.7 2. 2.1

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Shear-out junk bonnet assembly. 2 RH rotating setting tool with retrievable or drillable pack-off bushing. Slick tailpipe assembly with swivel and type 1 liner wiper plug.

Note: It is normal for two complete assemblies of items 1 and 2 to be assembled and tested by the supplier and shipped to the rig in protective cradles.
3. Plug dropping cement head and heavy duty swivel or top drive liner cementing system (see Figure 1): Flag sub (4 1/2 IF). Lift nipple (4 1/2 IF). 2 Nos. Float collar with baffle plate. 2 Nos. Type 2 landing collar with shear-out sleeve. 2 Nos. Type V set or side exit shoe. 2 Nos. Drill pipe pump down plug. 2 Nos. 1 1/2 setting ball.

Connections to match casing.

Note: a) The liner hanger utilises premium connections throughout. b) Pup joints and a radio-active marker may be required. c) If standard float collar is supplied by BP, then a catcher sub will be required.
4. 2.2 Cement Kelly and drive bushings.

Liner Handling Equipment 2 Nos. 5 side door elevators. 2 Nos. 5 single joint elevators c/w swivel sling. 2 Nos. 5 rotary hand slips. (If non-upset casing is run then YC elevators and spider are required.) 4 Nos. 5 klampon protectors. 2 Nos. Power tong dressed for 5 casing. 2 Nos. Hydraulic power unit for above. 2 Nos. Torque - turn units (if required). 6 Nos. Spare casing collars. 1 No. 5 casing spear c/w grapple/pack-off and stop ring. (Specify weight.) 5 springbow centralisers (as required). 5 stop collars (2 per centraliser). 1 No. 5 casing drift. API modified dope. Threadlock.

3.

PREPARATION Check and inspect the assemblies for the following: 1. 2. 3. Weight and grade of hanger. Dimensions and part numbers of assemblies conform to those as per Figure 2 on Page 8 of this procedure. Measure all lengths, ODs and IDs. PBR size and pressure rating.

Note: On occasions a longer PBR may be supplied.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 5" BAKER HMC LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER
Hanger pins: 2 Nos. 5/16 pins (shear rating 1400 psi). Shear pins in ball seat of landing collar - 6 Nos. 5/16 pins (shear rating 2630 psi). Ensure left hand thread on floating nut is properly engaged inside setting sleeve. Mark the tool and sleeve extension with paint to show if tool begins to back off at any time prior to running. Make up slick tailpipe and check for damage at sealing area. Check swivel on tailpipe. Type 1 liner wiper plug is used. Check compatibility of the liner wiper plug with the weight of the 5 casing. Size and number of Type 1 liner wiper plug shear pins. This information should be available in the documentation with an estimated shear pressure (normally 3 Nos. 5/16 giving shear pressure +/420 psi).

10. Free passage of setting ball through the assembly including the Type 1 wiper plug. 11. Seating of the setting ball in the landing collar shear out sleeve. 12. Bore of PBR is compatible with outside diameter of compression set packer seal stem. 13. Free passage of pump down dart and setting ball through all tools, i.e. kelly cocks, bumper subs, crossover subs, drillpipe, etc.

Note: On semi-submersible units the use of the cementing kelly eliminates the use of bumper subs under normal weather conditions. However, 2 bumper subs with 60 stroke may be required in adverse weather conditions. The minimum drift of the bumper subs is 2 1/2 for 7 liners and 2 for 5 and 4 1/2 liners. Ensure passage of the ball and dart through the bumper subs.
14. Pressure test plug dropping head and flag sub assembly against kelly cock to 5000 psi. 15. Shoe track equipment to be checked thoroughly. Ensure that the valves are free in the V shoe and float collar. 16. Check the condition and rating of the cement manifold swivel to confirm that it is heavy duty. 17. Prior to running the liner, install the pump down dart in the cement manifold and torque the lift sub to 12,000 ft/lbs. Mark the body and lift sub with white paint to indicate backing out. Make up the cement manifold to the cement kelly and lay out the assembly on the pipe rack. 18. Prepare a graph of joints run versus hookload. Use this to check that the casing is being filled correctly. 19. Calculate swab/surge pressures at various running speeds and select an acceptable running speed to ensure that the formation breakdown pressure is not exceeded. 4. RUN 5 LINER 1. A type CPH hydraulic set packer will be run on top of the 5 liner hanger. This packer will perform two main functions: a) b) Act as a seal (if cement fails) in the 5/7 overlap. Resist upward differential pressure forces acting on the bottom of the 5 liner.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 5" BAKER HMC LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER
Drift all liner components (drift ID 18 lb/ft = 4.151), remove protectors, clean and inspect threads for damage. Measure and tally liner. Fit centralisers to the liner on the piperack. Carry out all general instructions as per Sections 2000/GEN and 2900/GEN. One Weatherford ST ISL Bow Type Centraliser per joint along complete liner length. Note: These centralisers must be the type that use grub screws to hold in position. Therefore, no 5 stop collars are required. Make up 3 1/2 drillpipe to liner hanger/running tool and stand back in derrick. (Drift both 3 1/2 and 5 drillpipe to 2.) Drift 3 1/2 dp before making up to running tool. Make up liner as follows: a) Baker type V set shoe. b) One joint of 5 liner. c) Float collar c/w baffle. d) One joint of 5 liner. e) Baker type II landing collar w/shear out seat. f) 5 liner with centralisers (install a short joint for depth correlation). g) 5 liner hanger, type HMC. h) Type CPH packer. i) PBR (standard length is 10 ft with the CPH packer). j) Liner running tool. Type of pack-off. Note: PBR preferred. k) 3 1/2/5 drillpipe to surface (ensure dart sub is not in string). Do not use HWDP.

3.

4. 5.

Note: Items g), h) and i) are made up and pressure tested onshore. Bakerlok up to and including the landing collar.
6. 7. 8. Circulating pressure must not exceed 600 psi at any time prior to setting the hanger. Make up hanger assembly and break circulation. Continue running on drillpipe. Partially fill every stand, and fill completely every five stands. Exercise extreme caution whilst hanger and packer are passing DV collar and entering 7 PBR. Fill drillpipe every five stands, ensuring that no air is trapped in the string. Fill completely and circulate liner and string contents before entering open hole. Check surge pressures/running speed across reservoir. Drift all drillpipe using one 2 diameter drift. Run liner to bottom. Hanger to be positioned inside 7 liner as per Drilling Programme.

9.

10. Reciprocate liner and circulate out liner and drillpipe contents. 11. Set liner shoe +/- 1m off bottom. Drop setting ball and pressure up to 1,500 psi to set hanger. Shear out the ball and seat with 2,500 psi. 12. Pick up to 15,000 lbs less than the theoretical running string weight. Rotate the running string 10 turns to the right. The hanger should release after 6 turns. Note the torque.

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13. Pick up the running string weight plus 0.5m to ensure that the tool is released.

Note: a) Pick up must be less than the length of the tailpipe below the hanger. b) Packer setting dogs must not come past top of tie-back extension when usibng an RS packoff. c) When using an RS retrievable pack-off the running tool cannot be re-engaged. Note: A PBR type pack-off is the preferred option. As the allowable distance of travel with the standard running tool and standard length PBR is very small, pulling any substantial distance will engage the packer setting dogs in the setting profile and result in premature setting of the packer and preclude cementing of the liner. When running the liner in deeper high angle wells, controlling the movement of the string over such small distances is impractical, even the inaccuracy of establishing the neutral point for release can, at these depths, leave stretch in the string which could potentially engage the packer setting dogs. Consideration must therefore be given to the following: a) b) Not picking up the running string to ensure it is free from the liner. Hardly any instances of stuck running tools are recorded. Lengthen the setting sleeve and stinger to give a greater allowance for movement of the string without engaging the setting dogs or pulling the stinger and bushing out of the RS profile. CONSULT WITH DS ONSHORE. Such action will need to be taken as the equipment is being ordered.

14. Prior to cementing, set down 20,000 lbs weight on the hanger.

Note: Set down weight is dependent upon the pump open forces when shearing out and bumping the plug. The shear-out force increases considerably if inverted cups are used instead of a pack-off bushing (Note: swab cups are not recommended).
15. Establish circulation and cement as per Section 3500/GEN.

Note: Do not exceed the maximum ECD achieved during drilling the 6 hole.
16. After checking for backflow following the cement job, set the CPH packer by picking up the running tool to place the packer setting dogs above the CPH packer tie-back extension (minimum 10 ft for a standard PBR). Maintain 500 psi on the running string as the tailpipe is pulled to give an indication of being free. (This also gives a hydraulic advantage if a PBR type pack-off is used.) 17. Rotate the running string 6-10 turns to the right to ensure that the tool is free. Pick up on the running string but do not pull above the previous up stroke weight before the liner was set. If pickup weight exceeds the previous value, set down 20,000 lbs on the liner and put in additional righthand turns while observing rotary torque. If this does not work then the tool is stuck in the liner or cement.

Note: The pipe may be worked to 80% of pipe yield strength when the top drive swivel head is in use.
18. Pull the running tool above the CPH packer tie-back extension, then move the tool down until weight is taken on the packer top. 13 - 17,000 lbs down will shear the first pins and start to set the packer. 40,000 lbs down will shear the second set of pins and force the packer hold-down slips against the 7 casing.

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19. Reverse circulate out the excess cement and spacer after pulling the stinger to just above the PBR. Avoid running into the PBR. On deviated wells, reciprocate pipe to ensure no cement is left on the low side which could cause pipe to stick.

Note: Do not carry out casing test at this point, the liner lap will be tested on the cleanout trip.
20. Once the excess cement is out of the wellbore, pull out.

Note: Rotate and reciprocate the running string whilst circulating it clean. Monitor for contaminated cement returns (if OBM is in use, refer to Section 3780/GEN).
21. Pull out of hole with the running tool.

Note: Do not spin the table when breaking out connections. POOH as this can cause part of the running string to be left downhole.
22. Refer to Section 3450/GEN for details of the liner clean-out operation.

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PREPARATION AND RUNNING 5" BAKER HMC LINER HANGER WITH CPH PACKER FIGURE 1
BAILS TOP DRIVE CONNECTION

ELEVATOR

5" DRILL PIPE PUP JOINT 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN 10-15FT LONG

5" DRILL PIPE PUMP DOWN PLUG KELLY VALVE TO HOLD PUMP DOWN PLUG. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

SETTING BALL

KELLY VALVE TO HOLD SETTING BALL

3" WECO CONNECTION

TOP DRIVE LINER CEMENTING SWIVEL. 3" ID WITH 3" 1502 WECO INLET. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN, 3" ID TENSILE LOAD RATING: - 1,000,000 LBS PRESSURE RATING: - 15,000 PSI TEST - 10,000 PSI WORKING PRESSURE 3" WECO CONNECTION

2 7/8" OD TORQUE TUBE BETWEEN GUIDE RAILS 90 BEND OPTIONAL

SAFETY LINE/CHAIN

3" M x 2" F WECO 1502 ADAPTOR

2" x 2" 1502 LOW TORQUE VALVE

FLAG INDICATOR SUB.. 4 1/2" IF BOX x PIN

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Page

EXTERNAL CASING PATCH OPERATIONS

A casing patch may be required because of: a) b) Leaks have developed in a casing string. Casing must be cemented before a casing hanger has landed and well control requirements prevents installation of an emergency slip and seal.

1.1 1.2

If the casing must be cemented, ensure the top of the cement column is such that it allows casing stretch and gives the casing support required when the casing is cut prior to patching. Whilst waiting on cement, review: 1. The free casing weight and if: a) b) c) 2. 3. 4. Casing can be cut below the rotary table and left free standing. The casing must be supported after cutting. How returns will be obtained when casing cutter is run.

The position of casing centralisers relative to proposed cutting depth. The casing joint lengths. Calculate patch running string lengths. Ensure mid-patch depth approximates to the centre of a casing joint.

1.3

If casing extends through the rotary table: Either: a) b) c) Cut the casing below the rotary with the welder. Back out the upper joints of casing. If a power swivel or mud motor is available to drive the casing cutter proceed as per 1.4.

1.4

Run casing cutter and cut the casing. If the casing above the cutter is unsupported, when cutting the string may torque up. Stop the pump, restart the rotary, ensure free rotation. Restart the pump and continue cutting.

Note: Ensure magnets are in place after the shaker screens and viscous slugs are used to sweep the hole.
1.5 When cutting is completed, run a spear, pull and lay out casing. Caliper the casing stub of the retrieved casing to ensure that the OD of the cut in the remaining casing is accurately known. Run a mill to dress the top of the stub. This mill is intended to remove burrs and chamfer or round both the inside and outside of the stubs end face. If a casing hanger is to be used confirm the patch to hanger lengths. Check the wear profile on the mill to confirm stub is correctly finished. Make a dummy run with a patch minus the internal grapple and seal sections to confirm it is possible to engage the casing stub. If difficulty is experienced getting the patch over the casing stub, it may necessary in extreme cases to run an interal guide string. a) b) Set patch and landing string in the rotary. Make up and run a stabiliser through the running string.

1.6

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2600/GEN 2 (11/89) 2 of 2

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: EXTERNAL CASING PATCH OPERATIONS

Page

Use a slotted plate and two elevators. c) d) e) 1.7 1.8 Space out the stabiliser string such that it extends below the patch. Arrange to pick up the patch running string and the guide string together. The stabiliser should enter the casing stub and guide the patch over the stub as the string is lowered.

