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Lursu de Lesqn urufcu


Lscpnu Pruduuu urufcu 2
LlSL

O +el aee reanir an+ serie ae rcriea+aes ae +r+nt+n +


rint+|ilia+ae (a+lia+ae) e c aesenenhc (rcaatiia+ae) aa-
r+nte cs rccesscs ae inress1c e +c+|+nentc, |en ccnc +ten-
a+n +cs reaisitcs ac rcaatc.
O ternc rint+|ilia+ae n1c e f+cilnente aefiniac ca nensa-
r1el. :inific+ + extens1c ccn ae +s rcriea+aes ac +el
erniten rercaazir ccn fiaelia+ae c +ar1c +rc+ac.
De n+neir+ +|r+nente, ess+s rcriea+aes caen ser cl+ssifi-
c+a+s en. rcriea+aes ae ++renci+, rcriea+aes alnic+s,
rcriea+aes estratar+is, rcriea+aes nec\nic+s e rcriea+-
aes saerfici+is. Ccnsiaer+nac cs +sectcs r1ticcs ae n+nase-
L an r+e errc +ssanir ae + ccr ac inressc e cern+a+
ic e asc ac +el, irencs ccnsiaer+r ess+s rcriea+aes ccnc
+en+s el+ tint+. A sele,1c ac +el e ia+lnente incrt+nte.
an tcac, en ccnantc ccn cs fencnencs ae interrel+cicn+-
A ccr resalt+nte aeenae a+s rcriea+aes a+ tint+ (ccr, tic e
nentc ccn catr+s +ri1eis.
r+nalcnetri+ ac inentc) e ac +el (ccr, +|scr,1c e |ri-
lhc). Ali1s, cr ser |r+ncc, c +el encerr+ n+ fcrn+ l+tente,
tca+s +s ccres isleis. As tint+s ae inress1c fancicn+n ccnc
Alvara e brancara
filtrcs +r+ eit+r ca linit+r + reflex1c ae certcs ccnrinentcs
Ln acs reaisitcs ac rcaatc inressc e ae exist+ ccntr+ste ae cna+ a+ laz, ncaal+nac +s ccres.
saficiente entre + in+en entint+a+ e c +el. l+el |r+ncc
rccrcicn+ n+icr ccntr+ste ccn tint+ ret+ ac ae +eis cc-
Cor
lcriacs.
A ccr ac +el e c resalt+ac a+ +|scr,1c seleti+ ae laz ae ae- Os terncs +lar+ e |r+ncar+ s1c as+acs ccnc sincnincs, e-
ternin+acs ccnrinentcs ae cna+ el+ estratar+ ac +el. r+nac r+nae ccnfas1c, an+ ez ae +n|cs ten aefini,1c ais-
Anilin+s ca inentcs +aicicn+acs +c +el rcncen +|scr- tint+. r+ncar+ sinific+ + rcriea+ae ae refletir cr ia+l cs
,1c ae laz ae ccnrinentc ae cna+ eseclficc. ccnrinentcs ae cna+ acnin+ntes ac esectrc islel, +lar+
e + reflect\nci+ rel+ti+ nan aeternin+ac ccnrinentc ae cn-
a+ +ar1c (+: nn).
Ccnsiaer+nac tres aiferentes +eis, ca+s reflect\nci+s s1c ilas-
A ccn|in+,1c acs ccnrinentcs ae cna+ refletiacs elc +el
tr+a+s n+ fic+ f1cil aencnstr+r ae. c +el A e c
n+is cs ccnrinentcs ae cna+ refletiacs el+s tint+s aeterni-
n+is |r+ncc istc ae reflete ae n+neir+ eaili|r+a+ n+s tres
n+ + ccr fin+l ac inressc.
zcn+s ac esectrc islel, c +el e c n+is +lc aeiac n+i-
cr reflex1c n+ rei1c ac +zal, crt+ntc e |r+ncc +zal+ac ca
'|r+ncc fric', c +el C reflete n+icr a+ntia+ae tct+l ae laz,
cren e +n+rel+ac ca '|r+ncc aente'. O +el rcaazir1
+zais n+is ccntr+st+acs, ena+ntc c +el C f+crecer1 cs +n+-
relcs, l+r+n+s e ernelhcs.
t+|el+ o!,
Propriedades do Papel de Impresso
Srgio Rossi - (Edio condensada a partir do original)
Espectro visvel para seres humanos
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8
Tabela 1: Diferentes ndices de reflectncia
PAPEL
A
B
C
REFLECTNCIA (%)
Filtro
VERMELHO
Filtro
VERDE
Filtro
AZUL
80
80
85
80
85
80
80
80
85
mpresso em
Couch branco
mpresso em
papel Plen
mpresso em
papel Reciclato
Papel branco
magenta
VM VD AZ
Papel azul
magenta
VM VD AZ
A sele,1c ae ccres aee ser feit+ ae ncac + ccnens+r + in- ressc. Nc rccessc flexcr1ficc e n+ rctcr+ar+ n1c existe +
flaenci+ ac +el, c+sc ccntr1ric, c resalt+ac c|tiac ser1 aife- necessia+ae ae fcrnal+r c +el ccn li+ntes resistentes 1a+,
rente ac reistc, + nencs ae +s rc+s tenh+n siac execat+- excetc +r+ inress1c ccn tint+s |+se 1a+. O rccessc cffset
a+s nc nesnc +el a+ inress1c. exie ae + saerflcie ac +el tenh+ cert+ resistenci+ 1a+.
Brilho
rilhc e c +tri|atc ac +el ae c tcrn+ relazente ca lastrcsc.
Ccnfcrne + saerflcie ac +el se +rcxin+ ac niel+nentc
cticc, cr neic ae c+l+nar+en ca catrc tr+t+nentc saerfi-
ci+l, cs r+ics ae laz inciaentes s1c refletiacs ccnc r+ics +r+le-
lcs, ccnc +ccntece nan eselhc.
O r+a ae resistenci+ necess1ric aeternin+ c tic ae li+nte +
ser escclhiac. O esfcr,c + ae c +el est+r1 saeitc aar+nte c
rccessc ae inress1c aeternin+ c r+a ae resistenci+ ae +
Dpacidade
saerflcie aee ter. resistenci+ +c +rr+nc+nentc ('ick'), resis-
tenci+ +c '|listerin' (encl+nentc), resistenci+ ania+ae etc.
A c+cia+ae e + neaia+ a+ c|stra,1c a+ laz elc +el.
Qa+nac + laz inciae nc +el, +rte e refletia+, +rte e +|scri-
a+ e +rte e tr+nsnitia+ +tr+es ac +el. O +el cae tr+ns-
Composio das libras e cargas
nitir + laz ae aa+s n+neir+s. ccnc r+ics +r+lelcs, ae n1c
A ccncsi,1c fi|rcs+ ac +el +fet+ sa+s rcriea+aes ae rin- scfren aifas1c, ca n+ fcrn+ ae r+ics aiserscs ca aifascs. A
t+|ilia+ae e aesenenhc. li|r+s ae +lca1c e linhc rcncen tr+nsnit\nci+ tct+l ae laz (+r+lel+ aifas+) aeternin+ + c+ci-
c+r+cterlstic+s aiferentes a+ael+s aeri+a+s ae fi|r+s ae n+aei- a+ae ac +el. As fi|r+s ae celalcse ar+ s1c tr+ns+rentes, cr-
r+. lcl+s alnic+s ten c+r+cterlstic+s aiferentes aeenaenac t+ntc + c+cia+ae resalt+ a+ +|scr,1c e aifas1c a+ laz ccnfcr-
a+ esecie ae n+aeir+ atiliz+a+ e a+ alnic+ ac rccessc. l+st+ ne est+ +ss+ ac +r +r+ +s fi|r+s e clt+ +r+ c +r e, +aicicn+l-
nec\nic+ rccrcicn+ +|scr,1c ele+a+, n+s resistenci+ e +la- nente, +r+ +eis ccntenac c+r+s niner+is, n+s interf+ces.
r+ |+ix+s. +rfi|r+, +rc+r+ e fi|r+c+r+.
