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Definition of a fluid A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously under the action of a shear stress, however small

magnitude present. It means that a fluid deforms under very small shear stress, but a solid may not deform under that magnitude of the shear stress.
By contrast a solid deforms when a constant shear stress is applied, but its deformation does not continue with increasing time. In Fig.L1.1, deformation pattern of a solid and a fluid under the action of constant shear force is illustrated. We explain in detail here deformation behaviour of a solid and a fluid under the action of a shear force. By contrast a solid deforms when a constant shear stress is applied, but its deformation does not continue with increasing time. In Fig.L1.1, deformation pattern of a solid and a fluid under the action of constant shear force is illustrated. We explain in detail here deformation behaviour of a solid and a fluid under the action of a shear force.

Fluid as a continuum In the definition of the fluid the molecular structure of the fluid was not mentioned. As we know the fluids are composed of molecules in constant motions. For a liquid, molecules are closely spaced compared with that of a gas. In most engineering applications the average or macroscopic effects of a large number of molecules is considered. We thus do not concern about the behavior of individual molecules. The fluid is treated as an infinitely divisible substance, a continuum at which the properties of the fluid are considered as a continuous (smooth) function of the space variables and time. To illustrate the concept of fluid as a continuum consider fluid density as a fluid property at a small region.(Fig.L1.2(a)). Density is defined as mass of the fluid molecules per unit volume. Thus the mean density within the small region C could be equal to mass of fluid molecules per unit volume. When the small region C occupies space which is larger than the cube of molecular spacing, the number of the molecules will remain constant. This is the limiting volume above which the effect of molecular variations on fluid properties is negligible. A plot of the mean density versus the size of unit volume is illustrated in Fig.L1.2(b). Properties of fluid Some of the basic properties of fluids are discussed belowDensity : As we stated earlier the density of a substance is its mass per unit volume. In fluid mechanic it is expressed in three different ways1. Mass density r is the mass of the fluid per unit volume (given by Eq.L1.1)

UnitDimensionTypical values: water- 1000 kg/ Airat standard pressure and temperature (STP)

2. Specific weight, w: - As we express a mass M has a weight W=Mg . The specific weight of the fluid can be defined similarly as its weight per unit volume. L-2.1 Unit: Dimension: Typical values; waterAir(STP)

3. Relative density (Specific gravity), S :Specific gravity is the ratio of fluid density (specific weight) to the fluid density (specific weight) of a standard reference fluid. For liquids water at fluid. is considered as standard

L-2.2 Similarly for gases air at specific temperature and pressure is considered as a standard reference fluid.

L-2.3 Units: pure number having no units. Dimension:Typical vales : - Mercury- 13.6 Water-1 Specific volume of mass density. : - Specific volume of a fluid is mean volume per unit mass i.e. the reciprocal

L-2.4 Units:Dimension: Typical values: - Water AirViscosity In section L1 definition of a fluid says that under the action of a shear stress a fluid continuously deforms, and the shear strain results with time due to the deformation. Viscosity is a fluid property, which determines the relationship between the fluid strain rate and the applied shear stress. It can be noted that in fluid flows, shear strain rate is considered, not shear strain as commonly used in solid mechanics. Viscosity can be inferred as a quantative measure of a fluid's resistance to the flow. For example moving an object through air requires very less force compared to water. This means that air has low viscosity than water. Let us consider a fluid element placed between two infinite plates as shown in fig (Fig-2.1). The upper plate moves at a constant velocity under the action of constant shear force . The shear stress, t is expressed as

here, is the area of contact of the fluid element with the top plate. Under the action of shear force the fluid element is deformed from position ABCD at time t to position AB'C'D' at time (fig-L2.1 ). The shear strain rate is given by

Shear strain rate Where is the angular deformation.

L2.6

From the geometry of the figure, we can define

For small

Therefore,

The limit of both side of the equality gives The above expression relates shear strain rate to velocity gradient along the y -axis. Newton 's Viscosity Law

L-2.5

Sir Isaac Newton conducted many experimental studies on various fluids to determine relationship between shear stress and the shear strain rate. The experimental finding showed that a linear relation between them is applicable for common fluids such as water, oil, and air. The relation is

Substituting the relation gives in equation(L-2.5 )

L-2.6 Introducing the constant of proportionality

where

is called absolute or dynamic viscosity. Dimensions and units for ]

are

and

, respectively. [In the absolute metric system basic unit of co-efficient of viscosity is called poise. 1 poise =

Fig.L-2.2: Relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient of Newtonian fluids Fig.L-2.3: Relationship between shear stress and shear strain rate of diferent fluids Typical relationships for common fluids are illustrated in Fig-L2.3. The fluids that follow the linear relationship given in equation (L-2.7) are called Newtonian fluids. Kinematic viscosity v Kinematic viscosity is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density

L-2.8 Units: Dimension: Typical values: water Non - Newtonian fluids Fluids in which shear stress is not linearly related to the rate of shear strain are non Newtonian fluids. Examples are paints, blot, polymeric solution, etc. Instead of the dynamic viscosity apparent viscosity, these types of fluid. which is the slope of shear stress versus shear strain rate curve, is used for

Based on the behavior of groups -

, non-Newtonian fluids are broadly classified into the following

a. Pseudo plastics (shear thinning fluids): decreases with increasing shear strain rate. For example polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions, latex paints, pseudo plastic. b. Dilatants (shear thickening fluids) increases with increasing shear strain rate.

Examples: Suspension of starch and quick sand (mixture of water and sand). c. Plastics : Fluids that can sustain finite shear stress without any deformation, but once shear stress exceeds the finite stress , they flow like a fluid. The relation between the shear stress and the resulting shear strain is given by L-2.9 Fluids with n = 1 are called Bingham plastic. some examples are clay suspensions, tooth paste and fly ash. d. Thixotropic fluid(Fig. L-2.4): stress. Example: Ink, crude oils. e. Rheopectic fluid : increases with increasing time. decreases with time under a constant applied shear

Example: some typical liquid-solid suspensions.

Example 1: Density If 5 m3 of certain oil weighs 45 kN calculate the specific weight, specific gravity and mass density of the oil. Solution : Given data: Volume = 5 m3 Weight = 45 kN

Answer:

; 0.917;

Example 2: Density A liquid has a mass density of 1550 kg/m3. Calculate its specific weight, specific gravity and specific volume. Solution : Given data: Mass density = 1550 kg/m3

Specific gravity =

Answer: Example 3: Viscosity

; 1.55;

A plate (2m x 2m ), 0.25 mm distant apart from a fixed plate, moves at 40 cm/s and requires a force of 1 N. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the fluid in between the plates. Solution : Given data: Change of velocity, Distance between the plates, Contact area A = 2x2 = 4 m2 Force required, F = 1 N

Now, Shear stress, = F/A = 0.25N/m2

And, Answer: Example 4: Viscosity At a certain point in an oil the shear stress is 0.2 N/m2 and the velocity gradient is 0.21 s-1 . If the mass density of the oil is 950 kg/ m3 find the kinematic viscosity. Solution : Given data: Velocity Gradient = 0.21 s -1 . Shear stress t = 0.2 N/m2

=> Then, Kinematic viscosity, Answer: 10.02 stokes

Example 5: Viscosity As shown in the figure a cubical block of 20 cm side and of 20 kg weight is allowed to slide down along a plane inclined at 300 to the horizontal on which there is a film of oil having viscosity 2.16x10-3 N-s/m2 .What will be the terminal velocity of the block if the film thickness is 0.025mm? Solution : Given data : Weight = 20 kg Block dimension = 20x20x20 cm3

Driving force along the plane Shear force Contact area,

Also, Answer: 28.38m/s.

Fig. Ex5 : Cubical block sliding down along the inclined plane Example 6: Viscosity If the equation of a velocity profile over a plate is v = 5y 2 + y (where v is the velocity in m/s) determine the shear stress at y =0 and at y =7.5cm . Given the viscosity of the liquid is 8.35 poise. Solution : Given Data: Velocity profile

Substituting y = 0 and y =0.075 on the above equation, we get shear stress at respective depths.

Answer: 0.835 ; Example 7: Viscosity A hydraulic lift consists of a 50 cm diameter ram and slides in a cylinder of diameter 50.015 cm while the annular space is being filled up with oil having kinematic viscosity of 0.025cm2/s and specific gravity of 0.85 (Fig. Ex7). If the rate of travel of the ram is 9.15m/min find the frictional resistance when 3.85 m of ram is engaged in the cylinder. Given data: Mass density of the oil

Oil thickness,

Since 3.85m of ram is engaged the contact area becomes

Total frictional force F = Answer: 258.23 N

A =258.23 N

Example 8: Viscosity A tape of 0.015 cm thick and 1.00 cm wide is to be drawn through a gap with a clearance of 0.01cm on each side. A lubricant of dynamic viscosity 0.021 Ns/m 2 completely fills the gap for a length of 80 cm along the tape. If the tape can withstand a maximum tensile force of 7.5 N calculate the maximum speed with which it can be drawn through the gap.

Solution : Given data: Dynamic viscosity 0.021 Ns/m2 Clearance dy = 0.01 cm Contact area maximum tension the tape can with stand =7.5 N Fig. Ex8 : Tape sliding with in lubricant

Shear stress, t = F/A Maximum shear stress the tape can withstand, = 0.467185 kN/m2

Also shear stress, Substituting the value of Answer: 2.23 m/s. Example 9: Viscosity

in the above equation, we get

Determine the torque and power required to run a 15 cm long and 5 cm diameter shaft running at the rate of 500 rpm in a 5.1 cm diameter concentric bearing flooded with oil of dynamic viscosity 100 centipoise. Solution : Given data: - Rotational speed = 500rpm Dynamic viscosity =100 centipoise. Diameter of the shaft = 5 cm Length of the shaft = 15 cm

Peripheral speed, v =

= = 12.34 N = 0.617 N-m Total power required W = T w = 32.3 watt. Answer: 0.617 N-m and 32.3 watt. Example 10: Viscosity

A thrust bearing having a 12cm diameter pad rotating on another pad separated by an oil film of 1.5 mm of dynamic viscosity 85 centipoise. Compute the power dissipated in the bearing if it rotates at 150 rpm. Given data:Rotational Speed =150 rpm Diameter of the pad = 12 cm = 0.12 m Dynamic viscosity = 85 centipoise Fig. Ex9 : Showing (a) ring element and (b) elementary area on the ring Now, Linear Speed of the element on the ring

Shearing stress for the elementary area on the ring, shown in Figure (b) Torque acting on the elementary area, Total torque Power required = T w = 0.178 watt. Answer: 0.178 watt.
Surface tension And Capillarity:

Surface tension In this section we will discuss about a fluid property which occurs at the interfaces of a liquid and gas or at the interface of two immiscible liquids. As shown in Fig (L - 3.1) the liquid molecules- 'A' is under the action of molecular attraction between like molecules (cohesion). However the molecule B' close to the interface is subject to molecular attractions between both like and unlike molecules (adhesion). As a result the cohesive forces cancel for liquid molecule 'A'. But at the interface of molecule 'B' the cohesive forces exceed the adhesive force of the gas. The corresponding net force acts on the interface; the interface is at a state of tension similar to a stretched elastic membrane. As explained, the corresponding net force is referred to as surface tension, . In short it is apparent tensile stresses which acts at the interface of two immiscible fluids. Unit: Typical values: Water at C with air.

Note that surface tension decreases with the liquid temperature because intermolecular cohesive forces decreases. At the critical temperature of a fluid surface tension becomes zero; i.e. the boundary between the fluids vanishes. Pressure difference at the interface

Fig. L-3.2 : Surface tension on a droplet In order to study the effect of surface tension on the pressure difference across a curved interface, consider a small spherical droplet of a fluid at rest. Since the droplet is small the hydrostatic pressure variations become negligible. The droplet is divided into two halves as shown in Fig.L-3.2. Since the droplet is at rest, the sum of the forces acting at the interface in any direction will be zero. Note that the only forces acting at the interface are pressure and surface tension. Equilibrium of forces gives L - 3.1 Solving for the pressure difference and then denoting 3.1) as we can rewrite equation (L-

Contact angle and welting

As shown in fig. a liquid contacts a solid surface. The line at which liquid gas and solid meet is called the contact line. At the contact line the net surface tension depending upon all three materials - liquid, gas, and solid is evident in the contact angle, contact line yields: . A force balance on the

here is the surface tension of the gas-solid interface, is the surface tension of solidliquid interface, and is the surface tension of liquid-gas interface.

Typical values:

for air-water- glass interface for air-mercuryglass interface If the contact angle wetted by the liquid, when Capillarity If a thin tube, open at the both ends, is inserted vertically in to a liquid, which wets the tube, the liquid will rise in the tube (fig : L -3.4). If the liquid does not wet the tube it will be depressed below the level of free surface outside. Such a phenomenon of rise or fall of the liquid surface relative to the adjacent level of the fluid is called capillarity. If is the angle of contact between liquid and solid, d is the tube diameter, we can determine the capillary rise or depression, h by equating force balance in the z-direction (shown in Fig : L-3.5), taking into account surface tension, gravity and pressure. Since the column of fluid is at rest, the sum of all of forces acting on the fluid column is zero. the liquid is said to wet the solid. Otherwise, the solid surface is not .

