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EXPLANATION OF THE IMPORTANT STANZAS FROM FIVE POETS

1. Not blither is the mountain roeThat rises up like smoke. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

LucyGray
Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth Context:
Lucywasalittlevillagegirl.Herfather,oneday,askedhertogototownandguidehermotherwiththelantern.She went, but there came a storm and she lostherway. Her parents searched for her but all in vain. Since that day people think thatsheisaliveandwandersinthevalley.

Explanation:
InthegivenlinesthepoetdescribesthepleasuresandsportsofLucyGray.HecomparesLucywithamountaindeer. HesaysthatthejumpingandplayingofadeerarenotmorethanthatofLucy.Sheismorepleasedandplayfulthanthedeer. Thesnowdispersesinherfeetandthenrisesuplikesmoke. ThepoetryofWordsworthisfullofnaturalscenery.Heportraysrusticlifebeautifully.Wordsworthiscalledthehighpriestof Nature.Accordingtohim,Naturemakesasaddermanhappyandahappymanevenhappier. ThepoemLucyGrayisembodimentofsimplicityandinnocence,whichisbestportrayedinthecharacterofLucy.Thepoem describesnotonlytheNaturalscenerybutthesimplelifeandinnocenceofalittlerusticgirl.

2. StrangeFitsofPassionhaveIknown.Whatoncetomebefell. Reference:
ThegivenlineshavebeentakenfromthefirstpoemoftheLucyPoems Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth Context:
Thecontextindicatesthatthepoethascertainexperiencesoffeelingsthathehadwhilegoingtohisbelovedshome. Thesestrangeideas,hewishestotelltoonlyhisbeloved.

Explanation:
The poet wants to say that once, he had certain thoughts while he was going to Lucys cottage. While he saw the moonsettingbehindLucyscottage,hethoughtthesamemighthappentoLucy.Shemightdieandwhatwouldhappentohim ifithappenedso.Thesewerethefitsofpassionthatbefelluponhim.

TheLucypoemsarethecollectionofsimpleandinnocentfeelings.WordsworthishighpriestofNature.Naturehasaunique influenceuponhim.TheLucyPoemsrefertohissisterDorothy.Thefirstpoemshowsthestrangefeelingsofseparationfrom Lucyifshedies.

3. Avioletbyamossystone.isshininginthesky. Reference:
ThegivenlineshavebeentakenfromthefirstpoemoftheLucyPoems. Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth
Thisstanzaisfromthethirdpoem.

Context:
ThepoetdescribesbeautyofLucyandherinnocence.Naturebroughtherupinitsownenvironment.Lucyisasolitarychild. Shehasnofriendandcompanion.Sheisverybeautifullikeafawn.

Explanation:
Thegivenstanzaisthemostbeautifulinitsstructureandform.Thepoethasmadeuseofsimile.HecomparesLucy withavioletflowergrowingbesideamossystone.Theflowerishalfhiddenfromtheeyeandlooksverybeautiful.As,aflower out of sight looks very beautiful when someone catches its sight, Lucy had no companion and she was a solitary child. Thus shewasmorebeautifulthananyotherobjectofNature.Shewaslikeastarshiningintheskywhenitisallaloneamongthe clouds. The Lucy Poems are a collection of simplicity and innocent feelings. Wordsworth is a high priest of Nature. Nature has a uniqueinfluenceonhim.

4. Itravelledamongunknownmen..WhatloveIboretothee. Reference:
ThegivenlineshavebeentakenfromthethirdpoemoftheLucyPoems Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth Context:
ThepoetglorifieshiscountryEngland.HelovesEnglandbecausehisbelovedlivesinit.Lucyplayedinitslawnsandfields.No oneknewher.Evensheisdeadnow,nooneknowsher.But,thedifferenceisonlytothepoet.

Explanation:
The poet describes, in these lines, his love for his country. He says, when he left England and travelled among unknownpeople,hecametoknowhowmuchhelovedhiscountry.HislovetoEnglandisforhisbeloved.Hesaysthatheloves EnglandbecauseLucyplayedinitsfieldsandmoors.InrelationtoLucy,Englandisnowdearertohimthanbefore.

5. Threeyearsshegrewinsunandshower..andIwillmakealadyofmyown. Reference:
ThisstanzahasbeentakenfromthefourthofLucyPoems Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth

Context:
This poem reveals when Lucy was three years old, Nature herself owned her. Nature claimed her as her beloved. Objects of Nature will lend their characteristics to Lucy. Streams will take murmur from her. Nature said that Lucy and shewouldbeone.

Explanation:
Intheselines,thepoetdepicts,whenLucywasthreeyearsoldNatureclaimedherlife.Naturesaidthatshewould adopt Lucy herself. Lucy shall be its beloved. Lucy was the loveliest flower in the world. The poet has made use of a beautiful but simple metaphor. Adopting Lucy as Natures lady shows that Lucy died in the age of three years. It also explainsthatLucyhadbeenbroughtupbyNatureitself.AlltheNaturalobjectstooktheirbeautyfromLucy. ThepoetdescribesthatwhenLucydiedshelefthimtothatquietscenealone.

6. Aslumberdidmyspiritseal.thetouchofearthlyyears. Reference:
ThisstanzaistakenfromthefifthofLucyPoems

Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth

Context:
ThispoemindicatestheconditionofthepoetafterLucysdeath.AfterLucy,thereisnocharminlifeforthepoet.He saysthatnowLucydoesnotseenorhearsanything.

