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Fender Design

Section 12

Trelleborg Marine Systems


Ship Tables Berthing Modes Coefcients Berth Layout Panel Design Materials Fender Testing

www.trelleborg.com/marine
Ref. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN

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FENDER DESIGN
Fenders must reliably protect ships, structures and themselves. They must work every day for many years in severe environments with little or no maintenance. As stated in the British Standard, fender design should be entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people. Fender engineering requires an understanding of many areas: B B B B B B B B Ship technology Civil construction methods Steel fabrications Material properties Installation techniques Health and safety Environmental factors Regulations and codes of practice

Using this guide


This guide should assist with many of the frequently asked questions which arise during fender design. All methods described are based on the latest recommendations of PIANC* as well as other internationally recognised codes of practice. Methods are also adapted to working practices within Trelleborg and to suit Trelleborg products. Further design tools and utilities including generic specifications, energy calculation spreadsheets, fender performance curves and much more can be downloaded from the Trelleborg Marine Systems website (www.trelleborg.com/marine).

Codes and guidelines


ROM 0.2-90 1990 Actions in the Design of Maritime and Harbor Works Code of Practice for Design of Fendering and Mooring Systems Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures Approach Channels A Guide to Design Supplement to Bulletin No.95 (1997) PIANC Technical Note of the Port and Harbour Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Japan No. 911, Sept 1998 Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems : 2002 Marcom Report of WG33

BS6349 :

Part 4 : 1994

1994

Exceptions
These guidelines do not encompass unusual ships, extreme berthing conditions and other extreme cases for which specialist advice should be sought.

EAU 1996

1996

PIANC Bulletin 95

1997

Japanese MoT 911

1998

* PIANC 2002

2002

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GLOSSARY Commonly used symbols


Symbol B C CB CC CE CM CS D EN EA FL FS H K KC LOA LBP LS LL M M50 M75 MD P R RF V VB Definition Beam of vessel (excluding beltings and strakes) Positive clearance between hull of vessel and face of structure Block coefficient of vessels hull Berth configuration coefficient Eccentricity coefficient Added mass coefficient (virtual mass coefficient) Softness coefficient Draft of vessel Normal berthing energy to be absorbed by fender Abnormal berthing energy to be absorbed by fender Freeboard at laden draft Abnormal impact safety factor Height of compressible part of fender Radius of gyration of vessel Under keel clearance Overall length of vessels hull Length of vessels hull between perpendiculars Overall length of the smallest vessel using the berth Overall length of the largest vessel using the berth Displacement of the vessel Displacement of the vessel at 50% confidence limit Displacement of the vessel at 75% confidence limit Displacement of vessel Fender pitch or spacing Distance from point of contact to the centre of mass of the vessel Reaction force of fender Velocity of vessel (true vector) Approach velocity of the vessel perpendicular to the berthing line Berthing angle Deflection of the fender unit Hull contact angle with fender Coefficient of friction Velocity vector angle (between R and V) Units m m m kNm kNm m m m m m m m m tonne tonne tonne tonne m m kN m/s m/s degree % or m degree degree

Denitions
Rubber fender Pneumatic fender Foam fender Steel Panel Units made from vulcanised rubber (often with encapsulated steel plates) that absorbs energy by elastically deforming in compression, bending or shear or a combination of these effects. Units comprising fabric reinforced rubber bags filled with air under pressure and that absorb energy from the work done in compressing the air above its normal initial pressure. Units comprising a closed cell foam inner core with reinforced polymer outer skin that absorb energy by virtue of the work done in compressing the foam. A structural steel frame designed to distribute the forces generated during rubber fender compression.

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WHY FENDER?
There is a simple reason to use fenders: it is just too expensive not to do so. These are the opening remarks of PIANC* and remain the primary reason why every modern port invests in protecting their structures with fenders. Well-designed fender systems will reduce construction costs and will contribute to making the berth more efficient by improving turn-around times. It follows that the longer a fender system lasts and the less maintenance it needs, the better the investment. It is rare for the very cheapest fenders to offer the lowest long term cost. Quite the opposite is true. A small initial saving will often demand much greater investment in repairs and upkeep over the years. A cheap fender system can cost many times that of a well-engineered, higher quality solution over the lifetime of the berth as the graphs below demonstrate.

10 reasons for quality fendering


B B B B B B B B B B Safety of staff, ships and structures Much lower lifecycle costs Rapid, trouble-free installation Quicker turnaround time, greater efficiency Reduced maintenance and repair Berths in more exposed locations Better ship stability when moored Lower structural loads Accommodate more ship types and sizes More satisfied customers

Capital costs
180 160 700

Maintenance costs

Other costs

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

500

400

300

Purchase price

200

org Trelleb

100

Trelleborg

Other

10

20 30 Service life (years) Wear & tear + Replacements + Damage repairs + Removal & scrapping + Fatigue, corrosion = Maintenance cost

Oth
40

er
50
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600

Purchase price + Design approvals + Delivery delays + Installation time + Site support = Capital cost

Capital cost + Maintenance cost = FULL LIFE COST

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DESIGN FLOWCHART
Functional
B type(s) of cargo B safe berthing and mooring B better stability on berth B reduction of reaction force

Operational
B berthing procedures B frequency of berthing B limits of mooring and operations (adverse weather) B range of vessel sizes, types B special features of vessels (flare, beltings, list, etc) B allowable hull pressures B light, laden or partly laden ships B stand-off from face of structure (crane reach) B fender spacing B type and orientation of waterfront structure B special requirements B spares availability

Site conditions
B wind speed B wave height B current speed B topography B tidal range B swell and fetch B temperature B corrosivity B channel depth

Design criteria
B B B B B B codes and standards design vessels for calculations normal/abnormal velocity maximum reaction force friction coefficient desired service life B B B B B safety factors (normal/abnormal) maintenance cost/frequency installation cost/practicality chemical pollution accident response

Design criteria

Calculation of berthing energy


CM virtual mass factor CE eccentricity factor CC berth configuration factor CS softness factor

Mooring layout
B location of mooring B strength and type B pre-tensioning of equipment and/or dolphins of mooring lines mooring lines

Calculation of fender energy absorption


B selection of abnormal berthing safety factor

Assume fender system and type Computer simulation (first series)

Selection of appropriate fenders Check results Determination of:


B energy absorption B reaction force B deflection B environmental factors B frictional loads B angular compression B chains etc B hull pressure B check vessel motions in six degrees of freedom B check vessel acceleration B check deflection, energy and reaction force B check mooring line forces

Check impact on structure and vessel


B horizontal and vertical loading B chance of hitting the structure (bulbous bows etc) B face of structure to accommodate fender B implications of installing the fender B bevels/snagging from hull protrusions B restraint chains

Computer simulation (optimisation)

Final selection of fender


B determine main characteristics of fender B PIANC Type Approved B verification test methods B B B B check availability of fender track record and warranties future spares availability fatigue/durability tests

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THE DESIGN PROCESS


Many factors contribute to the design of a fender:

Ships
Ship design evolves constantly shapes change and many vessel types are getting larger. Fenders must suit current ships and those expected to arrive in the foreseeable future.

Structures
Fenders impose loads on the berthing structure. Many berths are being built in exposed locations, where fenders can play a crucial role in the overall cost of construction. Local practice, materials and conditions may influence the choice of fender.

Berthing
Many factors will affect how vessels approach the berth, the corresponding kinetic energy and the load applied to the structure. Berthing modes may affect the choice of ship speed and the safety factor for abnormal conditions.

Installation and maintenance


Fender installation should be considered early in the design process. Accessibility for maintenance, wear allowances and the protective coatings will all affect the full life cost of systems. The right fender choice can improve turnaround times and reduce downtime. The safety of personnel, structures and vessels must be considered at every stage before, during and after commissioning.

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ENVIRONMENT
Typical berthing locations
Berthing structures are located in a variety of places from sheltered basins to unprotected, open waters. Local conditions will play a large part in deciding the berthing speeds and approach angles, in turn affecting the type and size of suitable fenders.

Non-tidal basins
With minor changes in water level, these locations are usually sheltered from strong winds, waves and currents. Ship sizes may be restricted due to lock access.

Tidal basins
Larger variations in water level (depends on location) but still generally sheltered from winds, waves and currents. May be used by larger vessels than non-tidal basins.

Coastal berths
Maximum exposure to winds, waves and currents. Berths generally used by single classes of vessel such as oil, gas or bulk.

River berths
Largest tidal range (depends on site), with greater exposure to winds, waves and currents. Approach mode may be restricted by dredged channels and by flood and ebb tides. Structures on river bends may complicate berthing manoeuvres.

Tides
Tides vary by area and may have extremes of a few centimetres (Mediterranean, Baltic) or over 15 metres (parts of UK and Canada). Tides will influence the structures design and fender selection.
HRT HAT MHWS MHWN MLWN MLWS LAT LRT Highest Recorded Tide Highest Astronomical Tide Mean High Water Spring Mean High Water Neap Mean Low Water Neap Mean Low Water Spring Lowest Astronomical Tide Lowest Recorded Tide
HRT HAT
MHWS MHWN

Currents and winds


Current and wind forces can push vessels onto or off the berth, and may influence the berthing speed. Once berthed, and provided the vessel contacts several fenders, the forces are usually less critical. However special cases do exist, especially on very soft structures. As a general guide, deep draught vessels (such as tankers) will be more affected by current and high freeboard vessels (such as RoRo and container ships) will be more affected by strong winds.

MSL MLWN MLWS LAT LRT

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STRUCTURES
The preferred jetty structure can influence the fender design and vice versa. The type of structure depends on local practice, the geology at the site, available materials and other factors. Selecting an appropriate fender at an early stage can have a major effect on the overall project cost. Below are some typical structures and fender design considerations.

