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Publicado porshivkumar1587
about the leaf spring
about the leaf spring

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Published by: shivkumar1587 on Oct 15, 2009
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Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs with wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall
be used for the production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over
10 mm. Compression springs are usually made of wires and rods of round section. Springs of
rectangular wire are most often used in applications where low constructional height of the
spring (springs with b>h) is required together with relatively high load.

Specific properties

•suitable for low and medium load forces

•linear working characteristics

•relatively low spring constant

•easy mounting and dismantling

•low production costs

Basic relations for spring calculation

Springs of round wire

Springs of rectangular wire

where:
c ... spring index (c=D/d; c=D/b) [-]
b ... wire width [mm, in]
d ... wire diameter [mm, in]
D ... mean spring diameter [mm, in]
F ... loading of spring [N, lb]
G ... modulus of elasticity in shear [MPa, psi]
h ... wire height [mm, in]
k ... spring constant [N/mm, lb/in]
Ks ... curvature correction factor [-]
L0 ... free spring length [mm, in]
LS ... solid length [mm, in]
n ... number of active coils [-]
p ... pitch between coils [mm, in]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
ε,ψ ... shape coefficient [-] (e.g. DIN 2090)
τ ... torsional stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]

Curvature correction factor
The coil bending causes additional bending stresses in coil springs. Therefore the calculation
uses the correction coefficient to correct the tension.
For springs of round section wire, the correction coefficient is determined with the given spring
coiling ratio by several empirically defined formulas (Wahl, Bergsträsserr, Göhner, ...). This
calculation uses the following relation:

For springs of rectangular section wire, the correction coefficient is determined for the given
spring index and b/h ratio from appropriate nomograms. In this calculation the correction
coefficient is already included in the shape coefficient ψ.

Recommended spring dimensions

cold formed

hot formed

spring index c

4 - 16

3 - 12

outer diameter

De

max. 350 mm

max. 460 mm

number of active

min. 2

min. 3

coils n
ratio b/h

1:5 - 5:1

free length L0

max. 1000 mm

slenderness ratio

L0/D

1 - 10

pitch p

(0.3 - 0.6) D; min. 1.5 d

Design of spring ends

In case of compression springs, several various designs of spring ends are used. These differ in
numbers of ends and machined coils and designs of supporting surfaces of the springs.
oEnd coils are edge coils of the spring, co-axial with the active coils, whose angle pitch
does not change during functional deformation of the spring. End coils create a supporting
surface for the spring and with compression springs, one end coil is usually used at both
ends of the spring.

oGround coils are edge coils of the spring, machined to a flat surface perpendicular to the
spring axis. Usually machined from three-fourths of half of the end coil up to its free end.
Machined coils are commonly used only with springs with diameters of wires d > 1 mm.

The most common types of spring end designs

A.Open ends not ground : the edge coil is not bent to the next one, the supporting surface is
unmachined

B.Open ends ground : the edge coil is not bent to the next one, the supporting surface is
machined to a flat end perpendicular to the spring axis

C.Closed ends not ground : the edge coil is bent to the next one (it usually adjoins its free
end), the supporting surface is unmachined

D.Closed ends ground : the edge coil is bent to the next one, the supporting surface of the
spring is machined

Check of buckling

In case of compression springs, it is always necessary to check its protection against side
deflection. The check is performed by comparison of the maximum working deformation of the
spring with the permitted deformation. The value of the permitted deformation is determined
empirically for the given slenderness ratio of the spring L0/D and the type of seating of the
spring. Generally, the risk of possible side deflection increases with an increasing value of the
slenderness ratio and increasing value of the working compression of the spring. The manner of
seating of the spring has a significant effect on its possible side deflection.

A.Fixed - free ends

B.Pinned - pinned ends

C.Clamped - clamped ends with lateral restraint

D.Clamped - pinned ends

E.Clamped - clamped ends without lateral restraint

A spring which cannot be designed as secured against side deflection is usually installed on a pin
or inside a sleeve. If there is a danger of damage of the spring due to friction, the spring can be
divided into several shorter springs arranged in series.

Curves of permitted deformation according to the type of seating of the spring

Helical conical compression springs

Springs of conical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs with wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall
be used for the production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over
10 mm. Conical springs are usually used if the spring constant is to rise together with its
progressing compression.

Specific properties

•suitable for low and medium load forces

•nonlinear (progressive) working characteristics

•relatively low spring constant

•easy mounting and dismantling

•low production costs

Basic relations for spring calculation

With increasing compression of the conical spring, its active coils are brought into contact with
adjacent coils gradually (first the coils with the largest diameter). These coils then do not
participate in further compression of the spring which results in gradual increase in the spring
constant. Working characteristics can therefore be divided into two areas:

I.Working area with linear characteristics (invariable spring constant) - F

II.Working area with progressive characteristics – after the contact of the first (largest)
active coil - F>FC

The limit force FC depends on the pitch between the coils p, i.e. also on the selected size of free
spring length L0. The limit force FC increases together with increasing spring length and the
working area with linear spring constant rises.

Springs of round wire

Springs of rectangular wire

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