C+r+s niner+is ('fillers') ae aife-
rentes tics e en aiferentes rc-
cr,ces s1c as+a+s +r+. +anen-
l+lt+ ae c+cia+ae, ca tr+ns+renci+, reaaz c ccntr+ste ac in-
t+r + c+cia+ae, + +lar+ e +
ressc. linentcs e +nilin+s escarcs +aicicn+acs +c +el +a-
lisar+, nelhcr+r +s c+r+cterlstic+s
nent+n sa+ c+cia+ae istc ae +|scren laz. l+st+ nec\nic+
saerfici+is, reaazir c +tr+ess+-
e fi|r+s n1c |r+nae+a+s t+n|en +|scren laz e, crt+ntc,
nentc a+ tint+ e reaazir + +se-
+anent+n + c+cia+ae ac +el. C+r+s niner+is aisers+n +
rez+ a+s fi|r+s.
laz e +anent+n + c+cia+ae ac +el.
Ccnfcrne + a+ntia+ae ae c+r+ niner+l +anent+, cs +zics e
O r+a ae c+cia+ae aeenae ae aiers+s rcriea+aes ac +-
cs crcs c+il+res ac +el s1c reaaziacs ae t+n+nhc. Qa+ntc
el. ccncsi,1c fi|rcs+ e n1c-fi|rcs+, +lar+, tcn+lia+ae, r+-
nencr c ai\netrc acs crcs c+il+res ac +el, n+icr + fcr,+
n+tar+, esessar+ etc... A tr+ns+renci+ ac inressc cae ser c
exercia+ sc|re cs llaiacs (1a+, tint+). Lntret+ntc, c +anentc
resalt+ac a+ f+lt+ ae c+cia+ae ac +el ca ac +tr+ess+nentc
ac ccnteaac ae c+r+ niner+l tcrn+ c +el ae|r+ai,c e n+is
c+as+ac cr excessi+ enetr+,1c a+ tint+ nc +el, ca +ina+
+|scrente, en|cr+ + c++cia+ae ae reten,1c ainina+. l+eis
an+ ccn|in+,1c a+s aa+s ccis+s.
+|screntes ten c++cia+ae ae +|screr r+naes clanes ae
1a+, n+s +el ccache +|scre c elcalc ca c sclente a+ tin-
t+ n+is r+ia+nente ac ae an +el n+is '+|ertc'.
Composio da camada
Os n+teri+is as+acs ccnc c+r+ s1c inertes s +ri+,ces ae ani-
A c+n+a+ ac +el aee ser fcrnal+a+ +r+ +tenaer +cs reai-
a+ae, crt+ntc, + est+|ilia+ae ainensicn+l ac +el nelhcr+
sitcs acs rccesscs ae inress1c e ae asc fin+l ac rcaatc in-
ccnfcrne c ccnteaac ae c+r+ niner+l +anent+. Ccnsiaer+nac
Papel Papel
Papel
Luz
PAPEL
Cilindro de
presso
Blanqueta
Esforo devido
ao "tack da tinta Blanqueta
TNTA
PAPEL
FBRAS
COATNG
Fibra de celulose Fibra de algodo Fibra sinttica
Papel
Couche
oI
N+ inress1c cffset + ccnai,1c iae+l e ae c +el tenh+ ani-
a+ae rel+ti+ lieir+nente saericr ania+ae rel+ti+ a+ s+l+
ae inress1c (cerc+ ae :). Ccnteaac ae ania+ae naitc |+ixc
tcrn+ c +el naitc rliac, ae|r+ai,c, cacc el1sticc, ccn
lisar+ e n+ciez reaazia+s. l+eis n+is aniacs inrinen ne-
lhcr, istc ae se +ccnca+n nelhcr saerflcie ae inress1c.
l+eis as+acs n+ inress1c en n1ain+s rct+ti+s ccn fcrnc
caen scfrer '|lister' se c sea ccnteaac ae ania+ae fcr exces-
sic. Ccnfcrne + r+n+tar+ +anent+, + ania+ae aee ser reaa-
zia+ +r+ nininiz+r + rc|+|ilia+ae ae cccrrer '|listerin'. A
+en+s c rccessc ae inress1c, e aese1el an+ ele+a+ cr-
ccn|in+,1c ae ania+ae ele+a+ ccn |+ixc l ac +el ca a+
cent+en ae c+r+ niner+l (!: + Io) nc c+sc ae +eis n1c-
scla,1c ae nclh+en +lter+ + t+x+ ae sec+en a+s tint+s
reestiacs. Lntret+ntc, catrcs reaisitcs incen an+ a+nti-
'aickset'.
a+ae nencr.
A ania+ae ae eaill|ric aeenae a+ ccncsi,1c fi|rcs+ e n1c-
fi|rcs+ ac +el, +ssin ccnc a+ ania+ae rel+ti+ ac +n|iente
Contedo de amidade
+c a+l c +el fic+ excstc e a+s ccnai,ces +n|ient+is +nteri-
cres. A c+r+ niner+l e c reestinentc ac +el reaazen c sea
Celalcse e 1a+ s1c inse+r1eis e +resent+n an inter-
ccnteaac ae ania+ae an+ ez ae +resent+n ccnsiaer+el-
rel+cicn+nentc fana+nent+l aar+nte + f+|ric+,1c e asc ac +-
nente nencs +tr+,1c el+ 1a+ ac ae +s fi|r+s ae celalcse.
el. O ccnteaac ae ania+ae ac +el, +ssin ccnc c +cr
Desse cntc ae ist+, crt+ntc, e aese1el an ele+ac ccntea-
a'1a+ +c a+l est1 excstc, +fet+ sa+s rcriea+aes eletric+s,
ac ae c+r+ niner+l.
nec\nic+s, saerfici+is e, rinci+lnente, sa+ est+|ilia+ae ai-
nensicn+l.
O ccnteaac ae ania+ae ac +el inflaenci+ sinific+ti+nente
sa+s rcriea+aes flsic+s, sea aesenenhc n+ inresscr+ e n+s
O +el e hircsccicc crae
cer+,ces ae +c+|+nentc (enc+aern+,1c, ccl+en, enerniz+-
+s fi|r+s ae celalcse ten fcrte
nentc, l+stific+,1c, hctst+nin, etc.). O +anentc ac ccnte-
+tr+,1c cr nclecal+s ae 1a+.
aac ae ania+ae tcrn+ n+is flexleis +s fi|r+s e + c+n+a+ ac
As fi|r+s +|scren 1a+ t+ntc
+el. A era+ ae ania+ae tcrn+ c +el ae|r+ai,c n+ ac|r+.
nc sea intericr a+ntc n+ sa-
As rcriea+aes nec\nic+s e eletric+s ac +el t+n|en +ri+n
erflcie. As fi|r+s scfren ex-
ccn +s +ri+,ces nc ccnteaac ae ania+ae. Qa+nac + ania+ae
+ns1c a+nac +|scren 1a+
rel+ti+ e infericr + ::, + eletricia+ae est1tic+ er+a+ aar+nte
e ccntr+,1c +c erae-l+.
+ inress1c n1c e aissi+a+, +anent+nac c riscc ae aec+lae e
Qa+nac issc +ccntece, +s fi|r+s
reaaic+nac +s cer+,ces ae ac|r+ e enc+aern+,1c. A ania+ae
+lter+n +s sa+s ainensces, nai-
rel+ti+ iae+l enccntr+-se nc inter+lc entre :o e to.
tc n+is c ai\netrc ac ae c
ccnrinentc. lcr issc, c +-
el scfre n+icr +ri+,1c ai-
D pB (acidezlalcalinidade)
nensicn+l nc sentiac eren-
O ternc l e freaentenente as+ac n+s inaastri+s ae +el e
aical+r aire,1c a+s fi|r+s.
ae inress1c. L + +|rei+,1c ca sln|clc alnicc ae ctenci+l
Lst+ e + rinci+l c+as+ ae fcr+
ae lcns hiarcenic (l).
ae reistrc e enc+nc+nentc.