Explanation:
The poet wants to describe that after hearing about Lucys death, a darkness descended on his heart and then he hadnohumanfears.Lucywasbeyondtheearthsdiurnalcourseandshecouldnotfeelthetouchofthatworldlyyears.

Prof.A.R.Somroo

M.A.English,M.A.Education

7. NotinUtopia,subterranean.wefindourhappiness,ornotatall. Reference:
Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

TheFrenchRevolution
Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth

Context:
TheFrenchRevolutionwasthemovementofliberty,fraternityandjustice.Alltheyoungandtheoldhaddesiredit. It was a new spirit to have liberty. Even the lazy people contributed to its success. All the powers of swiftness, fineness and strengthhadtheirpart.Thenationhadanopportunitytomouldtheirfateastheywished.

Explanation:
The poet says that the French Revolution was not a movement that took place in some imaginary state or some secretplace.Ithappenedtohisownworldinwhichtheylive.Itistheworldofallofthem.Therevolutionwouldresultintheir successordoom. Wordsworths poem The French Revolution is the only poem that has a separate feeling different from his creed that is eminent in his other pieces of poetry. Indifferent to Nature, in this poem, the poet describes the struggle for liberty, justice andfraternity.Although,intheend,Wordsworthchangedhismindandfavouredtheantagonistpartyyethisideasareclear andfavouringthehumanspiritasitisclearinhispoemTheFrenchRevolution.

8. Oblithenewcomer.orbutawanderingvoice? Reference:
TheselineshavebeentakenfromthePoem:

TotheCuckoo
Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth Context:
TheCuckooisthesymbolofpleasureandrejoice.Itsvoiceistheharbingerofspring.Thepoetlovesitmostandseeks itsresoundingvoiceinthevalleyandwoods.TheCuckoobirdisthedarlingofthespring.Thepoetremembershischildhood byitsvoice.

Explanation:
TheCuckooisablessedbird.Thepoetsays,wheneverhehearsit,heispleased.ToWordsworth,theCuckooisnot justabirdbutawanderingvoice.Inthispoem,thepoetofNaturehasbeautifullyportrayedtheCuckoo.Differentobjectsof Natureareasourceofpleasureforhim.OneofthemistheCuckoobird.TheCuckooisafancytohim.Herecallshischildhood ashehearsitsvoice.

WordsworthisahighpriestofNature.Hethinks,Naturehasahealingpower.Itmakesaworriedmanhappyandthehappy; even happier. Nature and its objects like mountains, valleys, birds , animals, trees, rivers and streams, all are a source of happinesstoman.

9. Foroft,whenonmycouch.Anddanceswiththedaffodils. Reference:
Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

Daffodils
Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth Context:
Thepoetoncesawalargenumberofdaffodilsgrowingalongalake.Theyweresonumerousinnumberthathesaw tenthousandinaglance.Theywereflutteringintheair.Seeingthem,hewasverypleasedandhestillremembersthem insolitude.

Explanation:
Thepoetdescribesthatwheneverheliesinhisbedinpensiveandsadmood,herecallsthedaffodilsflutteringinthe air along the bay of lake. In his mind, a flashback of that beautiful sight fills the atmosphere with rejoice and pleasure. Thissightishisblissofsolitudeandloneliness.Recallingthenumerousbeautifulflowersdancingwithpleasurewiththe wavesofthelake,hisheartisfilledwithpleasureanditstartsdancingwithjoy.

10. Dearchild,deargirlthatwalkestwithmeThynatureisnotthereforelessdivine. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem

ItisaBeauteousEvening
Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth Context:
The poet wants to say that Nature is holy and sacred. And it produces gentleness. The adults feel its beauty and purity. AlthoughchildrendonotunderstandandfeelNature,yettheirinnocenceisnotlesspure.

Explanation:
Intheselines,thepoetdescribesthatthemorningischangedintoeveningwiththepassageofdayandtheevening isverybeautifulandbold.He,beinganadultmayobviouslyfeelthebeautyofNature,buthislittlesisterDorothy,whois walkingwithhimdoesnotknowaboutserenityandcalmnessofNature.Althoughshedoesnotrealizeit,butherfeelings arenotlessdivineandpurethanNatureitself.

11. Theworldistoomuchwithus..LittleweseeinNaturethatisours. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

Theworldistoomuchwithus
Writtenby: WilliamWordsworth

Context:
We all waste our powers without giving them any importance. Nature has a healing power. All objects of Nature havealessonformanbutwedonotponderoverthem.PoetwantstobeawayfromcivilizationtoobserveNaturedeeply.

Explanation:
Intheselines,thepoetwantstosaythattheworldisalwayswithussoonerorlater.Wewasteourenergyintrivial andcommonplaceactivities.WedonotattendtoNaturethathasaninspirationforus. Wordsworth is a high priest of Nature. He thinks, Nature has a healing power. It makes a worried man happy and the happy; even happier. Nature and its objects like mountains, valleys, birds , animals, trees, rivers and streams, all are a sourceofhappinesstoman.

12. EarthhasnotanythingtoshowmorefairThebeautyofthemorning;silent,bare. Reference:


Thisstanzaistakenfromthepoem:

SonnetLondon
Writtenby: WilliamWordsworth

Context:
At dawn, the sight of the city of London is very enchanting. Different objects and buildings, ships, towers, domes, theaterandchurches,allareglitteringinthepureair.Thesunismostbeautifullystoopingoverthevalleyandthewhole cityisstillandsilentatthistimeofmorning.