Features Open pile jetties


B Simple and cost-effective B Good for deeper waters B Load-sensitive B Limited fixing area for fenders B Vulnerable to bulbous bows

Design considerations
B Low reaction reduces pile sizes and concrete mass B Best to keep fixings above piles and low tide B Suits cantilever panel designs

Dolphins

B Common for oil and gas terminals B Very load-sensitive B Flexible structures need careful design to match fender loads B Structural repairs are costly

B Few but large fenders B Total reliability needed B Low reactions preferred B Large panels for low hull pressures need chains etc

Monopiles

B Inexpensive structures B Loads are critical B Not suitable for all geologies B Suits remote locations B Quick to construct

B Fenders should be designed for fast installation B Restricted access means low maintenance fenders B Low reactions must be matched to structure B Parallel motion systems

Mass structures

B Most common in areas with small tides B Fender reaction not critical B Avoid fixings spanning pre-cast and in situ sections or expansion joints

B Keep anchors above low tide B Care needed selecting fender spacing and projection B Suits cast-in or retrofit anchors B Many options for fender types

Sheet piles

B Quick to construct B Mostly used in low corrosion regions B In situ concrete copes are common B Can suffer from ALWC (accelerated low water corrosion)

B Fixing fenders direct to piles difficult due to build tolerances B Keep anchors above low tide B Care needed selecting fender spacing and projection

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SHIP TYPES
General cargo ship B B B B Bulk carrier B B B B Container ship Need to be close to berth face to minimise shiploader outreach. Possible need to warp ships along berth for shiploader to change holds. Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions. Require low hull contact pressures unless belted. Prefer small gaps between ship and quay to minimise outreach of cranes. Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions. May occupy berths for long periods. Coastal cargo vessels may berth without tug assistance.

B B B B B

Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures. Increasing ship beams needs increase crane outreach. Some vessels have single or multiple beltings. Bulbous bows may strike front piles of structures at large berthing angles. Require low hull contact pressures unless belted.

Oil tanker B B B B RoRo ship Need to avoid fire hazards from sparks or friction. Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions. Require low hull contact pressures. Coastal tankers may berth without tug assistance.

B B B B B

Ships have own loading ramps usually stern, slewed or side doors. High lateral and/or transverse berthing speeds. Manoeuvrability at low speeds may be poor. End berthing impacts often occur. Many different shapes, sizes and condition of beltings.

Passenger (cruise) ship B B B B Ferry Small draft change between laden and empty. White or light coloured hulls are easily marked. Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures. Require low hull contact pressures unless belted.

B B B B B B B B B B

Quick turn around needed. High berthing speeds, often with end berthing. Intensive use of berth. Berthing without tug assistance. Many different shapes, sizes and condition of beltings.

Gas carrier

Need to avoid fire hazards from sparks or friction. Shallow draft even at full load. Require low hull contact pressures. Single class of vessels using dedicated facilities. Manifolds not necessarily at midships position.

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SHIP FEATURES
Bow flares Common on container vessels and cruise ships. Big flare angles may affect fender performance. Larger fender may be required to maintain clearance from the quay structure, cranes, etc. Most modern ships have bulbous bows. Care is needed at large berthing angles or with widely spaced fenders to ensure the bulbous bow does not catch behind the fender or hit structural piles. Almost every class of ship could be fitted with beltings or strakes. They are most common on RoRo ships or ferries, but may even appear on container ships or gas carriers. Tugs and offshore supply boats have very large beltings. Cruise and RoRo ships often have flying bridges. In locks, or when tides are large, care is needed to avoid the bridge sitting on top of the fender during a falling tide. Barges, small tankers and general cargo ships can have a small freeboard. Fenders should extend down so that vessels cannot catch underneath at low tides and when fully laden. RoRo ships, car carriers and some navy vessels have large doors for vehicle access. These are often recessed and can snag fenders especially in locks or when warping along the berth. Ships with high freeboard include ferries, cruise and container ships, as well as many lightly loaded vessels. Strong winds can cause sudden, large increases in berthing speeds. Many modern ships, but especially tankers and gas carriers, require very low hull contact pressures, which are achieved using large fender panels or floating fenders. High speed catamarans and monohulls are often built from aluminium. They can only accept loads from fenders at special positions: usually reinforced beltings set very low or many metres above the waterline. Many ships are modified during their lifetime with little regard to the effect these changes may have on berthing or fenders. Protrusions can snag fenders but risks are reduced by large bevels and chamfers on the frontal panels.

Bulbous bows

Beltings & strakes

Flying bridge

Low freeboard

Stern & side doors

High freeboard

Low hull pressure

Aluminium hulls

Special features

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BERTHING MODES
Side berthing

Typical values

0 15 100mm/s V 300mm/s

V
Dolphin berthing

60 90

Tug

Typical values

V
End berthing

0 10 100mm/s V 200mm/s 30 90

Typical values 0 10 200mm/s V 500mm/s 0 10

Lock entrances

Typical values 0 30 300mm/s V 2000mm/s 0 30

Ship-to-ship berthing

Typical values 0 15 150mm/s V 500mm/s

60 90

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BERTHING ENERGY
The kinetic energy of a berthing ship needs to be absorbed by a suitable fender system and this is most commonly carried out using well recognised deterministic methods as outlined in the following sections.

Normal Berthing Energy (EN)


Most berthings will have energy less than or equal to the normal berthing energy (EN). The calculation should take into account worst combinations of vessel displacement, velocity, angle as well as the various coefficients. Allowance should also be made for how often the berth is used, any tidal restrictions, experience of the operators, berth type, wind and current exposure. The normal energy to be absorbed by the fender can be calculated as:

EN = 0.5 M VB2 CM CE CC CS
Where, EN = Normal berthing energy to be absorbed by the fender (kNm) M = Mass of the vessel (displacement in tonne) at chosen confidence level.* VB = Approach velocity component perpendicular to the berthing line (m/s). CM = Added mass coefficient CE = Eccentricity coefficient CC = Berth configuration coefficient CS = Softness coefficient * PIANC suggests 50% or 75% confidence limits (M50 or M75) are appropriate to most cases. Berthing velocity (VB) is usually based on displacement at 50% confidence limit (M50).

Abnormal Berthing Energy (EA)


Abnormal impacts arise when the normal energy is exceeded. Causes may include human error, malfunctions, exceptional weather conditions or a combination of these factors. The abnormal energy to be absorbed by the fender can be calculated as:

PIANC Factors of Safety (FS)


Vessel type Tanker, bulk, cargo Size Largest Smallest Largest Smallest FS 1.25 1.75 1.5 2.0 1.75 2.0 2.0

EA = FS EN
Where, EA = Abnormal berthing energy to be absorbed by the fender (kNm) FS = Safety factor for abnormal berthings Choosing a suitable safety factor (FS) will depend on many factors: B B B B B B The consequences a fender failure may have on berth operations. How frequently the berth is used. Very low design berthing speeds which might easily be exceeded. Vulnerability to damage of the supporting structure. Range of vessel sizes and types using the berth. Hazardous or valuable cargoes including people.

Container General cargo RoRo, ferries Tugs, workboats, etc

Source: PIANC 2002; Table 4.2.5. PIANC recommends that the factor of abnormal impact when derived should be not be less than 1.1 nor more than 2.0 unless exception circumstances prevail. Source: PIANC 2002; Section 4.2.8.5.

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SHIP DEFINITIONS
Many different definitions are used to describe ship sizes and classes. Some of the more common descriptions are given below.
Vessel Type Small feeder Feeder Panamax1 Post-Panamax Super post-Panamax (VLCS) Suezmax 2 Seaway-Max3 Handysize Cape Size Very large bulk carrier (VLBC) Very large crude carrier (VLCC) Ultra large crude carrier (ULCC) 500m 70m 21.3m 233.5m 24.0m 9.1m 10,00040,000 dwt 130,000200,000 dwt >200,000 dwt 200,000300,000 dwt >300,000 dwt 2. Suez Canal The canal, connecting the Mediterranean and Red Sea, is about 163km long and varies from 80135m wide. It has no lock chambers but most of the canal has a single traffic lane with passing bays. Length Beam Draft 200m 23m 9m 215m 30m 10m 290m 32.3m 12m 305m >32.3m 13m DWT Comments 1st Generation container <1,000 teu 2nd Generation container 1,0002,500 teu 3rd Generation container 2,5005,000 teu 4th Generation container 5,0008,000 teu 5th Generation container >8,000 teu All vessel types in Suez Canal All vessel types in St Lawrence Seaway Bulk carrier Bulk carrier Bulk carrier Oil tanker Oil tanker 3. St Lawrence Seaway The seaway system allows ships to pass from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes via six short canals totalling 110km, with 19 locks, each 233m long, 24.4m wide and 9.1m deep.

1. Panama Canal Lock chambers are 305m long and 33.5m wide. The largest depth of the canal is 12.513.7m. The canal is about 86km long and passage takes eight hours.

The ship tables show laden draft (DL) of vessels. The draft of a partly loaded ship (D) can be estimated using the formula below: LWT

MD = LWT + DWT

DWT

=
MD D DL

DL LWT MD

DL (MD DWT) MD

USING SHIP TABLES


50% 75%
Ship tables originally appeared in PIANC 2002. They are divided into Confidence Limits (CL) which are defined as the proportion of ships of the same DWT with dimensions equal to or less than those in the table. PIANC considers 50% to 75% confidence limits are the most appropriate for design. Please ask Trelleborg Marine Systems for supplementary tables of latest and largest vessel types including Container, RoRo, Cruise and LNG.