The pressure acting on the top curved interface in the tube is atmospheric, the pressure acting on the bottom of the liquid column is at atmospheric pressure because the lines of constant pressure in a liquid at rest are horizontal and the tube is open. Upward force due to surface tension

Weight of the liquid column Thus equating these two forces we find

The expression for h becomes

L -3.2 Typical values of capillary rise are

a. Capillary rise is approximately 4.5 mm for water in a glass tube of 5 mm diameter. b. Capillary depression is approximately - 1.5 mm (depression) for mercury in the same tube. Capillary action causes a serious source of error in reading the levels of the liquid in small pressure measuring tubes. Therefore the diameter of the measuring tubes should be large enough so that errors due to the capillary rise should be very less. Besides this, capillary action causes the movement of liquids to penetrate cracks even when there is no significant pressure difference acting to move the fluids in to the cracks. In figure (Fig : L - 3.6), a two-dimensional model for the capillary rise of a liquid in a crack width, b, is illustrated. The height of the capillary rise can also be computed by equating force balance as explained in the previous section.

Capillary rise, Example 1:

L-3.3

Find the pressure inside a water droplet having diameter of 0.5 mm at 20 0 C if the outside pressure is 1.03N/cm 2 and the surface tension of water at that temperature is 0.0736 N/m. Solution :

Given Data: -

Pressure inside the droplet, Answer:Example 2: The inside diameters of the two arms of a U-tube are 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm respectively. Now if it is partially filled with water having surface tension of 0.0736 N/m and zero contact angle what will be the difference in the level of miniscii between the two arms.(shown in the figure below)

Solution : Given data: Diameter of the tubes 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm respectively

Capillary rise in a tube For water contact angle 0c = 00 and Specific weight rg = 9810 N/m3

Which gives h1 = 30 mm when tube diameter is 1mm And h2 = 20 mm when tube diameter is 1.5 mm. Answer: 10mm.

Example 3: Compare the capillary rise of water and mercury in a glass tube of 2 mm diameter at 200 C .Given that the surface tension of water and mercury at 200 C are 0.0736 N/m and 0.051N/m respectively. Contact angles of water and mercury are 00 and 1300 respectively. Solution : Given data: Surface tension of water, sw = 0.0736 N/m And surface tension mercury, sm =0.051N/m

Capillary rise in a tube For mercury and

Note that the negative sign indicates capillary depression. For water specific weight The Answer: Example 4 : Find the excess pressure inside a cylindrical jet of water 4 mm diameter than the outside atmosphere? The surface tension of water is 0.0736 N/m at that temperature. Solution : Given data: Surface tension of water s = 0.0736 N/m 15mm rise and 6.68mm depression. and

Excess pressure in a cylindrical jet Answer: Example 5 : 36.8 Pa.

Air is forced through a tube of internal diameter of 1.5 mm immersed at a depth of 1.5 cm in a mineral oil having specific gravity of 0.85. Calculate the unit surface energy of the oil if the maximum bubble pressure is 150 N/m2. Solution : Given data: Bubble pressure = 150 N/m2

Pressure of overlying oil Effective Pressure element to surface tension

N/m2

Answer:Example 6 : Determine the minimum size of a glass tube, which can be used to measure pressure in water flowing system. The capillary rise in the tube must not exceed 10 mm and surface tension of water- air - glass interface is 0.001 N/m. Solution : Given data: Surface tension in the water-air-glass interface = 0.0736 N/m

Capillary rise in a tube in a tube is From the typical value given in Lecture (3) we get the value of the contact angle and specific weight: for water.

Now, in order to have maximum capillary rise of10 mm, the radius of the tube obtained from the above equation, r =1.5 mm. Answer:
Vapour Pressure:

1.5 mm.

Introduction Since the molecules of a liquid are in constant motion, some of the molecules in the surface layer having sufficient energy will escape from the liquid surface, and then changes from liquid state to gas state. If the space above the liquid is confined and the number of the molecules of the liquid striking the liquid surface and condensing is equal to the number of liquid molecules at any time interval becomes equal, an equilibrium exists. These molecules exerts of partial pressure on the liquid surface known as vapour pressure of the liquid, because degree of molecular activity increases with increasing temperature. The vapour pressure increases with temperature. Boiling occurs when the pressure above a liquid becomes equal to or less then the vapour pressure of the liquid. It means that boiling of water may occur at room temperature if the pressure is reduced sufficiently.

For example water will boil at 60 C temperature if the pressure is reduced to 0.2 atm. Cavitation In many fluid problems, areas of low pressure can occur locally. If the pressure in such areas is equal to or less then the vapour pressure, the liquid evaporates and forms a cloud of vapour bubbles. This phenomenon is called cavitation. This cloud of vapour bubbles is swept in to an area of high pressure zone by the flowing liquid. Under the high pressure the bubbles collapses. If this phenomenon occurs in contact with a solid surface, the high pressure developed by collapsing bubbles can erode the material from the solid surface and small cavities may be formed on the surface. The cavitation affects the performance of hydraulic machines such as pumps, turbines and propellers. Compressibility and the bulk modulus of elasticity When a fluid is subjected to a pressure increase the volume of the fluid decreases. The relationship between the change of pressure and volume is linear for many fluids. This relationship may be defined by a proportionality constant called bulk modulus.

Consider a fluid occupying a volume V in the piston and cylinder arrangement shown in figure. If the pressure on the fluid increase from p to due to the piston movement as a result the volume is decreased by . We can express the bulk modulus of elasticity

L - 4.1 The negative sign indicates the volume decreases as pressure increases. As in the limit as then

L - 4.2

Since

the equation can be rearranged as

L - 4.3 Dimension :Unit :Typical values:Air - 1.03 x 10 5 N/m2 water Mild steel . at standard temperature and pressure as compared to that of

The above typical values show that the air is about 20,000 times more compressible than water while water is about 100 times more compressible than mild steel. Basic Equations To analysis of any fluid problem, the knowledge of the basic laws governing the fluid flows is required. The basic laws, applicable to any fluid flow, are: a. Conservation of mass. (Continuity) b. Linear momentum. ( Newton 's second law of motion) c. Conservation of energy (First law of Thermodynamics) Besides these governing equations, we need the state relations like and appropriate boundary conditions at solid surface, interfaces, inlets and exits. Note that all basic laws are not always required to any one problem. These basic laws, as similar in solid mechanics and

thermodynamics, are to be reformulated in suitable forms so that they can be easily applied to solve wide variety of fluid problems. System and control volume A system refers to a fixed, identifiable quantity of mass which is separated from its surrounding by its boundaries. The boundary surface may vary with time however no mass crosses the system boundary. In fluid mechanics an infinitesimal lump of fluid is considered as a system and is referred as a fluid element or a particle. Since a fluid particle has larger dimension than the limiting volume (refer to section fluid as a continuum). The continuum concept for the flow analysis is valid. control volume is a fixed, identifiable region in space through which fluid flows. The boundary of the control volume is called control surface. The fluid mass in a control volume may vary with time. The shape and size of the control volume may be arbitrary. Example 1: A liquid is undergone a change of pressure from 6.87 MPa to 13.73 MPa to make the volumetric change of 0.0113 m3 to 0.0111 m3 . What is the bulk modulus of elasticity of the liquid? Solution : Given data:

Now, Example 2: If the volume of a liquid is decreased by 0.25% for a change of pressure from 6.5 MN/m2 to 16.1 MN/m2 , calculate the bulk modulus of the liquid. Solution : Given data: Decrease in volume = 0.25 % Increase in pressure, d p = (16.1-6.5) = 9.6 MN/m2

And Answer:

Example 3: At a certain depth of a liquid where the pressure is 850 N/cm2 what will be the change in specific volume and specific weight with respect to the surface? Given that the specific weight of that liquid at the surface is 1025 N/cm3 and the bulk modulus of elasticity is 24x10 3 N/cm3 . Solution : Given data: Specific weight at surface = 1025 N/cm3 Bulk modulus = 24x10 3 N/cm3 Pressure at the surface is assumed to be zero Change of pressure d p = (850-0) = 850 N/cm2 Let, at the surface specific volume is v 1 and at that depth specific volume is v 2

And, => Specific weight at that depth = 1/ specific volume [Note: Specific volume is used instead of the actual volume in the above equation] Answer:

Module02 : Fluid Statics :

Pressure

When a fluid is at rest, the fluid exerts a force normal to a solid boundary or any imaginary plane drawn through the fluid. Since the force may vary within the region of interest, we conveniently define the force in terms of the pressure, P, of the fluid. The pressure is defined as the force per unit area . Commonly the pressure changes from point to point. We can define the pressure at a point as

where is the area on which the force temporally as given P = P (x, y, z, t) Pascal's Law : Pressure at a point

L - 6.1 acts. It is a scalar field and varies spatially and

The Pascal's law states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions . Let us prove this law by considering the equilibrium of a small fluid element shown in Fig : L 6.2
Since the fluid is at rest, there will be no shearing stress on the faces of the element.

The equilibrium of the fluid element implies that sum of the forces in any direction must be zero. For the x-direction: Force due to Px is Component of force due to Pn

Summing the forces we get,

Similarly in the y-direction, we can equate the forces as given below Force due to Py = Component of force due to Pn

The negative sign indicates that weight of the fluid element acts in opposite direction of the zdirection. Summing the forces yields

Since the volume of the fluids is very small, the weight of the element is negligible in comparison with other force terms.So the above Equation becomes Py = P n Hence, P n = P x = P y Similar relation can be derived for the z-axis direction. This law is valid for the cases of fluid flow where shear stresses do not exist. The cases are a. Fluid at rest. b. No relative motion exists between different fluid layers. For example, fluid at a constant linear acceleration in a container. c. Ideal fluid flow where viscous force is negligible.

Basic equations of fluid statics An equation representing pressure field P = P (x, y, z) within fluid at rest is derived in this section. Since the fluid is at rest, we can define the pressure field in terms of space dimensions (x, y and z) only. Consider a fluid element of rectangular parellopiped shape( Fig : L - 7.1) within a large fluid region which is at rest. The forces acting on the element are body and surface forces.

Body force : The body force due to gravity is L -7.1 where is the volume of the element.

Surface force : The pressure at the center of the element is assumed to be P (x, y, z). Using Taylor series expansion the pressure at point on the surface can be expressed as

When

, only the first two terms become significant. The above equation becomes

L - 7.3 Similarly, pressures at the center of all the faces can be derived in terms of P (x, y, z) and its gradient. Note that surface areas of the faces are very small. The center pressure of the face represents the average pressure on that face. The surface force acting on the element in the y-direction is

L -7.4 Similarly the surface forces on the other two directions (x and z) will be

The surface force which is the vectorical sum of the force scalar components

L - 7.5 The total force acting on the fluid is

L - 7.6 The total force per unit volume is

For a static fluid, dF=0 . Then, L -7.7

If acceleration due to gravity is expressed as 7.8) in the x, y and z directions are

, the components of Eq(L-

The above equations are the basic equation for a fluid at rest. Simplifications of the Basic Equations If the gravity is aligned with one of the co-ordinate axis, for example z- axis, then

The component equations are reduced to

L -7.9

Under this assumption, the pressure P depends on z only. Therefore, total derivative can be used instead of the partial derivative.

L - 7.10

This simplification is valid under the following restrictions a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Static fluid Gravity is the only body force. The z-axis is vertical and upward. Pressure variations in an incompressible fluid at rest In some fluid problems, fluids may be considered homogenous and incompressible i.e . density is constant. Integrating the equation (L -7.10) with condition given in figure (Fig : L - 7.2), we have

L -7.11

i. j. Fig. L-7.2: Pressure variation in an incompressible fluid k. l. This indicates that the pressure increases linearly from the free surface in an incompressible static fluid as illustrated by the linear distribution in the above figure. Scales of pressure measurement Fluid pressures can be measured with reference to any arbitrary datum. The common datum are 1. Absolute zero pressure. 2. Local atmospheric pressure When absolute zero (complete vacuum) is used as a datum, the pressure difference is called an absolute pressure, P abs .

When the pressure difference is measured either above or below local atmospheric pressure, P local , as a datum, it is called the gauge pressure. Local atmospheric pressure can be measured by mercury barometer. At sea level, under normal conditions, the atmospheric pressure is approximately 101.043 kPa. As illustrated in figure( Fig : L -7.2), When Pabs < Plocal P gauge = P local - P abs L - 7.12

Note that if the absolute pressure is below the local pressure then the pressure difference is known as vacuum suction pressure. Example 1 : Convert a pressure head of 10 m of water column to kerosene of specific gravity 0.8 and carbontetra-chloride of specific gravity of 1.62. Solution : Given data: Height of water column, h 1 = 10 m Specific gravity of water s1 = 1.0 Specific gravity of kerosene s2 = 0.8 Specific gravity of carbon-tetra-chloride, s3 = 1.62 For the equivalent water head Weight of the water column = Weight of the kerosene column. So, r g h1 s1 = r g h2 s2 = r g h3 s3 Answer:Example 2 : Determine (a) the gauge pressure and (b) The absolute pressure of water at a depth of 9 m from the surface. Solution : 12.5 m and 6.17 m.

Given data: Depth of water = 9 m the density of water = 998.2 kg/m3 And acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2 Thus the pressure at that depth due to the overlying water is P = r gh = 88.131 kN/m2 Case a) as already discussed, gauge pressure is the pressure above the normal atmospheric pressure. Thus, the gauge pressure at that depth = 88.131 kN/m2 Case b) The standard atmospheric pressure is 101.213 kN/m2 Thus, the absolute pressure as P abs = 88.131+101.213 = 189.344 kN/m2 Answer: 88.131 kN/m2 ; 101.213 kN/m2 Inclined Manometer A manometer with an inclined tube arrangement helps to amplify the pressure reading, especially in low pressure range. A typical arrangement of the same is shown in Fig. L-8.3. The pressure at O is

The pressure at O is

Equating the pressures, we have

At the same pressure difference, Equations (1) and (2) indicate that inclined tube manometer amplifies the length of measurement by , which is the primary advantage of such type of manometer.