Make up the patch complete with seals and grapples and run in hole. If no difficulty stabbing the dummy patch, install a circulating head on the running string. Land the patch with the pump running. Entry of seals into the stub will be indicated by a pressure rise. When the pressure rise is seen, shut off the pumps and open a side outlet on the circulating head to atmosphere. This will prevent a pressure build up which could support the patch running string weight. If hanger is used land hanger.

1.9

When the patch is over the stub pull the 30,000 lbs overpull to check the grapple has latched. Pressure test the patch. The test pressure will depend upon patch and seal type and will be advised by the drilling office. Re-land the hanger if hanger is used. If a slip and seal assembly is to be installed pull to required value and install seal assembly.

1.10

If hangers are used it will be necessary to: a) b) c) d) Run a spear through the landing string and patch. Latch the casing c. 5m below the top of the casing stub. Pull the required overpull on the casing stub to support the free casing weight in air, plus an extra allowance for patch slip movement. Ensure the landing string does not lift. Pull the spear.

1.11

Pressure test the patch as advised by the drilling office.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2700/GEN 1 (12/89) 1 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

Page

THE MERLIN CONNECTOR The MERLIN connector, developed by Hunting Oilfield Services Limited, has been created for the rapid assembly of casing and conductors. Well proven since its introduction in 1984, the MERLIN has demonstrated its rapid make-up and separation capabilities on platform, jack-up and semi-submersible rig operations. The MERLIN connector has been subjected to a comprehensive range of full scale testing, including tension, compression, bending, pressure, pile driving and fatigue bending, plus many combined load tests. The connector's radial preload gives a high degree of resistance to rotation, and coupled with the connector's optimised geometry, it ensures good fatigue resistance. END PROTECTORS To avoid damage during transit and storage, the MERLIN connector is fitted with composite end protectors. The protectors consist of a fabricated steel can with bonded elastomeric compound to protect the MERLIN nose seal. The protectors are held on by several bolts which are fitted with anti-rotation washers to ensure they do vibrate loose in transit.

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES

Loading Capabilities Tension Compression Bending Internal Pressure Dimensions Outside Diameter Inside Diameter Length Weight Material Yield G.A. Drawing No.

30" Merlin-D I.F. 3.5 x 106 lbf 4.0 x 106 lbf 2.6 x 106 lbf.ft 3,000 psi

27" Merlin-D 3.3 x 106 lbf 2.2 x 106 lbf.ft 3,500 psi

20" Merlin E.F. 2.2 x 106 lbf 1.01 x 106 lbf.ft 4,000 psi

20" Merlin I.F. 2.0 x 106 lbf 0.92 x 106 lbf.ft 4,000 psi

31.500" 28.000" 15.100" 630 lbs HDP/2152/A3

28" 24.32" 15.10" 565 lbs 100 ksi HDP/2296/A4

20.00" 16.500" 15.100" 300 lbs 100 ksi HDP/2514/A3

22.250" 18.750" 15.100" 300 lbs 100 ksi HDP/1622/A3

SUBJECT:

DIA 22.25" ( 565 ) DIA 18.75" ( 476 )

NOTE : ALL DIMENSIONS IN BRACKETS ARE IN MILLIMETRES

CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

CLAMP GROOVE BOX PART No :- MBOO8

11.5" ( 292 )

METAL / METAL SEAL

11.5" ( 292 )

OIL INJECTION PORT

PROTECTOR GROOVE

15.1" ( 384 )

CLAMP GROOVE PIN PART No :- MPOO8 DIA 20" ( 508 ) DIA 22.07" ( 561 ) 'O' RING METAL / METAL SEAL LANDING SHOULDER

Page : 2 of 11

Rev. : 1 (12/89)

Section : 2700/GEN

2179/123

SUBJECT:

NOTE : ALL DIMENSIONS IN BRACKETS ARE IN MILLIMETRES

20.00" ( 500 )

CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

20" x 1.0" W.T. MERLIN E.F. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

CLAMP GROOVE PRESSURE RELIEF PORT METAL / METAL SEAL

11.5" ( 292 ) 15.1" ( 384 ) 11.5" ( 292 )

OIL INJECTION PORT

METAL / METAL SEAL BLEED PORT CLAMP GROOVE

Page : 3 of 11

Rev. : 1 (12/89)

Section : 2700/GEN

16.50" ( 419 ) 18.00" ( 547 )


2179/122

SUBJECT:

707 686 ( 27.0" ) 622 ( 24.5" ) 610

CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

BOX CLAMP GROOVE RELIEF PORT ( PLUGGED ) 292


384

METAL / METAL SEAL OIL INJECTION PORT 292

BLEED PORT ( PLUGGED ) METAL / METAL SEAL CLAMP GROOVE

Page : 4 of 11

Rev. : 1 (12/89)

Section : 2700/GEN

711

PIN

2179/121

SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

BOX CLAMP GROOVE METAL / METAL SEAL

15.350"

'O' RING METAL / METAL SEAL CLAMP GROOVE LANDING SHOULDER ( OPTIONAL ) PIN 28" DIA 30" DIA 31.5" DIA

Page : 5 of 11

Rev. : 1 (12/89)

Section : 2700/GEN

2179/120

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2700/GEN 1 (12/89) 6 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
Assembly The illustration shows the sequence of assembly of the MERLIN connector. In summary, the sequence is: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Remove the protectors. Clean and inspect the connector components. Stab the box over the pin to the "stand-off" position. Fit the clamp over the connector. Fit the injector nozzle.

Page

CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

Apply pressure to the clamp and injector, via the power pack, until the connector is assembled. Check the abutment face for complete make-up. Remove the clamp and the injector nozzle. Plug the injection port, bleed port and pressure relief port.

Separation Process The illustration shows the sequence of separation of the MERLIN connector. In summary, the sequence is: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Remove the injection port plug and ensure the bleed and relief port plugs are in place. Fit the clamp around the connector. Fit the injector nozzle. Pressurise the clamp and injector until the connector "jumps" apart. Continue until the connector is fully separated. Remove the clamp and injector nozzle. Lift the box off the pin. Clean the components and regrease. Fit the protectors.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2700/GEN 1 (12/89) 7 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

Page

The Merlin Clamp and Powerpack There are only two major pieces of equipment required to run MERLIN connectors, namely the MERLIN clamp and powerpack. The clamp is utilised for both make-up and separation, one procedure being the reverse of the other. The clamp consists of three segmented rings, the top and bottom rings are fixed and the middle ring slides up and down the tie rods, driven by the 20 ton rams. The top ring carries the rams and tie rods which are also secured in the bottom ring which locates in the clamp groove on the MERLIN pin. The moving middle ring locates in the clamp groove on the MERLIN box. The rings open to engage around the connector and are closed by hand toggles, this is a two man operation. The interface fluid INTERTEC is supplied at pressure via the injector from the powerpack and works in parallel with the rams, at a downward stroke of the rams the MERLIN connector is made-up and with an upward stroke the MERLIN connector is separated. The clamp can be supported by a rig air hoist and has a simple built-in levelling device and height adjusting cylinder. Incorporated in the clamp are closing levers which assist opening and closing of the clamp by acting against the casing. Both the clamp and powerpack are situated on the drill floor during operation, the powerpack requiring only rig air for operation. All controls for the clamp operation are situated on a control panel mounted on the clamp.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2700/GEN 1 (12/89) 8 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

Page

MERLIN CONNECTOR SEPARATION PROCESS

BOX

PIN

SEPARATION

CLAMP

INJECTOR CLAMP

1 2

/ " ABUTMENT GAP

INJECTOR

MADE-UP

2179/119

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2700/GEN 1 (12/89) 9 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

Page

MERLIN CONNECTOR ASSEMBLY PROCESS

INJECTOR

MAKE-UP

CLAMP

INJECTOR

CLAMP

12

/ " ABUTMENT GAP

BOX

PIN

STAND-OFF

2179/118

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2700/GEN 1 (12/89) 10 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN

Page

MERLIN CLAMP
HINGE (2 POSITIONS) CONTROL PANEL OPENING TOGGLES

COUNTER WEIGHT HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT LIFTING ARM 20 TON RAM TOP RING MIDDLE RING BOTTOM RING

GUARD

2179 / 117

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2700/GEN 1 (12/89) 11 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING MERLIN UNIVERSAL POWERPACK

Page

STAINLESS STEEL ROLLER DOOR CONTROL PANEL

INJECTION PUMP

AIR MOTOR

ACCUMULATOR

HYDRAULIC RADIAL PUMP

HYDRAULIC TANK

OVERALL DIMENSIONS LENGTH WIDTH HEIGHT WEIGHT :- 50" (1270mm) :- 50" (1270mm) :- 70" (1778 mm) :- 2090 lbs (950kg)

AIR SUPPLY (MINIMUM) 100 psi (7 Bar) 150 CFM (4250 L/Min)

2179 /116

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 1 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

There are two versions of the Lynx connector in current use in BP operations, the standard duty Lynx SA which is generally on 1" wall 30" pipe, and the heavy duty HD on 1 1/2" wall 30" pipe. Versions used in the past, such as the Lynx 52/BP Magnus Lynx, may appear similar, but there are significant technical differences. The SA and HD connectors have the following features in common: Internal flush, weight-set connector. Integral anti-rotation blocks may be fitted if required. Can be used in pile driving applications, and is fully re-usable. Easy and quick make-up and disconnection of connector without requirement for special tools. Visual proof of make-up on external split lock ring. Design prevents build-up of sea debris in the jacking mechanism or on the mating faces.

Further details of each connector, including the procedures for their make-up, running and retrieval, are provided in the subsequent sections.

1.

LYNX SA
The general arrangement of this connector is illustrated in Figure 1. The technical data for the SA connector is as follows: Tension Bending Pressure Torque (when anti-rotation block is fitted) Material Yield Minimum : : : : : 3.2 x 106 lbf 2.8 x 106 lbf.ft 1,500 psi 30,000 ft.lbs 100,000 psi (14.2 MN) (3.8 MNm) (10.3 MPa) (40.7 kNm) (689.5 MN/mm2)

1.1

Preparation on Pipe Deck Remove pin protectors (there are no box/lock ring protectors). Thoroughly clean pin, box and lock ring, ensuring that both the lip seal and the "O" ring are fitted and seated correctly. Section 3 and Figure 7 provide details on the correct fitting of the lip seal. If anti-rotation is a requirement, ensure an anti-rotation block is fitted within each box connector. With paint or indelible marker, mark a vertical line on the exterior of the pipe at the location of the cut-out in the pin component, and the anti-rotation device in the box on the external pipe body. Lightly coat the surface of each component with clean grease or oil. Replace pin protectors.

1.2

Make-Up Procedure Remove protectors, and ensure all jack screws are removed from the lock ring. If anti-rotation blocks are fitted, ensure the external location marks are vertically lined up on the pin and box before and during stabbing.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 2 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

Stab the box and lock ring over the pin, allowing the weight of the joint to bear on the connector, which will force the snap ring to be expanded, then to snap back over the pin connection, thus engaging the connector. Measure and check dimension of gap on closed lock ring to ensure full engagement. As indicated on Figure 2, the correct dimension is 0.75" with a tolerance of +0.25" or -0.125". If the gap is outwith this range, DO NOT RUN THE JOINT. Figure 3 provides guidance on carrying out additional checks to ensure full make-up of connector. Fill screw holes with seawater resistant grease.

Note: If the joint to be added on is too short for its weight to allow the connection to make up with the above procedure, the following procedure should be used: Insert all seven jack bolts. Using a wrench fitted with a 36 mm AF socket, tighten the seven M24 jack bolts until they shoulder out. NOTE that they MUST be tightened in order, starting with the bolt diametrically opposite the split in the lock ring, then screwing alternate sides towards the split. This sequence is illustrated in Figure 4. Engage the connection. Relax the split ring by releasing, in reverse order, the seven jacking bolts. Check for full engagement as detailed in the section above. Fill screw holes with seawater resistant grease.


1.3

Retrieval Procedure Using the wrench and 36 mm AF socket, screw in each of the supplied seven M24 jacking screws until they shoulder out. As indicated in Figure 4, start with the screw directly opposite the split, and screw alternate sides, working towards the split. Lift the joint free. Remove the jacking screws in reverse order to allow the lock ring to return to its relaxed position. Clean both pin and box/lock ring, and coat with clean grease or oil. Fit protector to pin connection.

2.

LYNX HD
This is a heavy duty connector usually fitted to conductor of 1 1/2" wall thickness. The general arrangement is illustrated in Figure 5. Note that, as opposed to the SA connector, the seven jacking bolts on the HD connector are of size M30, requiring a 46 mm AF socket wrench, and are positioned on the flank of the lock ring, as opposed to being on the upper shoulder on the SA connector. The technical data for the HD connector is as follows: Tension Bending Pressure Material Yield Minimum : 6.97 x 106 lbf : 4.55 x 106 lbf.ft : 1,500 psi : 100,000 psi (minimum) (31 MN) (6.2 MNm) (10.3 MPa) (689 N/mm2)

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 3 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
2.1

Page

CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Preparation on Pipe Deck The procedures to be followed are as per those for the SA connectors as provided in Section 1.1 above.

2.2

Make-Up Procedure The make-up procedures are as per those for the SA connectors as provided in Section 1.2 above. The following notes will confirm certain relevant features: 1. 2. The gap in the lock ring when fully engaged is identical to that of the SA connector - 0.75", with the same tolerance figures (see Figure 2). Although identical to that for the SA connector, Figure 6 illustrates the sequential order of inserting the seven jacking bolts.