Qa+nac an+ sa|st\nci+ 1cia+ e aissclia+ en 1a+ cccrre +
O nlel ae +ri+,1c ainensicn+l en fan,1c a+ +ri+,1c ae ani-
li|er+,1c ae excessc ae lcns hiarcenic e + scla,1c tcrn+-se
a+ae aeenae ac tic ae +el, a+ ccncsi,1c fi|rcs+ e n1c-
1cia+. Dc nesnc ncac, a+nac an+ sa|st\nci+ +lc+lin+ e ais-
fi|rcs+ e ac r+a ae refin+,1c ac +el.
sclia+ en 1a+ cccrre + li|er+,1c ae excessc ae lcns hiarcxil+
\1ri+s aistcr,ces s1c c+as+a+s cr +ri+,ces nc ccnteaac ae
(Ol-) e + scla,1c tcrn+-se +lc+lin+.
ania+ae ac +el. lera+ ae ania+ae +r+ c +n|iente c+as+
encclhinentc ac +el n+s |cra+s extericres a+s ilh+s e |c|i-
n+s tcrn+nac-+s estir+a+s e aeix+nac c centrc frcaxc. C+nhc
ae ania+ae tcrn+ +s |cra+s ac +el frcax+s. Lss+s aistcr,ces
caen ser reaazia+s n+ntenac c +el en|+l+ac, ccn n+teri-
+l rc+ ae ania+ae, +te c ncnentc ac asc. As aistcr,ces
rccc+a+s cr aeseaill|ric ae ania+ae entre c +el e c +n-
A esc+l+ ae +lcres ae l +ri+ ae o + !+. T+is +lcres reresen-
|iente a+ s+l+ ae inress1c caen le+r +cs rc|len+s ae "fc-
t+n c excente (lc+ritnc) ae n+ten+tic+nente exress+ +
r+ ae reistrc, aal+en, enc+nc+nentc e, en ccnai,ces ex-
ccncentr+,1c ae lcns hiarcenic. Qa+nac c l ae an+ scla-
tren+s, ra+s.
,1c e , +s ccncentr+,ces ae lcns hiarcxil+ e hiarcenic s1c
ia+is e + scla,1c e ainic+nente neatr+ (nen 1cia+, nen +lc+-
PAPEL
SUBSTRATO
COATING
PAPEL
SUBSTRATO
COATING
TONNER TONNER
PAPEL PAPEL
3500x 450x
0,1
0,2
0,3
E
X
P
A
N
S

O

(
%
)
4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 UMIDADE (%)
Contra a
fibra
Sentido
da fibra
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
cido
Neutro
AIcaIino
o:
lin+). Qa+nac c l a+ scla,1c e nencr ac ae , existe n+icr L + rcriea+ae ac +el ae +aerir + catr+s saerflcies ccn +s
ccncentr+,1c ae lcns hiarcenic, crt+ntc + scla,1c e 1cia+. a+is n+nten ccnt+tc (net+l, iarc, +el, l1sticc, etc.).
Vaa+n,+s ae l reresent+n +lter+,ces excnenci+is n+ ccn- l+el ccache aee +ceit+r ccl+s (hctnelt, l\A) e fcrn+r li+-
centr+,1c icnic+ ae an+ scla,1c, crt+ntc, an+ scla,1c ccn ,ces firnes. l+r+ t+ntc, + fcrnal+,1c ac +el e ac +aesic ae-
l : e !o ezes n+is 1cia+ ac ae an+ scla,1c ccn l t, ca en ser ccn+tleis.
!oo ezes n+is 1cia+ ac ae an+ scla,1c ccn l .
Lxisten nait+s +lic+,ces ncs rccesscs ae f+|ric+,1c e asc ac Resistncia a laz
+el ae exien c ccntrcle ac l. ncs aierscs est1ics ae
L + resistenci+ ac +el f+ai+ ca enelhecinentc c+as+ac
|r+nae+nentc a+ cl+, nc ccntrcle a+s resin+s ae li+,1c
cr excsi,1c r+ai+,1c altr+iclet+. Deenae a+ ccncsi,1c
intern+ e nc ccntrcle a+s c+r+s niner+is. +ixc l +celer+ c
alnic+ e fi|rcs+ ac +el.
rccessc ae enelhecinentc ac +el.
O l ten cac+ sinific\nci+ ncs rccesscs ticr1ficc, flexc-
r1ficc e ae rctcr+ar+, +ssin ccnc nc c+sc ae tint+s ae n1c
ccnten clecs sec+tics. O l ac +el n1c +fet+ +s tint+s 'he-
+tset'. Lntret+ntc, l |+ixc (+.:), rceniente ac +el ca a+
scla,1c ae nclh+en, cae ret+ra+r ca nesnc ineair + sec+-
en e c+as+r 'car+en' a+s tint+s 'aickset'.
A linin+, ae ccnstitai +rte sa|st+nci+l a+ +st+ nec\nic+, e
senslel laz e, cr issc, escarece ca +n+rel+ r+ia+nente
a+nac excst+ laz scl+r ca catr+ fcnte ae laz L\.
Permanncia
L + c++cia+ae ac +el ae
resistir s ncaific+,ces ae
sa+s rcriea+aes aar+nte +
estcc+en.
L an+ rcriea+ae rel+ti+
A +ciaez e an+ a+s +ri1eis ae n+is +fet+ + ern+nenci+ ac
ae aeenae a+ ccncsi,1c
+el. +ixc l reaaz + ia+ ac +el e + sa+ ern+nenci+ ae
alnic+ ac +el e a+s ccnai,ces +n|ientes.
ccr. l+r+ n1xin+ ern+nenci+ c +el aee ter l rcxinc
l+r+ +lc+n,+r n1xin+ ern+nenci+, c +el aee ser feitc ccn
ae .
+st+ |r+nae+a+ ae arez+ ele+a+ e ter l ca lieir+nente
+lc+linc. A ern+nenci+ rel+ti+ e inaic+a+ ae acis ncacs. an
e + neaia+ a+ era+ ae +lar+ ca c +n+rel+nentc +cs ene-
Colagem e resistncia a gaa
lhecinentc +rtifici+l, ++li+a+ en eai+nentcs ch+n+acs 'f+-
O +el cae ser f+|ric+ac sen ccl+en, ccn ccl+en intern+
ae-c-neters', c seanac, e n+is incrt+nte, e + neaia+ a+ re-
ca ccn ccl+en intern+ e saerfici+l. O rccsitc a+ ccl+en
sistenci+ criin+l ae ern+nece +cs c enelhecinentc.
intern+ e eit+r, ca ret+ra+r, + enetr+,1c ae 1a+ e catrcs flai-
acs, en|cr+ n1c rcnc+ inerne+|ilia+ae, resistenci+ ani-
Barabilidade
a+ae ca ine,+ + enetr+,1c ac elcalc a+ tint+ nc +el.
Diferente ae ern+nenci+, + aar+|ilia+ae refere-se rcriea+-
O +el +r+ inress1c cffset aee ter ccl+en intern+ e saer-
ae ac +el ae n+nter +s sa+s rcriea+aes in+ri1eis +cs c
fici+l cr aiers+s r+zces. nc c+sc ae +eis n1c-reestiacs +
asc ccntina+ac ca, en catr+s +l+r+s, sea r+a ae aetericr+-
+|scr,1c ae 1a+ rceniente a+ scla,1c ae nclh+en aee ser
,1c ccn c asc e c n+naseic.
nlnin+, excessc ae 1a+ +|scria+ enfr+aece +s li+,ces e c+a-
s+ +rr+nc+nentc, +ri+,1c ainensicn+l inccntrcl1el e enc+nc-
+nentc. O rccsitc a+ ccl+en saerfici+l e +anent+r + resis-
tenci+ a+ saerflcie ac +el, +len ae nelhcr+r + '+nccr+en'
a+ tint+, + resistenci+ +|r+s1c, +c estcarc, tr+,1c e ac|r+.