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SHIP TABLES
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Type

DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 250000 7000 10000 15000 20000

Displacement M50 1580 3040 4460 7210 9900 13900 20300 26600 39000 51100 6740 9270 13000 19100 25000 36700 59600 81900 115000 168000 221000 273000 10200 14300 21100 27800 34300 40800 53700 66500 79100 1450 2810 4140 6740 9300 13100 19200 25300 37300 60800 83900 118000 174000 229000 337000

LOA 63 78 88 104 115 128 146 159 181 197 106 116 129 145 157 176 204 224 248 279 303 322 116 134 157 176 192 206 231 252 271 59 73 83 97 108 121 138 151 171 201 224 250 284 311 354

LBP 58 72 82 96 107 120 136 149 170 186 98 108 120 135 148 167 194 215 239 270 294 314 108 125 147 165 180 194 218 238 256 54 68 77 91 102 114 130 143 163 192 214 240 273 300 342

B 10.3 12.4 13.9 16.0 17.6 19.5 21.8 23.6 26.4 28.6 15.0 16.6 18.5 21.0 23.0 26.1 32.3 32.3 37.9 43.0 47.0 50.4 19.6 21.6 24.1 26.1 27.7 29.1 32.3 32.3 35.2 9.7 12.1 13.7 16.0 17.8 19.9 22.5 24.6 27.9 32.3 36.3 40.6 46.0 50.3 57.0

FL 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.1 3.5 3.7 2.3 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.8 5.3 5.9 6.6 7.2 7.8 2.4 3.0 3.9 4.6 5.2 5.8 6.8 7.7 8.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.6 3.1 3.7 4.9 5.7 6.8 8.3 9.4 11.4

DL 3.6 4.5 5.1 6.1 6.8 7.6 8.7 9.6 10.9 12.0 6.1 6.7 7.5 8.4 9.2 10.3 12.0 13.3 14.8 16.7 18.2 19.4 6.9 7.7 8.7 9.5 10.2 10.7 11.7 12.5 13.2 3.8 4.7 5.3 6.1 6.7 7.5 8.4 9.1 10.3 11.9 13.2 14.6 16.4 17.9 20.1

Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 227 348 447 612 754 940 1210 1440 1850 2210 615 710 830 980 1110 1320 1640 1890 2200 2610 2950 3240 1320 1690 2250 2750 3220 3660 4480 5230 5950 170 251 315 419 505 617 770 910 1140 1510 1830 2230 2800 3290 4120 292 463 605 849 1060 1340 1760 2130 2780 3370 850 1010 1230 1520 1770 2190 2870 3440 4150 5140 5990 6740 1360 1700 2190 2620 3010 3370 4040 4640 5200 266 401 509 689 841 1040 1320 1560 1990 2690 3280 4050 5150 6110 7770 59 94 123 173 216 274 359 435 569 690 205 232 264 307 341 397 479 542 619 719 800 868 300 373 478 569 652 729 870 990 1110 78 108 131 167 196 232 281 322 390 497 583 690 840 960 1160 88 134 172 236 290 361 463 552 709 846 231 271 320 387 443 536 682 798 940 1140 1310 1450 396 477 591 687 770 850 990 1110 1220 80 117 146 194 233 284 355 416 520 689 829 1010 1260 1480 1850

General cargo ship

Bulk carrier

Container ship

25000 30000 40000 50000 60000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000

Oil tanker

20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 300000

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SHIP TABLES
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Type

DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000

Displacement M50 1970 3730 5430 8710 11900 16500 24000 31300 45600 850 1580 2270 3580 4830 6640 9530 12300 17700 27900 37600 810 1600 2390 3940 5480 7770 11600 15300 22800 30300 2210 4080 5830 9100 12300 16900 24100 31100 44400 69700 94000 128000

LOA 66 85 99 119 135 153 178 198 229 60 76 87 104 117 133 153 169 194 231 260 59 76 88 106 119 135 157 174 201 223 68 84 95 112 124 138 157 171 194 227 252 282

LBP 60 78 90 109 123 141 163 182 211 54 68 78 92 103 116 132 146 166 197 220 54 69 80 97 110 125 145 162 188 209 63 78 89 104 116 130 147 161 183 216 240 268

B 13.2 15.6 17.2 19.5 21.2 23.1 25.6 27.4 30.3 11.4 13.6 15.1 17.1 18.6 20.4 22.5 24.2 26.8 30.5 33.1 12.7 15.1 16.7 19.0 20.6 22.6 25.0 26.8 29.7 31.9 11.1 13.7 15.4 17.9 19.8 22.0 24.8 27.1 30.5 35.5 39.3 43.7

FL 2.0 2.9 3.6 4.7 5.5 6.7 8.2 9.5 11.7 2.2 2.8 3.2 3.9 4.5 5.0 5.9 5.2 7.3 10.6 13.1 1.9 2.5 2.8 3.3 3.7 4.2 4.7 5.2 5.9 6.5 1.0 1.6 2.0 2.7 3.2 3.8 4.6 5.4 6.1 9.6 12.3 15.6

DL 3.2 4.1 4.8 5.8 6.6 7.5 8.7 9.7 11.3 1.9 2.5 3.0 3.6 4.1 4.8 5.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 2.7 3.3 3.7 4.3 4.8 5.3 6.0 6.5 7.4 8.0 4.3 5.2 5.8 6.7 7.4 8.2 9.3 10.0 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7

Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 700 970 1170 1480 1730 2040 2460 2810 3400 426 683 900 1270 1600 2040 2690 3270 4310 6090 7660 387 617 811 1150 1440 1830 2400 2920 3830 4660 350 535 686 940 1150 1430 1840 2190 2810 3850 4730 5880 810 1110 1340 1690 1970 2320 2790 3180 3820 452 717 940 1320 1650 2090 2740 3320 4350 6120 7660 404 646 851 1200 1510 1930 2540 3090 4070 4940 436 662 846 1150 1410 1750 2240 2660 3400 4630 5670 7030 216 292 348 435 503 587 701 794 950 167 225 267 332 383 446 530 599 712 880 1020 141 196 237 302 354 419 508 582 705 810 121 177 222 295 355 432 541 634 794 1050 1270 1550 217 301 364 464 544 643 779 890 1080 175 234 277 344 396 459 545 614 728 900 1040 145 203 247 316 372 442 537 618 752 860 139 203 254 335 403 490 612 716 894 1180 1420 1730

RoRo ship

7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000

Passenger (cruise) ship

10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000

Ferry 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 Gas carrier 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000

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SHIP TABLES
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Type

DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 250000 7000 10000 15000 20000

Displacement M75 1690 3250 4750 7690 10600 14800 21600 28400 41600 54500 6920 9520 13300 19600 25700 37700 61100 84000 118000 173000 227000 280000 10700 15100 22200 29200 36100 43000 56500 69900 83200 1580 3070 4520 7360 10200 14300 21000 27700 40800 66400 91600 129000 190000 250000 368000

LOA 67 83 95 111 123 137 156 170 193 211 109 120 132 149 161 181 209 231 255 287 311 332 123 141 166 186 203 218 244 266 286 61 76 87 102 114 127 144 158 180 211 235 263 298 327 371

LBP 62 77 88 104 115 129 147 161 183 200 101 111 124 140 152 172 200 221 246 278 303 324 115 132 156 175 191 205 231 252 271 58 72 82 97 108 121 138 151 173 204 227 254 290 318 363

B 10.8 13.1 14.7 16.9 18.6 20.5 23.0 24.9 27.8 30.2 15.5 17.2 19.2 21.8 23.8 27.0 32.3 32.3 39.2 44.5 48.7 52.2 20.3 22.4 25.0 27.1 28.8 30.2 32.3 32.3 36.5 10.2 12.6 14.3 16.8 18.6 20.8 23.6 25.8 29.2 32.3 38.0 42.5 48.1 42.6 59.7

FL 1.9 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.6 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.7 5.2 5.9 6.7 7.3 7.8 2.6 3.3 4.3 5.0 5.7 6.4 7.4 8.4 9.2 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.7 3.2 3.9 5.0 6.0 7.1 8.5 9.8 11.9

DL 3.9 4.9 5.6 6.6 7.4 8.3 9.5 10.4 11.9 13.0 6.2 6.9 7.7 8.6 9.4 10.6 12.4 13.7 15.2 17.1 18.6 19.9 7.2 8.0 9.0 9.9 10.6 11.1 12.2 13.0 13.8 4.0 4.9 5.5 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.9 9.6 10.9 12.6 13.9 15.4 17.4 18.9 21.2

Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 278 426 547 750 922 1150 1480 1760 2260 2700 689 795 930 1100 1240 1480 1830 2110 2460 2920 3300 3630 1460 1880 2490 3050 3570 4060 4970 5810 6610 190 280 351 467 564 688 860 1010 1270 1690 2040 2490 3120 3670 4600 342 541 708 993 1240 1570 2060 2490 3250 3940 910 1090 1320 1630 1900 2360 3090 3690 4460 5520 6430 7240 1590 1990 2560 3070 3520 3950 4730 5430 6090 280 422 536 726 885 1090 1390 1650 2090 2830 3460 4270 5430 6430 8180 63 101 132 185 232 294 385 466 611 740 221 250 286 332 369 428 518 586 669 777 864 938 330 410 524 625 716 800 950 1090 1220 86 119 144 184 216 255 309 355 430 548 642 761 920 1060 1280 93 142 182 249 307 382 490 585 750 895 245 287 340 411 470 569 723 846 1000 1210 1380 1540 444 535 663 771 870 950 1110 1250 1370 85 125 156 207 249 303 378 443 554 734 884 1080 1340 1570 1970

General cargo ship

Bulk carrier

Container ship

25000 30000 40000 50000 60000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000

Oil tanker

20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 300000

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1217
75%

SHIP TABLES
smaller larger

Type

DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000

Displacement M75 2190 4150 6030 9670 13200 18300 26700 34800 50600 1030 1910 2740 4320 5830 8010 11500 14900 21300 33600 45300 1230 2430 3620 5970 8310 11800 17500 23300 34600 45900 2480 4560 6530 10200 13800 18900 27000 34800 49700 78000 105000 144000