2.3

Retrieval Procedure Again, the SA retrieval procedures in Section 1.3 are to be followed, substituting Figure 6 where appropriate. However, after expanding the lock ring by inserting all seven jacking bolts, and before separating the two halves of the connector, the three safety bolts must be inserted on the upper edge of the lock ring as indicated on Figure 6. This is to ensure the lock ring remains with the box connection during the separation process.

3.
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

PROCEDURE FOR FITTING LYNX LIP SEAL


Thoroughly clean the lip seal groove with a degreasing agent, ensuring that the groove is free from all foreign matter. Apply a light coating of Molycote 33 Medium grease (or similar) over the full surface area of the lip seal. Initially position the lip seal in the groove (see Sketches 1.1, 1.2) and locate in four diametrically opposite positions, ensuring that the body of the lip seal is fully seated each time. The remaining lengths should then be pushed into position starting from one of the four original points and working in a clockwise/anti-clockwise direction, ensuring that the body is properly seated around the full diameter. During this stage the tendency to slide the fingers around the seal should be avoided, as this can cause stretching, leaving an excess amount at the end. If this occurs, the lip seal should be removed and re-fitted. The final operation should be to ensure that the nose of the lip seal is proud of the groove (see Figure 7). This can be achieved by lifting the nose up, with the fingers, and sliding around the diameter.

3.5

SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

33.500" ( 851 ) 30.000" ( 762 )


BOX 7 off M24 JACKING BOLT HOLES ANTI-ROTATION BLOCK ( OPTIONAL ) LIP SEAL 'O' RING LOCK RING LANDING SHOULDER PIN

30" LYNX S.A. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

12.031" ( 306 )

28.000" ( 711 )

Page

Rev.

Section

NOTE: DIMENSIONS IN BRACKETS ARE IN MILLIMETRES

: 4 of 10

: 2 (1/94)

: 2705/GEN

Figure 1

2179/112

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 5 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

Figure 2

30" Lynx S.A. Connector


Detail of Lockring Gap with Acceptable Width Dimensions when Properly Made-Up

0.75" -0.125"

+0.250"

S.Morrison, Dec. 1993, 01110053

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 6 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

Figure 3

30" Lynx S.A. Connector

Note: When correctly assembled, lock ring gaps and shoulders will be uniform around circumference.

ADDITIONAL INDICATIONS OF FULL MAKE-UP

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 7 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

Figure 4

30" Lynx S.A.


Jacking Screws (7 off)

Lip Seal 'O' Ring

Jacking Bolts Screwed in Hand Tight


1 2 4 3 5 Sequence of Screwing in Jacking Screws for:Make-Up (1-7) & Separation (7-1)

Jacking Bolts Screwed Fully in

Box/Lockring Lifted Away


S.Morrison, Dec. 1993, 01110052

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 8 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

Figure 5

General Arrangement - Lynx HD


Landing Shoulder 8.500"

Jacking Bolt Hole

'O' Ring Seal

Lockring

Lip Seal

Box

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,


8.500"

,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,

30.950"

30.000"

27.000"

Pin 30.000"

30.950"

9.700" 15.380"

7 off Jacking Bolt Holes, M30

34.100"

,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,, ,,,,,

01110807

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 9 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

Figure 6

Lynx H.D.
3 off Safety Bolts 7 off M30 Jacking Screws

Jacking Bolts Screwed in Hand Tight


1 2 4 3 5 Sequence of Screwing in Jacking Screws for:Make-Up (1-7) & Separation (7-1)

Jacking Bolts Screwed Fully in

S.Morrison, Dec. 1993, 01110051

Box/Lockring Lifted Away

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2705/GEN 2 (1/94) 10 of 10

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: HUNTING LYNX

Page

Figure 7

NOSE

BODY GROOVE

DETAIL SHOWING FITTED POSITION OF LIP SEAL IN GROOVE

CORRECT FITTING

INCORRECT FITTING
2179/113

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2715/GEN 1 (12/89) 1 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1.

Page

CONNECTORS: VETCO SR-20

INTRODUCTION The SR-20 is a fast make-up, releasable connector for universal platform conductor applications. The connector makes up with an interference fit, which results in the high radial preload necessary for driving and long operational life. The SR-20 connector does not require rotation or pressure injection to make-up. The unique two-start threads on the pin and box can be made up with either a clamp tool supplied by Vetco Gray, or if the string is bottom supported with a single dry blow from a pile hammer. The connector can be released by rotation and pressure injection.

2.

SR-20 CONNECTOR DESIGN FEATURES Strength comparable to X52 pipe. Fast make-up without the use of rotation. Releasable/reusable. Fully radially preloaded connection. Bi-directional torque application. Metal to metal sealing. High stab angles. No premature connector engagement. External drive/load shoulder. Installation and handling tools. Alternative make-up methods. Simple, reusable alignment key.

3.

STANDARD SPECIFICATION - 30" SR-20 CONNECTOR Nominal OD (in) 30 Wall Thickness (in) 1.00 Connector Part No. 83540-2 835540-1 Connector OD (in) 30 Connector ID (in) 27 Length Made Up (in) 16.313

Connector Weight (lbs) 575

Tensile Capacity (kips) 4,000

Bending Capacity (kip-ft) 2,560

Internal Pressure (psi) 2,000

Make-Up Models There are three possible methods to make up the SR-20 connector: a) b) c) Standard: clamp tool. Torque. Pile hammer.

Standard Method Utilising the specially designed clamp tool installed around the connector, a force of 200 tons is applied to snap the box and pin together from an initial stand-off of approximately 5/8" to full make-up.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2715/GEN 1 (12/89) 2 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
Torque

Page

CONNECTORS: VETCO SR-20

In special situations where the use of the clamp tool is not possible, the SR-20 connector can be made up by the injection of hydraulic oil, applied torque of 15-20,000 ft/lb and 1 turn. The alignment key is installed after make-up, and the retainer and key tack welded together. Hammer A single blow from a hammer of 12,000 ft/lb impact load also makes up the SR-20. The conductor drive string must be bottom supported to prevent rotary table damage. Breakout The SR-20 connector can be broken out by application of 20,000 ft/lb left hand torque while simultaneously injecting hydraulic oil at 1500 psi into the box. The alignment keys are released by prying out the retainer. The connector and alignment key are re-usable. 4. 30" SR-220 CLAMP TOOL The clamping tool is a standard piece of equipment designed for operation with 30" - 27" diameter SR20 connectors. The tool is adapted for use with sizes smaller than 30" by fitting insert sections to the jaws. The clamping assembly is attached to an I beam with an adjustable counter-balance weight to maintain the tool in the horizontal plane when suspended. The clamping assembly consists of two horizontal rings split in three places with hinges at two points and a locking handle device at the opening section of the tool. These two horizontal rings are attached by means of 8 hydraulic cylinders which impart the axial force required to drive the jaw sets axially towards each other and hence snap the connector together. An elevation adjustment cylinder is provided attached to the tool lift eye and enables the tool to be quickly wrapped around the stabbed connection and actuated. This tool requires lifting by tugger lines or a centrally placed lift eye and is no different in this respect to other clamp tools in the market place. The tool is controlled from the local panel mounted in the middle of the I beam. This panel provides local pressure readout and control of tool functions. System hydraulic pressure is supplied to the tool from an air operated hydraulic power unit. 5. SR-20 HANDLING/CIRCULATING TOOL The handling/circulating tool has been designed to ease the handling and running of SR-20 conductor joints. The design is based on the field-proven marine riser handling tools. The tool has a large "O" ring seal to allow for circulating pressures of up to 500 psi if required. The tool is stabbed over the connector body and a split lockring is latched into the clamp groove on the connector OD by torquing 8 set screws on the tool. A window is provided in the tool body through which the lockring ends can be viewed to verify correct make-up of tool to joint. A drill stem sub is incorporated with a standard 4 1/2" IF box connection up to allow use of drillpipe elevators for lifting and running. Bull plugs are also provided to allow for release of air or fill up when running conductor.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2715/GEN 1 (12/89) 3 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: VETCO SR-20

Page

The tool is rated for 150 tons of lifting load in combination with 500 psi of circulating pressure. All tools are proof-load tested prior to supply and relevant certification is obtained from Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 6. SR-20 PIN DRIVE CHASER The chaser joint has been designed for use when the SR-20 connector is either being driven or utilised in a drill/drive operation. The joint consists of a main body incorporating a blank SR-20 box profile that swallows the pin and enables driving loads to pass from the hammer to the conductor string. A pup joint is welded to the top of the main body to take the hammer blows. A short pup with a lower swaged section is welded onto the bottom of the main sub assembly to give good centralisation and aid stabbing of the chaser into the joint prior to driving. 7. ROUTINE OPERATION A. Pre-Operational Checks Connectors 1. 2. Remove thread protectors. Thoroughly clean both pin and box. Inspect the threads and metal shoulder surfaces. Install "O" rings in the grooves provided in both the pin and the box.

Clamp Tool 3. 4. 5. Inspect the clamp tool for any damage, particularly hydraulic hoses and fittings. Attach lift cylinder and hoses to tool. Connect power supply hoses to tool. Connect rig air to power supply. Check reservoir level. The hanger cylinder and pull-back winch should be checked, the hanger cylinder should be cycled to the full stroke and the pull-back winch function tested.

B. Running Procedures General Notes Recommended Lubricant - Jet Lube AP-5. Apply a thin coating of grease to the thread areas, seal areas, and drive shoulders of both the pin and the box. The entire surface should be lightly coated. CAUTION: Do not use thread dope or lubricants which contain metal or metallic compounds. Do not use any locking compounds. These materials will not allow the connector to make up fully, and can prevent the connection from releasing. 7.1 Clamp Tool Make-Up 1. 2. Stab the box over the pin with the slot in the box oriented with the alignment key on the pin. Open both lower and upper clamps and swing segments open. Push tool across connector, aligning the upper clamp lip of the rear segment with the box clamp groove.

BP EXPLORATION

Section Rev.

: : :

2715/GEN 1 (12/89) 4 of 11

DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 7.2

Page

CONNECTORS: VETCO SR-20

Open relief valve to extend clamp tool cylinders. If necessary, open needle valve to adjust lower clamp lip to fit into clamp groove. Close valve. Swing left-hand segments closed, followed by the right-hand segments. Secure with upper and lower latch handles. Verify system pressure is available at power supply. QUICKLY open the ball valve on the tool panel to actuate clamp tool. Close the ball valve. Operate the extend valve to extend lower clamp for making the next connection. Ensure that the connector is properly made up. There should be no gap at the shoulder. The box and pin should be flush within 0.025" (0.06 cm).

Hammer Make-Up 1. 2. Install plug in the pressure port. Stab the box over the pin with the box slot oriented with the pin key. Verify the gap between the box and pin shoulder does not vary more than 1/8" (0.32 cm) total around the circumference. CAUTION: This must be a dry starting blow. Do not allow the hammer to run until the connection has been inspected for complete make-up. 3. 4. Lift and drop the pile hammer piston. Verify the connector is properly made up. There should be no gap at the shoulder, and the box and pin should be flush within 0.025" (0.06 cm). Install plug in the pressure port.

7.3

Threaded Make-Up 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Remove the alignment key from the pin. Stab the box over the pin with the slots aligned to within 1" (2.54 cm). Screw the box onto the pin clockwise no more than 3/4 turn. At this point, the torque will increase measurably. Connect a pressure hose to the port in the box. Maintain a torque of between 10,000 to 15,000 lb-ft (13 558 to 20 337 N.m) and slowly increase the injected pressure. This will allow the connector to rotate until the key slots are aligned. Do not allow pressure to exceed 1,500 psi (10 342 kPa). Verify the connector is properly made up. There should be no gap at the shoulder, and the box and pin should be flush within 0.25" (0.05 cm). Disconnect pressure hose and install pressure port plug. The alignment key is not required, but if it is desired, it may be installed and secured by welding the key to the retainer.

6. 7. 8.

Before moving onto the next connection, install the connector protection system (procedure to be advised).

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CONNECTORS: VETCO SR-20

Breakout 1. 2. 3. 4. Remove the alignment key by prying out the retainer and sliding the key downward and out. Remove pressure plug and install pressure hose. Apply 10,000 to 15,000 lb-ft (13 560 to 20 340 N.m) torque to the connection. Then apply 1,500 psi (10 342 kPa) to the hose, closing the valve after the connector has begun to turn. Supporting joint weight on the hook, apply torque to unscrew the connector about one complete turn.

7.5

Alignment Key Replacement

Note: This procedure may only be used to install a key on an unconnected pin. Previously used keys and retainers may be re-used by first removing the broken portions of the spring pins with a suitable drift.
1. 2. Install a new spring pin in the retainer. Press or hammer the pin until it is flush with the far side. Place the retainer inside the slot in the pin with the notches facing the body of the pin. Install the alignment key in the slot until the top of the spring pin begins to enter the hole in the bottom of the key (see Figure E). Using a small hammer, tap the alignment key downward as far as it will go, taking care not to damage the threads on the connector.

3. 7.6

Troubleshooting Problem: Solution: Excessive pressure is injected into the annulus during breakout. Connector separates on one side and "O" ring extrudes through the gap. To complete breakout, it will be necessary to reshoulder the connector where it has separated. This may be done with either the clamp tool or the hammer. If neither is available, a tugger line can be attached to the conductor to pull on the assembly and snap the connector together fully.