Explanation:
Inthegivenlines,thepoetdescribesthatontheearthnothingismorebeautifulthanthecityofLondon.Ifsomeone doesnotattendtothebeautifulsightofthecityinthemorning,hissoulmaybedullandcareless.Thecityhasamajestic sightinthefreshairandseemsasitiswearinggarmentsofcalm,peaceandserenity.Itisamagnificentsighttoseethe cityofLondonearlyinthemorning.

Prof.A.R.Somroo

13. Andgiveusmanners,virtue,freedom.sodidstthoutravelonlifescommonway. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfrom: Sonnet Writtenby

WilliamWordsworth Context:
Milton should have been living today. This day England needs him. He has defended England. Poet says Milton to cometothemagainandtoteachthemmanners.

Explanation:
In these lines, the poet says Milton to come to them again and teach them virtue, freedom and power. The poet glorifiesMiltonandsaysthathewaslikeastarintheskyandasoundinthesea.Hewasaspureasheavens.Hispersonality wasmagnificentandmajestic.Miltonslifewassimpleandhetravelledoncommonwaysoflife. Milton was not only a poet but a propagandist and preacher of all the great virtues. It were Miltons sonnets that inspired Wordsworthanditmaybeappropriatetoquotehere,.oneafternoonin1801,mysisterreadtomethesonnetsofMilton. I had long been well acquainted with them, but I was particularly struck on that occasion with the dignified simplicity and majesticharmonythatrunsthroughmostofthem.Itookfire.

14. Whateverthetheme,themaidensang..longafteritwasheardnomore. Reference:


Theselinearetakenfromthepoem:

SolitaryReaper
Writtenby:

WilliamWordsworth Context:
Thepoetsawarusticmaidenharvestinginthevalley.Shewassingingabeautifultone.Hervoicewasmore beautifulthananightingale.Althoughnobodyknowswhatshewassinging,yetitexpressedhernaturalsorrow.

Explanation:
Thepoetdescribesthathewaspassedbyawomanwhowasreapingalone.Shewassinginginaplaintivemoodas shebentoverhersickle.Herstrainsweretenderlymelancholyandfeltdeliciousevenlongaftertheywereheardnomore. Althoughthethemeofhersongisnotknownanditwasanendlesssongbutitcreatesthemusicinhisheartthatbears initafteralongtimeitheardnomore.Thebeautyofhersonghasthesameeffectthatsightofdaffodilshaddeveloped onceinthepoetsmind.Thememoryofdaffodilsmadehisheartrejoiceanddance.Sameisthecasewiththesongofthe solitaryreaper.Itbearsinhismindandhisfeelingsarefreshevenitislongbeforeitwasheard.

15. Higherandhighereveryday..forheheardtheloudbassoon. Reference:Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: TheRimeoftheAncientMariner


Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: The poet tells about the story of an old mariner who went on a voyage with two hundred men. There came a hail
storm. An Albatross came and they all took it as cause of the storm. The mariner shot the bird. Then, the spirit of the oceangotoffendedandpunishedhim.

Explanation: Theselinesshowtheancientmarinertellinghisstorytoaweddingguest.Hecharmedtheguestbyhiswillpower.
HetoldhimthattheytravelledtotheSouthPoleandthusthesunrosehigherandhigheruptothemastatnoon.During thisstorytheweddingguestheardtheloudmusicbeingplayedinbrideshouseandthushebecameuneasyandhisheart throbbedforhewantedtoattendthewedding.But,theoldmarinerhadanoverwhelmingtranceoverhim. Coleridgeisfamousforhissupernaturalisminpoetry.Heoftenmakesuseofhorror,myth,supernaturalobjectsandideas inhispoemsthatmakehimauniquepersonalityamongtheotherpoets.TheRimeoftheAncientMarineristhebest exampleofuseofsupernaturalismwithamorallessonforthereaders.

16. Andthroughthedriftsthesnowy..theicewasallbetween. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

TheRimeoftheAncientMariner
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: The poet tells about the story of an old mariner who went on a voyage with two hundred men. There came a hail
storm. An Albatross came and they all took it as cause of the storm. The mariner shot the bird. Then, the spirit of the oceangotoffendedandpunishedhim.

Explanation: While telling his story, the old mariner says that their ship then came into wide, Calm Ocean. In it, huge icebergs
werefloating.Therewassnowandiceallaround.Thesnowcrackedanditgaveahorriblegrowlingsound.Theysawno humanbeing,evennotasingleanimaltheymetintheway.

17. Herlipswerered,herlookswerefreewhothicksetmansbloodwithcold. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

TheRimeoftheAncientMariner
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context:
The poet tells about the story of an old mariner who went on a voyage with two hundred men. There came a hail storm. An Albatross came and they all took it as cause of the storm. The mariner shot the bird. Then, the spirit of the oceangotoffendedandpunishedhim.

Explanation: Intheselines,thepoetdescribesthattheoldmarinertoldtotheweddingguestthatwhenspiritoftheoceanplagued
him,allthecrewoftheshipalsosufferedthatpanic. The spirit camein the disguiseof a woman. Her lips were red,her hair were as yellow as gold.Her eyes were very bold. The colourofherskinwasaswhiteascausedbyleprosy.Shewaslikeahorribledreamoflifeindeath.Shewasasterribleascould freezemansbloodwithfear.

18. Themovingmoonwentuptheskyandastarortwobeside Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

TheRimeoftheAncientMariner
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: The poet tells about the story of an old mariner who went on a voyage with two hundred men. There came a hail
storm. An Albatross came and they all took it as cause of the storm. The mariner shot the bird. Then, the spirit of the oceangotoffendedandpunishedhim.