Differential Manometers : Differential Manometers measure difference of pressure between two points in a fluid system and cannot measure the actual pressures at any point in the system. Some of the common types of differential manometers are a. b. c. d. Upright U-Tube manometer Inverted U-Tube manometer Inclined Differential manometer Micro manometer

Upright U-Tube manometer: As shown in Fig. : L-8.4, an upright U-tube manometer is connected between points A and B. The difference of pressure between the points may be calculated by balancing pressure in a horizontal plane, the lowest interface A-A is used for this case.

or

Inverted U-Tube manometer: The manometer fluid used in this type of manometer is lighter than the working fluids. Thus the height difference in two limbs is enhanced. This is therefore suitable for measurement of small pressure difference in liquids. For the configurations given in Fig. L-8.1.

Fig. L-8.5 Inverted Manometer

Or If the two points A and B are at the same level and the same fluid is used, then P 1 = P 2 = P and h 2 + h 3 =h 1 . The above equation becomes

Inclined Differential Manometer In this type of manometer a narrow tube is connected to a reservoir at an inclination. The cross section of the reservoir is larger than that of the tube. Fluctuations in the reservoir may be ignored. As shown in Fig.L-8.6, the initial liquid level in both the reservoir and the tube is at o-o. The application of the differential pressure liquid level of the reservoir drops by Dh , whereas h is the rising level in the tube. Therefore

Since the volume of liquid displaced in the reservoir equals to the volume of liquid in the tube, we can define

Where 'A' and 'a' are the cross sectional areas of the reservoir and the tube respectively. Then the equation becomes

In practice, the reservoir area is much larger than that of the tube; the ratio the above equation is reduced to
Micro manometer:

is negligible and

; h = L sinq

A typical micro-manometer tube arrangement as shown in fig has a reservoir which can be moved up and down by means of micrometer screw. A flexible tube is connected between point A and the

reservoir. Another flexible tube connecting point B and the other end of the reservoir is placed on an inclined surface. A reference mark 'R' is provided on the inclined portion of the tube. Before application of the pressure, the level of the reservoir is moved so as to coincide this level with the reference mark. When a pressure difference is applied, the liquid levels will be disturbed. The micrometer arrangement is then adjusted to vary the reservoir level so as to coincide with the reference. The extent of movement of the micrometer screw gives the pressure difference between the two points A and B.

Example 1:

Two pipes on the same elevation convey water and oil of specific gravity 0.88 respectively. They are connected by a U-tube manometer with the manometric liquid having a specific gravity of 1.25. If the manometric liquid in the limb connecting the water pipe is 2 m higher than the other find the pressure difference in two pipes.

Solution : Given data: Height difference = 2 m Specific gravity of oil s = 0.88 Specific gravity of manometric liquid s = 1.25 Equating pressure head at section (A-A)

Fig. Ex1 Substituing h = 5 m and density of water 998.2 kg/m3 we have P A -P B = 10791

Answer:Example 2 :

10791 Pa

A two liquid double column enlarged-ends manometer is used to measure pressure difference between two points. The basins are partially filled with liquid of specific gravity 0.75 and the lower portion of U-tube is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.6. The diameter of the basin is 20 times higher than that of the U-tube. Find the pressure difference if the U-tube reading is 25 mm and the liquid in the pipe has a specific weight of 0.475 N/m3.

Solution : Given data: U-tube reading 25 mm Specific gravity of liquid in the basin 0.75 Specific gravity of Mercury in the U-tube13.6 As the volume displaced is constant we have,

[a, A -- X-Section of tube and basin respectively] Fig. Ex 2 Equating pressure head at (A--A)

Put the value of Y while X and Z cancel out. Answer: 31.51 kPa Example 3: As shown in figure water flows through pipe A and B. The pressure difference of these two points is to be measured by multiple tube manometers. Oil with specific gravity 0.88 is in the upper portion of inverted U-tube and mercury in the bottom of both bends. Determine the pressure difference.

Solution : Given data: Specific gravity of the oil in the inverted tube 0.88 Specific gravity of Mercury in the U-tube13.6 Calculate the Pressure difference between each two point as follow P2 -P1 = h r g = h S rw g Start from one and i.e. PA or P B .

Fig. Ex3 Rearranging and summing all these equations we have PA - PB = 103.28 rw g Answer: - 10.131 kPa Example 4: A pipe connected with a tank (diameter 3 m) has an inclination of q with the horizontal and the diameter of the pipe is 20 cm. Determine the angle ? which will give a deflection of 5 m in the pipe for a gauge pressure of 1 m water in the tank. Liquid in the tank has a specific gravity of 0.88. Solution :

Given data: Diameter of tank = 3 m Diameter of tube = 20 cm Deflection in the pipe, L = 5 m From the figure shown h = L sin q If X m fall of liquid in the tank rises L m in the tube. (Note that the volume displaced is the same in the tank is equal to the volume displaced in the pipe)

Difference of head = x + h = L sin q + 0.04 L/9 And Substitute L = 5m in the above equation. Answer: q = 12.87 0

Example 5: At the top of a mountain mercury-barometer reading is 56 cm and thermometer reading is -5 0 C. while at the foot-hill the reading is 75.2 cm. assuming dry adiabatic condition determine the height of the mountain. R=287 joule/[kg(m) deg C abs] Solution : Given data: At the top pressure P = 56cm

At the bottom pressure P 0 = 75.2 cm At the top of the hill temperature T = -5 0 C = 268 K The pressure and temperature variation for dry adiabatic condition is given as

And For dry adiabatic Condition n = 1.4. Now solve for (Z-Z 0 ) Answer:Example 6: An empty cylindrical bucket with negligible thickness and weight is forced with its open end first into water until its lower edge is 4m below the water level. If the diameter and length of the bucket are 0.3m and 0.8m respectively and the trapped water remains at constant temperature. What would be the force required to hold the bucket in that position atmospheric pressure being 1.03 N/cm 2 2289m.

Solution : Let, the water rises a height x in the bucket By applying the Boyle's Law at constant temperature we have

Also, Downward pressure ion the bucket, Solve for, p 1 and x.

Fig. Ex6

Total upward force exerted by the trapped water Downward force due to the overlying water and the Atmospheric Pressure

Answer: Example 7:

1.62KN

A manometer connected to a pipe indicates a negative gauge pressure of 70 mm of mercury . What is the pressure in the pipe in N/m2 ? Solution : Given data: Manometer pressure- 70 mm of mercury (Negative gauge pressure) A pressure of 70 mm of Mercury, P = r gh = 9.322 kN/m 2 Also we know the gauge pressure is the pressure above the atmosphere. Thus a negative gauge pressure of 70 mm of mercury indicates the absolute pressure of P abs = 101.213 + (-9.322) = 91.819 kN/m 2 Answer: 91.819 kN/m 2

Hydrostatic force on submerged surfaces;

Introduction Designing of any hydraulic structure, which retains a significant amount of liquid, needs to calculate the total force caused by the retaining liquid on the surface of the structure. Other critical components of the force such as the direction and the line of action need to be addressed. In this module the resultant force acting on a submerged surface is derived. Hydrostatic force on a plane submerged surface

Shown in Fig.L-9.1 is a plane surface of arbitrary shape fully submerged in a uniform liquid. Since there can be no shear force in a static liquid, the hydrostatic force must act normal to the surface. Consider an element of area on the upper surface. The pressure force acting on the element is

Note that the direction of

is normal to the surface area and the negative sign shows that the

pressure force acts against the surface. The total hydrostatic force on the surface can be computed by integrating the infinitesimal forces over the entire surface area.

If h is the depth of the element, from the horizontal free surface as given in Equation (L2.9) becomes

L-9.1 If the fluid density is constant and P 0 is the atmospheric pressure at the free surface, integration of the above equation can be carried out to determine the pressure at the element as given below

L-9.2 Total hydrostatic force acting on the surface is

L-9.3

The integral

is the first moment of the surface area about the x-axis.

If yc is the y coordinate of the centroid of the area, we can express

L-9.4 in which A is the total area of the submerged plane. Thus

L-9.5 This equation says that the total hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface equals to the pressure at the centroid of the area times the submerged area of the surface and acts normal to it. Centre of Pressure (CP) The point of action of total hydrostatic force on the submerged surface is called the Centre of Pressure (CP). To find the co-ordinates of CP, we know that the moment of the resultant force about any axis must be equal to the moment of distributed force about the same axis. Referring to Fig. L-9.2, we can equate the moments about the x-axis.

L-9.6 Neglecting the atmospheric pressure ( P0 = 0 ) and substituting , , P=wh and

We get

L-9.7 From parallel-axis theorem

Fig. L-9.2 : Centre of pressure

Where

is the second moment of the area about the centroidal axis.

L-9.8 This equation indicates that the centre of the pressure is always below the centroid of the submerged plane. Similarly, the derivation of xcp can be carried out. Hydrostatic force on a Curved Submerged surface

On a curved submerged surface as shown in Fig. L-9.3, the direction of the hydrostatic pressure being normal to the surface varies from point to point. Consider an elementary area in the curved submerged surface in a fluid at rest. The pressure force acting on the element is

The total hydrostatic force can be computed as

Fig. L-9.3: Hydrostatic force on a curved surface Note that since the direction of the pressure varies along the curved surface, we cannot integrate the above integral as it was carried out in the previous section. The force vector in terms of its scalar components as is expressed

in which respectively.

represent the scalar components of F in the x , y and z directions

For computing the component of the force in the x-direction, the dot product of the force and the unit vector ( i ) gives

Where is the area projection of the curved element on a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. This integral means that each component of the force on a curved surface is equal to the force on the plane area formed by projection of the curved surface into a plane normal to the component. The magnitude of the force component in the vertical direction (z direction)

Since

and neglecting

, we can write

in which is the weight of liquid above the element surface. This integral shows that the zcomponent of the force (vertical component) equals to the weight of liquid between the submerged surface and the free surface. The line of action of the component passes through the centre of gravity of the volume of liquid between the free surface and the submerged surface. Example 1 : A vertical gate of 5 m height and 3 m wide closes a tunnel running full with water. The pressure at the bottom of the gate is 195 kN/m 2 . Determine the total pressure on the gate and position of the centre of the pressure.

Solution : Given data: Area of the gate = 5x3 = 15 m 2 The equivalent height of water which gives a pressure intensity of 195 kN/m2 at the bottom. h = P/w =19.87m. Total force And

[I G = bd 3 /12] Answer: 2.56MN and 17.49 m.

Example 2 : A vertical rectangular gate of 4m x 2m is hinged at a point 0.25 m below the centre of gravity of the gate. If the total depth of water is 7 m what horizontal force must be applied at the bottom to keep the gate closed?

Solution : Given data: Area of the gate = 4x2 = 8 m 2 Depth of the water = 7 m Hydrostatic force on the gate

Taking moments about the hinge we get, Answer: 18.8 kN. Fig. Ex2 Example 3: A vertical gate of 2m x 2m rests with its top edge 1 m below the water level. Find the depth of such a horizontal line that a) the force on the top half is equal to the pressure on the bottom half. b) The moments of the force at both half about the line are equal.

Solution : Given data: - Area of the gate = 2x2 = 4 m 2 Depth of the top edge 1 m (a) Let, the depth of such a line is x from the top of the gate.

Equating these two x =1.24m. (b) Now if be the depth of centre of pressure from the top of water surface.

Fig. Ex 3 Taking moments about (A...A) and solve for x Answer: Example 4: An opening in a dam is covered with a plate of 1 m square and is hinged on the top and inclined at 60 0 to the horizontal. If the top edge of the gate is 2 m below the water level what is the force required to open the gate by pulling a chain set at 45 0 angle with the plate and set to the lower end of the plate. The plate weighs 2200 N. 1.24m and 1.167m.

Solution : Given data: Area of the gate= 1 m 2

Total force on the gate= Depth of the centre of pressure Distance of the application point of the force from the hinge Taking moments about the hinge ,

Then, T = 18.66 Answer: 18.66 kN

Example 5: A vertical gate of height H and width B held water to its one side up to the top level. If the plate is divided by N such lines that the total force on each plate is equal then show that a) the height of the each portion is given by h=Hv(r/N) and b) the depth of centre of pressure of each portion is given by h p = (2/3)H[r 3/2 - (r-1) 3/2 ] / vN Solution :

a)

Let, the forces on each plate be F 1, F 2, F 3 etc.

Thus we have

a. Let,

are the depth of the centre of pressure below the

Example 6: A gate closing an opening is triangular in cross section and 1 m long. It is hinged on the top and freely supported at one of the bottom ends as shown in the figure. If the gate weighs 25 kN/m 3 find the height of the water that will automatically open the gate.

Solution : Let, the height of the water h above the bottom of the Gate Weight of the gate (acting downward) acting at 1/3 m from B . Force on the vertical surface acting horizontal direction acting at h/3 m above B. Upward pressure on the horizontal surface acting 1/2 m from B. Equate the sum of moments about B to zero. Answer: height of the water h = 0.438m.

Example 7:

As shown in figure what would be the height of water level h when the gate will automatically tip?

Solution : Horizontal force on the vertical plane acting at h/3 m above the hinge

Vertical force on horizontal plane acting at 0.5 m from the hinge

Fig. Ex7 Take moments about the hinge and equate. [Note that the width of the plate (perpendicular to the plane of paper) is taken as unity.] Answer:h= 2.732 m.

Example 8: As shown in figure what would be the height of water level h when the gate will automatically tip?

Solution : The gate will tilt when the centre of pressure acts above the hinge.