LOA 73 94 109 131 148 169 196 218 252 64 81 93 112 125 142 163 180 207 248 278 67 86 99 119 134 153 177 196 227 252 71 88 100 117 129 144 164 179 203 237 263 294

LBP 66 86 99 120 136 155 180 201 233 60 75 86 102 114 128 146 160 183 217 243 61 78 91 110 124 142 164 183 212 236 66 82 93 109 121 136 154 169 192 226 251 281

B 14.0 16.6 18.3 20.7 22.5 24.6 27.2 29.1 32.2 12.1 14.4 16.0 18.2 19.8 21.6 23.9 25.7 28.4 32.3 35.2 14.3 17.0 18.8 21.4 23.2 25.4 28.1 30.2 33.4 35.9 11.7 14.3 16.1 18.8 20.8 23.1 26.0 28.4 32.0 37.2 41.2 45.8

FL 2.7 3.9 4.7 6.1 7.3 8.8 10.7 12.4 15.2 2.3 2.9 3.4 4.2 4.7 5.3 6.2 7.3 9.8 13.7 16.6 2.1 2.6 2.9 3.5 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.5 6.2 6.9 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.6 3.2 3.9 4.8 5.5 6.7 10.5 13.4 16.9

DL 3.5 4.5 5.3 6.4 7.2 8.2 9.6 10.7 12.4 2.6 3.4 4.0 4.8 5.5 6.4 7.5 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 3.4 4.2 4.8 5.5 6.1 6.8 7.6 8.3 9.4 10.2 4.6 5.7 6.4 7.4 8.1 9.0 10.1 11.0 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.3

Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 880 1210 1460 1850 2170 2560 3090 3530 4260 464 744 980 1390 1740 2220 2930 3560 4690 6640 8350 411 656 862 1220 1530 1940 2550 3100 4070 4950 390 597 765 1050 1290 1600 2050 2450 3140 4290 5270 6560 970 1320 1590 2010 2350 2760 3320 3780 4550 486 770 1010 1420 1780 2250 2950 3570 4680 6580 8230 428 685 903 1280 1600 2040 2690 3270 4310 5240 465 707 903 1230 1510 1870 2390 2840 3630 4940 6050 7510 232 314 374 467 541 632 754 854 1020 187 251 298 371 428 498 592 669 795 990 1140 154 214 259 330 387 458 555 636 771 880 133 195 244 323 389 474 593 696 870 1150 1390 1690 232 323 391 497 583 690 836 960 1160 197 263 311 386 444 516 611 690 818 1010 1170 158 221 269 344 405 482 586 673 819 940 150 219 273 361 434 527 658 770 961 1270 1530 1860

RoRo ship

7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000

Passenger (cruise) ship

10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000

Ferry 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 Gas carrier 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000

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APPROACH VELOCITY (VB)


Berthing speeds depend on the ease or difficulty of the approach, the exposure of the berth and the vessels size. Conditions are normally divided into five categories as shown in the charts key table. The most widely used guide to approach speeds is the Brolsma table, adopted by BS1, PIANC2 and other standards. For ease of use, speeds for the main vessel sizes are shown at the bottom of this page.

0.8
a b c d e Berthing condition Easy berthing, sheltered Difficult berthing, sheltered Easy berthing, exposed Good berthing, exposed Difficult berthing, exposed

0.7 e Approach velocity, VB (m/s) 0.6 d 0.5 c

VB

0.4

most commonly used conditions b

0.3

0.2 a 0.1 USE WITH CAUTION 0 1,000 10,000 Deadweight (DWT)*


* PIANC suggests using DWT from 50% or 75% confidence limit ship tables.

100,000

500,000

Velocity, VB (m/s) DWT 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 a 0.179 0.151 0.136 0.125 0.117 0.094 0.074 0.064 0.057 0.052 0.039 0.028 0.022 0.019 0.017 b 0.343 0.296 0.269 0.250 0.236 0.192 0.153 0.133 0.119 0.110 0.083 0.062 0.052 0.045 0.041 c 0.517 0.445 0.404 0.374 0.352 0.287 0.228 0.198 0.178 0.164 0.126 0.095 0.080 0.071 0.064 d 0.669 0.577 0.524 0.487 0.459 0.377 0.303 0.264 0.239 0.221 0.171 0.131 0.111 0.099 0.090 e 0.865 0.726 0.649 0.597 0.558 0.448 0.355 0.308 0.279 0.258 0.201 0.158 0.137 0.124 0.115

B Approach velocities less than 0.1m/s should be used with caution. B Values are for tug-assisted berthing. B Spreadsheets for calculating the approach velocity and berthing energy are available at www.trelleborg.com/marine . B Actual berthing velocities can be measured, displayed and recorded using a SmartDock Docking Aid System (DAS) by Harbour Marine. Harbour Marine is part of Trelleborg Marine Systems.

Caution: low berthing speeds are easily exceeded.

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BLOCK COEFFICIENT (CB)


The block coefficient (CB) is a function of the hull shape and is expressed as follows:

CB =

MD LBP B D SW

Typical block coefcients (CB)


Container vessels General cargo and bulk carriers Tankers Ferries RoRo vessels Source: PIANC 2002; Table 4.2.2 0.60.8 0.720.85 0.85 0.550.65 0.70.8

where, MD = displacement of vessel (t) LBP = length between perpendiculars (m) B = beam (m) D = draft (m) SW = seawater density 1.025t/m3

Given ship dimensions and using typical block coefficients, the displacement can be estimated: MD CB LBP B D SW

LBP

ADDED MASS COEFFICIENT (CM)


B The added mass coefficient allows for the body of water carried along with the ship as it moves sideways through the water. As the ship is stopped by the fender, the entrained water continues to push against the ship, effectively increasing its overall mass. The Vasco Costa method is adopted by most design codes for ship-to-shore berthing where water depths are not substantially greater than vessel drafts.
PIANC (2002) Shigera Ueda (1981)

Quay

VB

D KC

Vasco Costa* (1964)

for

KC D

0.1 KC D

CM = 1.8

for 0.1

0.5

CM = 1.875 0.75

KC D

CM =

D 2 CB B

2D CM = 1 + B

for

KC D

0.5

CM = 1.5

where, D = draft of vessel (m) B = beam of vessel (m) LBP = length between perpendiculars (m) KC = under keel clearance (m)

* valid where VB 0.08m/s, KC 0.1D

Special case longitudinal approach

CM = 1.1 Recommended by PIANC.

1219

1220

ECCENTRICITY COEFFICIENT (CE)


LBP y x R B 2 berthing line VB V VL VL = longitudinal velocity component (forward or astern) The Eccentricity Coefficient allows for the energy dissipated by rotation of the ship about its point of impact with the fenders. The correct point of impact, berthing angle and velocity vector angle are all important for accurate calculation of the eccentricity coefficient. In practice, CE often varies between 0.3 and 1.0 for different berthing cases. Velocity (V) is not always perpendicular to the berthing line.

x+y=

LBP 2 B 2

(assuming the centre of mass is at mid-length of the ship)


2

R=

y2 +

Common berthing cases


Quarter-point berthing

K = (0.19 CB + 0.11) LBP x=

CE =

K2 + R2cos2 K2 + R2

LBP 4

CE 0.40.6

Third-point berthing x= LBP 3 CE 0.60.8

where, B = beam (m) CB = block coefficient LBP = length between perpendiculars (m) R = centre of mass to point of impact (m) K = radius of gyration (m)

Midships berthing x= LBP 2 CE 1.0

Caution: for < 10, CE 1.0


Lock entrances and guiding fenders V R V
a Where the ship has a significant forward motion, PIANC suggests that the ships speed parallel to the berthing face (Vcos) is not decreased by berthing impacts, and it is the transverse velocity component (Vsin) which much be resisted by the fenders. When calculating the eccentricity coefficient, the velocity vector angle () is taken between V and R. Ships rarely berth exactly midway between dolphins. ROM 0.2-90 suggests a=0.1L, with a minimum of 10m and maximum of 15m between the midpoint and the vessels centre of mass. This offset reduces the vector angle () and increases the eccentricity coefficient.

Dolphin berths
Tug

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ECCENTRICITY COEFFICIENT (CE)


Special cases for RoRo Terminals
Modern RoRo terminals commonly use two different approach modes during berthing. PIANC defines these as mode b) and mode c). It is important to decide whether one or both approach modes will be used, as the berthing energies which must be absorbed by the fenders can differ considerably.

Mode b)

Mode c)

Breasting dolphins

15
A

Outer end

R
0.25LS Approach

V1 R
0.25LS

Breasting dolphins

V1

1.05LL

15

V2

0.25LS

V2
B

0.25LS
Inner end

V3
0.25LS C

V3

0.25LS C

End fender and shore based ramp


Fender Side Side End

End fender and shore based ramp


Fender Side Side End Typical values 1000mm/s V1 3000mm/s 500mm/s V2 1000mm/s 200mm/s V3 500mm/s

A B C

Typical values 100mm/s V1 300mm/s 60 90 N/A 300mm/s V2 500mm/s 200mm/s V3 500mm/s 0 10

A B C

0 50 0 50 0 10

RoRo vessels with bow and/or stern ramps make a transverse approach to the berth. The ships then move along the quay or dolphins using the side fenders for guidance until they are the required distance from the shore ramp structure. B Lower berthing energy B Reduced speeds may affect ship manoeuvrability B Increased turn-around time B CE is smaller (typically 0.40.7)

RoRo vessels approach either head-on or stern-on with a large longitudinal velocity. Side fenders guide the vessel but ships berth directly against the shore ramp structure or dedicated end fenders. B Quicker berthing and more controllable in strong winds B High berthing energies B Risk of vessel hitting inside of fenders or even the dolphins B CE can be large (typically 0.60.9)

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BERTH CONFIGURATION COEFFICIENT (CC)


When ships berth at small angles against solid structures, the water between hull and quay acts as a cushion and dissipates a small part of the berthing energy. The extent to which this factor contributes will depend upon several factors: B B B B B Quay structure design Underkeel clearance Velocity and angle of approach Projection of fender Vessel hull shape

Closed structure

Semi-closed structure
PIANC recommends the following values:
B B B B Open structures including berth corners Berthing angles > 5 Very low berthing velocities Large underkeel clearance

CC = 1.0

CC = 0.9

B Solid quay structures B Berthing angles > 5

Note: where the under keel clearance has already been considered for added mass (CM), the berth configuration coefficient CC =1 is usually assumed.