Explanation: Intheselines,theoldmarinertellshisstorythatinhislonelinessandfixedness,hesawtowardsthejourneyingmoon
and the stars that still stayed there, yet still moved onward. And everywhere the blue sky belonged to them. They had nothingtoseeanythingelse.

19. Thesillybucketsonthedeck..andwhenIawoke,itrained. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

TheRimeoftheAncientMariner
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: The poet tells about the story of an old mariner who went on a voyage with two hundred men. There came a hail
storm. An Albatross came and they all took it as cause of the storm. The mariner shot the bird. Then, the spirit of the oceangotoffendedandpunishedhim.

Explanation:
Theoldmariner,tellinghisstory,saidtotheweddingguestthataftergreatsufferingsofthirstandpain,hefainted.He, then,sawinhisdreamthatemptybucketsontheboardwerefilledwiththedewdrops.Heawokeandfoundthatitwas raining.

Prof.A.R.Somroo M.A.English,M.A.Education

20. Likeone,thatonalonesomeroad.dothclosebehindhimtread. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

TheRimeoftheAncientMariner
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: The poet tells about the story of an old mariner who went on a voyage with two hundred men. There came a hail
storm. An Albatross came and they all took it as cause of the storm. The mariner shot the bird. Then, the spirit of the oceangotoffendedandpunishedhim.

Explanation: Theoldmarinertoldtheweddingguestthatatlasthiscursewasexpiated.Thetwoevilspiritsthentalkedthemselves
that they must fly as soon as they would,so that they might not belated. When thecharmof theold marinerbroke, he sawtowardstheseaafarandfeltfrightened.Hewaslikesomeonewalkingonalonelyroadfilledwithhorroranddread. Andonceheturnedroundandwalkedforwardwithoutlookingbehind.Hisconditionwasasifsomefrightfulfiendwas walkingbehindhimcloselyandchasinghimtokill.

21. Farewell,farewell!ButthisItellBothmanandbirdandbeast. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

TheRimeoftheAncientMariner
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: The poet tells about the story of an old mariner who went on a voyage with two hundred men. There came a hail
storm. An Albatross came and they all took it as cause of the storm. The mariner shot the bird. Then, the spirit of the oceangotoffendedandpunishedhim.

Explanation: Theoldmarineraftertellinghisawfulstorytotheweddingguest,saysgoodbyetohimandadviseshimintheend
thatalltheprayersandyearningofamanareacceptedbyGodonlyifhelovesallthecreaturesofGod.Therankofthe personwholoveshisfellowmen,birdsandbeastisveryhighintheeyesofGod.AndheislovedbyGodonlywholoves Hiscreatures.Thisistheepitomeofthelongandstrangetaletoldbytheoldmariner. Coleridge has surprisingly given this moral lesson to the readers. It is the peculiarity of Coleridges poetry which shows clearly the cause of pleasures of human beingslie within themselves. If man has good will and love for the creatures of God,heisnotonlypleasedandsatisfiedintheworldbutalsosuccessfulintheafterworld.

Prof.A.R.Somroo M.A.English,M.A.Education

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22. InXanadudidKublaKhan.Downtoasunlesssea. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

KublaKhan
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: InthispoemthepoetdescribesthatKublaKhan,theemperorofChina,orderedtobuildabeautifulpalacenearthe


sacredriverAlphthatfallintoadeepocean.Thispalacecoveredanareaoftensquaremilesenfoldinggreenlands.Along thebankofsacredriverAlph,KublaKhanheardhisancestorsprophesyingwar.

Explanation: KublaKhanisadreampoem.Intheselines,thepoetdescribeshisdreamthathehadduringhissickness.Whenhe
cameintosensesoutoftheeffectsofdrug,hewroteitdownintoabeautifulpoem.Inhisdream,hesawKublaKhan,the emperor of China, ordered to build a palace near the river Alph. The river Alph ran through caves where no man had accessandthenitfellintothedeepocean. Thegivenpoem,KublaKhanisabeautifulblendofimageryandmetaphor.Thelocationofthepleasuredomeindicates theabilityofColeridgetodrawlandscapethroughpowerofimaginationandcreativity.

23. TheshadowofthedomeofpleasureAsunnypleasuredomewithcavesofice. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

KublaKhan
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: InthispoemthepoetdescribesthatKublaKhan,theemperorofChina,orderedtobuildabeautifulpalacenearthe


sacredriverAlphthatfallintoadeepocean.Thispalacecoveredanareaoftensquaremilesenfoldinggreenlands.Along thebankofsacredriverAlph,KublaKhanheardhisancestorsprophesyingwar.

Explanation: Inthegivenlines,thepoetdescribesthebeautyofpleasuredomethatKublaKhan,theemperorofChinahadordered
tobuild.Hesaysthattheshadowofthepleasuredomeseemedfloatingonthewaveswherenoiseofthehugefountain, fromwheretheriverran,fallintothedeepcaves. Itwasawonderfulmasterpieceofbuilding.Itwasapleasuredomefilledwithsunshinenearthecavesfullofice.

Prof.A.R.Somroo M.A.English,M.A.Education

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24. Tosuchadelighttwouldwinme..thatsunnydome!Thosecavesofice. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

KublaKhan
Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: InthispoemthepoetdescribesthatKublaKhan,theemperorofChina,orderedtobuildabeautifulpalacenearthe


sacredriverAlphthatfallintoadeepocean.Thispalacecoveredanareaoftensquaremilesenfoldinggreenlands.Along thebankofsacredriverAlph,KublaKhanheardhisancestorsprophesyingwar.