Depth of the centre of pressure, The tipping condition is 0.67h = (h-1) [Note that the width of the plate (perpendicular to the plane of paper) is taken as unity.] Answer: 3.03m. Fig. Ex8 Example 9: The length of a tainter gate is 1m perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Find out the total horizontal force on the gate and the total hydrostatic force on the gate.

Solution :

Horizontal hydrostatic force on the tainter gate

where projected area A = 31 = 3 m2. Fig. Ex9 The vertical force is equal to the weight of water displaced by the shaded area.

The area of the shaded portionThe vertical force, The resultant force, Answer: 46.95 KN and q=

Example 10: A solid cylinder of 2.4 m diameter and 2.5 kN weight rests on the bottom of a tank which is one meter long. Water and oil (specific gravity 0.75) are poured into the two sides of the cylinder up to a depth of 0.6m and 1.2 m respectively. Find the magnitude of the horizontal and vertical component of the force that keeps the cylinder touching the tank bottom.

Solution : Given data: Specific gravity of the oil = 0.75 Diameter of the cylinder = 1.2 m Sum of horizontal force acting on the cylinder

= 3531.6 N The vertical force is the volume of water and oil displaced in each side of the cylinder . Vertical force due to water is Fig. Ex10

V1 = Water Displaced = V 2 = Oil

m3

weight of the cylinder acting downward = 2500N. The sum of vertical forces is 10.15 kN. Answer: - 3.53 kN. And 10.15 kN. Example 11: A gate as shown in fig, is hinged at O and it is in the form of a quadrant of a circle of radius 1m. It supports water at one side. If the length of gate is 3.5m find the force required to hold the gate.

Solution : Horizontal force component

Where A is the projected area =3.5 x1=3.5m2 And it acts at a distance 1 / 3 m from hinge Fig. Ex11 The vertical force is the weight of the water held

Acting through the centroid of the water held and is located at 4p / 3 m from the vertical line through A. Now, taking moments about the hinge we get Answer:- 17.16 kN. Example 12: A quarter circle (10 m diameter) gate which is 10 m wide perpendicular to the paper holds water as shown in the figure. Find the force required to hold the gate. The weight of the gate can be neglected.

Solution : Horizontal force

And it acts at a distance of 5/3 m from the bottom end. Fig. Ex12 And the upward vertical force is the weight of the imaginary water body held over the plate.

And it will act through its C.G. which is Determined as follow -

C.G. of total area about AA is 2.5m away from AA.

Distance from 'O'= (5-3.88) = 1.12m. Taking moments about Answer:-

Example 13: Determine the total hydrostatic force on the curved surface as shown in the figure. The width of the curved portion is 2 m perpendicular to the paper. Solution : Horizontal force on the surface

Where A is the vertically projected area Now, the area covered by the curve

Volume of water held over the surface = 410 = 40 m3.

Fig. Ex13 Vertical force will be the weight of water held by the curved surface. Then,

Answer: F = 394.4 kN. Example 14: The hemispherical dome as shown in the figure weighs 25 kN and holds water. The dome is fixed to the floor by 3 bolts equally spaced. Find the force on each bolt.

Solution : The total vertical upward force can be calculated by the weight of imaginary volume of water held over the structure. Volume of the imaginary cylinder

Fig. Ex14(b) Fig.Ex14(a)

Now, the volume of the bottom hemispherical

Volume of the shaded part Imaginary Volume of the water over the dome Total upward force F Three bolts are there, force on each bolt is F/3.

Example 16: The arch of a bridge over a river is in the form of a semi-circle of radius 3 m. The bridge width is 10 m. Due to a flood the water level raises 1.5 m above the crest of the arch. Calculate (a) The upward force the arch, (b) the horizontal thrust on the half of the arch. Solution : a. The upward force will be the imaginary volume of water held over the surface.

Now, the imaginary volume of water = Total upward force = 128.7 x 9810 = 1.26 MN

b. The horizontal force on each side,

Answer: 1.26 MN; 0.883 MN Example 17: A concrete dam retaining 9 m of water at its upstream is shown in Figure. The depth of water at its downstream is 6 m and the unit weight of the concrete is 23.5kN/m2. The foundation soil is assumed to be impermeable. Determione the factor of safety of the dam against aliding if the coefficient of friction between the base of the dam and the foundatin soil is 0.48. Fig. Ex17 Solution :

From the figure

Answer: 2.12

Buoyant force in a layered fluid As shown in figure (L-10.2) an object floats at an interface between two immiscible fluids of density

Considering the element shown in Figure L-10.3, the buoyant force

is

L-10.3 where are the volumes of fluid element submerged in fluid 1 and 2 respectively. The centre of buoyancy can be estimated by summing moments of the buoyant forces in each fluid volume displaced. Buoyant force on a floating body When a body is partially submerged in a liquid, with the remainder in contact with air (as shown in figure), the buoyant force of the body can also be computed using equation (L-10.3). Since the specific weight of the air (11.8 ) is negligible as compared with the specific weight of the liquid (for example specific weight of water is 9800 ),we can neglect the weight of displaced air. Hence, equation (L-10.3) becomes

(Displaced volume of the submerged liquid) = The weight of the liquid displaced by the body. The buoyant force acts at the centre of the buoyancy which coincides with the centeroid of the volume of liquid displaced. Example 1: A large iceberg floating in sea water is of cubical shape and its specific gravity is 0.9 If 20 cm proportion of the iceberg is above the sea surface, determine the volume of the iceberg if specific gravity of sea water is 1.025. Solution :

Let the side of the cubical iceberg be h. Total volume of the iceberg = h 3 volume of the submerged portion is = ( h -20) x h 2 Now, For flotation, weight of the iceberg = weight of the displaced water

The side of the iceberg is 164 cm. Thus the volume of the iceberg is 4.41m3 Answer: 4.41m 3

Stability
:

Introduction : Floating or submerged bodies such as boats, ships etc. are sometime acted upon by certain external forces. Some of the common external forces are wind and wave action, pressure due to river current, pressure due to maneuvering a floating object in a curved path, etc. These external forces cause a small displacement to the body which may overturn it. If a floating or submerged body, under action of small displacement due to any external force, is overturn and then capsized, the body is said to be in unstable. Otherwise, after imposing such a displacement the body restores its original position and this body is said to be in stable equilibrium. Therefore, in the design of the floating/submerged bodies the stability analysis is one of major criteria. Stability of a Submerged body Consider a body fully submerged in a fluid in the case shown in figure (Fig. L-11.1) of which the center of gravity (CG) of the body is below the centre of buoyancy. When a small angular displacement is applied a moment will generate and restore the body to its original position; the body is stable.

However if the CG is above the centre of buoyancy an overturning moment rotates the body away from its original position and thus the body is unstable (see Fig L-11.2). Note that as the body is fully submerged, the shape of the displaced fluid remains the same when the body is tilted. Therefore the centre of buoyancy in a submerged body remains unchanged. Stability of a floating body A body floating in equilibrium ( ) is displaced through an angular displacement . The weight of the fluid W continues to act through G. But the shape of immersed volume of liquid changes and the centre of buoyancy relative to body moves from B to B 1 . Since the buoyant force and the weight W are not in the same straight line, a turning movement proportional to ' ' is produced. In figure (Fig. L-11.2) the moment is a restoring moment and makes the body stable. In figure (Fig. L-11.2) an overturning moment is produced. The point ' M ' at which the line of action of the new buoyant force intersects the original vertical through the CG of the body, is called the metacentre. The restoring moment

Provided

is small;

(in radians).

The distance GM is called the metacentric height. We can observe in figure that Stable equilibrium : when M lies above G , a restoring moment is produced. Metacentric height GM is positive. Unstable equilibrium : When M lies below G an overturning moment is produced and the metacentric height GM is negative.

Natural equilibrium : If M coincides with G neither restoring nor overturning moment is produced and GM is zero. Determination of Metacentric Height i. Experimental method

The metacentric height of a floating body can be determined in an experimental set up with a movable load arrangement. Because of the movement of the load, the floating object is tilted with angle for its new equilibrium position. The measurement of is used to compute the metacentric height by equating the overturning moment and restoring moment at the new tilted position. The overturning moment due to the movement of load P for a known distance, x, is The restoring moment is For equilibrium in the tilted position, the restoring moment must equal to the overturning moment. Equating the same yields

The metacentric height becomes

And the true metacentric height is the value of plotting a graph between the calculated value of i. Theoretical method:

as

. This may be determined by values and the angle .

for various

For a floating object of known shape such as a ship or boat determination of metacentric height can be calculated as follows. The initial equilibrium position of the object has its centre of Buoyancy, B, and the original water line is AC . When the object is tilted through a small angle the center of buoyancy will move to new position . As a result, there will be change in the shape of displaced fluid. In the new position is the waterline. The small wedge is submerged and the wedge is uncovered. Since the vertical equilibrium is not disturbed, the total weight of fluid displaced remains unchanged. Weight of wedge = Weight of wedge .

In the waterline plan a small area, da at a distance x from the axis of rotation OO uncover the volume of the fluid is equal to Integrating over the whole wedge and multiplying by the specific weight w of the liquid,

Weight of wedge Similarly,

Weight of wedge Equating Equations ( ) and (),

in which, this integral represents the first moment of the area of the waterline plane about OO , therefore the axis OO must pass through the centeroid of the waterline plane. Computation of the Metacentric Height

Refer to Figure(), the distance

is

The distance

is calculated by taking moment about the centroidal axis

The integral portion At a distance x ,

equals to zero, because .

axis symmetrically divides the submerged

Substituting it into the above equation gives

Where I 0 is the second moment of area of water line plane about

. Thus,

Distance

Since, Periodic Time of Transverse Oscillation When an overturning moment which results an angular displacement to a floating body is suddenly removed, the floating body may be set in a state of oscillation. This oscillation behaves as in the same manner as a simple pendulum suspended at metacentre M . Only the restoring moment change of angular momentum. sets it in a state of oscillation. So, it is equal to the rate of

Where,

is the radius of gyration about its axis of rotation, and

the angular acceleration.

The negative sign indicates the acceleration is in the opposite direction to the displacement. As it corresponds to simple harmonic motion, the periodic time is

From the above equation it can be observed that a large metacentric height gives higher stability to a floating object. However it reduces the time period of oscillation which may cause discomfort for passengers in a passenger ship. Some typical metacentric heights of various floating vessels are given below Ocean going vessels : 0.3m to 1.2m. War ship : 1m to 1.5m. River crafts : > 3.6m. Liquids in Rigid Body Motion

Many liquids such as water, milk and oil are transported in tankers. When a tanker is being accelerated at constant rate, the liquid within the tanker starts splashing. After that a new free surface is formed, each liquid particle moves with same acceleration. At this equilibrium stage the liquid moves as if it were a solid. Since there is no relative motion between liquid particles the shear stress is zero throughout the liquid. At this equilibrium it is said to be liquid in rigid body motion. Uniform linear acceleration

A liquid in a vessel is subjected to a uniform linear acceleration, a as discussed in previous section after sometime the liquid particles assumes acceleration a as a solid body. Consider a small fluid element of dx, dy and dz dimensions as shown in figure. The hydrostatic equation (L-12.1) is applied with the acceleration component as

Note that each term of equation (L-12.1) represents respective force per unit volume. If , the relation can be resolved into their vectorical components as

L12. 2 where are the acceleration components in the x ,y ,z directions respectively.

In scalar form equation (L-12.2) becomes

12.3

Special case I :- Uniform acceleration of a liquid container on a straight path.

Consider a container partly filled with a liquid, moving on a straight path with a uniform acceleration 'a'. In order to simplify the analysis the projection of the path of motion on the horizontal plane is assured to be the x-axis, and the projection on the vertical plane to be the zaxis. Note that there is no acceleration component in the y direction. i.e.

The equations () of motion for acceleration fluid becomes

12.4 Therefore, Pressure is a function of position and the total differential becomes

Substituting for the partial differentials yields 12.5 For an incompressible fluid by integration. . Pressure variations in the liquid can be computed

12.6 where c is the constant of integration. Let, at origin, the pressure then, and finally the above equation becomes ressure variation, 12.7

If the accelerated liquid has a free surface, vertical rise between two points located on the free surface is computed as follows

12.8 Note that the pressure at both points is the atmospheric pressure. The slope of the free surface is

12.9 The line of constant pressure isobars are parallel to the free surface (shown in figure).

The conservation of mass of an incompressible fluid implies that the volume of the liquid remains constant before and during acceleration. The rise of the liquid level on one side must be balanced by liquid level drop on the other side. Example 1: An open rectangular open tank 6m x 4.5m x 3m high containing water up to a level of 2m is accelerated at 3m/ s 2 A)horizontally along the longer side. B) vertically downwards and C) vertically upwards D) in 30 0 inclination with horizontal along the longer side. Find in each case the shape of the free water surface and the pressure on the bottom and on the side walls.

Solution : Fig. Ex1. Case (b) Fig. Ex1. Case (a)

Case a)

Length = 6m.

Answer: 2.918m and 1.082m.

Force on bottom 529.74 kN Leading face 25.84 kN Trailing face 187.94 kN Side faces 104.64 kN on each side.

Case b) Downward acceleration,

Fig.Ex1: case (c) Fig.Ex1: case (d)

Case c) Case d)

Upward acceleration Inclined acceleration

Answer:

2.69 m and 1.31 m.

Uniform rotation about a vertical axis When a liquid in a container is rotated about its vertical axis at constant angular velocity, after sometime the liquid will move like a solid together with the container. Since every liquid particle moves with the same angular velocity: no shear stresses exit in the liquid. This type of motion is also known as forced vortex motion.