Adeso Resistncia Qamica
l+eis ae ser1c as+acs en ccnt+tc
ccn rcaatcs +lc+lincs, t+is ccnc
s+|ces e +aesics, aeen ter est+|i-
lia+ae alnic+ + esses rcaatcs,
10
T
E
M
P
O

D
E
S
E
C
A
G
E
M

(
h
)
70
UMIDADE
RELATIVA (%)
pH 7.1 - 7.6
20
30
50 30
pH 7.7 - 8.3
pH 8.4 - 9.0
pH 7.0
10
T
E
M
P
O

D
E
S
E
C
A
G
E
M

(
h
)
pH DA SOLUO
DE MOLHAGEM
20
30
3,5
o+
sen n+nch+r ca aesccr+r. Lsses +eis n1c aeen ccnter +st+ nentc. Nenhan +el e erfeit+nente est1el. Tcacs scfren
nec\nic+ ca +nilin+s, ae s1c sensleis +cs 1lc+lis. ccntr+,1c ca ex+ns1c +c +ri+r c sea ccnteaac ae ania+ae.
O f+|ric+nte ac +el cae ccntrcl+r + est+|ilia+ae ainensic-
n+l +en+s linit+a+nente, istc ae existe rel+,1c ae ccnrc-
Compressibilidade
nissc ccn catr+s rcriea+aes.
lefere-se reaa,1c ae esessar+ ae c +el scfre +c ser sa|-
:e c+a+ an+ a+s fi|r+s a+ estratar+ ac +el fcsse lire +r+
netiac + fcr,+s ae ccnress1c. A ccnressi|ilia+ae +fet+ + c+-
ccntr+ir ca ex+nair inaiiaa+lnente, sen + inflaenci+ a+s fi-
+cia+ae ac +el ae se ccnfcrn+r saerflcie ccn + a+l
|r+s izinh+s, c +el scfreri+ cac+ +ri+,1c ainensicn+l.
n+nten ccnt+tc.
Lntret+ntc, +s +ri+,ces nc ai\netrc a+s fi|r+s inaiiaa+is c+a-
s+n +ri+,ces extern+s n+s ainensces ac +el istc ae +s fi-
A lisar+ efeti+ nc cntc ae
|r+s n+nten ccnt+tc entre si. Qa+ntc nencr c r+a ae refin+-
inress1c ('ni') e fan,1c a+
,1c e n+icr + crcsia+ae ac +el, nencr ser1 + +ri+,1c ai-
ccnressi|ilia+ae, ca n+ciez,
nensicn+l ccn +s +ri+,ces ae ania+ae. Nc ent+ntc, cac+
e aeenae a+ aensia+ae, ac
refin+,1c rcaaz +eis ccn fr+c+ estratar+ ae li+,1c e |+ix+
r+a ae refin+,1c, ac clane
resistenci+ +c +rr+nc+nentc.
ae +r existente entre +s fi|r+s e
ac est+ac ae ccn+ct+,1c a+s
A exerienci+ ncstr+ ae c +el enccntr+ + sa+ n1xin+ est+-
fi|r+s. O +el tcrn+-se n+is
|ilia+ae ainensicn+l nan +n|iente ca+ ania+ae rel+ti+ este-
ccnresslel a+ntc n+icr c
+ nc inter+lc ae +: + to. O +el scfre n+icr +ri+,1c
sea ccnteaac ae ania+ae.
a+nac + ania+ae rel+ti+ e saericr + t:.
A rel+,1c ccn|in+a+ ae n+ciez, el+sticia+ae e riiaez inflaen-
As +ri+,ces ainensicn+is ae resalt+n a+s +ri+,ces nc ccnte-
ci+ + rint+|ilia+ae ac +el, +rtical+rnente n+ inress1c rc-
aac ae ania+ae ac +el, a+ ania+ae rel+ti+ ac +n|iente e
tcr+ar+. N+ inress1c cffset n1c e t1c incrt+nte istc ae
a+ +lic+,1c ae tens1c aar+nte + inress1c, +fet+n c aesene-
+ |l+naet+ +resent+ cert+ ccnressi|ilia+ae e se +ccnca+ s
nhc ac +el. Ate aeternin+ac cntc, + tr+,1c a+l c +el e
irreal+ria+aes a+ saerflcie ac sacrte. Ln|cr+ an +el ccn-
sa|netiac c+as+ estir+nentc reerslel e c +el recaer+ sa+s
resslel rccrcicne resalt+ac nelhcr ac ae catrc rliac e
ainensces criin+is a+nac + c+as+ cess+. :e c esfcr,c altr+-
inccnresslel existen catr+s rcriea+aes ae +en nc senti-
+ss+r certc linite, c +el tcrn+-se ern+nentenente aefcr-
ac ae reaazir + n+ciez e + el+sticia+ae. A c+l+nar+en, as+a+
n+ac. lssc ccstan+ +ccntecer n+ inress1c en n1ain+s cff-
+r+ nelhcr+r + lisar+ e c +c+|+nentc saerfici+l, ccn+ct+ c
set l+n+s, cnae c esfcr,c +r+ sclt+r c +el a+ |l+naet+ c-
+el e reaaz + sa+ ccnressi|ilia+ae.
ae rccc+r enc+nc+nentc, '+|ertar+ en leae' e est+n+en.
Rigidez
Iormao e Nivelamento
L + c++cia+ae ac +el ae resistir flex1c c+as+a+ elc sea
lcrn+,1c e an+ rcriea+ae flsic+ e ae ++renci+. L flsic+ ncs
rcric esc. As rcriea+aes ae n+is +fet+n + riiaez s1c +
+sectcs ae aescreen + estratar+ ac +el e + n+neir+ ccnc
esessar+ e + r+n+tar+ ac +el. Tecric+nente, + riiaez +ri+
+s fi|r+s est1c entrel+,+a+s. L ++rente cr c+as+ a+ inflaenci+
ccn c ca|c a+ esessar+.
isa+l a+ laz ae e tr+nsnitia+. A fcrn+,1c iae+l (se existisse)
aeeri+ len|r+r an filne l1sticc tr+nslaciac. L an+ rcrie-
A riiaez aininai ccnfcrne c
a+ae rel+ti+ an+ ez ae an+ |c+ fcrn+,1c +r+ an tic ae
ccnteaac ae c+r+ niner+l, c
+el cae ser ccnsiaer+a+ in+ceit1el +r+ catrc.
ccnteaac ae ania+ae e c r+a
ae c+l+nar+en +anent+n. A
riiaez e n+icr nc sentiac +r+-
lelc s fi|r+s ac +el. l+eis ae
|+ix+ r+n+tar+ er+lnente c+a-
s+n rc|len+s ae +linent+,1c
n+ inresscr+ e, cr issc, s1c
A fcrn+,1c e an+ rcriea+ae sinific+ti+, istc ae aeterni-
+linent+acs ccn sentiac ae fi-
n+ catr+s rcriea+aes ac +el. A anifcrnia+ae e + lisar+ s1c
|r+ ccntr1ric +c reccnena+ac.
fcrtenente aeenaentes, an +el rcsseir+nente fcrn+ac
+resent+ iccs e +les n+ sa+ saerflcie reaaic+nac + a+li-
a+ae ae inress1c. Qa+nac an +el ccn aeficienci+ ae ais-
Istabilidade Bimensional
tri|ai,1c ae n+ss+ e c+l+nar+ac, sa+ saerflcie tcrn+-se irrea-
L + rcriea+ae ac +el ae n+nter sa+s ainensces ccnst+ntes,
l+rnente +|scrente, istc ae cs iccs s1c n+is ccn+ct+acs
t+ntc nc sentiac erenaical+r s fi|r+s a+ntc nc sentiac +-
ac ae cs +les. O inressc fic+ ccn ++renci+ n+rncriz+a+.
r+lelc, sc| ccnai,ces +n|ientes +ri1eis e sc| + +,1c acs es-
Dc nesnc ncac, an +el n+l fcrn+ac +resent+ r+nae +-
fcr,cs +lic+acs aar+nte cs rccesscs ae inress1c e +c+|+-
ri+,1c ae c+cia+ae, sc|retaac se + r+n+tar+ fcr |+ix+.