SOFTNESS COEFFICIENT (CS)


Where fenders are hard relative to the flexibility of the ship hull, some of the berthing energy is absorbed by elastic deformation of the hull. In most cases this contribution is limited and ignored (CS =1). PIANC recommends the following values:
CS = 1.0 CS = 0.9 Soft fenders (f > 150mm) Hard fenders (f 150mm)

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FENDER SELECTION
Every type and size of fender has different performance characteristics. Whatever type of fenders are used, they must have sufficient capacity to absorb the normal and abnormal energies of berthing ships. When selecting fenders the designer must consider many factors including: B B B B B B Single or multiple fender contacts The effects of angular compressions Approach speeds Extremes of temperature Berthing frequency Fender efficiency

Reaction

ENERGY = area under curve

Deflection

Comparing efciency
Fender efficiency is defined as the ratio of the energy absorbed to the reaction force generated. This method allows fenders of many sizes and types to be compared as the example shows. Comparisons should also be made at other compression angles, speeds and temperatures when applicable.

D
Super Cone SCN 1050 (E2)
This comparison shows Super Cone and SeaGuard fenders with similar energy, reaction and hull pressure, but different height, deflection and initial stiffness (curve gradient). E = 458kNm R = 843kN D = 768mm P = 187kN/m2 *

D
SeaGuard SG 2000 3500 (STD)
E = 454kNm R = 845kN D = 1200mm P = 172kN/m2

E = 0.543 kNm/kN R
* for a 4.5m2 panel

E = 0.537 kNm/kN R

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FENDER PITCH
Fenders spaced too far apart may allow ships to hit the structure. A positive clearance (C) should always be maintained, usually between 515% of the uncompressed fender height (H). A minimum clearance of 300mm inclusive of bow flare is commonly specified. B Smaller ships have smaller bow radius but usually cause smaller fender deflection. B Clearance distances should take account of bow flare angles. B Bow flares are greater near to the bow and stern. B Where ship drawings are available, these should be used to estimate bow radius.

Bow radiu

s, RB

h = H F

P/ 2

P/ 2

Bow radius

Fender pitch

RB

1 2

B 2

LOA2 8B

As a guide to suitable distance between fenders on a continuous wharf, the formula below indicates the maximum fender pitch. Small, intermediate and large vessels should be checked.

where, RB = bow radius (m) B = beam of vessel (m) LOA = vessel length overall (m) The bow radius formula is approximate and should be checked against actual ship dimensions where possible.

P 2 RB2 (RB h + C)2


where, P = pitch of fender RB = bow radius (m) h = fender projection when compressed, measured at centreline of fender a = berthing angle C = clearance between vessel and dock (C should be 515% of the undeflected fender projection, including panel) = hull contact angle with fender According to BS 6349: Part 4: 1994, it is also recommended that the fender spacing does not exceed 0.15 L S, where L S is the length of the smallest ship.
Bow radius (metres) Cruise liner 200 150 100 50 0 0 Displacement (1000 t) 65 0 140 0 425 Displacement (1000 t) Displacement (1000 t) Container ship Bulk carrier/ general cargo

Caution
Large fender spacings may work in theory but in practice a maximum spacing of 1215m is more realistic.

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MULTIPLE CONTACT CASES


3-fender contact 2-fender contact

RB

RB

RB

RB

F2

F1

F2

Berthing H line

Berthing line

P/ 2

P/ 2

B B B B

Energy absorbed by three (or more) fenders Larger fender deflection likely Bow flare is important 1-fender contact also possible for ships with small bow radius

B B B B

Energy divided over 2 (or more) fenders Smaller fender deflections Greater total reaction into structure Clearance depends on bow radius and bow flare

ANGULAR BERTHING
The berthing angle between the fender and the ships hull may result in some loss of energy absorption. Angular berthing means the horizontal and/or vertical angle between the ships hull and the berthing structure at the point of contact. There are three possible conditions for the effects of angular berthing: flare, bow radius and dolphin.

Flare

Bow radius

Dolphin

us, RB

Bow radi

P sin = P 2RB where RB = bow radius

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FENDER PANEL DESIGN


Fender panels are used to distribute reaction forces into the hulls of berthing vessels. The panel design should consider many factors including: B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B Hull pressures and tidal range Lead-in bevels and chamfers Bending moment and shear Local buckling Limit state load factors Steel grade Permissible stresses Weld sizes and types Effects of fatigue and cyclic loads Pressure test method Rubber fender connections UHMW-PE attachment Chain connections Lifting points Paint systems Corrosion allowance Maintenance and service life

3 design cases
Full-face contact Low-level impact
nT F F1

Double contact

R1

R2

F2

Steel Properties PIANC steel thicknesses


Standard Grade S235JR (1.0038) EN 10025 S275JR (1.0044) S355J2 (1.0570) S355J0 (1.0553) SS41 JIS G-3101 SS50 SM50 A-36 ASTM A-572 345 50 000 450 65 000 0 32 Yield Strength (min) N/mm 235 275 355 355 235 275 314 250 psi 34 000 40 000 51 000 51 000 34 000 40 000 46 000 36 000 Tensile Strength (min) N/mm 360 420 510 510 402 402 490 400 psi 52 000 61 000 74 000 74 000 58 000 58 000 71 000 58 000 Temperature C -20 0 0 0 0 0 F -4 32 32 32 32 Source: PIANC 2002; Section 4.1.6. Corresponding minimum panel thickness will be 140160mm (excluding UHMW-PE face pads) and often much greater. Exposed both faces Exposed one face Internal (not exposed) 12mm 9mm 8mm

PIANC recommends the following minimum steel thicknesses for fender panel construction:

Typical panel weights


32

The national standards of France and Germany have been replaced by EN 10025. In the UK, BS4360 has been replaced by BS EN 10025. The table above is for guidance only and is not comprehensive. Actual specifications should be consulted in all cases for the full specifications of steel grades listed and other similar grades.

The table can be used as a guide to minimum average panel weight (excluding UHMW-PE face pads) for different service conditions:
Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty Extreme duty 200250kg/m2 250300kg/m2 300400kg/m2 400kg/m2

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HULL PRESSURES
W Allowable hull pressures depend on hull plate thickness and frame spacing. These vary according to the type of ship. PIANC gives the following advice on hull pressures:
Vessel type Size/class < 1 000 teu (1st/2nd generation) < 3 000 teu (3rd generation) < 8 000 teu (4th generation) > 8 000 teu (5th/6th generation) 20 000 DWT > 20 000 DWT 20 000 DWT 60 000 DWT > 60 000 DWT LNG/LPG Hull pressure (kN/m2) < 400 < 300 < 250 < 200 400700 < 400 < 250 < 300 150200 < 200 < 200 Usually fitted with beltings (strakes)

R H P= WH
Container ships

General cargo Oil tankers Gas carriers

P = average hull pressure (kN/m2) R = total fender reaction (kN) W = panel width, excluding bevels (m) H = panel height, excluding bevels (m)

Bulk carriers RoRo Passenger/cruise SWATH Source: PIANC 2002; Table 4.4.1

BELTINGS
Most ships have beltings (sometimes called belts or strakes). These come in many shapes and sizes some are well-designed, others can be poorly maintained or modified. Care is needed when designing fender panels to cope with beltings and prevent snagging or catching which may damage the system. Belting line loads exert crushing forces on the fender panel which must be considered in the structural design.
Application Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty Vessels Aluminium hulls Container RoRo/Cruise Belting Load (kN/m) 150300 5001 000 1 0001 500

Belting types

h
3

Belting range

Belting range is often greater than tidal range due to ship design, heave, roll, and changes in draft.

Common on RoRo/Cruise ships. Projection 200400mm (typical). Common on LNG/Oil tankers, barges, offshore supply vessels and some container ships. Projection 100250mm (typical).

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FRICTION
Friction has a large influence on the fender design, particularly for restraint chains. Low friction facing materials (UHMW-PE) are often used to reduce friction. Other materials, like polyurethanes (PU) used for the skin of foam fenders, have lower friction coefficients than rubber against steel or concrete. The table can be used as a guide to typical design values. Friction coefficients may vary due to wet or dry conditions, local temperatures, static and dynamic load cases, as well as surface roughness.

Typical friction design values


Materials UHMW-PE HD-PE Polyurethane Rubber Timber Steel Friction Coefficient () 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.5

Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel

CHAIN DESIGN
Chains can be used to restrain the movements of fenders during compression or to support static loads. Chains may serve four main functions: B Weight chains support the steel panel and prevent excessive drooping of the system. They may also resist vertical shear forces caused by ship movements or changing draft. B Shear chains resist horizontal forces caused during longitudinal approaches or warping operations. B Tension chains restrict tension on the fender rubber. Correct location can optimise the deflection geometry. B Keep chains are used to moor floating fenders or to prevent loss of fixed fenders in the event of accidents.
3

Factors to be considered when designing fender chains: B Corrosion reduces link diameter and weakens the chain. B Corrosion allowances and periodic replacement should be allowed for. B A weak link in the chain system is desirable to prevent damage to more costly components in an accident.