Fig. L-13.1 As shown in figure a cylindrical coordinate system with the unit vector and in the vertical upward direction, is selected. ' has a centripetal acceleration in the radial direction

A fluid particle p' rotating with a constant angular velocity '

direct radially toward the axis of rotation (-ve direction). By substituting the acceleration component the pressure equation () for the fluid particle becomes L13.1 Expanding equation ( )

L-13.2 The scalar components are

L-13.3 Since , the total differential is

L-13.4

Substituting for

then for an incompressible fluid gives and integrating

L-13.5 where c is the constant of integration. The equation for the surface of constant pressure (for example free surface) is

L13.6

where

and this equation indicates that the isobars are paraboloids of revolutions.

Special case : Cylinder liquid-filled container Let, the point (1) on the axis of rotation is at height from the origin. Since the pressure at point (1) is at atmospheric pressure, we can neglect the effect of the pressure. Substituting pressure and position of (1) the equation () gives

The equation of the free surface becomes

L-13.7 Consider a cylinder element of radius r , free surface height z and thickness dr. The volume of the element is

The volume of paraboloid generated by the free surface is

L13.8 Since the liquid mass is conserved and incompressible this volume must be equal to the initial volume of the liquid before rotation. The initial volume of fluid in the container is

Equating these two volumes we get

In the case of a closed container with no free surface or with a partly exposed free surface rotated about the vertical axis an imaginary free surface based on equation(##) can be constructed.

FLUID KINEMATICS : Introduction

The fluid kinematics deals with description of the motion of the fluids without reference to the force causing the motion. Thus it is emphasized to know how fluid flows and how to describe fluid motion. This concept helps us to simplify the complex nature of a real fluid flow. When a fluid is in motion, individual particles in the fluid move at different velocities. Moreover at different instants fluid particles change their positions. In order to analyze the flow behavior, a function of space and time, we follow one of the following approaches 1. Lagarangian approach 2. Eularian approach

3. In the Lagarangian approach a fluid particle of fixed mass is selected. We follow the fluid particle during the course of motion with time (fig. L-16.1)

The fluid particles may change their shape, size and state as they move. As mass of fluid particles remains constant throughout the motion, the basic laws of mechanics can be applied to them at all times. The task of following large number of fluid particles is quite difficult. Therefore this approach is limited to some special applications for example re-entry of a spaceship into the earth's atmosphere and flow measurement system based on particle imagery. In the Eularian method a finite region through which fluid flows in and out is used. Here we do not keep track position and velocity of fluid particles of definite mass. But, within the region, the field variables which are continuous functions of space dimensions ( x , y , z ) and time ( t ), are defined to describe the flow. These field variables may be scalar field variables, vector field variables and tensor quantities. For example, pressure is one of the scalar fields. Sometimes this finite region is referred as control volume or flow domain. For example the pressure field 'P' is a scalar field variable and defined as

Velocity field, a vector field, is defined as Similarly shear stress is a tensor field variable and defined as

Note that we have defined the fluid flow as a three dimensional flow in a Cartesian co-ordinates system.

Types of Fluid Flow

Uniform and Non-uniform flow : If the velocity at given instant is the same in both magnitude and direction throughout the flow domain, the flow is described as uniform.

Mathematically the velocity field is defined as , z ).

, independent to space dimensions ( x , y

When the velocity changes from point to point it is said to be non-uniform flow. Fig.() shows uniform flow in test section of a well designed wind tunnel and ( ) describing non uniform velocity region at the entrance. Steady and unsteady flows The flow in which the field variables don't vary with time is said to be steady flow. For steady flow,

Or It means that the field variables are independent of time. This assumption simplifies the fluid problem to a great extent. Generally, many engineering flow devices and systems are designed to operate them during a peak steady flow condition. If the field variables in a fluid region vary with time the flow is said to be unsteady flow.

One, two and three dimensional flows

Although fluid flow generally occurs in three dimensions in which the velocity field vary with three space co-ordinates and time. But, in some problem we may use one or two space components to describe the velocity field. For example consider a steady flow through a long straight pipe of constant cross-section. The velocity distributions shown in figure are independent of co-ordinate x and and a function of r only. Thus the flow field is one dimensional.

But in the case of flow over a weir of constant cross-section (), we can use two co-ordinate system x and z in defining the velocity field. So, this flow is a case of two dimensional flow. The reduction of independent space variable in a fluid flow problem makes it simpler to solve. Laminar and Turbulent flow In fluid flows, there are two distinct fluid behaviors experimentally observed. These behaviors were first observed by Sir Osborne Reynolds. He carried out a simple experiment in which water was discharged through a small glass tube from a large tank (the schematic of the experiment shown in Fig.). A colour dye was injected at the entrance of the tube and the rate of flow could be regulated by a valve at the out let. When the water flowed at low velocity, it was found that the die moved in a straight line. This clearly showed that the particles of water moved in parallel lines. This type of flow is called laminar flow, in which the particles of fluid moves along smooth paths in layers. There is no exchange of momentum from fluid particles of one layer to the fluid particles of another layer. This type of flow mainly occurs in high viscous fluid flows at low velocity, for example, oil flows at low velocity. Fig. shows the steady velocity profile for a typical laminar flow.

When the water flowed at high velocity, it was found that the dye colour was diffused over the whole cross section. This could be interpreted that the particles of fluid moved in very irregular paths, causing an exchange of momentum from one fluid particle to another. This type of flow is

known as turbulent flow. The time variation of velocity at a point for the turbulent flow is shown in Fig.

It means that the flow is characterized by continuous random fluctuations in the magnitude and the direction of velocity of the fluid particles. Velocity Field Consider a uniform stream flow passing through a solid cylinder (Fig.). The typical velocities at different locations within the fluid domain vary from position to position at a particular time t . At different time instants this velocity distribution may change. Keeping this observation in mind, the velocity within a flow domain can be represented as function of position ( x , y , z ) and time t .

In the Cartesian co-ordinates the variation of velocity can be represented as a vector velocity scalar components in x , y and z directions respectively. where u , v , w are the

The scalar components u , v and w are dependent functions of position and time. Mathematically we can express them as

This type of continuous function distribution with position and time for velocity is known as velocity field. It is based on the Eularian description of the flow. We also can represent the Lagrangian description of velocity field. Let a fluid particle exactly positioned at point A moving to another point during time interval . The velocity of the fluid particle is the same as the local velocity at that point as obtained from the Eulerian description At time t , At time , particle at x , y , z particle at

This means that instead of describing the motion of the fluid flow using the Lagrangian description, the use of Eularian description makes the fluid flow problems quite easier to solve. Besides this difficult, the complete description of a fluid flow using the Lagrangian description requires to keep track over a large number of fluid particles and their movements with time. Thus, more computation is required in the Lagrangian description. The Acceleration field At given position A, the acceleration of a fluid particle is the time derivative of the particle's velocity.

Acceleration of a fluid particle: Since the particle velocity is a function of four independent variables ( x , y , z and t ), we can express the particle velocity in terms of the position of the particle as given below

Applying chain rule, we get

Where

and d are the partial derivative operator and total derivative operator respectively.

The time rate of change of the particle in the x -direction equals to the x -component of velocity vector, u . Therefore

Similarly,

As discussed earlier the position vector of the fluid particle ( x particle , y particle , z particle ) in the Lagranian description is the same as the position vector ( x , y , z ) in the Eulerian frame at time t and the acceleration of the fluid particle, which occupied the position ( x , y , z ) is equal to in the Eularian description. Therefore, the acceleration is defined by

In vector form

where

is the gradient operator.

The first term of the right hand side of equation represents the time rate of change of velocity field at the position of the fluid particle at time t . This acceleration component is also independent to the change of the particle position and is referred as the local acceleration. However the term accounts for the affect of the change of the velocity at various positions in this field. This rate of change of velocity because of changing position in the field is called the convective acceleration.

Deformation of fluid particles Introduction Fig L-18.1. illustrates the deformation of three fluid particles originating from a uniform stream flow. The fluid particle ' A ' of a definite shape (square in this example) moves from its initial position along the direction of stream flow. As there is no significant velocity gradient, the particle has undergone only translation motion without any deformation.

But in the case of the particle B , it can easily be seen that the particle rotates in clockwise direction near the obstruction. This results due to the presence of the velocity gradient at that region. So, this type of motion of a fluid particle is known as rotation. The particle C moves in the region of high velocity gradient. Therefore, the particle is deformed volumetrically and is also undergoes angular deformation because of non-uniform distribution of velocity in the path x and y directions. In short the types of primary motion of a fluid particle are described in four ways: (a) translation (b) rotation (c) linear deformation and (d) angular deformation.

Rotation Consider a two dimensional fluid particle motion in a fluid flow domain. The flow velocity at point A ' of the particle is expressed as

As per the continuum hypothesis the velocity components u and v are continuous functions of space and time. The velocity at point A can be expressed using the Taylor series

Neglecting the second and higher order terms in the above expression we obtain

Similarly the velocity components at point B and

can be derived.

from v -velocity component at point The angle rotated during time

The pure rotation of the element is resulted and the u -velocity component at point B .

similarly, The negative sign has been introduced because of clockwise rotation. The average rotation angle is

Thus, the rate of rotation in the x and y planes becomes

In three dimension we can express rate of rotation or angular velocity in vector form as

Linear deformation

In fluid mechanics the rate of linear deformation is emphasized instead of linear deformation in solid mechanics. The rate of linear deformation or linear strain rate is the rate of increased or decreased length per unit length. Consider two points P and Q located on a fluid particle in the x -direction. The velocity at pint P and Q at time t are u and The rate of linear deformation respectively. During time is , P moves to and Q to .

Thus

Similarly linear strain rate in other directions are Angular deformation : As shown in Fig. L-18.4, angular deformation at point P is defined as the half of the rate of the angle decreased between two mutually perpendicular axes.

he angle between these two axes decreases from to in section() is , as demonstrated in FigureL-18.4 . The rate of angle , already derived

The angular deformation in the xy plane is

Note that given by

is in the clockwise direction. Extending to three dimensions the shear strain rate is

Linear deformation In fluid mechanics the rate of linear deformation is emphasized instead of linear deformation in solid mechanics. The rate of linear deformation or linear strain rate is the rate of increased or decreased length per unit length. Consider two points P and Q located on a fluid particle in the x -direction. The velocity at pint P and Q at time t are u and The rate of linear deformation respectively. During time is , P moves to and Q to .

Thus

Similarly linear strain rate in other directions are

Angular deformation : As shown in Fig. L-18.4, angular deformation at point P is defined as the half of the rate of the angle decreased between two mutually perpendicular axes.

The angle between these two axes decreases from to derived in section() is , as demonstrated in FigureL-18.4 . The rate of angle , already

The angular deformation in the xy plane is

Note that given by

is in the clockwise direction. Extending to three dimensions the shear strain rate is

The Reynolds Transport Theorem : Introduction The basic equations given in section (), involving the time derivative of extensive properties (mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, energy) are required to analyse any fluid problem. In solid mechanics, we often use a system representing a quantity of mass of fixed identity. The basic equations are therefore directly applied to determine the time derivatives of extensive properties. However, in fluid mechanics it is convenient to work with control volume, representing a region in space considered for study. The basic equations based on system approach can not directly applied to control volume approach. Fig. illustrates different types of control volume: fixed control volume, control volume moving at a constant speed and deforming control volume. In this section, it is aimed to derive a relationship between the time derivative of system property and the rate of change of that property within a control volume. This relationship is expressed by the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) which establishes a link between the system and control volume approaches. Before deriving the general form of the RTT, a derivation for one dimensional fixed control volume is explained in the next section. One- dimensional fixed control volume: Consider a diverging (expanding) flow field bounded by a stream tube. The chosen control volume is to be fixed between section a' and section 'b'. Note that both the sections are normal

to the direction of flow. At initial time t , System I exactly coincides with the chosen control volume. This assumption says that the system and control volume are identical at that time. At time , System-I has moved in the flow direction at uniform speed II has entered into the control volume. and a part of system

Let ' N' represent any properties of the fluid (mass, momentum, energy) and then represent the amount of ' N'' per unit mass (known as intensive property) in a small proportion of the fluid. The total amount of N ' in a control volume is expressed as

As the system coincides with the control volume at time ' t ', a relation between the system and the control volume is

At time

Using the definition of derivative, we can write,

or

The influx rate of N through the control surface can be computed as

Finally, Equation ( ) becomes

This equation implies that the time rate of change of any extensive property for a system is equal to the rate of change of that extensive property inside the control volume plus the net efflux of the property through the control surface. This is known as Reynolds Transport Equation which relates the change of a property of a system to the change of that property for a control volume. Arbitrary Fixed Control Volume As similar to the previous derivation, consider a fixed control volume with an arbitrary flow pattern passing through. At time t the system coincides with the control volume which is fixed , the system has moved and occupies the region II relative to the x , y, and z axes. At time and III as shown in Fig.L-19.1. Note that the region II is common to the system at both times t and . The time rate of change of N ' for the system can be given by

Rearranging the above equation we have

As

region II occupies the same space of control volume and the first term on the right . The integral for region III approximates the

side of the above equation becomes

amount of N ' that has crossed the control surface ABCD shown in Fig.L-19.1.