8.

RECOMMENDED SPARES "O" Rings Lockring Key, Retainer and Spring Injection Port Plug four extra per string. two extra per 8 joints. two extra per string.

9.

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY AND TEST PROCEDURE None required.

SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: VETCO SR-20

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

SR-20 RANGE CONNECTOR PROPERTIES

Nom. Size x Wall

OD

ID

Made-Up Length

Tensile Kips

Compr. Bending Kips Kips ft

Int. Press. psi

Tensile Kips X56 PIPE

Bending Kips ft

Int. Press. psi

26" x 0.625"

26.25"

23.25"

16.37"

3063

4248

1746

2000

2790 X52 PIPE

1440

2420

26" x 1" 27" x 1.25" 30" x 1" 32" x 1"

26.25" 27.53" 30" 32.53"

23.25" 24.50" 27" 29.50"

16.37" 17.37" 17.37" 17.37"

3063 3700 4000 4000

4248 4800 5000 5425

1746 2200 2560 2800

2000 2000 2000 2000

4048 5258 4738 5064 X65 PIPE

2049 2697 2770 3173

3500 4213 3120 2500

Page

Rev.

Section

20" x 0.625"

21.75"

18.75"

13"

2500

2500

1000

3660

2470

960

3650

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SR-20 SEALS

'O'-RING SEALS

METAL TO METAL SEAL AREAS

2179/110

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30" O.D. x 1" WALL SR-20 CONNECTOR ASSEMBLY

30.03 20.00 SHOWN 90 OUT OF PHASE

11.00 16.37 13.34

27.00

2179 / 89

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Page

FIGURE 1

LAYOUT, SR-20 CLAMP TOOL, MKII

ELEVATION CYLINDER PULL-BACK WINCH

PROTECTIVE COVER

ACTUATOR SUPPORT

CA SP EP EC AM TE CT

CONTROL PANEL

UPPER CLAMP ASSEMBLY LATCH LOWER CLAMP ASSEMBLY HYDRAULIC CYLINDER 4" STROKE x 1 3/4" DIA x 8" STROKE

LEGEND
EP EC CA SP TE CT AM ELEVATION CYLINDER PRESSURE ELEVATION CYLINDER CLAMP POSITION ADJUSTMENT SYSTEM PRESSURE TOOL EXTENDER CLAMP TOOL ACTUATOR ACTUATOR MANIFOLD MOTOR

2179 / 88

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BULL PLUG (SHOWN OUT OF PHASE)

SEAL ASSEMBLY

DEPRESSOR SCREW

LOCK BLOCK

LOCK RING

4 - 1 /2" IF PIN CONNECTION

2179/87

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LAYOUT, DRIVE CHASER SR-20 27"

2179/86

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SUBJECT:
1.

Page

CONNECTORS: VETCO ALT SERIES

INTRODUCTION The ALT-2 connector is a Squnch Joint which is a threadless automatic lock/mechanically releasing connector which requires no rotation for make-up. It is designed to save expensive rig time with its extremely fast make-up characteristics. Squnch joints are well suited for connecting large diameter conductor casing joints. They are also often used to connect the last joint of casing to the wellhead housing extension. These weight set connectors ensure that the casing joints are run efficiently and safely, in spite of extreme casing weight and vessel movement.

2.

DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS The 30" x 1" ALT-2 Squnch Joint was designed with the following features, listed below. High strength. Easy stabbing. Easy mechanical release. High pressure seal. Driveability. Reusability. Weldable materials. Self-centring locking ring. Wide landing shoulders. Tolerance to contamination.

3.

TECHNICAL TOOL DESCRIPTION Vetco Squnch Joint Connectors are automatic lock, mechanical release connectors. They are pressure tight joints that do not require rotation to make them up. Their most common use is for quick connection of large diameter conductor and casing in offshore drilling operations. There are three main types of Squnch Joint connectors. Type ST-2 Squnch Joint is designed to be run into pre-drilled holes. This joint can be used in conductor strings that require moderate hammer driving. Type ALT-2 Squnch Joint is designed for medium to severe driving conditions. It is a joint that when properly maintained can be used on a continued well-to-well program and can be driven to refusal without damage. Type ATD Squnch Joint is designed for conductor casings that are run into pre-drilled holes, and can be used in light to medium driving conditions, but not on a continued well-to-well program. The recovered joints should be replaced and used in the conductor driven below mudline after use on three or four wells.

4.

SPECIFICATIONS Metric equivalents used in Vetco procedures are expressed in SI units as illustrated below:

Quantity
Pressure Weight Torque

English Unit
PSI Pounds Pounds-Foot

SI Units
Kilopascals Decanewtons Newton Metres

SI Symbol
kPa daN N.m

Multiplier
6.895 0.445 1.356

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SUBJECT:
a) b) 5. 5.1

Page

CONNECTORS: VETCO ALT SERIES

Refer to drawing for dimensions. Mechanical and pressure ratings on last page.

ROUTINE OPERATION Pre-Operational Checks 1. Thoroughly clean the pin and box. Examine the "O" rings and lockrings and replace any that are damaged. Ensure that the lockring is free to move in the lockring groove. If some joints will be recovered for re-use, run a tap into each releasing bolt hole and blow out any debris with rig air. Then liberally grease the threads in each releasing bolt hole. IMPORTANT: Lubricants containing metallic particles such as drillpipe thread dope must not be used on these connectors. 2. 3. Lightly grease the Squnch Joint pin profiles. If the Squnch Joint pin is equipped with an alignment lug, ensure that the lug is not damaged or loose.

5.2

Running Procedure General Notes Vetco recommends that Squnch Joints are run box down. This method provides optimum resistance to damage when handling. Some Squnch Joints are not equipped with alignment lugs. To assist with releasing these connectors, locate the lockring gap and place a paint mark on the outside opposite the gap. To make up these connectors, simply position the box over the pin and slack off. If conductor or casing joints fitted with Squnch Joint connectors will be recovered and re-used, make certain the plastic plugs supplied with each box connector are fitted in the releasing screw holes after checking lockring make-up, just before running. 1. With the first joint of conductor or casing landed at the rotary table and the next joint suspended from the blocks, check the lockring groove in the box member to assure it is free of debris, that may have lodged there while picking up the joint. Align gap in the lockring with alignment lug on Squnch Joint pin. This will provide a reference point for the lockring gap location and will assist in separating connectors. Rotate the suspended joint until the alignment slot of the box connector lines up with the alignment lug on the pin connector. Lower the joint until the lug enters the slot then slack off quickly to make up the connection. Verify that the lockring is fully engaged in the lockring groove on the box member. This can be visually checked through the releasing screw holes on the box member, or by inserting a depth gauge into the releasing screw holes. A short piece of welding rod correctly marked can be used as a depth gauge. Type ATD Squnch Joints have windows in the box member and use a lock block to expand the lockring, securing the pin and box together. Insert the lock block in the window with the ends of the lock block under the ends of the lockring. Drawing 75022 illustrates this procedure. Hit the square end of the lock block with a hammer, and drive it into the lockring groove. In the fully locked position, the lock block does not extend beyond the outside surface of the box connector.

2.

3.

4.

IMPORTANT: Type ATD Squnch Joints must not be run without the lock blocks in place.

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CONNECTORS: VETCO ALT SERIES

Post-Operational Maintenance Maintenance will be necessary when Squnch Joints are recovered, normally after driving operations. 1. 2. Wash the pin and box with fresh water. Examine the "O" rings and lockrings, and replace any that are damaged. Ensure that the lockring is free to move in the lockring groove of the pin. Clean the lockring groove on the box connector, and check that the lower edge retains a square profile. This is particularly important where the Squnch Joint has been exposed to severe driving conditions. Apply a corrosion inhibitor to pin and box connector surfaces. Install protectors and place in storage on racks.

3.

6.

RECOMMENDED SPARES Refer to Spare Parts Kit or Suggested Spares List.

7. 7.1

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY AND TEST PROCEDURE Disassembly

Note: It is good practice to first make up the releasing screws opposite the gap in the lockring, and then make up the other releasing screws from this point around to the gap. On connectors without alignment lugs, the gap in the lockring can usually be located by referencing the paint mark applied at make-up or by poking a piece of welding rod into the releasing holes on the box.
To Separate Connectors 1. The lockring can be depressed by screwing 1/2"-13NC thread bolts in the tapped holes provided. The bolts must be long enough to depress the lockring before the bolt threads bottom on the connector. Run each bolt in until tight, then back off 1/2 turn. Pick up on the Squnch Joint box to disconnect the joint. On type ATD Squnch Joints, remove the lock block by running a 5/8"-11NC x 3 1/2" long bolt into the threaded hole in the centre of the lock block. Make up the bolt until the lock block is jacked out of the lockring groove.

2.

7.2

Assembly None required.

7.3

Test Procedure Some Squnch Joint boxes are equipped with a test port, and have "O" ring seals above and below that port. After make-up, maximum test pressure of 500 psi (3 447 kPa) may be applied to the test port. At the completion of the pressure test, remove the pressure fitting and re-install the small pipe plug.

BP EXPLORATION

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SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: VETCO ALT SERIES

Page

VETCO ALT SERIES AND SQUNCH JOINT CONNECTORS NOMINAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Size 30" 30" 30" 20" 20" 20"

Type ST-2 ATD ALT-2 ST ATD ALT-2

MSP (1) 1,500 PSI 10 343 kPa 1,500 PSI 10 343 kPa 2,500 PSI 17 237 kPa 1,500 PSI 10 343 kPa 3,000 PSI 20 685 kPa 4,000 PSI 27 580 kPa

Tensile 2,130,000 lbs 947 075 daN 2,320,000 lbs 1 032 000 daN 5,720,000 lbs 2 545 000 daN 1,000,000 lbs 445 000 daN 1,500,000 lbs 667 500 daN 2,430,000 lbs 1 081 000 daN

Bending 1,900,000 lb-ft 2 576 000 N.m 1,756,000 lb-ft 2 372 650 N.m 4,000,000 lb-ft 5 423 000 N.m 400,000 lb-ft 542 320 N.m 600,000 lb-ft 813 480 N.m 1,120,000 lb-ft 1 518 000 N.m

NOTE:

(1) MSP - Maximum Service Pressure.

BP EXPLORATION

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ALT-2 CONNECTOR 30" x 1" WALL

2179 / 85

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ASSEMBLY CONNECTORS BOX 30" TYPE ADT 2"

2179 / 84

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ASSEMBLY CONNECTOR BOX 30" TYPE ADT 2"

2179 /83

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SUBJECT:
1.

Page

CONNECTORS: VETCO RL4S

DESCRIPTION Connector features a four start thread which provides for full make-up with between one-quarter and one-half turn of the suspended joint. A stabbing indicator and two positive full make-up indicators are provided. Once the joint is fully made up and both indicators checked, an anti-rotation device is activated.

2.

TOOLS REQUIRED Rig tongs or power tong. Hilti gun and cartridges for shearing anti-rotation tab.

3. 3.1 3.2 3.3

PREPARATION OF CONNECTORS Remove protectors, clean both pin and box thoroughly, inspect threads for damage. Monitor installation of O-ring in box connection. Lubricate both pin and box with gear oil, heavy oil or a light molybdenum based grease. When using grease, Jet-lube AP-5 is recommended. DO NOT USE THREAD DOPE OR LUBRICANTS CONTAINING METAL OR METALLIC COMPOUNDS. These compounds may prevent the threaded connector from making up fully and can prevent the connection from sealing.

4.

RUNNING PROCEDURE To ensure correct make-up of the connection, alignment marks are painted on both the pin and box members. Stabbing and Torquing of Connection

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Pick up joint and suspend above box connection in rotary table. Align the stab-in arrowhead on the pin with the stab-in zone on the box. Figure 1. Slack off ALL the weight of the joint hanging in the elevators. The stand-off between the top of the box and the indicator shoulder of the pin should be approximately 1/4. Torque up the joint. The joint should rotate 135 degrees. Torque will be low until the last few degrees of rotation, when it will increase rapidly. At full make-up position the stab indicator on the pin will align with the make-up indicator zone on the box. Figure 2. (Refer to tables for maximum and minimum torque values.)

4.5

As a final check on correct make-up the indicator shoulder on the pin should be exactly flush with the top shoulder on the box. Figure 3. THE FLUSH ALIGNMENT OF THE INDICATOR SHOULDER IS THE PRIMARY INDICATION OF PROPER MAKE-UP AND SHOULD BE CHECKED AT 4 PLACES, 90 DEGREES APART, PRIOR TO PICKING UP WITH THE BLOCKS AND REMOVAL OF SLIPS.

BP EXPLORATION

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SUBJECT: CONNECTORS: VETCO RL4S

Page

Failure of Pin Arrow to Align with Box Make-Up Zone If the joint has been fully torqued up but the alignment marks fail to meet or the indicator shoulder is not flush - breakout the connection. To break out the connection, apply left hand torque with the tongs. 1/4 to 1/2 turn is enough to disengage the thread. Inspect both pin and box connections for debris or damage. If no obvious fault is found, stab the pin as above and torque up the connection. If the connections again fail to make up correctly, lay out the suspect joint. 5. ACTIVATION OF ANTI-ROTATION DEVICE Install Hilti gun with shearing hammer fully fitted into groove in box. Fire gun; metal tab will be forced into the groove in the pin. To break out connection, if required, prise out the locking tab until clear of the slot in the pin. RL4S Connector - Make-Up Torque Make-Up Torque (ft-lbs) Min. Max. 18,000 18,000 22,000 24,000 26,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 28,000 30,000

RL-4S 16 18 5/8 20 24 26 RL-4C 20

22,000

25,000

Notes: 1. Breakout torques are within 10 percent of make-up torques. This can vary in driving applications where breakout torques could be significantly higher. 2. Anti-rotation device provides approximately 400 ft.lbs/in of connector diameter torque resistance per tab.