SWL =

R + W n cos

MBL FC SWL

where, SWL = safe working load (kN) FC = safety factor = coefficient of friction R = fender reaction (kN) W = gross panel weight (kg) (for shear chains, W = 0) n = number of chains = effective chain angle (degrees)

1 2
W

Tension chains Weight chains Shear chains

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UHMW-PE FACING
The contact face of a fender panel helps to determine the lifetime maintenance costs of a fender installation. UHMW-PE (FQ1000) is the best material available for such applications. It uniquely combines low friction, impact strength, non-marking characteristics and resistance to wear, temperature extremes, seawater and marine borers. Sinter moulded into plates at extremely high pressure, UHMW-PE is a totally homogeneous material which is available in many sizes and thicknesses. These plates can be cut, machined and drilled to suit any type of panel or shield.

Fastening example

W t

Always use oversize washers to spread the load.

Application Light duty Medium duty

t (mm) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

W* (mm) 35 710 1015 1519 1825 2232 2536 2840

Bolt M16 M16M20

Heavy duty

M24M30

Extreme duty

M30M36

* Where allowances are typical values, actual wear allowance may vary due fixing detail.

The standard colour is black, but UHMW-PE is available in many other colours if required. Larger pads are usually more robust but smaller pads are easier and cheaper to replace.

Large pads vs small pads

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CORROSION PREVENTION
Fenders are usually installed in corrosive environments, sometimes made worse by high temperature and humidity. Corrosion of fender accessories can be reduced with specialist paint coatings, by galvanising or with selective use of stainless steels. Paint coatings and galvanising have a finite life. Coating must be reapplied at intervals during the life of the fender. Galvanised components like chains or bolts may need periodic re-galvanising or replacement. Stainless steels should be carefully selected for their performance in seawater.

Paint coatings
ISO EN 12944 is a widely used international standard defining the durability of corrosion protection systems in various environments. The C5-M class applies to marine coastal, offshore and high salinity locations and is considered to be the most applicable to fenders. The life expectancy or durability of coatings is divided into three categories which estimate the time to first major maintenance:
Low Medium High 25 years 515 years >15 years

Durability range is not a guarantee. It is to help operators estimate sensible maintenance times.

The table gives some typical C5-M class paint systems which provide high durability in marine environments. Note that coal tar epoxy paints are not available in some countries.
Paint Surface System Preparation S7.09 S7.11 S7.16 Sa 2.5 Sa 2.5 Sa 2.5 Priming Coat(s) Binder EP , PUR EP , PUR CTE Primer Zn (R) Zn (R) Misc No. coats 1 1 1 NDFT 40 40 100 Binder EP , PUR CTE CTE Top Coats No. coats 3-4 3 2 NDFT 280 360 200 Paint System No. coats 4-5 4 3 NDFT 320 400 300 Expected durability (C5-M corrosivity) High (>15y) High (>15y) Medium (5-15y)

Sa 2.5 is defined in ISO 8501-1 NDFT = Nominal dry film thickness Zn (R) = Zinc rich primer

Misc = miscellaneous types of anticorrosive pigments EP = 2-pack epoxy

PUR = 1-pack or 2-pack polyurethane CTE = 2-pack coal tar epoxy

Design considerations
Other paint systems may also satisfy the C5-M requirements but in choosing any coating the designer should carefully consider the following: B B B B B B B Corrosion protection systems are not a substitute for poor design details such as re-entrant shapes and corrosion traps. Minimum dry film thickness >80% of NDFT (typical) Maximum film thickness <3 NDFT (typical) Local legislation on emission of solvents or health & safety factors Application temperatures, drying and handling times Maximum over-coating times Local conditions including humidity or contaminants

Refer to paint manufacturer for advice on specific applications and products.

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CORROSION PREVENTION
Galvanising
Hot-dip galvanising is the process of coating steel parts with a zinc layer by passing the component through a bath of molten zinc. When exposed to sea water the zinc acts as an anodic reservoir which protects the steel underneath. Once the zinc is depleted the steel will begin to corrode and lose strength. Galvanising thickness can be increased by: B shot blasting the components before dipping B pickling the components in acid B double dipping the components (only suitable for some steel grades) Spin galvanising is used for threaded components which are immersed in molten zinc then immediately centrifuged to remove any excess zinc and clear the threads. Spin galvanised coatings are thinner than hot dip galvanised coatings and will not last as long in marine environments. Typical galvanising thicknesses:
Hot dip galvanising Spin galvanising 85m 40m

Stainless steels
Pitting Resistance
Stainless steel performance in seawater varies according to pitting resistance. Chemical composition especially Chromium (Cr), Molybdenum (Mo) and Nitrogen (N) content is a major factor in pitting resistance. The pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) is a theoretical way to compare stainless steel grades. The most common formula for PREN is:

Galling
Galling or cold welding affects threaded stainless steel components including nuts, bolts and anchors. The protective oxide layer of the stainless steel gets scraped off during tightening causing high local friction and welding of the threads. After galling, seized fasteners cannot be further tightened or removed and usually needs to be cut out and replaced. To avoid this problem, always apply anti-galling compounds to threads before assembly. If these are unavailable then molybdenum disulfide or PTFE based lubricants can be used.

PREN = Cr + 3.3Mo + 16N


Cr and Mo are major cost factors for stainless steel. A high PREN material will usually last longer but cost more.
Grade Common Name Type Cr (%) 24.026.0 21.023.0 16.518.5 17.019.5 10.512.5 Mo (%) 3.0 4.0 2.53.5 2.02.5

N (%) 0.20.3 0.10.22 00.11 00.11 00.03

PREN 37.144.0 30.938.1 23.128.5 17.021.3 10.513.0

Comments used where very long service life is needed or access for inspection is difficult widely used for fender fixings unsuitable for most fender applications

1.4501 Zeron 100 Duplex 1.4462 SAF 2205 Duplex 1.4401 316S31 Austenitic 1.4301 304 Austenitic 1.4003 3CR12 Ferritic

Percentages of Cr, Mo and N are typical mid-range values and may differ within permissible limits for each grade. Source: British Stainless Steel Association (www.bssa.org.uk).

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PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
PROJECT DETAILS Port Project Designer Contractor PROJECT STATUS TMS Ref: Preliminary Detail design Tender

F D LBP LOA

LARGEST VESSEL Vessel type Deadweight Displacement Length overall (LOA) Length between perps (LBP) Beam (B) Draft (D) Freeboard (F) Hull pressure (P) (t) (t) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (t/m2)

SMALLEST VESSEL Vessel type Deadweight Displacement Length overall (LOA) Length between perps (LBP) Beam (B) Draft (D) Freeboard (F) Hull pressure (P) (t) (t) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (t/m2)

BERTH DETAILS Closed structure Semi-open structure Open structure Other (please describe)

Structure Length of berth Fender/dolphin spacing Permitted fender reaction Quay level Cope thickness Seabed level (m) (m) (kN/m) (m) (m) (m)

Tide levels Tidal range Highest astronomic tide (HAT) Mean high water spring (MHWS) Mean sea level (MSL) Mean low water spring (MLWS) Lowest astronomic tide (LAT) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)

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PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
BERTHING MODE BERTHING APPROACH Approach conditions Side berthing a) easy berthing, sheltered b) difficult berthing, sheltered c) easy berthing, exposed Dolphin berthing incl. RoRo mode b) d) good berthing, exposed e) difficult berthing, exposed Largest ship End berthing Berthing speed Berthing angle Lock or dock entrance Abnormal impact factor Smallest ship Ship-to-ship berthing Berthing speed Berthing angle RoRo mode c) Abnormal impact factor (m/s) (deg) (m/s) (deg)

ENVIRONMENT Operating temperature Minimum ___________________________________ (C) Maximum __________________________________ (C) Corrosivity low medium high extreme

QUALITY Highest quality

SAFETY Maximum safety

Lowest price

Not safety-critical

FURTHER DETAILS AVAILABLE FROM Name Company Position Address Tel Fax Mobile Email Web

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RUBBER PROPERTIES
All Trelleborg rubber fenders are made using the highest quality Natural Rubber (NR) or Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) based compounds which meet or exceed the performance requirements of international fender recommendations, such as PIANC and EAU. Trelleborg can also make fenders from other NR/SBR compounds or from materials such as Neoprene, Butyl Rubber, EPDM and Polyurethane. Different manufacturing processes such as moulding, wrapping and extrusion require certain characteristics from the rubber. The tables below give usual physical properties for fenders made by these processes which are confirmed during quality assurance testing.* All test results are from laboratory made and cured test pieces. Results from samples taken from actual fenders will differ due to the sample preparation process please ask for details.