Fig. L-19.1 Let an area dA on the control surface where a steady flow velocity v is attained during time interval, , the interface has moved a distance along a direction which is tangential to streamline at that point. The volume of the fluid swept across the area dA is Using the dot product we can define

So, the integral for the region III, is expressed by substituting surface ABC is

. Efflux rate through control

Similarly, the influx rate through control surface ADC can be expressed

Influx rate: The negative sign indicates influx rate of N pass through the control surface. The net efflux rate of N through the whole control surface is

Net efflux rate Collecting the terms of equation ( ) gives the compact from of RTT as

The above equation states that the time rate of change of property N within a system is equal to the time rate of change of property N within the arbitrary shaped control volume plus the net rate of efflux of the property across the control surface. Special Cases Control volume moving at constant velocity : In the case of fixed control volume the velocity field was measured with reference to x , y , z axes . If the control volume moves at a uniform velocity terms are to be defined in terms of control volume does not deform. it is necessary to compute relative velocity . The flux of fluid crossing the control surface. The relative velocity becomes

, but the volume integral remains unchanged when the

The RTT for a uniformly moving control volume is

DYMAMICS OF FLUID FLOW:

BASIC EQUATIONS (INTEGRAL FORM)


The study of fluid at rest is known as "Fluid Static". When the fluids are at rest, the only fluid property of significance is the specific weight of the fluids. While in motion, various other fluid properties become significant. The science, which deals with the geometry of the motion of the fluids without reference to forces causing the motion, is known as "Fluid Kinematics". The description of the fluid motion is in terms of space-time relationship. The science that deals with the action of the forces in producing or changing the motion of the fluid is called "Fluid Kinematics". The dynamics of fluid flow is the study of fluid motion with forces causing the fluid flow. The dynamic behavior of the fluid flow is analyzed by Newton 's second law of motion. Continuity Equation (Conservation of Mass) The "control volume (CV)" is a finite region in space in which the attention is focused. The boundary surface of this control volume is called the "control surface (CS)". So, conservation of mass for a control volume can be stated as,

Time rate of change of the mass of the system = 0, i.e. (1)

or, (2)

where, is the time rate of change of mass in the CV and net mass flow through the CS and is given by, (3)

is the

So, the general expression for continuity equation is, (4) In some special cases,

When the flow is uniformly distributed over the opening of the control surface (onedimensional flow), the expression for mass flow rate is given by, (5) where is the fluid density, is the volume flow arte and is the component of fluid velocity perpendicular to area . In case, the density changes (as in the case of compressible flows), the average value of the component of velocity normal to the area is considered and is defined as,

When the flow is steady, the time rate of change of the mass of contents in the CV is zero, so that (7) For steady flow involving only one stream of specific fluid flowing through the CV at section (1) and (2), (8)

In case of incompressible flow,

is constant. So,

(9) Momentum Equation ( Newton 's second law)

The Newton 's second law of motion for a system states that "the time rate of change of the linear momentum of the system is equal to the sum of external forces acting on the system". Mathematically, it may be stated as, (10) Using "Reynolds Transport Theorem", the left hand side of the above equation can be written as, (11) or, Time rate of change of linear momentum of the system = Time rate of change of linear momentum of the contents of the control volume + Net rate of flow of linear momentum through the control surface. The right hand side of Eq. (10) i.e. is the vector sum of all the forces acting on the control-volume. It includes surface forces on all fluids and solids intersected by the control surface plus all body forces acting on the masses within the control volume. For one dimensional momentum flux, a simplified relation is obtained from Eqs (10) and (11) i.e.

(12) The Eq. (10) is a vector relation and has the components in direction. If the flow is steady, then the time rate of change of linear momentum of the control volume is zero i.e. . So, the Eq. (12) can be further simplified. Moving control volumes In most of the problems in fluid mechanics, the control volume is considered as a fixed volume in space through which the fluid flows. There are certain situations for which the analysis

becomes simplified if the control volume is allowed to move or deform. The main difference between the fixed and the moving control volumes is as follows;

It is the relative velocity CV.

that carries fluid across the control surface of the moving carries the fluid across the fixed control

In case of moving CV, the absolute velocity surface.

The difference between the absolute and relative velocities is the velocity of CV i.e. (13)

Eq. (11) can thus be written as, (14) Using Eq. (13) and (14), Eq. (10) can be expressed as, (15 )

or, (16) In case of steady flow, the first and third term on the left hand side of the above equation becomes zero. So, linear momentum equation for a moving, non-deforming CV involving steady flow becomes, (17) The linear momentum equation is very useful in engineering applications. However, some specific applications related to vanes and pipe bends are discussed in subsequent examples. Energy Equation (Conservation of Energy) In words, the conservation of energy can be stated as, Time rate of increase in stored energy of the system = Net time rate of energy addition by heat transfer into the system + Net time rate of energy addition by work transfer into the system.

In symbolic form, the statement is given by,

(1) or,

(2) where e is the total stored energy per unit mass of the system and is related to internal energy per unit mass , kinetic energy per unit mass and potential energy per unit mass

Energy Equation (Conservation of Energy) i.e.

(3) The net rate of heat transfer into the system system and the net rate of work transfer into the

is considered to be + ve' quantity and the outward flow of heat and work is

taken as - ve'. Expanding the left hand side, the Eq. (2) can be written for a control volume (CV) as,

(4) ENERGY OR HEAD LOSS OF FLOWING FLUID The change in velocity of the liquid in a flow (either in magnitude or direction) induces largescale turbulence due to formation of eddies. So, a portion of energy possessed by the flowing liquid is ultimately dissipated as heat and is considered to be the loss of energy. Some of the losses of energy caused by the change in velocity are,

Due to sudden enlargement Due to sudden contraction At the entrance to a pipe from large vessel

At the exit from a pipe Due to an obstruction in the flow passage Due to gradual contraction or enlargement Due to bends In various pipe fittings

The above losses of energy are termed as 'minor' losses because the magnitude of these losses is quite small compared to the loss due to friction in long pipes (which are distinguished as 'major losses'). The 'minor losses' are confined to a very short length of the passage of the flowing liquid. The analytical expressions representing the loss of energy for above cases are discussed below. Loss of Energy due to Sudden Enlargement

Consider a pipe of cross-sectional area A1and carrying a liquid of specific weight . It is connected to another pipe of larger cross-sectional area A2(A2>A1). Since there is a sudden change in the cross-sectional area of flow passage, the liquid emerging from smaller pipe is unable to follow the abrupt change in boundary (Fig. 1). Consequently, the flow separates from the boundary, forming turbulent eddies that results in the loss of energy to be ultimately dissipated as heat. If p1, V1and p2, V2 respectively, are the pressures and velocities of flow of liquid in the narrower and wider pipe, then by continuity equation, the discharge is,

Fig. 1: Flow through sudden enlargement in a pipe. Loss of Energy due to Sudden Enlargement

Now, the force acting on the liquid in the control volume in the direction of flow is,

By Newton's second law, the rate of change of momentum is equal force acting on the liquid, i.e.

or,

(1)

Now, if hL is the head loss between two sections 1' and 2' due to sudden enlargement, then applying Bernoulli's equation

Loss of Energy due to Sudden Enlargement

For a horizontal pipe, z1=z2 , so that

(2) Using Eq. (1) in (2), we get

(3) Using continuity equation, Eq. (3) may be alternatively expressed as,

(4) Eqs. (3) and (4) is the expression for head loss due to sudden enlargement and was first obtained by J.C. Borda (1753-1799) and L. Carnot (1738-1823). Sometimes, it is known as Borda-Carnot equation. Loss of Energy due to Sudden Contraction

Consider a pipe carrying certain liquid of specific weight whose cross-sectional area at a certain section reduces abruptly from A1 to A2 as shown in Fig. 2. Although, a sudden contraction is reverse of sudden enlargement geometrically, the Bernoulli's equation cannot be applied because the streamlines between section 1' and 2' are curved. So, the liquid is accelerated due to which the pressure at the annular face varies in an unknown manner, which cannot be determined easily. However, no major loss of energy occurs in the region between the upstream (section 1) and the accelerating flow in the converging portion. As the liquid flows from the wider pipe to narrower pipe, a vena-contracta is formed, after which the stream of liquid widens again to fill up completely the narrower pipe. In between the vena-contracta and the wall of the pipe, lot of eddies are formed that accounts for considerable dissipation of energy. In this region, the flow pattern is almost similar to that of sudden enlargement. So, the head loss can be expressed as,

(5) Loss of Energy due to Sudden Contraction

Fig. 2: Flow through sudden contraction in a pipe.

By continuity equation, ; where vena-contracta. So, Eq. (5) can be written as, s Loss of Energy due to Sudden Contraction

are cross-sectional area and velocity at

(6)

where

is the coefficient of contraction. The value of

is not constant but

depends on the ratio taken to be equal to

. In general, the loss of head due to sudden contraction is i.e. the value of k is adopted as 0.5.

Loss of Energy at the Entrance to a Pipe Energy loss at the entrance to the pipe is also called as 'inlet loss'. It occurs, when the liquid enters to the pipe from a large vessel (or tank). The flow pattern is similar to that of sudden contraction. In general, for a sharp-cornered entrance, the loss of head at the entrance is taken equal to , where V is the mean velocity of flow of liquid in the pipe.

Loss of Energy at the Exit from a Pipe

The outlet end of a pipe carrying liquid may be either left free or connected to a large reservoir. The liquid leaving the pipe possesses some kinetic energy corresponding to the velocity of the flow in the pipe which is ultimately dissipated either in the form of free jet or turbulence in the reservoir depending on the outlet condition in the pipe. The loss may be determined by using Eq. (6) with the conditions for which . So, the loss of head at the exit of the pipe is equal to

, where V is the mean velocity of flow of liquid in the pipe. Loss of Energy due to Obstruction in Flow Passage The loss of energy due to flow obstruction in a pipe occurs due to the sudden reduction in the cross-sectional area followed by an abrupt enlargement of the stream beyond the obstruction (Fig. 3). Consider a pipe flow (cross-sectional area of the pipe is A) in which an obstruction is placed with maximum cross-sectional area a. As the flow passage is reduced to (A-a), a venacontracta is formed beyond which the flow becomes uniform after certain distance from venacontracta. If Vc and V be the velocities at vena-contracta and at some section (where the flow is uniform), then the loss of head due to obstruction can be deduced from Eq. (6) i.e.

(7) oss of Energy at the Exit from a Pipe

Fig. 3: Flow through a pipe with obstruction.

Loss of Energy due to Gradual Contraction or Enlargement

The energy loss due to sudden contraction of enlargement can be minimized substantially by gradual decrease or increase in area of cross-section of the flow because the dissipation of energy due to turbulent eddies will be eliminated. In such case, the head loss is expressed as,

(8) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities at the inlet and outlet; k is the loss coefficient whose value depends on the angle of convergence/divergence and cross-sectional areas at the upstream and downstream respectively. Loss of Energy in Bends

The bends are provided in a flow passage to change the direction of the flow. This causes the loss of energy due to flow separation from the boundary and subsequent formation of turbulent eddies. In general, the head loss may be expressed as,

(9) where V is the mean velocity of flow and k is the loss coefficient. The value of k depends on the total angle of bend, radius of curvature of the pipe axis and pipe diameter. Loss of Energy in Various Pipe Fittings All pipe fittings such as valves, couplings etc. cause loss of energy and is also represented by Eq. (9). However, the value of k depends on the type of pipe-fittings.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF BERNOULLI'S EQUATION Bernoulli's equation finds wide applications in all types of problems of incompressible flow where there is involvement of energy considerations. The other equation, which is commonly used in the solution of the problems of fluid flow, is the continuity equation. In this section, the applications of Bernoulli's equation and continuity equation will be discussed for the following measuring devices .

Venturi meter Nozzle Orifice meter Pitot tube

Venturimeter

It is an instrument, which is used to measure the rate of discharge in a pipeline and is often fixed permanently at different sections of the pipeline to measure the discharge. The principle of venturi meter was demonstrated by Italian physicist G.B. Venturi (17461822) in 1797, but it was first applied by C. Herschel (1842-1930) in 1887 to develop the device for measuring the discharge or rate of flow of fluid through pipes. The basic principle is that by reducing the cross-sectional area of the flow passage, a pressure difference is created and the measurement of pressure difference enables the determination of the discharge through pipes.

Construction It consists of three parts as shown in Fig. 1. i. An inlet section followed by a convergent cone

ii. iii.

A cylindrical throat A gradually divergent cone

Fig. 1: Venturi meter. The inlet section of the venturi meter is of same diameter as that of the pipe followed by a convergent cone. The convergent cone is a short pipe that tapers from the original size to that of throat of venturi. It has an included angle of 21 0 1 0 and approximate length of parallel to the axis, where is the diameter of the inlet section and is the diameter of the throat .

The throat of the venturi meter is a short parallel-sided tube having its cross-sectional area smaller than that of the pipe. The length of the throat is approximately . The diverging cone is a gradually diverging pipe with its cross-sectional area increasing from that of throat to the original size of the pipe. The total included angle in this cone is preferably between 5 0 - 8 0 (length of the cone ~ ) such that the length of convergent cone to be smaller than the divergent part. The pressure measuring systems (such as manometer) is mounted to measure the pressure difference at the inlet section and the throat i.e. sections 1 and 2 of the venturi-meter. Considering the continuity equation, it is obvious that in the convergent cone, the fluid is being accelerated from the inlet section 1 to the throat section 2. But, in the divergent cone, the fluid is retarded from throat section 1 to the end section 3 of the venturi. The acceleration of the flowing fluid takes place in a relatively smaller length without resulting in appreciable loss of energy. So appreciable pressure drop is noticed in the manometer. The measurement of pressure difference between these sections enables the computation of rate of flow of fluid. Mathematical analysis

Let

and

be the cross-sectional areas at the inlet section and the throat (i.e. section 1 and 2)

of the venturi meter respectively, at which the pressures and velocities are , and , respectively. If the fluid is incompressible with no loss of energy between the sections 1 and 2, the Bernoulli's equation can be written as,

If the venturi meter is connected in a horizontal pipe, then the elevation heads at section 1 and 2 will be equal i.e. meter, then or if the datum is assumed to passing through the axis of the venturi . The above equation reduces to,

or,

(1)

In the above expression,

is the difference between the pressure heads at sections 1 . Further, if (2) is the discharge through the pipe, then

and 2, which is known as venturi head by continuity equation,

By substituting the values of

and

from Eq. (2) in (1),

i.e.