Explanation: This stanza relates the second part of the poem and indicates poets dream about an Abyssinian maid, playing a
mountainsong. Inthegivenlines,thepoetsaysthatrecallingthebeautifulsymphonyplayedbythemaid,hewouldhavesuchadelight thatwiththeloudmusicofthatsymphonyhewouldbuildthepleasuredomeinhisimagination. ThepoetwantstosaythatinextremedelightofthatmusichewouldfeelasloftyasKublaKhanseekingpleasureinthe pleasuredomeofsunnycavesofice.

25. Agriefwithoutapang,void,darkanddear.inwords,orsighsortear. Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: DejectionanOde


Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: Astormisexpected.Itismidnight.Windisstormy.Cloudsarefloatinginthesky.But,thepoethasastrangefeeling.


HeisnotmovedbyNature.HesaysthatNaturehasnohealingpower.Itcannotmakeanymanhappy.Theonlythingthat helpshimpleasingishisthoughtandinnerself.

Explanation: Intheselines,thepoetwantstosaythatinthisstormynightwhilecloudsaregatheringovertheskyanditisraining
heavily, he has a grief without pain. This pain is very dark and gloomy but it is still precious to him. This pain is unimpassionedandhasastrangesleepiness.Ithasnonaturaloutletandreliefsuchaswords,sighsortearstomakethis painless.

26. Mygenialspiritsfail.thepassionandthelife,whosefountainsarewithin. Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: DejectionanOde


Writtenby:

Coleridge Context: Astormisexpected.Itismidnight.Windisstormy.Cloudsarefloatinginthesky.But,thepoethasastrangefeeling. He is not moved by Nature. He says that Nature has no healing power. It cannot make any man happy. The only thing
thathelpshimpleasingishisthoughtandinnerself.

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Explanation: The poet says that his creative skill and pleasures in life have gone. And it is no use to lift the heavy and
suffocating weight from his chest. Although he still looks longingly towards the West on the green lights yet it is uselessstruggle.Naturecannothelphimtowinthegloriousbeautyoflife,hopeandemotionsbecausethesethings areneverfoundinNature.Theirsourceisalwaysintheinnerselfofaman.So,iftheweatherisfineandcharming, it is of no use to him because his feelings are dejected, sad and worried. Nothing in Nature can move his worried heart.

27. Thouhastliketomearockbuiltrefuge..Thatthoushouldstceasetobe. Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: ToWordsworth


Writtenby:

Shelley Context: WordsworthwasagreatpoetofNature.HewastheapostleofNaturalbeauty.Hisideaswereinnocent,simpleand


virtuous.HewasanardentsupporteroftheFrenchRevolution. But,later,heacceptedroyalpensionandleftthemaximoftheFrenchRevolution.Tothis,Shelleywasmuchgrievedand hedeclaresintellectualdeathofWordsworth.

Explanation: Intheselines,ShelleyaddressestoWordsworththathewaslikeadefensivefortressforfightingsoldiers.Hewrote
songs that glorified truth and liberty. He wrote these songs in honour of poverty. But, Shelley says, when Wordsworth accepted royal pension and abandoned the French Revolution, he left Shelley to mourn alone and it was equal to Wordsworths death. Thus, Shelley says that Wordsworth when abandoned his faith, he was like a dead person for Shelley.Andthepoetmournshisintellectualdeathverymuch. BothShelleyandWordsworthwerethesupporteroftheFrenchRevolution.Inthebeginning,theybothwrotewithzeal and zest in favour of the revolution. But later on, Wordsworth changed his political views and favoured the royal court againsttherevolution.Inreturntohisservices,hegotroyalpension.Shelley,onthis,wasmuchgrievedthatWordsworth hadchangedhismind.Thus,hefeltasifWordsworthweredead.

28. IweepforAdonaisheisdead.Anechoandalightuntoeternity! Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: Adonais


Writtenby:

Shelley Context: Keatsdiedoftuberculosisin1821.Shelleywasgreatlymovedbythedeathofthepooryoungpoet,especiallyashe


believeditwaspartlyduetothesavagereviewofhispoetry.Heatoncewrotethiselegy.

Explanation: Adonais is an elegy written on Keats death.It is a full poem of 55 stanzas modelled on ancient Greek elegies by
LordByronandMoschus.Theseancientpoetsusedthepastoralconvention,inwhichthepoetisrepresentedasshepherd. Shelleyfollowsthisstyle,bringingtheothershepherdpoets(Byron,MooreandShelleyhimself)topaytheirhomageto thedead. In the given lines the poet says that he weeps for Adonais (means Keats) because he is dead. He compares Keats with Adonais,theGreekhunterprince.Healsosaystotheotherpoetstoweepforhim.Hesaysthemtoweepalthoughtheir tearscannotbreakthefrostofdeaththathascoveredthedearestone. He says to that sad time which is the saddest hour of the yearrouse the othercompanions tomourn on their loss. The poetsaysthatweshouldmournhisdeaththoughthecomingtimewillforgetthepasteventofKeatsdeathandhispoetry

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that is his fate and popularity will become an echo and a light towards eternity. He will become a part of eternity that neverdies.

29. Midstothersoflessnote..likeraginghounds,theirfatherandtheirprey. Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: Adonais


Writtenby:

Shelley Context: Keatsdiedoftuberculosisin1821.Shelleywasgreatlymovedbythedeathofthepooryoungpoet,especiallyashe


believeditwaspartlyduetothesavagereviewofhispoetry.Heatoncewrotethiselegy.