BP EXPLORATION

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Page

STAB INDICATOR ARROW PIN PIN

STAB ZONE MAKE-UP INDICATOR ZONE

BOX

BOX

FIGURE 1 STABBED POSITION

FIGURE 2 MADE-UP POSITION

INDICATOR SHOULDER FULLY MADE UP

PIN

BOX

FIGURE 3
2233/5

BP EXPLORATION

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SUBJECT:
1. 2.

Page

BP STANDARD CASING DATA

Dimensional and strength data for the standard casing used in BP operations is given in Tables 1 to 4. NEW VAM threads are compatible with the previous VAM, VAM ATAC, VAM AG and VAM AF connections. The following chart instructs which torque is applicable when previous products and NEW VAM are assembled together in the same string, on pipe or accessory connections.
BOX PIN NEW VAM NEW VAM M.S. (1) VAM VAM ATAC VAM AG VAM AF NEW VAM S.C. VAM S.C. (2) NEW VAM NEW VAM M.S. (1) NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque VAM VAM ATAC NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque VAM AG VAM AF NEW VAM minimum torque 10% NEW VAM minimum torque 10% NEW VAM minimum torque 10% NEW VAM minimum torque 10% NEW VAM S.C. VAM S.C. (2) NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque NEW VAM torque

(1) M.S. = Matched Strength.

(2) S.C. = Special Clearance.

Note: a) The VAM ACE thread is not compatible with any existing VAM product. b) VAM ACE and NEW VAM can be easily recognised in the field as each connection is low-stress die stamped around the middle of the coupling.

SUBJECT:

Casing OD (inches) Grade Weight (lbs/ft) Body ID (inches) Drift ID (inches) Wall Thickness (inches) Tensile Yield (Kip) Burst Pressure (psi) Collapse Pressure (psi) Capacity (bbl/m) Metal Displacement (bbl/m) Coupling Type Coupling OD (inches) Coupling ID (inches) Coupling Tensile Yield (Kip) Minimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Optimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Maximum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Remarks

30 X52 310 28 28 1.0 4738 3120 1630 2.4988 0.3697

30 X52 457 27 27 1.5 6985 4680 3910 2.3248 0.5434

30 X52 310 28 26.5 1.0 4738 3120 1630 2.4988 0.3697

30 X52 310 28 28 1.0 4738 3120 1630 2.4988 0.3697 Vetco SR20 30 27.0 4000 N/A N/A N/A

20 K55 94 19.122 18.936 0.438 1479 2110 520 1.165 0.111 BTC 21.0

20 X56 94 19.122 18.00 0.438 1480 2210 520 1.165 0.111 Vetco LS-2 21.5 18.0

20 X56 94 19.122 18.00 0.438 1480 2210 520 1.165 0.111 GEM 21.0 18.0 1480 20,000

20 X56 94 19.122 18.63 0.438 1850 2210 596 1.165 0.111 RL 4S 21.5 18.63 1800 18,000

20 K55 133 18.728 18.542 0.625 2123 3060 1500 1.118 0.159 BTC 21.0 18.542 2123

20 X56 133 18.728 18.00 0.625 2090 3150 1450 1.118 0.159 Vetco LS-2 21.5 18.0 2430 14,000

20 X56 133 18.728 18.00 0.625 2090 3150 1450 1.118 0.159 GEM 21.0 18.0 2090 20,000

20 X56 133

18 5/8 X56 87.5

18 5/8 X56 87.5

18 5/8 X56

18 5/8 X56

18.728 17.756 17.756 18.563 0.625 1800 3150 1652 1.118 0.159 RL 4S 21.5 18.63 1800 17.75 0.435 1240 2290 630 1.005 0.104 Vetco LS 20.125 17.75 1240 17.58 0.438 1350 2290 630 1.005 0.104 RL 4S 20.38 17.58 1350

17.375 17.375 17.375 0.625 1750 3290 1710 1.005 0.104 Vetco LS 20.125 17.375 1750 13,000 RL 4S 0.625

BP STANDARD CASING DATA

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

Hunting Hunting Hunting Lynx SA Lynx HD Merlin 33.5 28.6 3200 N/A N/A N/A 34.1 27.0 6970 N/A N/A N/A 30 26.5 3500 N/A N/A N/A

1479

1890 14,000

18,000 13,000

Page

Rev.

Section

* 24,000 * Base Triangle 25,000 25,000

* 24,000 * Base Triangle 25,000 25,000 23,000 23,000

: 2 of 5

: 0 (9/90)

: 2800/GEN

TABLE 1 - BP STANDARD CASING DATA

SUBJECT:

Casing OD (inches) Grade Weight (lbs/ft) Body ID (inches) Drift ID (inches) Wall Thickness (inches) Tensile Yield (Kip) Burst Pressure (psi) Collapse Pressure (psi) Capacity (bbl/m) Metal Displacement (bbl/m) Coupling Type Coupling OD (inches) Coupling ID (inches) Coupling Tensile Yield (Kip) Minimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Optimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Maximum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Remarks

16 K55 75 15.122 14.937 0.438 1178 2630 1020 0.729 0.088 BTC 17.000

20 x 13 3/8 Swage X56 133/72 12.346 12.26

13 3/8 K55 68 12.413 12.26 0.48 1069 3450 1950 0.491 0.08

13 3/8 N80 68 12.413 12.26 0.48 1556 5020 2260 0.491 0.08 BTC 14.37

13 3/8 N80 72 12.346 12.25 0.514 1661 5380 2670 0.486 0.086 BTC 14.37

13 3/8 HC95 72 12.346 12.25 0.514 2168 6990 3690 0.486 0.086 VAM

13 3/8 P110 72 12.346 12.25 0.514 2285 7400 2880 0.486 0.086 New VAM 14.39

9 5/8 N80 47 8.681 8.525 0.472 1086 6870 4750 0.2402 0.056 New VAM 10.65

9 5/8 L80 47 8.681 8.525 0.472 1086 6870 4750 0.2402 0.056 New VAM 10.65

9 5/8 HC95 47 8.681 8.525 0.472 1606 10120 7060 0.2402 0.056 New VAM 10.65

9 5/8 P110 47 8.681 8.525 0.472 1493 9440 5310 0.2402 0.056 New VAM 10.65

9 5/8 L80 53.5 8.535 8.5 0.545 1244 7930 6620 0.2322 0.064 New VAM 10.65

9 5/8 SR95 53.5 8.535 8.379 0.545 1477 9410 7330 0.2322 0.064 New VAM 10.65

9 5/8 HC95 53.5 8.535 8.5 0.545 1781 10730 8920 0.2322 0.064 New VAM 10.65

BP STANDARD CASING DATA

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

RL 4S/BTC 21.50 18.75

BTC 14.37

1329

1800/ 18,000/ /7180 25,000/

1300

1300

1691

1975 14400 14400 15900 17400 Special Drift

1086 13050 14050 15850

1086 13050 14450 15850

1497 14400 15900 17400

1493 14400 15900 17400

1243 14400 15900 17400 Special Drift

1458 14400 15900 17400

1637 14400

Page

Rev.

Section

7180

15900 17400

15900 17400 Special Drift Clyde only

: 3 of 5

: 0 (9/90)

: 2800/GEN

Contingency

* Base Triangle

Replaces K55

Special Drift * Base Triangle

Special Drift

TABLE 2 - BP STANDARD CASING DATA

SUBJECT:

Casing OD (inches) Grade Weight (lbs/ft) Body ID (inches) Drift ID (inches) Wall Thickness (inches) Tensile Yield (Kip) Burst Pressure (psi) Collapse Pressure (psi) Capacity (bbl/m) Metal Displacement (bbl/m) Coupling Type Coupling OD (inches) Coupling ID (inches) Coupling Tensile Yield (Kip) Minimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Optimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Maximum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Remarks

9 5/8 P110 53.5 8.535 8.5 0.545 1710 10900 7930 0.2322 0.064 New VAM 10.65

9 5/8 XT-155 53.5 8.535 8.5 0.545 2410 15360 9020 0.2322 0.064 New VAM 10.65

7 5/8 N80 39 6.626 6.5 0.500 893 9181 8818 0.140 0.046 AB FL-4S 7.625 6.55

7 XT-140 22%CR 26 6.276 6.151 0.362 1057 12670 6690 0.1255 0.031 New VAM 7.681

7 N80 29 6.185 6.059 0.408 676 8160 7020 0.1219 0.035 New VAM 7.681

7 L80 29 6.185 6.059 0.408 676 8160 7020 0.1219 0.035 New VAM 7.681

7 P110 29 6.185 6.059 0.408 929 11220 7820 0.1219 0.035 New VAM 7.681

7 XT-155 29 6.185 6.059 0.408 1310 15810 9890 0.1219 0.035 VAM ACE 7.657

7 XT-140 22% CR 29 6.185 6.059 0.408 1183 14280 9560 0.1219 0.035 VAM ACE 7.657

7 HC95 32 6.094 5.969 0.453 1035 12520 11300 0.1184 0.038 New VAM 7.681

7 P110 32 6.094 5.969 0.453 1017 12460 10760 0.1184 0.038 New VAM 7.681

7 SM110TT 32 6.094 5.969 0.453 1053 12460 13850 0.1184 0.038 New VAM 7.681 7.39

7 L80 35 6.004 5.879 0.498 814 8460 10180 0.1149 0.042 New VAM 7.681

7 SR95 35 6.004 5.879 0.498 966 11830 11640 0.1149 0.042 New VAM 7.681

7 P110 35 6.004 5.879 0.498 1017 13700 13010 0.1149 0.042 New VAM 7.681

BP STANDARD CASING DATA

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

1710 14400 15900 17400 Special Drift

2323 14400 15900 17400 Special Drift

728 7500

1040 9850 10850 11850

676 8460 9400 10340

676 8460 9400 10340

929 9850 10850 11850

1282 11450 12650 13850

1164 11450 12650 13850 Clyde Only

920 9850 10850 11850

997 10450 11550 12650

997 10450 11550 12650 Special Clearance & Special Drift

725 9500 10500 11500

923 10100 11200 12300

997 10850

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TABLE 3 - BP STANDARD CASING DATA

SUBJECT:

Casing OD (inches) Grade Weight (lbs/ft) Body ID (inches) Drift ID (inches) Wall Thickness (inches) Tensile Yield (Kip) Burst Pressure (psi) Collapse Pressure (psi) Capacity (bbl/m) Metal Displacement (bbl/m) Coupling Type Coupling OD (inches) Coupling ID (inches) Coupling Tensile Yield (Kip) Minimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Optimum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Maximum Make-Up Torque (ft/lbs) Remarks

7 XT-155 35 6.184 5.879 0.498 1577 19300 16570 0.1149 0.042 New VAM 7.681

5 1/2 N80 23 4.669 4.545 0.415 531 10573 11168 0.0695 0.027 AB FL-4S 5.5 4.595

5 P110 18 4.276 4.151 0.362 580 13938 13445 0.0582 0.022 New VAM 5.587 5.39 580 6060 6730 7400

4 1/2 L80 12.6 3.958 3.833 0.271 288 8430 7504 0.049 0.014 New VAM 4.892

4 1/2 SM80 12.6 3.958 3.833 0.271 288 8430 7504 0.049 0.014 New VAM 4.892

4 1/2 22% CR 12.6 3.958 3.833

BP STANDARD CASING DATA

DRILLING MANUAL

BP EXPLORATION

VAM ACE 4.961

1450 11450 12650 13850

431 5000

288 4300 4770 5240

288 4300

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TABLE 4 - BP STANDARD CASING DATA

BP EXPLORATION

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DRILLING MANUAL
SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

Page

TUBING PREPARATION AND RUNNING PROCEDURES

GENERAL The procedures outlined cover all carbon steel premium tubulars and can also be selectively applied to API tubulars. Premium tubular can be defined as any pipe with a connection incorporating a built-in gas tight metal to metal seal. It is recommended that a Tubing Supervisor be used when running VAM tubing 7 or smaller in size. The decision to use a Tubing Supervisor for Hydril connections is optional and, together with the decision to use a Supervisor for VAM tubing above 7, is at the discretion of the operating group. The following procedures are guidelines and should be regarded as a minimum requirement. RESPONSIBILITIES Tubing Inspector/Supervisor (if required) The Tubing Inspector/Supervisor must be fully conversant with the type of premium connection being run. If it is VAM being run he should have attended the VAM School for Inspectors and possess a certificate of confirmation. The Tubing Inspector/Supervisor must be able to give a statement about the condition of the connections and decide whether to reject or pass any connection based on field experience and theoretical knowledge. The third party tubular inspection company, employer of the Tubing Inspector/Supervisor, should demonstrate to BP that the above is complied with. The responsibilities of the Tubing Inspector/Supervisor will be as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To run tubing in accordance with these procedures unless otherwise agreed with BP Drilling. The Supervisor is to be present on the rig floor during running and pulling of the tubulars. Report to the BP Drilling Supervisor on all aspects of the work. Supply the correct stabbing guide for the tubing being run. Liaise with the drill crew, casing crew and BP Drilling Supervisor/Drilling Engineer, ensuring all parties are aware of the procedure to be adopted during preparation and running of tubulars. Co-ordinate and supervisor running of the job with BP personnel.