Cilindro de
presso
Blanqueta
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
5
4
3
2
1 0 1
2
3
4
5
6
5
4
3
2
1
Amostra
do papel
Lamina de contato
Peso
mvel
Ensaio de Rigidez
Papel Papel
o:
Sentido de Iibra tics ae n+teri+is, ccnc cs l1sticcs e cs net+is. As fi|r+s, li-
+ntes, c+r+s niner+is e c+n+a+ cca+n +en+s +rte ac cla-
O efeitc ccn|in+ac a+ aire,1c a+s fi|r+s e a+ +ri+,1c ae ani-
ne tct+l. O clane ae +r rest+nte cca+ cerc+ ae to + o
a+ae exerce inflaenci+ airet+ nc resalt+ac inressc.
ac clane tct+l nc c+sc ae +eis ac tic aia1ticc e, cerc+ ae
N+s inresscr+s cffset l+n+s c +el aee ser +linent+ac ccn
!: + :: nc c+sc ae +eis n+is aenscs. A rel+,1c entre c
c sentiac a+s fi|r+s +r+lelc +cs cilinarcs a+ inresscr+. Ln+
clane acs ccncnentes scliacs e cs es+,cs entre +s fi|r+s,
ez ae c +el scfre n+icr +ri+,1c n+ aire,1c erenaical+r
+r+ an a+ac +el, ten inflaenci+ n+rc+nte sc|re + n+ciez, +
+c sentiac a+s fi|r+s, e csslel ccnens+r +lter+nac-se +s +lta-
ccnressi|ilia+ae, + el+sticia+ae e sa+ c++cia+ae ae +|screr
r+s a+s ch++s e a+s |l+naet+s en rel+,1c s ai+s acs cilin-
1a+, tint+, clec etc.
arcs.
N+s n1ain+s rct+ti+s ess+ ccnai,1c n1c existe, an+ ez ae
+s |c|in+s sc caen ser +linent+a+s ccn +s fi|r+s erenaica-
l+res +cs cilinarcs.
A estratar+ crcs+ ac +el ccnsiste. (!) +zics a+ saerflcie,
(I) es+,cs entre +s fi|r+s, (:) crcs ca c+n+is ae +tr+ess+n c
+el. A n+icri+ acs +eis n1c-reestiacs e ncaer+a+nente
crcsc. Os +eis reestiacs s1c rel+ti+nente n1c-crcscs. O
r+a ae crcsia+ae ac +el aeenae ac ncac ccnc e f+|ric+-
ac. l+el ccnstitalac +en+s ae fi|r+s lcn+s e n+is crcsc ac
ae +el ae ccnten +en+s fi|r+s cart+s, istc ae +s fi|r+s
cart+s s1c n+is ccn+ct+a+s sc| +s nesn+s ccnai,ces ae f+-
|ric+,1c. A c+r+ niner+l tcrn+ c +el nencs crcsc.
A aire,1c a+s fi|r+s +fet+ t+ntc c aesenenhc ac +el aar+n-
A et++ inaiiaa+l n+is incrt+nte ae cern+ + crcsia+ae te + inress1c a+ntc +s cer+,ces ae +c+|+nentc e ae asc fi-
aar+nte c rccessc ae f+|ric+,1c ac +el e c r+a ae refin+- n+l ac rcaatc inressc. Lna+ntc e necess1ric ae +s fi|r+s
,1c. O tr+t+nentc ca ccl+en saerfici+l reaaz + crcsia+ae. este+n aiscst+s +r+lel+nente +cs eixcs acs cilinarcs a+ in-
A c+l+nar+en ccn+ct+ + estratar+ ac +el e reaaz + sa+ c- resscr+ +r+ +r+ntir nelhcr reistrc, c +el +linent+ac ccn
rcsia+ae. A +lic+,1c a+ c+n+a+ ccache reaaz ar+stic+nente + +s fi|r+s nc sentiac ccntr1ric +resent+ n+icr riiaez, nelhcr
crcsia+ae. aesrenainentc a+ |l+naet+ e nencr tenaenci+ ae est+n+r,
c ae e +rtical+rnente incrt+nte n+ inress1c ae +eis ae
A crcsia+ae +fet+ + +|scr,1c ac elcalc a+ tint+. Lste e +tr+l-
|+ix+ r+n+tar+.
ac +r+ c intericr acs crcs e es+,cs interfi|r+s cr +,1c c+i-
l+r. O nanerc ae crcs e sa+s ainensces cern+n + +|scr,1c N+ enc+aern+,1c +s fi|r+s aeen fic+r +r+lel+s lcn|+a+ ac
a+ tint+. N+ inress1c en n1ain+s rct+ti+s, ccn +eis n1c- rcaatc +r+ eit+r cnaal+,ces, aistcr,ces e ernitir n+nter c
reestiacs, e necess1ric ae + crcsia+ae se+ ele+a+ +r+ rc- lirc +|ertc cr si sc. O +el ac|r+ n+is f+cilnente e ten ne-
crcicn+r r1ia+ enetr+,1c ac sclente e r1iac +ssent+nentc ncr tenaenci+ + 'r+ch+r' n+ ac|r+ a+nac est+ e +r+lel+ s fi-
a+ tint+ +r+ eit+r aec+lae e risccs nc inressc. Oatr+s +li- |r+s. Lntret+ntc, + resistenci+ ac|r+ e n+icr nc sentiac er-
c+,ces reaeren +eis nencs crcscs +r+ eit+r enetr+,1c enaical+r s fi|r+s.
excessi+ e +tr+ess+nentc a+ tint+.
l+el ccache er+lnente rccrcicn+ nelhcr '+nccr+en' a+
tint+ ac ae +el n1c-reestiac, aeiac sa+ n+tarez+ ae ni-
crccrcsia+ae.
Ccnfcrne + crcsia+ae ac +el aininai e + aensia+ae +a-
nent+, n+icr + rc|+|ilia+ae ae cccrrer enc+nc+nentc e +ri-
+,ces ainensicn+is ccn +s +lter+,ces ae ania+ae. O +ssent+-
nentc a+s tint+s 'aickset' aeenae a+ crcsia+ae ac +el.
Ccnfcrne c +el +|scre cs clecs a+ tint+, + isccsia+ae ac Nc c+sc ae ac|r+ craz+a+ reccnena+-se l+ne+r + n+is aiflcil
filne ae tint+ inressc +anent+ r+ia+nente e inc|iliz+ + tin- nc sentiac +r+lelc s fi|r+s, ca serrilh+r c c+aernc a+nac
t+ nc sacrte. issc n1c fcr csslel.