Explanation: Adonais is an elegy written on Keats death.It is a full poem of 55 stanzas modelled on ancient Greek elegies by
LordByronandMoschus.Theseancientpoetsusedthepastoralconvention,inwhichthepoetisrepresentedasshepherd. Shelleyfollowsthisstyle,bringingtheothershepherdpoets(Byron,MooreandShelleyhimself)topaytheirhomageto thedead. In the given lines, the poet wants to say that on Keats death many other poets came to mourn over his death. Among them, Shelley himself was present there. He was like a spirit among them. He says that Keats had no companion. His conditionwaslikealastcloudofstorm.Asthethunderofthelastcloudofbrokenstormbecomestheendofthestorm, Keatspoetrywasthemainreasonofhisdeath. ShelleycomparesKeatswithActeonwhosawArtemisnaked.ArtemisconvertedActeonintoastagandhewaskilledby his own hounds. Keats had also seen the nakedness of Nature and his poetry was criticized harshly by his fellow poets. Thushisownpoetrycausedhisdeath.

30. Peace,peace,heisnotdeadhopesswarmlikewormswithinourlivingclay. Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: Adonais


Writtenby:

Shelley Context: Keatsdiedoftuberculosisin1821.Shelleywasgreatlymovedbythedeathofthepooryoungpoet,especiallyashe


believeditwaspartlyduetothesavagereviewofhispoetry.Heatoncewrotethiselegy.

Explanation: Adonais is an elegy written on Keats death.It is a full poem of 55 stanzas modelled on ancient Greek elegies by
LordByronandMoschus.Theseancientpoetsusedthepastoralconvention,inwhichthepoetisrepresentedasshepherd. Shelleyfollowsthisstyle,bringingtheothershepherdpoets(Byron,MooreandShelleyhimself)topaytheirhomageto thedead. Shelley,intheselines,saysaboutKeatsthatheisnotdead.Hehasnotgonetoeternalslumber.Hehasawakenedfrom thedreamoflife.Shelleysaysabouthimselfandtheotherpeoplethattheyarespiritslostinstormandaretryinguselessly inamadtrance.Hesaysthattheyarelikecorpsesthatdecayinacharnelhouse. Fearofdeathandgriefdeformsthemdaybydayandmovethemtodeath.Andvainhopeswriggleandgatherinthem. But,Keatsisnowoutofgriefandfearofdeathbecausehehasbecomeeternalandnowheisoutofthisdiurnalcourse. After mourningover thedeathof Keats, Shelley changes the mood of thepoem as thewordsPeace, peaceshow that heisnowcelebratingthepoetsimmortalityandeternity.

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31. HeismadeonewithNature.Sustainsitfrombeneath,andkindlesitabove. Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: Adonais


Writtenby:

Shelley Context: Keatsdiedoftuberculosisin1821.Shelleywasgreatlymovedbythedeathofthepooryoungpoet,especiallyashe


believeditwaspartlyduetothesavagereviewofhispoetry.Heatoncewrotethiselegy.

Explanation: Adonais is an elegy written on Keats death.It is a full poem of 55 stanzas modelled on ancient Greek elegies by
LordByronandMoschus.Theseancientpoetsusedthepastoralconvention,inwhichthepoetisrepresentedasshepherd. Shelleyfollowsthisstyle,bringingtheothershepherdpoets(Byron,MooreandShelleyhimself)topaytheirhomageto thedead. Shelley, in these lines, says about Keats that he is not dead. He has become a part of Nature. His voice is heard in all melodies.Hisvoiceisheardinthundersandinsongsofnightbird.Hispresencecanbefeltinthedarkness,inthelightof theday.HeisfoundinallobjectsofNaturesuchasherbsandstones.HeisdispersedbythepowerofNature.Theworld hasnevergivenhimlove.ThepowerofNatureonlysustainshimandalsoexciteshimtoreflectintheobjectsofNature.

32. AndonthepedestalTheloneandlevelsandsstretchfaraway. Reference:Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: Ozymandias


Writtenby:

Shelley Context:
ThepoetmetatravelerwhotoldhimaboutOzymandiasRamesesII,overwhosetemplewaswritten,Iam Ozymandias,kingofkings.IfanyonewantstoknowhowgreatIwas,lethimseemyworks.

Explanation: In this stanza the poet describes the ruins of the tomb of RamesesII. In the sands there lays a broken figure of the
kingOzymandias.Onthepedestalofthestatue,itwaswritten,MynameisOzymandias,whoisthekingofkings.Hisworks although are mighty and huge yet despair and frustrated. Now, nothing is left among his works. Only his broken stature remainsinsandthatremindshisempire. The poet wants to describe that on this earth, no man can have eternal life. Mighty and cruel kings even had to leave this world.Onlytheirremainsremindtheirage.Nothinginthisworldhaseternallifeorthemightandpowerisnoteverlasting.It mustdeclinewiththecourseofNature.

Prof.A.R.Somroo

M.A.English,M.A.Education

15

33. Thouonwhosestream..Likehairupliftedfromthehead. Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

OdetotheWestWind
Writtenby:

Shelley Context: Thewestwindblowsawaydeadleaves.Theygrowagaininthespring.Thepoetwantstobelikedeadleavessothat


hemayhavereincarnationlikethedeadleaves.Oncehewasaszealousandswiftasthewestwind.

Explanation: Intheselines,Shelleywantstosaythatwestwindsweepsawaydeadleavesonearth.Itcanalsosweepawayclouds
inthesky.Hesaysthatlighteningandrainalsospreadbythesurgingwestwind.Theyflyashairareupliftedfromtheheadof afierceMaenad. Shelley,inthispoemfirstlydescribescharacteristicsofthewestwindandthenfinallywishestobelikethattospreadhiswords inthevastworldsameasthewestwindspreadsdeadleavesfromtheshoreandbanksofoceanandstreamstofaroffdistance.