1.2

1.3 2. 2.1

2.2

Tubular Make-Up Contractor Responsibilities include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Positioning of tong systems in conjunction with rig crews. Application of torque to limits set by Tubing Supervisor/BP Supervisor with respect to values, speed, etc. Provision of a Computer Technician to ensure integrity of electrical installation and verification that all displayed signals, etc., are correct. Advising Tubing Supervisor/BP Supervisor on the results of graphical analysis and general running performance of tubulars. Provision of a stabber to stab pipe at all times and support the tubing until shouldering has taken place. Setting elevator on pipe in conjunction with rig crew.

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2.3

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TUBING PREPARATION AND RUNNING PROCEDURES

BP Supervisor/DE Responsibilities include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ensuring that all relevant rigsite personnel involved in running tubulars are aware of their responsibilities. Ensuring correct use of equipment, procedures, application of technical standards and final acceptance of joints throughout the operation. To record any deviation in programme, running list, equipment performance, personnel performance and details of minor repairs to connections (making a note of tally numbers). To ensure safe working practices are adopted.

Note: It is recommended that offshore operational Drilling Engineers and BP Supervisors, who are frequently involved in the running of VAM tubulars, should attend the VAM School.
3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES The following general principles should be followed: 3.1 Handling of Tubing a) b) c) d) 3.2 Ensure threads are thoroughly clean and free from any dirt or grease, dry and protected (using clean protectors) wherever possible. Clean threads thoroughly using a steam jet with detergent or solvent. DO NOT use diesel. Ensure that, prior to make-up, connections are fully dry before application of grease/dope. Protectors must be fitted and fitted correctly when moving pipe. (They should be left on until the last practicable moment.) Use a storage compound on the threads for extended storage periods (Rust Veto AS, Kendex Orange or Atlas Bradford Premium).

Running In a) Apply uncontaminated API thread compound to all box threads and seal areas. Apply also to pin seal and bottom half of threads.

Note: Do not apply the thread compound to the box threads when the joint is in the rotary table.
b) c) 3.3 Stab carefully, using correct stabbing guide. Make up slowly, particularly the first few threads, and whilst shouldering out.

Pulling Out a) b) c) Break-out slowly and stop rotating immediately the pipe jumps. Perform regular visual inspection of threads whilst pulling out. Stagger connection break-outs if multiple runs are required.

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d)

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TUBING PREPARATION AND RUNNING PROCEDURES

Ensure that the pipe body and tubing threads are adequately cleaned and protected prior to backload.

Note: Only elastomer/composite protectors are to be supplied with premium pipe.


4. 4.1 TUBULAR PREPARATION PROCEDURES Where sufficient space is available, tubulars should be offloaded into a holding bay so that the boat may be released. Take great care with this operation as damage can be caused by impact and overstacking the tubular bodies. Lay down subsequent rows, supporting them with dunnage to prevent bellying. Stack each layer of dunnage vertically above the previous layer. Lay down on each stack three equally spaced dunnage supports as a minimum. Proceed to clean, inspect and protect the boxes as follows: a) Drift Prior to drifting, dimensionally check drifts across two diameters at each end (if solid drift used, check also at midpoint). The drift OD must always be sized to plus tolerance. A 42 drift should be used unless the programme (primarily for wirelining requirements) indicates otherwise. The deck crew should remove pin and box protectors (unless open ended) and carefully insert drift from the box-end without contacting thread or seal areas. To prevent drift damage, do not allow drift to fall out of the pin-end, but feed it out carefully. Any pipe which fails the drift test should be rejected. It should have a red band painted adjacent to the box end and NO DRIFT painted on the body at mid-point. The position where the drift stuck should also be marked on the pipe-body. Having completed drifting, the OD of all drifts should be rechecked. Any drift not within tolerance should be rejected and replaced prior to the next job.

4.2

4.3

b)

Blow through the pipe with compressed air to ensure that the pipe is internally clean and dry.

Note: It is important that this is done prior to thread cleaning to avoid moving debris from the bore onto the threads or seals.
c) Connection Cleaning i) Rig with Steam Cleaning and Air Blast Facilities The rig crew should clean the connection threads/seals (both pin and box) and the protectors with a high pressure steam jet, followed by an air blast to dry the item. ii) Rig without Steam Cleaning and Air Blast Facilities Clean threads and protectors thoroughly with high pressure water (preferably freshwater). A de-watering solvent, e.g. Houghtoclean 500, should then be applied to the threads and seals using a soft clean brush. After cleaning, inspection and reprotection of each row should be carried out with the minimum delay possible.

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Notes Diesel or paraffin should not be used for thread cleaning since, if not fully removed, a lack of lubricant adhesion to thread/seal surfaces can result. Also this type of medium does not effectively clean the thread (it has a tendency to smear). It also attracts foreign debris which can be encapsulated in the thread roots, resulting in galling on make-up. Connections must be dried thoroughly to prevent thread and seal corrosion. Cleaning and drying should be of a quality that will allow all features of the connection to be clearly visible - including any counterbore features of the pin/box, and externally approximately one inch onto the pipe body beyond the pin thread. If required, tubular inspection will be carried out on behalf of the Drilling Department by a contracted competent third party Tubing Inspector/Supervisor. The threads and seal area should be inspected for damage or manufacturing flaws. Check for loose couplings. Refurbish damaged threads where possible. If not possible, mark the pipe clearly with red paint and reject it. Mechanical burrs on threads can be cleaned off using a needle file. Some degree of ovality is acceptable in a pipe as the connection will round out on make-up (e.g. in VAM only the first 6 7 threads require a full profile). Only very slight surface corrosion on threads/seals, which can be easily removed by brush or emery cloth, can be accepted. If present, the Tubing Inspector should assess the condition of the pipe body (both internal and external) for excess dirt, scale, residual shotblast mediums, laminations, deep pitting or erosion. Whilst he should be capable of independent action, it is essential that he liaises closely with the deck crew and BP Supervisors, especially if significant rejection rates occur.

d) e)

Measure each joint and paint its number and length near the middle. After the threads and protectors are completely dry and clean, light gear oil should be applied to the threads, followed by installation of the protectors. Failure to keep connections dry before installing protectors can lead to thread/seal corrosion due to entrapped water being held inside the pipe bore.

Note: If the tubulars are to be left for more than 10 days at the rigsite, a corrosion protective grease should be applied to the connections (DTD recommend Rust Veto AS, Kendex Orange or Atlas Bradford Premium).
4.4 4.5 Agree the rig floor layout and running procedures with the casing crew and drill crew. Check all the running equipment as follows: a) Power Tongs Check the condition of the tongs, particularly the tong dies. The load cell may be calibrated by removing it and suspending a known weight from it. Torque is then calibrated by equating with the effective arm length (specific to the tong). The suppliers hold copies of calibration certificates which may be checked. The tong specifically should have torque output tested up to the maximum anticipated for the job, as well as accuracy of hydraulic load cell versus computer torque output. The tong should also incorporate a dump setting valve which automatically cuts make-up when the maximum torque for the connection is reached.

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b)

Page

TUBING PREPARATION AND RUNNING PROCEDURES

Elevators and Slips Check that single joint elevators and slips are in good working order. In particular, check the condition of the slip dies. Perform a trial latch of elevators onto casing/tubing before the job commences.

c)

Stabbing Guide Check this key piece of equipment. It should fit snuggly over the box, extending at least to the inside of the shoulder, in order to prevent the pin seal catching on the box whilst stabbing.

5. 5.1

TUBULAR RUNNING PROCEDURES Running In 1. Tubulars should be transferred to the catwalk with both closed end protectors securely fitted. Metallic casing hooks (if used) must NOT be allowed to contact the thread or seal areas when transferring pipe on the pipe deck or to the catwalk. Hook-liftable protectors must be used and left in place until the pipe is safely on the catwalk. Before the joint is picked up through the V-door, remove the pin protector and install a klampon protector (recommended type is Klepo). Loosen but do not remove the box protector. If klampon protectors are not available, leave the pin protector on the pipe. 2. 3. 4. Pick up the joint through the V-door with the single joint elevators (unless the crane is used to transfer the joint directly into the main elevator). On the rig floor, inspect the threads and refurbish if necessary. Whether the dope is applied by soft brush or spray application, the following procedure should be adopted: Box - a smooth even film (no base metal to be seen) over shoulder seal and all threaded surfaces. Pin - a smooth even film over shoulder, seal and all surfaces of the bottom half of the threads (threads adjacent to seal). When high shoulders from torque/turn analysis are repeatedly experienced, dope application should be extended to cover all pin threads. API modified thread dope should be used which has a friction factor of 1. The dope should be free from dirt/grit contamination and water and should be mixed thoroughly before application to threads. It is recommended that the dope be in a warm state before applying to the threads. If available, consideration should be given to using an enclosed spray dope applicator system for the box and/or dope agitator system. A 2 paint brush should be used for dope application if a spray dope applicator system is not used. 5. Engage the power tong and rotate slowly to make up the first few threads (2 - 3 RPM). The pipe should then be made up in high gear (not to exceed 10 RPM) and low gear selected prior to shouldering out of the pipe. Apply the final torque at 1 - 3 RPM. On premium connections a graphical torque/turn analyser (e.g. JAM, Salvo or Data Trek) is recommended for use to confirm correct make-up for all tubing sizes and casing up to and

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TUBING PREPARATION AND RUNNING PROCEDURES

including 9 5/8. Ensure hydraulic dump setting facility on tong is set to maximum rated torque for the connection, to ensure non-overtorquing. A speed control system should also be used (e.g. Weatherford Acu-torq or Salvesen Speedmaster) which controls thread engagement, make-up and final torquing speed. Sustained final torque should be applied for 3 seconds (it is preferable if make-up of connection is continuous and is not stopped to change gear). Sustained torque should be used to ensure final static torque is recorded, not a dynamic torque. 6. 7. Care should be taken when setting slips and lowering the elevators to prevent shock loads and impact damage. Ensure that after filling tubing or casing from the surface the thread dope has not been washed out from the box threads of the previously run connection. If this has occurred, dry the box threads and seal and re-apply dope.

5.2

Pulling Out 1. The joint should not be in tension when backing out as this will cause the joint to spring out resulting in impact damage. The joint will drop slightly when the thread is fully backed out - do not rotate more than 1/4 turn beyond this point as thread galling will most probably occur. The pipe should be backed out slowly. Initial breakout should be at 1 - 2 RPM, followed by a backout speed of less than 10 RPM. The break-out speed should be considerably slowed before the pipe jumps. A crew member should be deployed on the stabbing board to ensure vertical alignment and to reduce pipe lateral movement. 2. The pin should be guided out of the box by hand and then lifted clear. The connections should be visually inspected to ensure that the break-out procedure is adequate (full inspection is suggested for the first 20 joints and a frequency then chosen according to the results). This is particularly important if the tubulars are to be re-run. Before laying the joint down, fit clean elastomeric box and pin protectors to the threads of the newly broken out connection. When multiple runs are required, e.g. due to leakage, the tool joint breaks should be staggered each trip. (Paint a mark on those joints which have not been broken out, i.e. a circle or star on the unbroken couplings should suffice.) The tubing should be stood back on a wooden mat with elastomeric protectors fitted. Restraining the centre of a stand may be necessary to prevent excessive bowing. For the pipe staggering to work effectively, the driller should clearly mark on his tally those joints which have not been broken. It is very important that when pulling the string, any defect that may have been responsible for leakage be clearly marked and documented prior to correction. If the pipe has been RIH/POOH on more than 4 occasions, then the complete string should be laid down and sent ashore for detailed inspection as per Drilling Inspection Procedure No. 3. A new string should be sent out and RIH. 5. Before backloading, the tubulars should be cleaned (this applies particularly if running a corrosive fluid such as brine) by hosing down with water (preferably fresh water). The threads should be redoped and clean protectors fitted correctly (made up hand-tight and covering all threads).

3. 4.

Note: When oil based mud is used, cleaning is not normally possible due to pollution considerations. The pipe should therefore be externally wiped clean while pulling out of the hole.

UK Operations
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GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:
1. 1.1

CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING 13%

INTRODUCTION Certain reservoir fluids have, or will have, the combination of CO2, H2S, and a high Chloride content; Chrome duplex alloy may be specified for 7 liner exposed to these types of reservoir fluids. The footage of Chrome tubing run per well will be as advised in the drilling programme.

1.2

These procedures are applicable to all Chrome tubulars being run in CO 2 and low H 2 S environments. Chrome tubulars run in an H2S/CO2 environment are very susceptible to corrosion and sulphide stress cracking. Any action during the storage, handling and running of Chrome tubulars which causes the formation of hot spots (localised hardening) or ferrous inclusions can lead to sulphide stress cracking, hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion. It is therefore essential that more care is taken with these tubulars, than is normally adopted for carbon steel tubulars. At all times when handling Chrome tubulars, contact with other metallic equipment, (slings, wire brushes, hammers, etc.) which are not made of a like material should be avoided whenever possible. TRANSPORTATION 9 5/8" 13 Cr Tubulars 1. 2. Metallic slings can be utilised for the shipment of all 9 5/8" 13% casing. Tubular handling should be witnessed by competent personnel.