(3)

The above equation gives only the theoretical discharge because the loss of energy is not considered. But, in actual practice, there is always some loss of energy as the fluid flows and the actual discharge will be always less than the theoretical discharge. The actual discharge may , called coefficient of

be obtained by multiplying the theoretical discharge by a factor discharge i.e. (4)

Also, for a given venturi meter, the cross-sectional areas of the inlet section and the throat i.e. and are fixed. So, one more constant for a given venturi meter can be expressed as,

(5) Using Eqs. (4) and (5) in Eq. (3), we get

(6) Discussions :

The coefficient of discharge of the venturi meter accounts for the effects of nonuniformity of the velocity distribution at sections 1 and 2. The coefficient of discharge of the venturi meter varies with the flow rate, viscosity of the fluid and the surface roughness. But, in general, for the fluids of low viscosity, the value falls in the range of 0.95 to 0.98. The venturi head (i.e the pressure difference between the section 1 and 2) is usually measured by a manometer. If and are the specific gravities of the liquid in the manometer and liquid flowing in the venturi meter and is the difference in the levels of two limbs of the manometer, then the expression for the venturi head becomes,

(7a)

(7b)

Venturi meter can also be used to measure the discharge through pipe, which is laid either in an inclined or in vertical position. The same formula for discharge also holds good. But here,

(8) Nozzle

A flow nozzle is also a device used for measuring the discharge through pipes. As shown in Fig. 2, the flow nozzle consists of a streamlined convergent nozzle through which the fluid is gradually accelerated.

Fig. 2: Flow nozzle.

It is essentially a venturi meter with divergent part omitted and hence the basic equations are the same as those for the venturi meter. Since there is no divergent cone on the downstream of throat of the nozzle, there is a greater dissipation of energy than the venturi meter. The discharge coefficient for a nozzle can be given by the following empirical equation;

(9) where and are the diameter of the nozzle and the pipe, is the Reynolds number based on the diameter of the nozzle. Cavitation When the pressure at any point in a liquid becomes equal to the vapour pressure of the liquid, the liquid vapourizes and forms bubbles. These bubbles have the tendency to break the continuity of the flow. Formation of vapour bubbles, their transport to regions of high pressure and subsequent collapse is known as "cavitation". It is quantified by a dimensionless number defined by; (10) where is the absolute pressure at the point under consideration, is the reference velocity and is the vapour pressure of the liquid, is the density of the liquid.

Orifice meter

An orifice meter is a simple device used for measuring the discharge through pipes. It works on the same principle as that of venturimeter i.e pressure difference is created by reducing the cross-sectional area of the flow passage and measurement of the pressure difference enables the determination of discharge through the pipe. In most of the fluid flow measurements, an orifice is an opening having closed perimeter, made in the walls or the bottom of a tank or a vessel containing fluid, through which fluid may be discharged. It is a cheaper arrangement compared to venturimeter and finds application where space is limited and the accuracy is not that much important.

Construction An orifice meter consists of a flat circular plate with a circular hole called "orifice" which is concentric with the pipe axis (Fig. 1). The orifice diameter varies from 0.4 to 0.8 times the

diameter of the pipe and thickness of the plate is less than or equal to 0.05 times the diameter of the pipe. A differential manometer is fixed with the orifice meter to measure the pressure difference. One of the limbs of differential manometer is connected at the section 1, which is at a distance of about 0.9 to 1.1 times the pipe diameter from the orifice plate and the position of other limb is about 0.5 times the diameter of the orifice from the orifice plate.

Fig. 1: Orifice meter. As the fluid flows through orifice, the necessary transverse velocity components imparted to the fluid as it approaches the obstruction carry through downstream side. As a result, the minimum stream section occurs not in the plane of the orifice, but somewhat downstream as shown in the Fig. 1. The term vena contracta is applied to the location and condition of this minimum stream dimension. This is also the location of minimum pressure. The maximum possible pressure difference exists between the sections 1 and 2 ( vena contracta ), which is measured by connecting a differential manometer. The jet of the fluid coming out of the orifice gradually expands from vena contracta to again fill the pipe. Since there is an abrupt change in the cross sectional area of the flow passage, so greater loss of energy is experienced compared to venturi meter.

Mathematical analysis Let , and , be the pressures and velocities at sections 1 and 2 respectively. Then, for an incompressible fluid, applying Bernoulli's equation between the sections 1 and 2 and neglecting the losses, we have

(1) where is the difference between the piezometric heads at sections '1' and '2'. However, if the will represent the

orifice meter is connected in a horizontal pipe, then , in which case difference between the pressure heads at section '1' and '2'. From Eq. (1), we can obtain (2)

Since is the velocity of the liquid approaching the orifice, it is often termed as "velocity of approach". If the point '1' is considered to be sufficiently far from the orifice, then the velocity of approach will be small in comparison to (3) The above equation is known as Torricelli's formula, which can be used to measure the velocity of a liquid jet experimentally, emerging from a small orifice. Terminologies for orifices and may be neglected in Eq. (2), so that

a. Coefficient of velocity, In actual practice, as the real fluid flows through orifice, there is always some loss of energy due to friction and surface tension. Hence, the actual velocity of the jet at vena-contracta is slightly less than the ideal velocity and is determined by multiplying a factor called coefficient of velocity. It is defined as the ratio of the actual velocity of the jet at vena-contracta to the ideal (theoretical) velocity of the jet i.e.

(4) Experimentally, it is observed that the value of varies from 0.95 to 0.99 depending on the shape and size of the orifice. For a sharp-edged orifice discharging water or liquids with similar viscosity, the average value of a. Coefficient of contraction, A jet of liquid issuing from an orifice has its cross-sectional area at vena-contracta less than the area of the orifice i.e. the jet of liquid undergoes a contraction. The actual area of the jet at venacontracta is determined by multiplying the area of the orifice by a factor called coefficient of contraction then . If is the area of the jet at vena-contracta and is the area of the orifice, is 0.97-0.98.

(5) In practice, the value of varies from 0.61 to 0.69 depending on the size and shape of the orifice and head of the liquid under which the flow takes place. a. Coefficient of discharge, Theoretically, the cross-sectional area of the jet of liquid issuing from an orifice will be equal to the area of the orifice, which may be considered as an ideal (or theoretical) cross-sectional area of the jet. The product of ideal cross-sectional area of the jet and ideal velocity of jet given by Eq. (3) will give the theoretical discharge. However, on account of the effect of friction due to which the actual velocity of the jet is reduced and due to contraction of the jet, the actual discharge of liquid through an orifice is always less than the theoretical discharge. If theoretical discharge and is the actual discharge emerging from an orifice, then is the and,

Hence,

(6)

Therefore, it is possible to find the value of together. Its value varies from 0.61 to 0.65. a. Coefficient of resistance,

by determining

and then multiplying

It is defined as the ratio of the loss of kinetic energy as the liquid flows through an orifice and the actual kinetic energy possessed by the flowing fluid. The loss of kinetic energy as the liquid flows through orifice is equal to the difference between the theoretical kinetic energy and the actual kinetic energy.

Theoretical kinetic energy per unit weight of liquid

Actual kinetic energy per unit weight of liquid So,

(7) Discharge through orifice Considering the losses into account, the actual velocity at the section '2' can be written from Eq. (2) as, (8) Further, the area of the jet orifice at the section 2 (i.e. at vena contracta) may be related to area of the

by the following expression, can be written as,

Using continuity equation, the expression for

By substituting the value of

in Eq. (8), we get

Solving for

, we get

Actual discharge

through the pipe is given by,

. Taking

(9)

or,

(10)

where (11) Eq. (10) gives the discharge through orifice meter. The coefficient of discharge for an orifice meter is much smaller than that for venturimeter. This is because in the case of an orifice meter, there are no gradual converging and diverging flow passages as in the case of venturimeter, which results in a greater loss of energy and consequent reduction of the coefficient of discharge for an orifice meter. Pitot tube

A pitot tube is a simple device used for measuring the velocity of flow. The basic principle of operation for this device is that if the velocity of flow at a particular point (stagnation point) is reduced to zero, the total energy of the flow is converted to pressure energy. By measuring the increase in pressure energy at this point, the velocity of flow may be determined. French engineer Henri de Pitot (1695-1771) first used this principle for measuring the velocities in the river Seine in 1732.

Construction The pitot tube consists of a glass tube of suitable length (for which the capillary effects will be negligible), bent at right angles as shown in Fig. 2 (a). The tube is dipped vertically in the flowing stream of the fluid with its open end A, directed to face the flow and the other end

projecting above the fluid surface in the stream as shown in Fig. 2 (a). The fluid enters the tube and the level of the fluid in the tube exceeds that of the fluid surface in the surrounding stream because the end 'A' of the tube is a stagnation point where the fluid is at rest, and the fluid approaching 'A' divides at this point and passes around the tube. At the stagnation point, the kinetic energy is converted into the pressure energy. So, the fluid in the tube rises above the surrounding fluid surface by a height, which corresponds, to velocity of the flow of fluid approaching the end 'A' of the Pitot tube. The pressure at the stagnation point is known as "stagnation pressure or impact pressure. When the pitot tube is used for measuring the velocity of flow in a pipe or any other conduit, then it may be inserted as shown in Fig. 2 (b). Since the pitot tube measures the stagnation pressure head (or the total head) at its dipped end, the static pressure head is also required to be measured at the same section where the tip of the pitot tube is held. A differential manometer can be used for this purpose for measuring the static pressure as shown in Fig. 2 (b).

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 2: (a) Simple pitot tube; (b) Pitot tube for measuring dynamic pressure head in the pipes; (c) Prandtl pitot tube. The tubes recording the static pressure and stagnation pressure are frequently combined into one instrument known as "pitot-static tube". In this instrument, the "static" tube surrounds the "total head" tube and two or more small holes are drilled radially through the outer wall into the annular space. A major problem in the use of ordinary pitot static tube is to obtain proper alignment of the tube with flow direction. The angle formed between the probe axis and the flow streamline at the pressure opening is called "yaw angle". Ideally, this angle should be zero, but in many situations, it may not be constant: i.e. the flow may be fixed neither in magnitude nor in direction. Also, The orientation of both impact and static opening of the probe affects the yaw angle. For accurate results, a standard form of pitot static tube known as "Prandtl pitot tube" (Fig. 2 (c)) is used to measure both static and stagnation pressure. It has a blunt nose and is so designed that the disturbance caused in the flow by the nose and leg cancel each other. Mathematical analysis Referring to Fig. 2 (a), consider a point '1' slightly upstream of end 'A', lying along the same horizontal plane in the flowing stream where the velocity of flow is . If the points '1' and 'A' are at a vertical depth of below the free surface of fluid in the stream and is the height of the fluid raised in the pitot tube above the free surface, then applying Bernoulli's equation between points '1' and 'A' (neglecting energy loss),

(12) so that, In the Eq. (12), the expression (13) is the stagnation pressure head at point 'A', which consists

of the static pressure head and dynamic pressure head . Eq. (13) indicates that the dynamic pressure head is proportional to the square of the velocity flow in the stream close to the end 'A' of the pitot tube. Thus, it is possible to measure the velocity of the flow by dipping the pitot tube

at any point in the flowing stream and measuring the height of the fluid raised in the tube above free surface. However, if the flow is highly turbulent, the pitot tube records a value of higher than that of corresponding mean velocity value in the direction of tube axis. So, by introducing a factor called pitot tube coefficient (14) The value of is usually determined by calibration. But a probable value for this coefficient of the pitot tube is 0.98. Relative merits of venturi meter, flow nozzle and orifice meter

, the actual velocity of flow can be written as,

High accuracy, good pressure recovery and resistance to abrasion are the primary advantages of the venturi. The space requirement and cost of the venturi meter is comparatively higher than that of orifice and flow nozzle. The orifice is inexpensive and may often be installed between existing pipe flanges. However, its pressure recovery is poor and it is especially susceptible to inaccuracies resulting from wear and abrasion. It may also be damaged by pressure transients because of its lower physical strength. The flow nozzle possesses the advantages of the venturi, except that it has lower pressure recovery and it has the added advantage of shorter physical strength. It is inexpensive compared with the orifice and is relatively difficult to install properly. The typical pressure characteristics for venturi meter, flow nozzle and the orifice meter is shown in Fig. 3(a-c). In each case, the basic meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of flowing fluid, causing localized changes in velocity. Concurrently, there will be pressure changes. At points of maximum restriction (or maximum velocity), minimum pressure is observed. A certain portion of this pressure drop becomes irrecoverable owing to the dissipation of the kinetic energy; therefore the output pressure will be always less than the input pressure. As indicated in the Fig. 3(a), the venturi, with its guided reexpansion, is seen be the most efficient. Loses of about 30-40% of differential pressure occur through orifice meter (Fig. 3(c)).

(a)

(b)

(c) Fig. 3: Pressure characteristics of (a) venturi meter, (b) nozzle, (c) orifice meter. IRROTATIONAL FLOW , STREAM FUNCTION AND VELOCITY POTENTIAL Fluid Element Kinematics The bulk motion of fluid flow is decided by the individual movement of fluid elements. These elements are treated as infinitesimally small cubes and execute four possible motions; namely, translation, linear deformation, rotation and angular deformation. This section will focus on the mathematical description of fluid flows. Velocity and Acceleration Fields The velocity field of a fluid element can be described by specifying the velocities at all points and at all times within the field of domain. In rectangular coordinate system, it is conveniently written as, (1) where are the unit vectors in x , y , and z respectively and u , v , and w are the velocities in the respective direction.