34. IfIwereadeadleaf.thankthou,Ouncontrollable! Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: OdetotheWestWind


Writtenby:

Shelley Context: Thewestwindblowsawaydeadleaves.Theygrowagaininthespring.Thepoetwantstobelikedeadleavessothat


hemayhavereincarnationlikethedeadleaves.Oncehewasaszealousandswiftasthewestwind.

Explanation:
Shelley wants to say, in these lines, if he had been a dead leaf or a swiftly flying cloud or a powerful wave, he would have a strengthandvigourlikethatofthewestwind.But,thisstrengthwouldbestilllessthanthatofthewestwind. Shelleywishestobelikethewestwindasheissomuchimpressedbyitsstrength,vigourandpowerofregeneration.

35. IseetheDeepsuntrampledfloor..starshowers,thrown Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: Stanzaswrittenindejection


Writtenby:

Shelley Context: Shelleyisverysad.Itisnoon.Thewavesoftheoceanaresurging.Thesuniswarmandtheskyisclear,butthepoet


has no hope and peace of mind. He has got no fame and honour. Thus he wants to lay down on sand like a child and weep awaythecaresandsufferingsoflife.

Explanation: Intheselines,thepoetwantstosaythatheisseeingtheflooroftheoceanthatiscoveredwithvariousseaweeds
andsedge.Thewavesontheshorearesurgingandfoaming.Thebrightsunlightismixedinthesewavesanditseemslikestars aredissolvedinthewhite,brightwaves. Hesaysthathesitsontheshorealongthewavesandiswatchingitsmovementandebbandtide.Itisnoonandlightisflashing in the waves. And a rhythmic sound arises from the waves. He says that he wishes someone share his emotions at this sad timewhileheisdejected.

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36. WhenIhavefearsthatImayceasetobe..Thefullripenedgrain Reference:


Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem:

SonnetWhenIhavefears.
Writtenby

JohnKeats Context: Thepoetisafraidofdyingsoonbeforecompilingmanybooksofpoetry.Hefearsthathewouldneverbeabletosee


hisbelovedanymore.Hewantstowritesomanybooksbeforeheleavesthisworld.

Explanation: WhenIhavefearsisoneofhisfamoussonnets.Intheselines,Keatswantstosaythatheisafraidofdyingbefore
hewritessomanybooksonhisideasthatarefilledinhismind,andhispenwilltransferallhisfeelingsonpaper.Hewantsto writeasmanybooksasfillhisroom.Hewantstowritebooksthatfillhisroomasthegodownofgrain. Keats,inthispoem,seemshopelessandfearfulofleavingthisworldandhisbeautifulbelovedsoon.Hefeelsthatheisstanding aloneontheshoresoftheworld.

37. Iseealilyonthybrow..Fastwitherthtoo Reference: Thisstanzaistakenfromthepoem: LaBelleDamesansMerci


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: The poet met an armed knight in the jungle. He asked the knight why he was wandering there aimlessly in winter.
Theknighttoldhimhowhemetabeautifulcruelladyinthejunglewhoenthralledhiminherlove.But,shewasfaithlessand lefthimaloneinthevalley.Sincethen,heisloiteringthere.

Explanation: The beautiful lady without any compassion is a story, like Coleridges Christabel based on an imaginary early
worldofromance.Itiswrittenintheballadstanza,withafootcutinthelastlinewhichgivesaneffectofmelancholysadness appropriatetothetheme. Inthegivenlines,thepoetdescribesthesadandworriedconditionoftheknightatarms.Hesaysthattheknightsfacehasan anguishandpain.Hisfaceislikeawitheringlily.Hischeeksarealsowitheringandwiltingquicklylikeadyingrose. Keats La Belle Dame sans Merci is a beautiful masterpiece of poetry. It is somewhat symbolic and based upon medieval rivalries.Keatsisveryimpressedbytheknightsandprincesofmedievalages.Also,hispoemshaveasensuoustouch.

Prof.A.R.Somroo

M.A.English,M.A.Education

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38. Shefoundmerootsofrelishsweet.Ilovetheetrue! Reference: Thisstanzaistakenfromthepoem: LaBelleDamesansMerci


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: The poet met an armed knight in the jungle. He asked the knight why he was wandering there aimlessly in winter.
Theknighttoldhimhowhemetabeautifulcruelladyinthejunglewhoenthralledhiminherlove.But,shewasfaithlessand lefthimaloneinthevalley.Sincethen,heisloiteringthere.

Explanation: In these lines, the poet describes the knight telling his story. The knight told him that the beautiful lady gave him
sweetwildfruitandpurehoneytoeat.Then,shetoldhiminastrangelanguagethatshelovedhimtruly. Keats La Belle Dame sans Merci is a beautiful masterpiece of poetry. It is somewhat symbolic and based upon medieval rivalries.Keatsisveryimpressedbytheknightsandprincesofmedievalages.Also,hispoemshaveasensuoustouch.

39. AndthisiswhyIsojournhere..Andnobirdssing Reference: Thisstanzaistakenfromthepoem: LaBelleDamesansMerci


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: The poet met an armed knight in the jungle. He asked the knight why he was wandering there aimlessly in winter.
Theknighttoldhimhowhemetabeautifulcruelladyinthejunglewhoenthralledhiminherlove.But,shewasfaithlessand lefthimaloneinthevalley.Sincethen,heisloiteringthere.