1.3

2. 2.1

Note: If any impact damage is experienced or sustained to an extent that it is clearly visible by a large indentation or the casing drift becomes stuck, then the recommendation is to reject the tubular.
2.2 7" 13 Cr Tubulars 1. All loose chrome tubulars to be separated by non-metallic dividers.

Note: If chrome is received from suppliers either in racks or transportation boxes, then they can be transported in the same as long as they are in compliance with the appropriate safety and lifting standards and requirements for shipment offshore.
2. 3. Metallic slings can be utilised for the shipment of all loose 13% Cr if required. Tubular handling should be witnessed by competent personnel.

Note: If any impact damage is experienced or sustained to an extent that it is clearly visible by a large indentation or the casing drift becomes stuck, then the recommendation is to reject the tubular.
2.3 5 1/2" and 4 1/2" 13 Cr Tubulars 1. 2. All loose chrome tubulars to be separated by non-metallic dividers. If chrome is received from suppliers either in racks or transportation boxes, then they can be transported in the same as long as they are in compliance with the appropriate safety and lifting standards and requirements for shipment offshore.

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SUBJECT:
3. 4. 5.

CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING 13%

Non-metallic or nylon sheathed metallic slings should be utilised for the shipment of all loose 13% Cr. Tubular handling should be witnessed by competent personnel. For low volume use Super 13 Cr, then cargo baskets can be utilised providing the rows are separated by wood and the individual tubulars on each row by non-metallic dividers.

Note: If any impact damage is experienced or sustained to an extent that it is clearly visible by a large indentation or the casing drift becomes stuck, then the recommendation is to reject the tubular.
3. 3.1 3.2 RIG-SITE PREPARATION AND INSPECTION The BP Drilling Supervisor will conduct a pre-job meeting with the rig crew and casing/tubing running crew to ensure that the proper handling and running procedures are fully understood. On arrival at the rig site, tubulars should be carefully unloaded onto the pipe-deck. DO NOT DROP THE PIPE. 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 The pipe-deck should be lined with wood, or a similar non-metallic material. Care should be taken at all stages to prevent tubulars having any impact with metal objects. Lay out one layer of tubulars on the wooden lined pipe deck. Remove the thread protectors (use only wooden or plastic mallets). Remove transportation protectors (use only wooden or plastic mallets). Drift measure and tally each joint (using a non-metallic drift).

Note: There should not be any loose scale if the tubulars are cleaned and coated correctly.
3.8 Thoroughly steam clean or use a solvent specifically formulated for the removal of storage compounds or thread compounds and dry both box and pin ends. Ensure that all storage compound is removed and the threads are as dry as physically possible. Water or storage compound under the thread compound will affect the coefficient of friction during make-up which may result in incorrect make-ups. DO NOT USE DIESEL OR PARAFFIN AS A CLEANING AGENT. 3.9 3.10 On no account should the threads be cleaned with a wire brush. Wire brushing may remove or damage the surface coating. Use a non-metallic bristle brush. Visually inspect pipe body, thread, thread coating and the seal areas for any sign of corrosion or damage. Minor damage away from the seal area may be repairable by filing. Any joint that fails the inspection should be rejected. The rejected joint should be clearly marked with a red band and the reason for rejection should be painted on the joint. Rejected joints are to have clean protectors reapplied and joints are to be segregated. Steam clean transportation protectors and dry and re-apply to tubing.

3.11

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3.12

CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING 13%

Lay out subsequent layers of tubing ensuring wooden supports between each layer and repeat step 3.5 until all joints have been laid out.

Note: Ensure that when racking tubulars (for 7" no more than 5 rows high), comply with API recommendations.
4. 4.1 4.2 PRE-JOB CHECKS A wooden or rubber lining should be installed on the catwalk and the Vee Door. If this is not possible, tubulars will have to be lifted directly into the Vee Door by the crane. In order to ensure all handling tools and tong jaw dies conform to the exacting requirements of high chrome tubing, it is recommended that a single source take responsibility to supply the complete package. Check all handling and make-up equipment is on site and meets the specifications laid down in Salvesen Tubular Services recommended equipment list. All tong jaws and handling tool dies shall be checked by the Salvesen Service Supervisor to ensure they are the specified type for running high chrome tubulars, i.e: All handling tools should be function tested on the tubulars to ensure correct fit and operation. Salvesen Service Supervisor should agree with the Company Representative the parameters to be used, i.e. torque figures and make-up speeds. All power equipment (power units, power tongs, Salvos) should be rigged up, calibrated to job parameters and function tested. RUNNING AND MAKE-UP Prior to commencing running operations, the BP Drilling Supervisor should hold a meeting with the Well Services Supervisor, drill crew and Salvesen personnel on the rig floor. This should cover the exact handling and make-up procedure to be used, identify hazards and reinforce safety awareness.

4.3

4.4 4.5 4.6

5. 5.1

Note: a) Care should be taken at all stages to prevent impact of tubulars against any metal objects. b) c) d) e) f)
5.2 5.3

Non-metallic polymer slings should be used for lifting all single joints of tubing. All handling tool dies should be kept clean and changed if necessary. Tong dies should be inspected throughout the running to ensure no wear has occurred, or severe marking of the tubulars is identified. Ensure correct size of tong is used (i.e. 5 1/2" tong for 5 1/2"/4 1/2" tubing) and tong correctly balanced. A stabber is recommended for all tubulars.

Transportation or Klepo protectors may be used to protect threads while lifting tubulars to the rig floor. Pick up individual joint using polymer or nylon sheathed metallic slings and carefully lay onto the wood lined catwalk.

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SUBJECT:
5.4

CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING 13%

The tubular can then be picked up in either of the following ways (dependent upon rig design):a) b) Latch single joint elevator (attached to rig floor tugger) onto the joint and transfer along wooden or rubber surfaces of catwalk and Vee Door to rig floor. Pick up with crane, using two polymer slings, and transfer joint along catwalk and through Vee Door to drill floor. Carefully latch single joint elevator onto the joint and slacken off weight taken by the crane. Pick up with crane, using two polymer slings and set down joint directly in the Vee Door. Carefully latch single joint elevator onto the joint and slacken off weight taken by the crane.

c)

Note: It is assumed at this point a downhole packer of sub-assembly has been placed in the rotary table ready for the first joint of tubing. The procedure for such sub-assemblies is exactly the same, extreme care shall be exercised.
5.5 5.6 5.7 With the joint in the Vee Door, remove the box end protector and visually inspect the thread and seals for mechanical damage. The single joint elevator, attached to the blocks, should be carefully fitted and the joint slowly raised to the vertical position with the pin end restrained away from the rotary centre line. With the tubular suspended in the single joint elevator, ensure pin end is held a safe working distance from the rotary table, remove protector and inspect threads and seals in accordance with manufacturer's instructions on the pin to ensure no damage has occurred prior to make-up. With a clean, soft, 2" paintbrush, apply an even coating of mixed and heated thread compound, from the Dopemaster, to the pin and box joint in the table. Ensure dope is applied as recommended by thread manufacturers. The dope should form an even coating with the threadform still clearly visible through the coating.

5.8

Note: If insufficient thread compound is applied, high shoulder torque may be recorded or even galling of threads may result. If excessive thread compound is applied, it may and most probably will be extruded into the bore which may cause problems during wirelining.
5.9 A stab-in guide should be fitted to the box end of the joint in the rotary table and the joint of tubing hanging in the single joint elevator shall be carefully moved into position with the pin end held over the stab-in guide. This joint shall be slowly lowered until pin threads are seen to contact the box threads. A clear signal should be given to the technician on the stabbing board that the pin and box ends have been engaged correctly and to align the joint for efficient make-up.

5.10 5.11

Note: A polymer strap wrench shall be fitted by a member of the drill crew. With the assistance of the technician on the stabbing board, the joint should be slowly walked in by hand all the way to the handtight position. If correct thread engagement has not been achieved, then pin should be rotated anti-clockwise until pin drops and engages correctly.
5.12 When the connection has reached the hand-tight position, the power tong can be placed on the pipe. Care should be taken to ensure that the tong is positioned on the tubing without any part of the tong or back-up impacting the tubing wall.

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SUBJECT:
5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17

CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING 13%

The back-up shall be activated to grip the tubing, care should be taken to ensure that the back-up jaws are correctly positioned and are gripping the tubing evenly. The tong can now be activated to grip the tubing and the make-up can proceed using the Speedmaster control on the tong. The Salvo system will monitor the make-up as it takes place, if accepted the single joint elevator and power tong should be removed at this point and operations will continue as of step 5.17. If make-up is aborted for any reason, refer to Section 6, Pulling Out. After a satisfactory Graph has been recorded and accepted with the tally number logged on the Salvo, slowly lower the main elevator and carefully position it over the tubing string. The elevator can now be latched. Raise the string a short distance so as to enable the hand slips to be removed or the spider to be unlatched. (During the running of the initial joints, a safety clamp may be required; if so this should be removed.) Slowly lower the string until the box end is in the correct position for the next connection to be made up. Do not set the slips with the string moving. Place the hand slips in position or set the spider and slowly lower the string until the slips engage. Until there is sufficient weight on the string (10 - 20 joints) a safety clamp should be used. Carefully remove or unlatch the elevator; if a door type elevator is being used, care should be taken to ensure that the elevator does not impact the tubing wall. Repeat the above procedure until the final number of joints have been run. PULLING OUT If the make-up is aborted for any reason or if the connection requires to be broken out and made up a second time, this procedure should be followed.

5.18

5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 6.

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Re-fit the single joint elevator. Position tong back-up jaws across coupling. Slowly rotate the tong in the break-out direction until the torque has dropped below the reference level. Remove power tong then re-fit the polymer strap wrench. Slowly walk out the connection with the assistance of the technician on the stabbing board aligning the joint correctly. Do not apply any force to pull the pin from the box. Slowly raise the tubing joint only when the threads have fully disengaged. Thoroughly clean both the pin and box prior to inspection, ensuring the pin end is held a safe working distance away from the rotary table. If no problems are found with either the threads or the seals, continue with the drying, doping and rerunning of the connection as previously described.

6.5 6.6 6.7

UK Operations
BP EXPLORATION

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SUBJECT:
6.8

CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING 13%

If the joint has to be laid out, apply storage compound, fit clean transportation protectors and carefully lift back to the Vee Door, then lift or lower to the pipe deck area. The drill crews should clearly identify the rejected joint by marking with red paint "Reject" and indicate thread damage (TD) or seal damage (SD) and place to one side. POST JOB CHECKS At the end of the job, the Salvesen Services Supervisor shall check the number and state of joints left on deck, i.e. good joints or rejects, including pup joints and accessories. He shall ensure all left over joints are doped and protected. Check all rejects are red banded and marked "Reject" and "Indicate Damage". Ensure all pup joints and accessories are doped and protected. After the job is finished, the Salvesen Services Supervisor will complete all relevant paperwork and get it signed by the BP Drilling Supervisor or Well Services Supervisor. The Salvesen Services Supervisor should ensure that all equipment is rigged down and boxed and liaise with the BP Drilling Supervisor or Well Services Supervisor to see if it is being back-loaded. If the crew and equipment are staying at the wellsite, then the equipment should be serviced and any extra equipment or spares ordered prior to the next job. The tubulars should be back-loaded as soon as possible after completion of the job to minimise exposure to the environment. Use tubular rack or boxes as for transportation to the rig.

7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

7.6 7.7

BP EXPLORATION

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DUPLEX 25% CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING/RUNNING PROCEDURE

INTRODUCTION Certain reservoir fluids have, or will have, the combination of CO2, H2S, and a high Chloride content; Chrome duplex alloy may be specified for tubing exposed to these types of reservoir fluids. The footage of Chrome tubing run per well will be as advised in the completion programme.

1.2

These procedures are applicable to all Chrome tubulars being run in CO2 and moderate H2S environments. Chrome tubulars run in an H2S/CO2 environment are very susceptible to corrosion and sulphide stress cracking. Any action during the storage, handling and running of Chrome tubulars which causes the formation of hot spots (localised hardening) or mild steel inclusions can lead to sulphide stress cracking, hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion. It is therefore essential that more care is taken with these tubulars, than is normally adopted for carbon steel tubulars. At all times when handling Chrome tubulars, contact with other metallic equipment, (slings, wire brushes, hammers, etc.) which are not made of a like material should be avoided whenever possible. These procedures relate to the current Casing Running Contractor for 1992/1993 and have been produced with their involvement which reflects proprietary casing running equipment. TRANSPORTATION Chrome tubulars should preferably be transported on custom built racks to minimise movement and impact during transportation. Packing boxes can be used providing the packaging can be handled offshore. All tubular joints should be separated by non-metallic dividers. Non-metallic or nylon sheathed metallic slings should be used for handling the tubulars. Tubular handling should be witnessed by competent personnel. RIG-SITE PREPARATION AND INSPECTION The BP Drilling Supervisor will conduct a pre-job meeting with the rig crew and casing/tubing running crew to ensure that the proper handling and running procedures are fully understood. On arrival at the rig site, tubulars should be carefully unloaded onto the pipe-deck. DO NOT DROP THE PIPE.