Moulded fenders
Property
Tensile Strength

Testing Standard
DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2; BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251 DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2; BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251 DIN 53505; ASTM D 2240; AS1683.15.2; JIS K 6253 ASTM D 395 Method B; AS 1683.13 Method B; BS903 A6; ISO 815; JIS K 6262 ASTM D 624 Die B; AS 1683.12; BS ISO 34-1; JIS K 6252 DIN 53509; ASTM D 1149; AS 1683-24; BS ISO 1431-1; JIS K 6259 BS ISO 1817; ASTM D 471 ASTM D5963-04; BS ISO 4649 : 2002 BS903 A9, Method B ASTM D429, Method B; BS 903.A21 Section 21.1 ASTM D430-95, Method B Original

Condition
Aged for 96 hours at 70C Original Aged for 96 hours at 70C Original Aged for 96 hours at 70C 22 hours at 70C Original 50pphm at 20% strain, 40C, 100 hours 28 days at 95C Original 3000 revolutions Rubber to steel 15,000 cycles

Requirement
16.0 MPa (min) 12.8 MPa (min) 350% 280% 78 Shore A (max) Original +8 Shore A (max) 30% (max) 70kN/m (min) No cracks Hardness: 10 Shore A (max) Volume: +10/-5% (max) 100mm3 (max) 1.5cc (max) 7N/mm (min) Grade 01

Elongation at Break

Hardness Compression Set Tear Resistance Ozone Resistance Seawater Resistance Abrasion Bond Strength Dynamic Fatigue

Extruded and wrapped fenders


Property
Tensile Strength

Testing Standard
DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2; BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251 DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2; BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251 DIN 53505; ASTM D 2240; AS1683.15.2; JIS K 6253 ASTM D 395 Method B; AS 1683.13 Method B; BS903 A6; ISO 815; JIS K 6262 ASTM D 624 Die B; AS1683.12; BS ISO 34-1; JIS K 6252 DIN 53509; ASTM D 1149; AS 1683-24; BS ISO 1431-1; JIS K 6259 BS ISO 1817; ASTM D 471 ASTM D5963-04; BS ISO 4649 : 2002 Original

Condition
Aged for 96 hours at 70C Original Aged for 96 hours at 70C Original Aged for 96 hours at 70C 22 hours at 70C Original 50pphm at 20% strain, 40C, 100 hours 28 days at 95C Original

Requirement
13.0 MPa (min) 10.4 MPa (min) 280% (min) 224% (min) 78 Shore A (max) Original +8 Shore A (max) 30% (max) 60kN/m (min) No cracks Hardness: 10 Shore A (max) Volume: +10/-5% (max) 180mm3 (max)

Elongation at Break

Hardness Compression Set Tear Resistance Ozone Resistance Seawater Resistance Abrasion

* Material property certificates are issued for each different rubber grade on all orders for SCN Super Cone, SCK Cell Fender, Unit Element, AN/ANP Arch, Cylindrical Fender, MV and MI Elements. Unless otherwise requested at time of order, material certificates issued for other fender types are based on results of standard bulk and/or batch tests which form part of routine factory ISO9001 quality procedures and are for a limited range of physical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness). Dynamic fatigue testing is optional at extra cost. Grade 0 = no cracks (pass). Grade 1 = 10 or fewer pinpricks <0.5mm long (pass). Grades 210 = increasing crack size (fail).

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TOLERANCES
Trelleborg fenders are subject to standard manufacturing and performance tolerances. For specific applications, smaller tolerances may be agreed on a case-by-case basis.
Fender type Moulded fenders Dimension All dimensions Bolt hole spacing Cross-section Length Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Cross-section Length Fixing hole centres Fixing hole diameter Outside diameter Inside diameter Length Cross-section Length Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Cross-section Length Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Length and width Length and width Thickness: 30mm (planed) 31100mm 101mm Thickness: 30mm (unplaned) 31100mm 101mm Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Tolerance 3% or 2mm* 4mm (non-cumulative) 3% or 2mm* 2% or 25mm* 4mm (non-cumulative) 2mm (under-head depth) 2% or 2mm* 2% or 10mm* 3mm 3mm 4% 4% 30mm 4% or ISO 3302-E3* 30mm 4mm (non-cumulative) 3mm (under-head depth) 4% 2% or 10mm* 2mm (non-cumulative) 2mm (under-head depth) 5mm (cut pads) 20mm (uncut sheets) 0.2mm 0.3mm 0.5mm 2.5mm 4.0mm 6.0mm 2mm (non-cumulative) 2mm (under-head depth)

Composite fenders

Block fenders Cube fenders M fenders W fenders Cylindrical fenders

Extruded fenders

HD-PE sliding fenders

UHMW-PE face pads

* Whichever is the greater dimension HD-PE and UHMW-PE dimensions are measured at 18C and are subject to thermal expansion coefficients (see material properties)

Performance tolerances
Fender type SCN, SCK, UE, AN, ANP, MV and MI fenders Cylindricals (wrapped) Cylindricals (extruded) Extruded fenders Pneumatic fenders Block, cube, M, W, tug and workboat fenders SeaGuard, SeaCushion and Donut fenders

Parameter Reaction, energy Reaction, energy Reaction, energy Reaction, energy Reaction and energy Reaction Reaction and energy

Tolerance 10% 10% 20% 20% 10% 10% 15%

Performance tolerances apply to Rated Performance Data (RPD). They do not apply to energy and/or reaction at intermediate deflections. The nominal rated deflection when RPD is achieved may vary and is provided for guidance only. Please consult Trelleborg Marine Systems for performance tolerance on fender types not listed above.

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TESTING PROCEDURES
Trelleborg testing procedures for solid-type rubber fenders comply with PIANC Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002: Appendix A: Section 6: Verification/Quality Assurance Testing. The Constant Velocity (CV) test method is used for SCN, SCK, UE, AN/ANP and Cylindrical Fenders. MV and MI fenders are tested using the Decreasing Velocity (DV) method on the dedicated Trelleborg high speed test press. All other fender types are tested on special request.

Compression Test Method


B All fenders will be given a unique manufacturing serial number for traceability. B Sampling is 1 in 10 fenders (rounded up to a unit) unless 1 otherwise agreed. B No additional break-in cycles are carried out unless 1 otherwise agreed. B Performance will be measured at 0 compression angle. B Readings shall be taken at intervals of between 0.01H to 0.05H (where H = nominal fender height). B Fender temperature will be stabilised to 23C 5C for at least 24 hours before compression testing. B Minimum temperature stabilisation time will be calculated as tmin = 20x1.5 (where x is the thickness of the fender body in metres). B Stabilising time (tmin) can include the time taken for break-in and recovery. B Break in the fender by deflecting it three times to rated deflection. B Remove load from the fender and allow recovery for at least 1 hour. B Stop testing when deflection reaches rated deflection or RPD2 is achieved. CV only: B Deflect the fender once at a constant deflection speed of 0.00030.0013m/s (28cm/min) and record reaction and deflection. DV only: B Deflect the fender once at a linearly-decreasing or sinusoidally decreasing variable velocity with initial velocity of 0.15m/s (or other speed as agreed) and final velocity 0.005m/s.
Where testing of cylindrical, Arch, element and similar fenders over 2.0m long is required, please contact your local office to discuss exact requirements.

Test Apparatus & Reporting


The test apparatus shall be equipped with a calibrated3 load cell system and linear transducer(s) for measuring displacement. These will provide continuous real-time monitoring of fender performance. Test reports shall include the following as a minimum: B Serial Number and description of test fender. B Date of test, name of test supervisor and signature of Quality Manager. B Table and graph of reaction (RVT) versus deflection and energy (EVT) versus deflection.

Pass Criteria4
Fenders have passed verification testing if they meet the following conditions: RVT RRPD 1.1 VF TF EVT ERPD 0.9 VF TF Where, RVT = reaction from verification testing RRPD = Rated Performance Data (or customers required reaction) EVT = energy from verification testing ERPD = Rated Performance Data (or customers required energy) TF = Temperature factor when test sample is above or below 23C 5C CV only: VF = velocity factor for actual test speed/time (or 1.0 unless otherwise stated) DV only: VF = velocity factor for test speeds other than 0.15m/s (or 1.0 unless otherwise stated)

Notes 1 Standard PIANC Verification Testing of 10% of fender order (rounded up to the nearest unit) is included within the price for the fender types listed. Additional tests, third-party witnessing and special procedures will incur extra charges. For load-sensitive structures, a single break-in deflection for all fenders with reaction of 100t or more is included in the fender price if notified at the time of order. 2 Rated Performance Data (RPD) is defined in the relevant product sections of this catalogue. 3 All measuring equipment shall be calibrated and certified accurate to within 1% in accordance with ISO or equivalent JIS or ASTM requirements. Calibration shall be traceable to national/international standard and shall be performed annually by an accredited third party organization. 4 Pass criteria as defined by PIANC Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002: Appendix A. Deflection is not considered to be a pass/fail criterion by PIANC. Non-compliant units will be clearly marked and segregated.

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PERFORMANCE TESTING
Trelleborg is committed to providing high quality products. Consistency and performance are routinely checked in accordance with the latest procedures and test protocols. PIANC has introduced new methods and procedures for testing the performance of solid rubber fenders, allowing for real world operating conditions, in their document Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002: Appendix A. Many of Trelleborgs most popular fender types are PIANC Type Approved. This brings the following benefits: B proven product quality B tests simulate real operating conditions B longer service life B lower maintenance B greater reliability B reduced lifetime costs B manufacturer commitment B excludes unsafe copy and fake fenders B simplifies contract specifications

Verification testing of SCK 3000

Testing is carried out in two stages: to prove behaviour of the generic fender type, and then to confirm that performance of fenders made for each project meet the required performances.

Type Approval testing (Stage 1)


PIANC Type Approval testing is carried out to determine the effects of environmental factors on the performance of various fender types. Trelleborgs Type Approval tests are witnessed by Germanischer Lloyd. Super Cone, Unit Element, SCK Cell and Arch Fenders have been Type Approved to PIANC standards.

Verication testing (Stage 2)


Verification testing using either CV method (all fender types except MV and MI elements) or DV method (MV and MI elements only) is carried out on all significant orders to confirm the Rated Performance Data (RPD) of the fender. Results are normalised to 0.15m/s compression speed, 23C temperature and 0 compression angle.

Note: Testing programmes for foam, pneumatic, extruded, composite, shear, and other fender types are agreed with customers on request and on a case-by-case basis. CV testing of SCN Super Cones DV testing of MV elements

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RATED PERFORMANCE DATA (RPD)


RPD is normalised to: B 0.15m/s initial impact speed B 23C temperature B 0 compression angle.
ERP

RRP

Re a

ct io

Energ

Deflection

Correction factors from type approved tests


VF

Impact speed

0.001m/s to 0.3m/s
1.0 0.15m/s (VRP) Vi

Rubber is a visco-elastic material, meaning that reaction and energy are affected by the speed of compression. Some rubbers are more affected by the compression speed than others. RPD is normalised to 0.15m/s.

Temperature

30C to +50C

TF

At low temperatures rubber becomes stiffer, which increases reaction forces. At higher temperatures rubber softens, which reduces energy absorption. RPD is normalised to 23C.