A crcsia+ae +fet+ + enetr+,1c ae +aesics e ernizes. :e + c-
rcsia+ae fcr naitc ele+a+, estes caen +tr+ess+r c +el, ca
Porosidade
cs scliacs caen enetr+r excessi+nente aeix+nac an+ c+n+-
O +el e an n+teri+l +lt+nente crcsc ccn+r+ac + catrcs a+ ae esessar+ insaficiente n+ saerflcie. l+eis aenscs e ca-
BLANQUETA
ROLO ENTINTADOR
CILINDRO CHAPA
Sentido da fibra
para melhor registro
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PAPEL
Sentido da fibra
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Sentido
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a:
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dobr
PAPEL
FACA DE VINCAR
Corte transversal (contra as fibras) de folha de papel
com espessura de 250 micra.
ot
cc crcscs s1c cs n+is rc1eis ae enc+nc+r e scfrer +ri+,1c ain+ ae +el, + 1a+ e +rci+lnente aren+a+, rineir+nente
ainensicn+l aar+nte e +cs + inress1c. cr r+ia+ae e aecis ccn c +axllic ae sac,1c. O l+ac en
ccnt+tc ccn + tel+ erae fi|r+s eaen+s, +rtlcal+s ae c+r+
niner+l etc., ae s1c aren+acs antc ccn + 1a+. lcr issc, cs
Bensidade Aparente
acis l+acs ac +el ten estratar+s aiferentes.
L an+ rcriea+ae fana+nent+l ae exress+ + n+ss+ cr ani-
O l+ac tel+ ac +el ten nencr a+ntia+ae ae c+r+ niner+l e
a+ae ae clane. Qa+ntc n+icr c clane ae +zics ccntiac nc
+rtlcal+s fin+s ac ae c l+ac feltrc. lcr issc, c l+ac tel+ e e-
intericr ac +el, nencr + aensia+ae ++rente. Qa+ntc n+icr
r+lnente n+is resistente +c +rr+nc+nentc, ten nencr tenaen-
c nlel ae c+l+nar+en ac +el, n+icr + sa+ aensia+ae ++-
ci+ + 'r+ch+r' n+ ac|r+, sacrt+ nelhcr +s tensces ac l+ac ex-
rente. A aensia+ae ++rente +fet+ +s rcriea+aes nec\nic+s,
ternc a+ ac|r+. lcr istc, a+nac h1 cssi|ilia+ae ae escclh+,
flsic+s, ctic+s e eletric+s ac +el.
aee ser c l+ac referiac +r+ inrinir 1re+s aens+s (ccres scli-
a+s ca ch++acs). N+ inress1c en n1ain+s rct+ti+s |l+n-
aet+|l+naet+ ('erfectin'), reccnena+-se inrinir c l+ac
Cramatara
tel+ clt+ac '+r+ cin+', +r+ nelhcr aesrenainentc a+ |l+n-
aet+. Ln|cr+ c l+ac tel+ rccrcicne nelhcr aesenenhc, c
A r+n+tar+ exress+ + n+ss+ cr ania+ae ae 1re+ ac +el.
l+ac feltrc ten nelhcr rint+|ilia+ae.
\1ri+s catr+s rcriea+aes s1c inflaenci+a+s el+ r+n+tar+.
esessar+, c+cia+ae, aesenenhc aar+nte + inress1c e n+s
cer+,ces cs-inress1c. Qa+nac se +n+lis+n cs +sectcs ecc-
Resistncia a Bobra
ncniccs ac rcaatc inressc + incrt\nci+ a+ r+n+tar+ +a-
nent+, istc ae c +el e ccnerci+liz+ac cr esc e c rcaa-
L c nanerc ae ac|r+s aal+s ae c +el sacrt+ sc| tens1c
tc inressc cr 1re+ inress+.
+ntes ae rcner. A ++li+,1c e feit+ sc| ccnai,ces eseclfic+s,
t+ntc nc sentiac +r+lelc a+ntc nc sentiac erenaical+r s
fi|r+s. Ln er+l c +el ten n+icr resistenci+ nc sentiac er-
Incanoamento
enaical+r s fi|r+s. A resistenci+ ac|r+ +anent+ ccn + refi-
n+,1c. li|r+s lcn+s, ccn ele+ac r+a ae entrel+,+nentc, rc-
As c+as+s |1sic+s ac enc+nc+nentc aeen-se + aiferen,+s n+
aazen +eis n+is resistentes ac|r+.
crient+,1c a+s fi|r+s e a+ ccncsi,1c fi|rcs+ e n1c-fi|rcs+ acs
l+acs tel+ e feltrc. \istc ae + ania+ae +|scria+ elc +el
Ccl+en saerfici+l, c+r+ niner+l e reestinentc reaazen +
rccc+ ex+ns1c, + fclh+ ae +el enc+nc+ n+ aire,1c ccntr1-
resistenci+ ac|r+. O ccnteaac ae ania+ae +fet+ intens+nente
ri+ f+ce aneaecia+. Alan+s ezes c +el enc+nc+ n+ aire-
+ resistenci+ ac|r+ acs +eis. ccnfcrne c +el erae ani-
,1c a+ f+ce aneaecia+, criin+nac an rc|len+ ccnheciac
a+ae sa+s fi|r+s tcrn+n-se nencs flexleis e + resistenci+ ac-
cr enc+nc+nentc reersc.
|r+ aininai sinific+ti+nente. Ccnfcrne + r+n+tar+ ac +-
el +anent+ sa+ resistenci+ ac|r+ +anent+ +te +tinir an
Diferen,+s estratar+is e n+ crient+,1c a+s fi|r+s exlic+n cs
+lcr n1xinc e aecis aininai a+nac + r+n+tar+ altr++ss+
aiferentes r+as ae ex+ns1c ca ccntr+,1c entre cs acis l+acs
certc linite.
ac +el ccn +s +ri+,ces ae ania+ae. lcr c+as+ aess+s aife-
ren,+s estratar+is c +el ir1 enc+nc+r referenci+lnente n+
aire,1c ac l+ac tel+, ccn c eixc ae car+tar+ +r+lelc +c senti-
Resistncia ao Rasgo
ac a+s fi|r+s, a+nac cccrre era+ ae ania+ae ca a+nac +
ania+ae rel+ti+ ac +r aininai.
L c esfcr,c necess1ric +r+
r+s+r c +el nan+ aist\n-
Qa+nac cccrre +nhc ae ania+ae
ci+ fix+a+ +cs c r+sc h+er
ca + ania+ae rel+ti+ ac +n|iente
inici+ac. O +el ten n+icr
+anent+, c +el tenae + enc+nc+r
resistenci+ +c r+sc n+ aire-
n+ aire,1c ac l+ac feltrc. Os +-
,1c erenaical+r s fi|r+s.
eis nencs crcscs e nencs aen-
Qa+ntc n+is lcn+ + fi|r+
scs s1c nencs saeitcs +c enc+nc+-
n+icr + resistenci+ +c r+sc.
nentc.
O +anentc ac ccnteaac ae c+r+ niner+l reaaz + resistenci+
O +anentc nc ccnteaac ae c+r+ niner+l tenae + aininair c
+c r+sc. Lxiste rel+,1c ae ccnrcnissc entre rint+|ilia+ae e
enc+nc+nentc. Qa+ntc n+icr + aiferen,+ estratar+l acs acis
resistenci+ +c r+sc istc ae, +r+ +anent+r + resistenci+, +
l+acs ac +el n+icr + tenaenci+ +c enc+nc+nentc.
refin+,1c aee ser reaazia+, reaaic+nac + real+ria+ae saer-
fici+l ac +el.