The acceleration field is then described from velocity field as,

(2) In the component form,

(3 a,b,c) The Eq. (2) can be more conveniently written as,

(4) where the operator

(5) The first term in the Eq. (5) is called "time derivative" and the second term is known as "material/substantial derivative". In vector notations,

(6) The gradient operator in the Eq. (6) is,

(7) Linear Deformation The simplest type of deformation that the fluid element can undergo is 'translation' in which all the points in the element have the same velocity. The element will be deformed if there is a presence of velocity gradient.

Let us consider the effect of velocity gradient on a small cube having sides

Fig. 1: Linear deformation of a fluid element.

If the effect of single velocity gradient 'A' and 'C' displaced with a velocity

is considered for the 'BC' and 'DA', then the points . This difference in velocity causes during short

'stretching' of the element (from A to A and C to C ) by an amount time . The corresponding change in volume becomes,

(8)

The rate of change of

per unit volume due to the gradient

is,

(9)

If the other velocity gradients

are present, then the general expression becomes,

(10) This rate of change of volume per unit volume is called "volumetric dilatation rate". It is seen that the volume of fluid element changes with the variation of velocities with their respective derivatives, but the shape of the element does not change. This variation is known as "linear

deformation". However, the cross derivatives (such as change its shape. ngular Deformation

) will cause the element to rotate and

Consider the motion of the fluid element (as shown in Fig. 2) in x-y plane in which there exist the velocity variation to cause rotation and hence angular deformation. During short time interval , the elements 'DA' and 'DB' tend to rotate through an angle and respectively.

Fig. 2: Angular deformation of a fluid element. he angular velocities for these elements can be written as

(11)

If

is positive,

will be clockwise and with same analogy

becomes anti-clockwise.

Hence, the rotation of the element about z-axis components. Then it follows

becomes the average of the two

(12) The rotational components about x-axis and y-axis can be written as,

(13)

(14) These three components specify the rotation vector , in the form of, (15)

In terms of velocity field,

is expressed as,

(16) Vorticity It is defined as a vector that is twice the rotation vector. The significance of vorticity is to describe the rotational characteristics of the fluid to eliminate the factor (1/2) associated with the rotation vector. It is observed from Eq. (12) that the fluid element will rotate about z-axis as an un-deformed block only when angular deformation. When is zero (i.e. "irrotational flow". . Otherwise the rotation will be associated with an , the rotation of the fluid element about z-axis ). The flow field that satisfies this condition is known as

Physical Interpretation of Irrotational Flow The concept of irrotationality is a very strange condition of the flow field. The condition that makes the flow field to be irrotational is . In order to satisfy, Eq. (16), there must be some kind of specific relationship among the velocity gradients. They are,

(17) However, a general flow field does not satisfy all three equations. However, uniform flows (in which Stream Function The simplest type of flow in fluid mechanics application is a "steady, incompressible, plane, twodimensional flow". The continuity equation for such type of flow can be written as, ) do satisfy the Eq. (17) and can be called as irrotational flow.

(18) Now, we introduce "stream function" such that, , which relates the velocity components

(19) Using the components from Eq. (19), it can be shown that the continuity equation (Eq. that describes a steady, . The

20) gets satisfied. Hence, we have only one function

incompressible, plane, two-dimensional flow instead of two functions other specific advantage of stream function is described as follows: The lines along whih y is constant, are the streamlines.

By definition, streamlines are the lines in the flow field such that the tangent at any point gives the direction of velocities. So, slope at any point along the line as shown in Fig. 3 is given by,

(20)

Fig. 3: Velocity components along a streamline. Now coming back to stream function, the change in stream function from one point nearby point is given by, to

Along the streamline

, which is the definition of streamline.

Thus, if "stream function" is known, infinite number of streamlines can be drawn to define a particular flow field pattern. In cylindrical coordinate systems (i.e. ), the stream function for a plane incompressible, two-dimensional flow can be written as,

(21)

where

are velocity components in radial and tangential direction,

is the stream

function. It may be noted that coordinate system i.e.

, also satisfy the continuity equation in cylindrical

(22)

Velocity Potential In case of irrotational flows, the velocity components are related by Eq. (17). This equation can also be satisfied if the a new scalar function is introduced such that,

(23) This scalar function is known as "velocity potential". In vector form, the above equation for irrotational flow can be written as, (24) For incompressible flows, the conservation of mass equation is, (25) Hence, for incompressible and irrotational flow, the above equation becomes,

(26) This equation is known as " Laplace equation". Thus, inviscid, incompressible, irrotational flow fields are governed by Laplace equation and these flows are characterized by "potential flow". Lines of constant are called "equipotential lines" of the flow. ), is,

The Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates (i.e.

(27) where . The velocity components in the radial and tangential direction are,

(28) Relation between Streamline and Potential lines

It may be noted that velocity potential is a consequence of the irrotationality of the flow field where as the stream function is a consequence of conservation of mass. For incompressible and irrotational flow there exists on orthogonal relation among streamlines and potential lines. In addition both satisfy Laplace equation. In x-y plane, we have,

(29) For, line of constant

ng the streamlines, Thus, it may be concluded that

(30) Eq. (30) is the mathematical condition for lines of constant . However, it is not true at

the stagnation point, where both are zero. For any potential flow field, a "flow net" can be drawn that consists of a family of streamlines and equipotential lines. The "flow nets" are useful graphical tools in visualizing flow patterns. BASIC PLANE POTENTIAL FLOWS One of the major advantages of Laplace equation is the linearity of partial differential equation. Arithmetic operations (e.g. addition, subtraction etc.) can be performed for the solutions of these equations. It has lot of practical implications that leads to interesting solutions of complicated flow problems. Some of the basic potential flows are discussed below. Uniform Flow It is the simplest type of flow in which the streamlines are straight and parallel. The magnitude of the velocity is constant. Fig. 1 (a) and (b) shows the uniform flow in the positive x- direction. Mathematically, the flow represented in Fig. 1(a) can be expressed as,

(1)

Fig. 1: Schematic of a uniform flow: (a) positive x-direction; (b) any arbitrary direction. In terms of velocity potential and stream function, we can write,

(2)

(3) The above two equations can be integrated (constants of integration may be discarded as it does not affect the velocities in the flow) to yield, (4) If the uniform flow is at an angle with respect to positive x- direction, then

(5) Source and Sink Source and sink are the hypothetical terms used in fluid flow where it is assumed that the flow takes place radially (inward/outward) from origin. Consider a radial fluid flow outward from a line through origin as shown in Fig. 2. If is the mass flow rate (per unit length) along the

radial line from the origin, of mass principle, we can write,

are the tangential and radial velocities, then by conservation

(6)

Fig. 2: Streamline and equipotential lines for source. Since the flow is purely radial, so coordinate system, we have . By definition of velocity potential in streamline

(7) Integrating Eq. (7) and putting the constant of integration to zero,

(8) In this expression, if is positive, then the flow will be radially outward and is treated as "source flow". A "sink flow" will occur when the flow is towards origin ( is negative). The radial velocity becomes infinite at which is practically impossible. Thus, sources and sinks do not really exist in real flow fields rather some real flows can be approximated at points away from the origin by using sources and sinks. The stream function for the source can be defined such that

(9)

It may be inferred from Eqs. (8) & (9) and Fig. 2 that the streamlines radial lines and the equipotential lines origin. ortex Flow

are the

are concentric circles centered at the

The streamline patterns in a vortex flow are the concentric circles and the equipotential lines are along the direction of radial lines (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3: Streamline and equipotential lines for vortex. Hence, the equation of motion for streamlines and velocity potentials can be written as, (10) By definition of streamlines and velocity potentials, we have,

; So,

(11) It indicates that the tangential velocity varies inversely with distance from the origin with becomes infinite at origin .

A vortex motion may be 'rotational or irrotational' depending on the orientation of fluid element in the flow field. The irrotational vortex will occur when the fluid element does not rotate about its own axis and is not decided by the path followed by the element. The irrotational vortex is also called as "free vortex" and is governed by Eq. (10). In case of rotational vortex (also referred to "forced vortex") the fluid element is artificially rotated with certain angular velocity about its axis. So, the constant in Eq. (10) is replaced by . A "combined vortex" may be defined as a forced vortex with central core and free vortex behavior outside the core. Mathematically, it is written as,

(12) where corresponds to the radius of the central core.

Circulation A vortex motion is mathematically associated with a term called "circulation" which is defined as the line integral of the tangential component of the velocity taken around a closed curve in the flow field. It is expressed as,

(13) where the integration is performed around any arbitrary closed curve , is the velocity vector and is the differential length along the curve as shown in Fig. 4. For irrotational flow,

(14) Therefore, (15)

Fig. 4: Circulation around a closed curve

In general, the 'circulation' is zero for irrortational flow. However, it is not true in case of 'free vortex' defined by represented by, (Eq. 11) where the circulation around a circular path can be

(16) Now, the velocity potential and stream function for free vortex can be expressed in terms of circulation as,

(17)

Doublet The source and sink of equal strength located along same axis can be combined to form another basic flow known as "doublet" (Fig. 5). The combined stream function for the pair can be written as,

(18)

Fig. 5: Schematic representation of a doublet. It follows from Eq. (18) that

(19)

From Fig. 5, we get,

(20) Now, Eq. (19) can be simplified as,

(21)

For small angles,

,so from Eq. (21)

(22)

In Eq. (22), if Hence,

keeping the product

constant, then

(23)

where is called the strength of doublet. Thus, a doublet is formed as a source and sink of equal strength approach one another while increasing their strength. The stream lines are governed by Eq. (23) and the corresponding velocity potential is,

(24)

FLOW OVER NOTCHES AND WEIRS Velocity of Approach It is defined as the velocity with which the flow approaches/reaches the notch/weir before it flows past it. The velocity of approach for any horizontal element across the notch depends only

on its depth below the free surface. In most of the cases such as flow over a notch/weir in the side of the reservoir, the velocity of approach may be neglected. But, for the notch/weir placed at the end of the narrow channel, the velocity of approach to the weir will be substantial and the head producing the flow will be increased by the kinetic energy of the approaching liquid. Thus, if is the velocity of approach, then the additional head due to velocity of approach, acts on the water flowing over the notch or weir. So, the initial and final height of water over the notch/weir will be and respectively. It may be determined by finding the discharge over the notch/weir neglecting the velocity of approach i.e.

(1) where is the discharge over the notch/weir and is the cross-sectional area of channel on the upstream side of the weir/notch. Additional head corresponding to the velocity of approach will be,

(2) and being the kinetic energy correction factor to allow for the non-uniformity of velocity in the cross-section of the channel. For example, the discharge over a rectangular notch/weir of width

Empirical formula for discharge over rectangular weirs A rectangular weir is frequently used for measuring the rate of flow of water in channels. However, many researchers have conducted number of experimental investigations and proposed some empirical relations commonly used for rectangular weirs. Some of them are described below. a. Francis' formula : It is one of the most commonly used formula for computing the discharge over a sharp or narrow crested weirs with and without end contractions. Based on this formula, the discharge is expressed by,

(4) where is the number of end contractions.

b. Bazin's formula : Based on this formula, the discharge over a rectangular weir is given by,

(5)

where

is the Bazin coefficient.

c. Rehbock's formula: Based on the experiments conducted by Rehbock, the following empirical formula is proposed;

(6) where is the crest height in meters.

Sharp-Crested Weirs A sharp-crested weir is essentially a vertical sharp-edged flat plate placed across the channel in a way such that the fluid must flow across the sharp edge and drop into the pool downstream of the weir plate as shown in Fig. 1. The specific shape of the flow area in the plane of the weir plate may be of rectangular/triangular/trapezoidal type. The main forces governing flow over a weir are gravity and inertia. The gravity accelerates the fluid from its free surface elevation upstream of the weir to a larger velocity as it flows down the hill formed by the nappe. Although viscous and surface tension effects are usually of secondary importance, such effects cannot be entirely neglected. Generally, appropriate experimentally determined coefficients such as Francis, Bazin's and Rehbock's formulae are used to account for these effects.

Fig. 1: Sharp-crested weir geometry Broad-Crested Weirs Broad-crested weirs differ from thin-plate and narrow-crested weirs by the fact that different flow pattern is developed. Experimental investigations have shown that if the length of the crest of the weir On the other hand, if , the jet of water touches only the upstream edge and , the jet of water remains in contact with the entire crest flows clear of the downstream. Weirs falling under these classes are called thin-plate weirs. and these weirs are called narrow-crested weirs. In both the cases, the flow pattern is similar corresponding to that of a rectangular notch/weir.

Fig. 2: Broad-crested weir geometry A broad-crested weir is a structure in an open channel that has a crest above which the fluid pressure may be considered hydrostatic. The typical configuration is shown in Fig. 2. Broadcrested weirs are operated in the range, so that nearly uniform critical flow , head

is achieved in the short reach above the weir block. For long weir blocks losses across the weir can not be neglected. On the other hand, for short weir blocks

, the streamlines of the flow over the weir block are not horizontal. Although, broad-crested weirs can be used in channels of any cross-sectional shape, but our attention will be limited to rectangular channels.

Consider a broad-crested weir with length, width and height of crest as and section b-b ' over the weir i.e.

and

. Referring

to the Fig. 2, Bernoulli's equation can be applied between sections a-a ' upstream of the weir

(7) or, if the upstream velocity head is negligible, then