1.3 1.4

2. 2.1

2.2 2.3 2.4 3. 3.1 3.2

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

The pipe-deck should be lined with wood, or a similar non-metallic material. Care should be taken at all stages to prevent tubulars having any impact with metal objects. Tubulars should be removed individually from transportation racks using polymer slings. Steel slings should not be used as these may damage the tubular. Layout one layer of tubulars on the wooden lined pipe-deck. Remove transportation protectors (use only wooden or plastic mallets). Drift, measure and tally each joint (using a non-metallic drift). Thoroughly steam clean and dry both box and pin ends. Do not use diesel or paraffin as a cleaning agent.

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DUPLEX 25% CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING/RUNNING PROCEDURE

On no account should the threads be cleaned with a wire brush. Wire brushing may remove or damage the surface coating. Use a non-metallic bristle brush. Visually inspect pipe body, thread, thread coating and the seal areas for any sign of corrosion or damage. Minor damage away from the seal area may be repairable by filing. Any joint that fails the inspection should be rejected. The rejected joint should be clearly marked with a red band and the reason for rejection should be painted on the joint. Rejected joints are to have clean protectors reapplied and joints are to be segregated. Apply light coating of Moly Disulphide (MOS2) for VAM "ACE" connections (not necessary for NK3SB connections).

3.11

Note: This should be completed as soon as possible after steam cleaning, while casing is warm, to help curing.
3.12 3.13 Steam clean transportation protectors and dry and re-apply to tubing. Layout subsequent layers of tubing ensuring wooden supports between each layer and repeat step 3.5 until all joints have been laid out.

Note: Ensure that when racking tubulars (for 7" no more than 5 rows high) comply with API recommendations.
4. 4.1 4.2 PRE-JOB CHECKS A wooden or rubber lining should be installed on the catwalk and the Vee Door. If this is not possible, tubulars will have to be lifted directly into the Vee Door by the crane. In order to ensure all handling tools and tong jaw dies conform to the exacting requirements of high chrome tubing, it is recommended that a single source take responsibility to supply the complete package. Check all handling and make-up equipment is on site and meets the specifications laid down in Salvesen Tubular Services recommended equipment list. All tong jaws and handling tool dies shall be checked by the Salvesen Service Supervisor to ensure they are the specified type for running high chrome tubulars, i.e: a) b) 4.4 4.5 Tongs - Fine toothed or smooth faced wrap around type. Handling Tools - Varco flat topped (0.01") dies.

4.3

All handling tools should be function tested on the tubulars to ensure correct fit and operation. Salvesen Service Supervisor should agree with the Company Representative the parameters to be used, i.e. torque figures and make-up speeds. For high chrome tubulars make-up speeds should be no more than 8 rpm (high speed) and 1.5 rpm (low speed). All power equipment (power units, power tongs, Salvos) should be rigged up, calibrated to job parameters and function tested. RUNNING AND MAKE-UP Prior to commencing running operations, the BP Drilling Supervisor should hold a meeting with the Well Services Supervisor, drill crew and Salvesen personnel on the rig floor. This should cover the exact handling and make-up procedure to be used, identify hazards and reinforce safety awareness.

4.6

5. 5.1

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DUPLEX 25% CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING/RUNNING PROCEDURE

Note: a) Care should be taken at all stages to prevent impact of tubulars against any metal objects. b) c) d) Non-metallic polymer slings should be used for lifting all single joints of tubing. All handling tool dies should be kept clean and changed if necessary. Tong dies should be inspected after every fifth make-up or break-out and should be replaced if flats in excess of 0.5mm appear on more than 10% of the teeth, or severe marking of the tubulars is identified. Ensure correct size of tong is used (i.e. 7 5/8" tong for 7", and 5 1/2" tong for 5 1/2"/4 1/2" tubing) and tong correctly balanced. A stabber is recommended for all tubulars.

e) f)
5.2 5.3

Pick up individual joint using polymer slings and carefully lay onto the wood lined catwalk. The tubular can then be picked up in either of the following ways (dependent upon rig design):a) b) Latch internal coated single joint elevator (attached to rig floor tugger) onto the joint and transfer along wooden or rubber surfaces of catwalk and Vee Door to rig floor. Pick up with crane, using two polymer slings, and transfer joint along catwalk and through Vee Door to drill floor. Carefully latch internal coated single joint elevator onto the joint and slacken off weight taken by the crane. Pick up with crane, using two polymer slings and set down joint directly in the Vee Door. Carefully latch internal coated single joint elevator onto the joint and slacken off weight taken by the crane.

c)

Note: It is assumed at this point a downhole packer of sub-assembly has been placed in the rotary table ready for the first joint of tubing. The procedure for such sub-assemblies is exactly the same, extreme care shall be exercised.
5.4 5.5 5.6 With the joint in the Vee Door, remove the box end protector and visually inspect the thread and seals for mechanical damage. The single joint elevator attached to the blocks should be carefully fitted and the joint slowly raised to the vertical position with the pin end restrained away from the rotary centre line. With the tubular suspended in the single joint elevator, ensure pin end is held a safe working distance from the rotary table, remove protector and inspect threads and seals in accordance with manufacturer's instructions on the pin to ensure no damage has occurred prior to make-up. With a clean, soft, 2" paintbrush, apply an even coating of mixed and heated thread compound, from the Dopemaster, to the pin and box joint in the table. Ensure dope is applied as recommended by thread manufacturers. The dope should form an even coating with the threadform still clearly visible through the coating.

5.7

Note: If insufficient thread compound is applied, high shoulder torque may be recorded or even galling of threads may result. If excessive thread compound is applied, it may and most probably will be extruded into the bore which may cause problems during wirelining.
5.8 A stab-in guide should be fitted to the box end of the joint in the rotary table and the joint of tubing hanging in the single joint elevator shall be carefully moved into position with the pin end held over the stab-in guide.

BP EXPLORATION

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5.9 5.10

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DUPLEX 25% CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING/RUNNING PROCEDURE

This joint shall be slowly lowered until pin threads are seen to contact the box threads. A clear signal should be given to the technician on the stabbing board that the pin and box ends have been engaged correctly and to align the joint for efficient make-up.

Note: A polymer strap wrench shall be fitted by a member of the drill crew. With the assistance of the technician on the stabbing board, the joint should be slowly walked in by hand all the way to the handtight position. If correct thread engagement has not been achieved, the pin should be rotated anti-clockwise until pin drops and engages correctly.
5.11 When the connection has reached the hand-tight position, the power tong can be placed on the pipe. Great care should be taken to ensure that the tong is positioned on the tubing without any part of the tong or back-up impacting the tubing wall. The back-up shall be activated to grip the tubing, care should be taken to ensure that the back-up jaws are correctly positioned and are gripping the tubing evenly. The tong can now be activated to grip the tubing and the make-up can proceed using the Speedmaster control on the tong. The Salvo will monitor the make-up as it takes place, if accepted the single joint elevator and power tong should be removed at this point and operations will continue as of step 5.16. If make-up is aborted for any reason, refer to Section 6, Pulling Out. After a satisfactory Torque Turn Graph has been recorded and accepted with the tally number logged on the Salvo, slowly lower the main elevator and carefully position it over the tubing string. The elevator can now be latched. Raise the string a short distance so as to enable the hand slips to be removed or the spider to be unlatched. (During the running of the initial joints, a safety clamp may be required; if so this should be removed.) Slowly lower the string until the box end is in the correct position for the next connection to be made up. Do not set the slips with the string moving. Place the hand slips in position or set the spider and slowly lower the string until the slips engage. Until there is sufficient weight on the string (10 - 20 joints) a safety clamp should be used. Carefully remove or unlatch the elevator; if a door type elevator is being used, care should be taken to ensure that the elevator does not impact the tubing wall. Repeat the above procedure until the final number of joints have been run. PULLING OUT If the make-up is aborted for any reason or if the connection requires to be broken out and made up a second time, this procedure should be followed. 6.1 6.2 6.3 Re-fit the single joint elevator. Position tong back-up jaws across coupling. Slowly rotate the tong in the break-out direction until the torque has dropped below the reference level. Re-fit the polymer strap wrench.

5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16

5.17

5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 6.

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SUBJECT:
6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

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DUPLEX 25% CHROME TUBULAR HANDLING/RUNNING PROCEDURE

Slowly walk out the connection with the assistance of the technician on the stabbing board aligning the joint correctly. Do not apply any force to pull the pin from the box. Slowly raise the tubing joint only when the threads have fully disengaged. Thoroughly clean both the pin and box prior to inspection, ensuring the pin end is held a safe working distance away from the rotary table. If no problems are found with either the threads or the seals, continue with the drying, doping and rerunning of the connection as previously described. If the joint has to be laid out, apply storage compound, clean transportation protectors and carefully lift back to the Vee Door, then lift or lower to the pipe deck area. The drill crews should clearly identify the rejected joint by marking with red paint "Reject" and indicate thread damage (TD) or seal damage (SD) and place to one side. POST JOB CHECKS At the end of the job, the Salvesen Services Supervisor shall check the number and state of joints left on deck, i.e. good joints or rejects, including pup joints and accessories. He shall ensure all left over joints are doped and protected. Check all rejects are red banded and marked "Reject" and indicate damage. Ensure all pup joints and accessories are doped and protected. After the job is finished, the Salvesen Services Supervisor will complete all relevant paperwork and get it signed by the BP Drilling Supervisor or Well Services Supervisor. The Salvesen Services Supervisor should ensure that all equipment is rigged down and boxed and liaise with the BP Drilling Supervisor or Well Services Supervisor to see if it is being back-loaded. If the crew and equipment are staying at the wellsite, then the equipment should be serviced and any extra equipment or spares ordered prior to the next job. The tubulars should be back-loaded as soon as possible after completion of the job to minimise exposure to the environment. Use tubular rack or boxes as for transportation to the rig.

7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

7.6 7.7

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Index Prefixes
0000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Safety and Administration Drilling Casing and Tubing Cementing Drilling Fluids Wellheads, Packers, Tools and Equipment Stuck Pipe and Fishing Well Evaluation Marine and Miscellaneous

Index Suffixes
MST GEN SEM JAK FIX FOR CLY BEA MAG THI MIL DON BRU MAR RAV AME WYF HAR Master Index and User Guide General Semi-Submersible Drilling Units Jack-Up Drilling Units Fixed Drilling Units Forties Clyde Beatrice Magnus Thistle Miller Don Bruce Marnock Ravenspurn Amethyst Wytch Farm Harding

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS


SUBJECT: MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

Section
3000 3000/GEN 3010/GEN 3020/GEN 3030/GEN 3040/GEN 3050/GEN 3100/JAK 3100/FIX 3100/SEM 3200/SEM 3200/FIX 3210/FIX 3300/GEN 3350/GEN 3450/GEN 3500/GEN 3550/GEN

Description
CEMENTING Cementing - General Cementing - Responsibilities Cementing - Pre-Job Checklist Cementing - Operations Checklist Cementing - Programme Checklist Cementing - Cement and Additives 30" Cementation Using Stab-In Technique 30" Cementation - Fixed Installations Run/Drill/Run/Cement 30" Conductor and Top-Up Cementations 20"/18.5/8" Cementation 20"/18.5/8" Cementation Using Stab-In Technique 20"/18.5/8" Cementation Using a Casing Pack-Off 13.3/8" Cementation 9.5/8" Cementation 7" Liner Cementation and Clean-Out 5"/4.1/2" Liner Cementation and Clean-Out Liner Pressure Testing

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

3560/GEN 3600/GEN 3610/GEN 3650/GEN 3750/GEN 3780/GEN 3800/GEN

Liner Drawdown Testing Cement Plugs Parabow Cementing Tool Squeeze Cementing Losses During Cementation Cement Contaminated Oil Based Mud Evaluation of Primary Cementing

UK Operations GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

SUBJECT:

MASTER INDEX OF GUIDELINES FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

3100/AME 3200/AME 3200/WYF

30"/27" Conductor Cementation 20" Cementation Using Stab-In Technique - Amethyst 18.5/8" Cementation Using an Inner String Method - Wytch Farm 13.3/8" Cementation - Amethyst 13.3/8" Cementation Using an Inner String Method - Wytch Farm 9.5/8" Cementation - Amethyst 9.5/8" Two Stage Cementation - Wytch Farm 7" Liner Cementation and Clean-Out - Amethyst 4.1/2" Liner Cementation and Clean-Out - Amethyst 5.1/2" Liner Cementation and Displacement of Liner and 9.5/8" - Wytch Farm Liner Cement Cleanout - Wytch Farm Post Perforation Cleanout - Wytch Farm

3300/AME 3310/WYF

3350/AME 3350/WYF 3450/AME 3500/AME 3500/WYF

3510/WYF 3520/WYF

NOTE: Sections highlighted in bold are those sections which have been modified (or inserted for the first time) in the most recent amendment to this Guidelines for Drilling Operations. Within each such section, the newly modified parts are identified by the bold black marker line on the right side of the text. A brief resume of the changes is provided at the end of this MST section. Sections underlined are those items which are available within this version of Acrobat.

BP EXPLORATION

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SUBJECT:
1.1

Page

CEMENTING: GENERAL

The following cementing section provides details of cements, additives, slurry designs and cementing procedures. Particular attention should be paid to the section on responsibilities and to the handling and packaging of materials for testing. The Drilling Supervisor/Engineer should consult the cementing flowchart, page 4. The flowchart will assist the planning and successful execution of the cement job. It is standard practice to use a cementing kelly for all SSR jobs. This assists in handling the surface equipment and allows the casing running tool to be backed out with the rotary.

1.2

Planning The success of a cement job will be dependent upon the