Iado Telalleltro
Deiac +c ncac ccnc c +el e fcrn+ac, seas l+acs ten es-
Absoro de Tinta
tratar+s aiferentes. Qa+nac + sasens1c +acs+ ae fi|r+s, c+r-
A|scr,1c e + rcriea+ae ae aeternin+ + a+ntia+ae e + elc-
+s niner+is, li+ntes e catrcs +aitics flai sc|re + tel+ a+ n1-
o
cia+ae ccn ae + tint+ enetr+ nc +el. A esessar+ ac filne acs ccnreenaen. + aefini,1c (rescla,1c) ac cntc inressc,
ae tint+ inressc nc rccessc cffset e ccnsiaer+elnente ne- iae+lnente cs cntcs aeen ser |en reccrt+acs, sen aefcrn+-
ncr ac ae en catrcs rccesscs ae inress1c. ,ces ca cntcs f+lt+ntes, c ae aeenae fana+nent+lnente a+
Ccnseaentenente, + +|scr,1c a+ saerflcie ac +el ten fan- lisar+ efeti+ ac +el nc 'ni' ae inress1c e ac erfeitc ccn-
,1c incrt+nte nc rccessc ae sec+en a+s tint+s e ncs fenc- t+tc entre este e + tint+, aeficienci+s estratar+is ac +el, t+is
nencs rel+cicn+acs sec+en. ccnc. fcrn+,1c rcsseir+ e ccnressi|ilia+ae insaficiente, c-
aen rccc+r aeficienci+ n+ tr+nsferenci+ ae tint+, +ri+,ces ae
A n+icri+ a+s tint+s as+a+s nc rccessc cffset e fcrnal+a+ ccn
+|scr,1c e |rilhc a+ saerflcie ac +el caen c+as+r n+rnc-
clecs sec+tics ae sec+n cr rccesscs ccn|in+acs ae +|scr-
riz+,1c.
,1c e cxiac-clineriz+,1c. Antes a+ sec+en rcri+nente ait+
+ tint+ aee +ssent+r nc sacrte +r+ ae n1c cccrr+ aec+lae. As +ri+,ces ae +|scr,1c caen ser c+as+a+s cr aeficienci+ ae
O +ssent+nentc ccrrescnae enetr+,1c +rci+l ac elcalc a+ lisar+, fcrn+,1c rcsseir+ ca cc|ertar+ insaficiente a+s fi|r+s
tint+ nc sacrte. A f+se fin+l ae sec+en, ae ccrrescnae el+ tint+ ccache, s+tar+,1c e |rilhc a+ tint+ inress+ s1c aire-
scliaific+,1c ac filne ae tint+, cccrre cr clineriz+,1c cxia+- t+nente +fet+acs el+ +nccr+en a+ tint+ e, rinci+lnente,
ti+ e le+ cerc+ ae I + + hcr+s. elc |rilhc ac +el.
O +el recis+ ter +|scr,1c ele+a+ +r+ +|screr r+ia+nente \+ri+,ces ness+s rcriea+-
cs ccncnentes flaiacs a+ tint+ e eit+r |lcc+en, +c nesnc aes rcaazen aiferen,+s ae
tenc aee ter |+ix+ +|scr,1c +r+ rcncer +nccr+en e |ri- ccr, ae |rilhc e ae ccntr+s-
lhc. O cntc ae eaill|ric n1c e naitc |en aelinit+ac e ae- te ac filne ae tint+ inres-
enae ae catr+s +ri1eis, +len ac +el. :e + tint+ +ssent+r na- sc.
itc lent+nente caer1 cccrrer |lcc+en, se c +ssent+nentc fcr
L incsslel reaizer + rint+|ilia+ae ac +el sen testes ese-
naitc r1iac caer1 cccrrer enetr+,1c excessi+ ac elcalc a+
clficcs, istc ae sa+ a+ntific+,1c aeenae a+ scn+tcri+ ae
tint+ nc intericr ac +el e ccnseaente era+ ae |rilhc e c-
aiers+s rcriea+aes, t+is ccnc. |rilhc, +nccr+en a+ tint+,
ar+en. lcr issc, +s rcriea+aes a+ tint+ aeen ser +ast+a+s
lisar+ e |rilhc ac +el, aensia+ae ac filne ae tint+ inressc
+c +el. Ccn reseitc +c +el, c n+is incrt+nte e ae n1c
etc.
h++ +ri+,1c ae +|scr,1c aar+nte + rcaa,1c.
N+ inress1c en n1ain+s cffset rct+ti+s e rctcr+ar+, + rc-
Iisara
|+|ilia+ae ae cccrrer aec+lae aeiac f+lt+ ae +|scr,1c ac
+el e nlnin+. lcren, +eis naitc +|screntes c+as+n reaa-
A lisar+, ca niel+nentc saerfici+l ac +el +fet+ t+ntc +s sa-
,1c ac |rilhc ac inressc.
+s rcriea+aes fancicn+is a+ntc +s rcriea+aes ae ++ren-
ci+. li|r+s cart+s rcaazen +eis n+is liscs ac ae fi|r+s lcn- A +|scr,1c ae tint+ acs
+s. A re+r+,1c a+ n+ss+ e c ncac ccnc +s fi|r+s s1c ais- +eis n1c-reestiacs
ers+s a+nac a+ fcrn+,1c ac +el sc|re + tel+ ten r+nae aeenae ae aierscs f+tc-
inflaenci+ sc|re + lisar+. Cer+lnente + lisar+ aininai ccnfcr- res. A ccncsi,1c fi|rc-
ne + r+n+tar+ ac +el +anent+. Oatrcs f+tcres ae cer- s+ e ae c+r+ niner+l +fe-
n+n + lisar+ s1c. c ccnteaac ae c+r+ niner+l, c r+a e + res- t+ + +|scr,1c.
s1c ae c+l+nar+en.
A neaia+ ae c r+a ae refin+,1c +anent+ c +el tcrn+-se ne-
ncs crcsc e nencs +|scrente. Resistncia ao Atrito
As rcriea+aes saerfici+is ac +el s1c +s ae n+is +fet+n + L an+ rcriea+ae cacc incrt+nte nc ae aiz reseitc in-
+|scr,1c ae tint+. :e c +el fcr lisc e ccn+ct+ac cr c+l+n- ress1c, n+s naitc sinific+ti+ nc c+sc ae n+teri+is inresscs
ar+en, + +|scr,1c ae tint+ e reaazia+. Ccl+en saerfici+l re- ae s1c enilh+acs e n+nase+acs, t+l ccnc +ccntece ccn +-
aaz + +|scr,1c e +anent+ + +nccr+en a+ tint+. Ccn +eis cctes e c+ix+s nan saernerc+ac.
reestiacs + +|scr,1c ae tint+ e fan,1c a+s c+r+cterlstic+s a+
ccl+ ccache e ac r+a ae c+l+nar+en.
INTIR-RIIACIDNAHINTD INTRI AS
PRDPRIIBABIS BD PAPII
Printabilidade
Dentre +s nait+s rcriea+aes incrt+ntes ac +el n1c existe
A rint+|ilia+ae ac +el cae ser aefinia+ ccnc c nlel ae
an+ anic+ ae se+ tct+lnente inaeenaente ae tca+s +s catr+s
a+lia+ae ae +s sa+s rcriea+aes saerfici+is s1c c++zes ae
e ae css+ ser +lter+a+ sen +fet+r +s aen+is.
rcncer. As rcriea+aes saerfici+is, cr sa+ ez, aeenaen
L necess1ric c ccnhecinentc e + ccnreens1c a+s nanercs+s
ae catr+s rcriea+aes, t+is ccnc. lisar+, anifcrnia+ae, +|scr-
rel+,ces existentes entre +s rcriea+aes ac +el aar+nte + sa+
,1c e +ceit+,1c a+ tint+.
f+|ric+,1c e ele e essenci+l +r+ entenaer sa+s +lic+,ces e cs
Os +sectcs ae rint+|ilia+ae n+is incrt+ntes + ser c|ser+-
rc|len+s ae caen cccrrer aar+nte cs rccesscs ae inres-
-6
(* 1mcron = 10 m)
Offset
Tipografia
Rotogravura
Serigrafia
60
12
3
2
TIPO DE TINTA *
Espessura de camada por
processo de impresso
o
s1c e cs-inress1c. +ixc ccnteaac ae ania+ae en +el ccache, necess1ric +r+
eit+r c '|listerin' aar+nte + sec+en 'he+tset', reaaic+ c
De ncac er+l, existe an+ rel+,1c ae ccnrcnissc entre +s
|rilhc ac +el aar+nte + saerc+l+nar+en. O ccnteaac ae
aiferentes rcriea+aes ac +el. O increnentc ae an+ ael+s
ania+ae ac +el aee ser saficientenente |+ixc +r+ eit+r c
inlic+, necess+ri+nente, en realzc ae catr+s. lrcriea+aes
'|listerin', n+s n1c t+ntc + cntc ae tcrn1-lc ae|r+ai,c e
ae incrt\nci+ rin1ri+ +r+ c+a+ tic eseclficc ae +el ae-
saeitc + 'r+ch+r' n+ ac|r+. Ccnteaac ae ania+ae naitc ele+-
en ser |+l+nce+a+s ccn +ael+s ae incrt\nci+ nencr.