1.0 T

23C (TRP)

Compression angle

0 to 20

AF 1.0

Most fenders lose some energy absorption capacity when compressed at an angle. RPD is normalised to 0.

0C (RP)

Durability

3000 cycles minimum


1.0

To prove durability, fenders should be subjected to a long-term fatigue test of at least 3000 cycles to rated deflection without failure.

To be meaningful, Type Approval testing should be monitored and witnessed by accredited third-party inspectors such as Germanischer Lloyd. After successful Type Approval testing, the manufacturer should publish Rated Performance Data (RPD) for their fenders along with correction factor tables for different velocities, temperatures and compression angles.

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PASS CRITERIA
Verification testing (or quality control testing) is carried out to prove the performance of fenders for each project in accordance with catalogue RPD or other customer-specified values. Samples from the project (usually 10% of the total quantity in each size and grade) are tested and the results obtained are adjusted if necessary using the correction factor tables for initial impact speed and temperature.

Reaction force pass criteria

RRP x 1.1

FAIL PASS

Reaction

RVT RRP VF TF 1.1


Assuming a +10% manufacturing tolerance on reaction.
Deflection d

Energy absorption pass criteria

ERP x 0.9

PASS FAIL

Energy

EVT ERP VF TF 0.9


Assuming a 10% manufacturing tolerance on energy.
Deflection d

where, RVT = reaction from verification testing RRP = customers required reaction EVT = energy from verification testing ERP = customers required energy VF = velocity factor for actual test speed TF = temperature factor for actual test temperature

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TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATES

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TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATES

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QUALITY DOCUMENTS
Customers should expect to receive appropriate documents to prove the quality of the fenders and accessories ordered. A comprehensive document package might include:

Quality and environmental


B Factory ISO 9001: 2000 quality management system B Factory ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system

Fixing accessories
B Mill certificates B Visual inspection report B Certificate of conformity

Literature and data sheets


B Printed brochures or leaflets for the supplied products B PIANC correction tables (where applicable) B PIANC Type Approval certificates (where applicable)

Chains
B B B B B Proof load test Mill certificates (optional but recommended) Galvanising certificate Dimensional inspection report (where applicable) Certificate of conformity

Performance tests
B Verification test results and curves for each fender tested B Third party witness certificate (optional but recommended) B Certificate of conformity

Low friction pads


B Dimensional inspection report B Certificate of conformity

Physical properties
B Laboratory report for hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break, before and after ageing B Durability test report (optional but recommended) B Wear, tear and ozone resistance test reports B Third party witness certificate (optional but recommended) B Certificate of conformity

Other
B B B B B B As built drawings Installation, operation and maintenance manual Inspection logbook Warranty certificate General certificate of conformity After-sales contact details

Steel fabrications
B B B B B B B B B Mill certificates Welder qualification certificates Weld procedures Dimensional check report (including flatness for panels) NDT inspection report minimum 5% MPI (optional but recommended) Pressure (leak) test inspection report Paint application report (temperature, humidity, dew point, etc) Dry film thickness test report Certificate of conformity

The accuracy and authenticity of quality documents is very important. Trelleborg will provide an original or certified copy of any third party report on request.

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CONVERSION TABLES
m ft 3.281 1 0.0833 ft2 10.764 1 6.944 10 -3 ft3 35.315 1 578.7 10 -6 kip 2.2046 1 tonne-f 0.102 1 0.454 tf-m 0.102 1 4.88 t/m2 0.102 1 4.88 kip/ft3 0.0624 1 psi 145.04 1 ft/s 3.2808 1 0.9113 1.4667 1.6878 m/s2 9.807 1 0.3048 radian 17.45 10 -3 1 1MPa = 1N/mm2 km/h 3.600 1.0973 1 1.6093 1.8520 ft/s2 32.17 3.281 1 mph 2.2369 0.6818 0.6214 1 1.1508 knot 1.9438 0.5925 0.5400 0.8690 1 kip-f 0.225 2.2046 1 kip-ft 0.7376 0.205 1 kip/ft2 0.0209 0.205 1 1ksf = 1kip/ft2 1kJ = 1kNm in 39.37 12 1 in2 1550 144 1 in3 61024 1728 1

Length

m ft in

1 0.3048 0.0245 m2

Area

m2 ft2 in2

1 0.0929 645.2 10 -6 m3

Visit www.trelleborg.com/marine to download a free units conversion programme, Convert. Registered visitors can find Convert on the Technical menu after registering or logging in to the site.

Volume

m3 ft3 in3

1 0.0283 16.387 10 -6 tonne

Mass

tonne kip

1 0.4536 kN

Force

kN tonne-f kip-f

1 9.81 4.45 kNm

Energy

kNm tf-m kip-ft

1 9.81 1.36 kN/m2

Pressure

kN/m2 t/m2 kip/ft2

1 9.81 47.9 tonne/m3

Density

tonne/m3 kip/ft3

1 16.018 N/mm2

Stress

N/mm2 psi

1 6.895 10 -3 m/s

Velocity

m/s ft/s km/h mph knot

1 0.3048 0.2778 0.4470 0.5144 g

Acceleration

g m/s2 ft/s2

1 0.102 6.895 10 -3 degree

Angle

degree radian

1 57.3

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CALCULATIONS
TRELLEBORG MARINE SYSTEMS
Project Title Client Ref Prepared Date Sheet N

www.trelleborg.com/marine

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CALCULATIONS
TRELLEBORG MARINE SYSTEMS
Project Title Client Ref Prepared Date Sheet N

www.trelleborg.com/marine

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Disclaimer
Trelleborg AB has made every effort to ensure that the technical specifications and product descriptions in this catalogue are correct. The responsibility or liability for errors and omissions cannot be accepted for any reason whatsoever. Customers are advised to request a detailed specification and certified drawing prior to construction and manufacture. In the interests of improving the quality and performance of our products and systems, we reserve the right to make specification changes without prior notice. All dimensions, material properties and performance values quoted are subject to normal production and testing tolerances. This catalogue supersedes the information provided in all previous editions. If in doubt, please check with Trelleborg Marine Systems. Trelleborg AB, PO Box 153, 231 22 Trelleborg, Sweden. This catalogue is the copyright of Trelleborg AB and may not be reproduced, copied or distributed to third parties without the prior consent of Trelleborg AB in each case. Fentek, Rubbylene and Orkot are Registered Trade Marks of Trelleborg AB.

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Four business areas Trelleborg is a global industrial group whose leading positions are based on advanced polymer technology and in-depth applications know-how. We develop high-performance solutions that seal, damp and protect in demanding industrial environments. The Group has annual sales of approximately 3 billion, with about 24,000 employees in 40 countries. The head office is located in Trelleborg, Sweden. Trelleborg AB was founded in 1905. With 100 years behind us, our history, like our future, is characterised by a constant drive for quality and a passion for identifying new solution to complex problems.
Trelleborg Engineered Systems is a leading global supplier of engineered solutions that focus on the sealing, protection and safety of investments, processes and individuals in extremely demanding environments.

Trelleborg Automotive is a worldleader in the development and production of polymer-based components and systems used for noise and vibration damping for passenger car and light and heavy trucks.

Trelleborg Sealing Solutions is a leading global supplier of precision seals for the industrial, aerospace and automotive markets.

In 2005, the Trelleborg Group celebrated its centenary. To us, quality is a state of mind. We adopt an in-depth approach to each problem, aiming for long-term solutions. Yesterdays and todays innovations, know-how and quality form the foundation of tomorrow.

Trelleborg Wheel Systems is a leading global supplier of tires and complete wheel systems for farm and forest machinery, forklift trucks and other materials-handling vehicles.

Trelleborg AB, 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN

ASIA PACIFIC Trelleborg Marine Systems Australia Tel: +61 2 9285 0200 constantine.koutas@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Melbourne Docking & Mooring Group Tel: +61 3 9575 9999 anil.kumar@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Asia Tel: +65 6268 8005 steven.kwok@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems China Tel: +86 532 8077 0098 bruce.li@trelleborg.com PT Trelleborg Indonesia Tel: +62 21 797 6211 steven.kwok@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Japan Tel: +81 3 3512 1981 hiroshi.muramoto@trelleborg.com INDIA, MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA Trelleborg Marine Systems Dubai Tel: +971 4 886 1825 paul.welling@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Docking & Mooring Group Middle East anil Kumar@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems India Tel: +91 79 4001 3333 amit.madan@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems South & East Africa Tel: +971 4 886 1825 mark.fourie@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems North & West Africa Tel: +33 1 41 39 22 20 jean.f.garcia@trelleborg.com

EUROPE & Mediterranean Trelleborg Marine Systems Benelux Tel: +31 180 43 40 40 marco.gaal@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems France & Spain Tel: +33 1 41 39 22 20 jean.f.garcia@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Scandinavia Tel: +46 410 51667 peter.nahlstedt@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Germany Tel: +49 40 600 4650 hakan.j.andersson@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems UK Tel: +44 1666 827660 andy.cope@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Docking & Mooring Group Europe Tel: +46 708 551 562 stefan.lundin@trelleborg.com SOUTH AMERICA Trelleborg Marine Systems Brazil Tel: +55 11 5035 1353 daniel.figueiredo@trelleborg.com NORTH AMERICA & CANADA Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (Main Ofce) Tel: +1 540 667 5191 faiyaz.kolsawala@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (West Coast) Tel: +1 540 247 7182 eric.mccorkle@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (East Coast) Tel: +1 540 723 2553 mick.langford@trelleborg.com

Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (Gulf Coast and South East) Tel: +1 540 550 2344 marc.theberge@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Docking & Mooring Group North America Tel: +1 720 299 5506 eric. grothe@harbourmarine.com

Presented by

www.trelleborg.com/marine tms@trelleborg.com
Ref. M1100-V1-3b-EN