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gb spring

gb spring

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Publicado porshivkumar1587
about the leaf spring
about the leaf spring

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Published by: shivkumar1587 on Oct 15, 2009
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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De .. outside diameter [mm, in]
Di .. inside diameter [mm, in]
E ... modulus of elasticity in tension [MPa, psi]
F ... spring force [N, lb]
FS ... force of fully compressed spring [mm, in]
FT ... total force of set [mm, in]
h ... disc height [mm, in]
h0 ... inside height of disc (h0=h-t) [mm, in]
i ... no. of sets (disc) in series in a stack [-]
k ... spring rate [N/mm, lb/in]
kT ... total stiffness of set [N/mm, lb/in]
K1, K2, K3 .. shape coefficient [-]
L0 ... free spring length [mm, in]
LS ... solid length [mm, in]
n ... no. of parallel discs in a set [-]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
sT ... total deflection o set [mm, in]
t ... material thickness [mm, in]
δ ... diameter ratio (δ=De/Di) [-]
µ ... Poisson's ratio [-]
σOM, σI, σII, σIII, σIV ... material stress in the given point of the spring [MPa, psi]

Recommended spring dimensions

diameter ratio De/Di

1.75 - 2.5

relative height h0/t

0.4 - 1.4

ratio De/t

16 - 40

no. of parallel discs n

max. 3

no. of sets (disc) in
series i

max. 20

total number of disc


max. 30

slenderness ratio


max. 3


Friction has a significant effect on the function of the Belleville spring. Loading of the spring
develops friction on the contact surface (edges) of the spring. In the case of parallel
arrangement of the springs there is also surface friction between the discs. The effects of friction
result in an increase of force during the loading and decrease of force during relieving of the

Effects of friction on the loading of the spring

single spring

± 2...3 %

2 parallel arranged

± 4...6 %

3 parallel arranged

± 6...9 %

4 parallel arranged

± 8...12 %

5 parallel arranged

± 10...15 %

The amount of friction depends on many factors (spring design, material, surface treatment,
number of springs in the set, lubricant type, etc.). Its impact on the spring loading cannot be
theoretically exactly determined. The following formula is used to determine the approximate
corrected force of the spring:

µM .. coefficient of surface friction [-]
µR .. coefficient of edge friction[-]
- .... on loading
+ ... on unloading

Approximate values of friction coefficients

Spring type




0.003 -

0.02 -

with machined contact


0.002 -

0.01 -

Springs with machined contact flats

Springs of larger sizes (t > 6 mm) are sometimes made with machined contact flats. Formulas
for the calculation of these springs are slightly different and they can be found e.g. in DIN 2092.

Helical cylindrical tension springs

Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external axial forces counter-acting from each other. Springs with
wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the
production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over 10 mm. Tension
springs are usually made of wires and rods of round section. Springs made of rectangular wire
are used very rarely.
With regards to the considerable effects of the shape and design of fixing eyes on reduction of
the spring's service life and impossibility of perfect shot peening of the spring, it is not advisable
to use tension springs exposed to fatigue loading. If it is necessary to use a tension spring with
fatigue loading, it is advisable to avoid use of fixing eyes and choose another type of fixing of the

Specific properties

•suitable for low and medium load forces

•less suitable for cyclic (fatigue) load

•linear working characteristics

•relatively low spring constant

•easy mounting and dismantling

•low production costs

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