ac cae c+as+r escarecinentc (era+ ae +lar+) nc rccessc ae
A +n1lise a+s 1ri+s cer+,ces ae f+|ric+,1c e sa+ incrt\nci+
saerc+l+nar+en.
n+s rcriea+aes ae ++renci+, nec\nic+s, alnic+s, estratar+is
e saerfici+is ac +el ernite nelhcr ccnreens1c ac sea in-
ter-rel+cicn+nentc.
Calandragem
A c+l+nar+en, cac rccsitc e nelhcr+r c +c+|+nentc sa-
erfici+l ac +el, +fet+ +s sa+s rcriea+aes ae aiferentes nc-
Comprimento das libras, propriedades de printabili-
acs. Ccnfcrne c r+a ae c+l+nar+en e +anent+ac, +anen-
dade e resistncia
t+n + lisar+ e c |rilhc ac +el e aininaen + esessar+ e + rii-
Ccnfcrne c ccnteaac ae fi|r+s lcn+s +anent+, +s rcriea+-
aez. A c+l+nar+en reaaz ccnsiaer+elnente + c+cia+ae e nc-
aes ae resistenci+ ac +el s1c |enefici+a+s. Os efeitcs reaai-
aer+a+nente + +lar+, istc ae +s fi|r+s s1c ccn+ct+a+s, reaa-
ci+is, entret+ntc, ccnreenaen. fcrn+,1c rcsseir+ e aesani-
zinac sa+ h+|ilia+ae ae es+lh+r + laz. Lxcessc ae ress1c ae
fcrne, reaa,1c a+ lisar+ e ac niel+nentc saerfici+l. lssc e
c+l+nar+en +r+ nelhcr+r c |rilhc e c +c+|+nentc saerfici-
aes+nt+csc ac cntc ae ist+ a+ inress1c. lcrt+ntc, +s exi-
+l rccc+ enfr+aecinentc e escarecinentc ac +el. A crc-
enci+s ae resistenci+ nec\nic+ ccnflit+n ccn +s exienci+s ae
sia+ae e + +|scr,1c ae tint+ s1c reaazia+s. :aerc+l+nar+en
rint+|ilia+ae.
ae +el ccache ret+ra+ + li|er+,1c ae ania+ae aar+nte + sec+-
en 'he+tset' +anent+nac + tenaenci+ +c '|listerin'.
Propriedades pticas e branqaeamento
Interdependncia entre gramatara, corpo e acabamen-
li|r+s alnic+s n1c-|r+nae+a+s rcaazen +eis ccn ele+-
to
a+ +|scr,1c ae laz. T+is +eis +resent+n ele+a+ c+cia+ae,
n+s cac+ +lar+. Ccnfcrne + cl+ alnic+ e |r+nae+a+
l+r+ an a+ac +el n1c-reestiac existe an+ tril+ rel+,1c en-
+r+ rencer cs n+teri+is ae +|scren laz, c +el +nh+ +l-
tre r+n+tar+, ccrc e +c+|+nentc, ae ncac ae nenhan+
ar+, n+s erae c+cia+ae.
aess+s rcriea+aes cae ser +lter+a+ sen +fet+r elc nencs
an+ a+s catr+s. :e + r+n+tar+ e reaazia+ e c ccrc ern+nece
ccnst+nte + estratar+ tcrn+-se n+is crcs+ +r+ ae +s fi|r+s
Inllancia do contedo de carga mineral
n+ntenh+n c nesnc ccrc cr ania+ae ae 1re+, c ae a1 cri-
C+r+s niner+is s1c as+a+s rinci+lnente cr c+as+ ae sa+ en + an +el ae +c+|+nentc n+is rcsseirc. Dc nesnc nc-
inflaenci+ |enefic+ sc|re +s rcriea+aes ctic+s ac +el e ac, se + esessar+ ac +el n1c aaer ser +lter+a+ e + lisar+ fcr
catr+s rcriea+aes rel+cicn+a+s rint+|ilia+ae. A c+cia+ae, +anent+a+, ent1c + r+n+tar+ aeer1 ser +anent+a+ +r+ n+n-
+ +lar+ e + rint+|ilia+ae ac +el s1c increnent+a+s. \istc ter + esessar+.
ae +s c+r+s s1c inertes ania+ae, c +el tcrn+-se nencs
senslel s +ri+,ces ae ania+ae e, crt+ntc, sa+ est+|ilia+ae
Carga de revestimento
ainensicn+l +anent+. A riiaez e c ccrc s1c reaaziacs e c
+el tcrn+-se n+is 'ncle', c ae cae ca n1c ser +nt+csc.
Ccnfcrne + c+n+a+ ccache +anent+, + lisar+ ac +el t+n-
As rcriea+aes ae resistenci+ flsic+ s1c reaazia+s, |en ccnc +
|en +anent+, nelhcr+nac + +ceit+,1c e + +nccr+en a+ tint+,
fcr,+ ae li+,1c intern+, ccnfcrne c ccnteaac ae c+r+ niner+l
+anent+nac c |rilhc aar+nte + saerc+l+nar+en e +anent+n-
+anent+.
ac + c+cia+ae. Lntret+ntc, + tenaenci+ ac +el 'r+ch+r' n+
ac|r+ e + tenaenci+ +c '|listerin' se +r++n. Ccnfcrne + es-
Lstes efeitcs ccstcs sc|re +s rcriea+aes ac +el s1c exen-
essar+ a+ c+n+a+ ccache +anent+, +r+ an+ a+a+ r+n+tar+,
lcs a+ rel+,1c ae ccnrcnissc + ccnsiaer+r n+ aeternin+,1c
+ n+ss+ ac +el |+se aee ser reaazia+ rccrcicn+lnente,
a+ a+ntia+ae ae c+r+ niner+l + ser as+a+, ae ncac + +tenaer
cc+sicn+nac reaa,1c a+ esessar+, a+ c+cia+ae, a+ riiaez e
s exienci+s acs rccesscs ae inress1c e ae +c+|+nentc, e
a+ resistenci+ nec\nic+ ac +el.
+cs reaisitcs ae asc fin+l ac rcaatc inressc.
Qaalidade de impresso
Inllancia da amidade
lrcriea+aes ccnc lisar+, anifcrnia+ae, c+cia+ae, n+ciez,
O ccnteaac ae ania+ae ae c +el aee ter +r+ +tenaer +cs
fcrn+,1c, +|scr,1c ae tint+ e |rilhc s1c ae incrt\nci+ ri-
reaisitcs a+s aiferentes et++s ac rccessc ae ccners1c +fet+
n1ri+ n+ c|ten,1c a+ a+lia+ae n+ inress1c. Lss+s rcriea+-
catr+s rcriea+aes aar+nte + f+se ae f+|ric+,1c ac +el.
o
aes n1c caen ser ccnseaia+s senre en seas +lcres n1xi-
ncs, istc ae aeen ser |+l+nce+a+s en fan,1c a+ rel+,1c ae
ccnrcnissc existente ccn catr+s rcriea+aes nec\nic+s e
estratar+is, necess1ri+s +c rccessc ae inress1c, ae +c+|+nen-
tc etc.

!o