Explanation: The knight at arms continues his tale and tells the poet that because of faithlessness of the beautiful lady, he is
stayingtherealoneandwanderingwithpalefaceinthevalley,thoughthewildlakegrassiswitheredandnobirdssingbecause ofautumn. Keats La Belle Dame sans Merci is a beautiful masterpiece of poetry. It is somewhat symbolic and based upon medieval rivalries.Keatsisveryimpressedbytheknightsandprincesofmedievalages.Also,hispoemshaveasensuoustouch.

Prof.A.R.Somroo M.A.English,M.A.Education

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40. Athingofbeautyisajoyforeverandhealth,andquietbreathing Reference: Thisstanzaistakenfromthepoem: EndymionundertheheadingofAThingofBeauty


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: The poet thinks that all beautiful things are a source of permanent joy and happiness. Beauty is immortal. Sweet
dreams,beautifultalesoflove,thesun,themoon.Talltrees,tenderplantsandsomanyotherbeautifulthingsgiveeverlasting joytoman.

Explanation: In these lines Keats wants to say that a beautiful thing always provides joy. Its beauty always increases and it will
neverdie.Italwaysprovidesmanwithapeacefulshelterandgivesacalmsleepfullofbeautifuldreams,healthandpeaceful breathing. KeatsEndymionwasanimmaturepieceofpoetryinfourbookspublishedin1818.Keatshimselfdescribeditasafeverish attempt rather than a deed accomplished. It was the savage attack on this poem by some reviewers that was said to have aggravatedKeatsdisease.

41. St.AgnesEveAhAndsilentwastheflockinwoollyfold Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: TheEveofSt.Agnes


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: AyoungladyMadeline,ontheeveofSt.Agnes,performedaparticularritetoseeherwouldbehusband.Herlover


Porphyro,belongingtotherivaltribe,camethere.Theybothmetinherchamberandthenfledawaybeforedawn.

Explanation:
St.AgneswasaRomanvirgin,whosufferedmartyrdominthereignofDioclesian.Herparents,afewdaysbeforeher decease,aresaidtohavehadavisionofher,surroundedbyangelsandattendedbyawhitelamb,whichafterwardsbecame sacredtoher. Thesuperstitionisthatbytakingcertainmeasuresofdivination,damselsmaygetasightoftheirfuturehusbandsindreams. Theordinaryprocessseemstohavebeenbyfasting. Intheselines,KeatshasalsomadeuseofthatparticularmythforwhichMadelineperformedherrite.AttheeventofSt.Agnes it was bitter cold. Even the wild animals like owl and hares were also trembling with cold. It was such a bitter chill as all the flockweresleepingintheyardwearingtheirwoolyskinatnight.

Prof.A.R.Somroo M.A.English,M.A.Education
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42. HefollowdthroughalowlyarchedwayPalelatticd,chill,andsilentasatomb Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: TheEveofSt.Agnes


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: AyoungladyMadeline,ontheeveofSt.Agnes,performedaparticularritetoseeherwouldbehusband.Herlover


Porphyro,belongingtotherivaltribe,camethere.Theybothmetinherchamberandthenfledawaybeforedawn.

Explanation: In the given lines, Keats has beautifully portrayed Madelines chamber. He saysthat Porphyro followed old Angela
throughanarrowarchedunderwaytowardsMadelineschamber.Thetunnelwasfullofcobwebthatbrushedagainsthishigh featheredcap.Throughthatway,PorphyroreachedMadelineschamber. Herchamberwasfullofmoonlight.Itwasyellowishanditsroofwascrossedbybars.Herchamberwasverycoldandquietas atomb.

43. AcasementhighAshieldedscutcheonblushdwithbloodofqueensandkings Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: TheEveofSt.Agnes


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: AyoungladyMadeline,ontheeveofSt.Agnes,performedaparticularritetoseeherwouldbehusband.Herlover


Porphyro,belongingtotherivaltribe,camethere.Theybothmetinherchamberandthenfledawaybeforedawn.

Explanation: Thisstanzaisthebestofthepoemforitsdepictionofvisualimagery.Keatshasveryskilfullyrepresentedthevisuals
of Madelines chamber. These lines indicate that there was a huge cupboard with three arches in her room. Its both sides were decorated by carved pictures of fruits, flowers and vines. Its panes were formed by embedded diamond s. It was all paintedandadornedwithnumerouscoloursasoftigermothssilkenwings. In the middle of the room, there was a shielded war dress stained with blood of ancient queens and kings. Also, there were numerousimagesofsaintsandknightstoo.

Prof.A.R.Somroo M.A.English,M.A.Education

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44. Andtheyaregone..Forayeunsoughtforsleptamonghisashescold Reference: Theselineshavebeentakenfromthepoem: TheEveofSt.Agnes


Writtenby:

JohnKeats Context: AyoungladyMadeline,ontheeveofSt.Agnes,performedaparticularritetoseeherwouldbehusband.Herlover


Porphyro,belongingtotherivaltribe,camethere.Theybothmetinherchamberandthenfledawaybeforedawn.

Explanation: Inthisstanza,thepoetsaysthatintheendboththeloversfledawayfromthepalace.Manyyearshavepassed.They
bothranawayinthestorm.ThatnighttheBarondreamtofmanyworriedworriersintheformofwitchesanddevilsandhe saw many coffin worms. That night old Angela died and her face was deformed with panic. Also, the Beadsman after completinghisthousandinvoking,slepthiseternalsleepoverhisashes.

THE END

WRITTEN AND COMPOSED BY: PROF. A.R. SOMROO M.A. ENGLISH, M.A. EDUCATION CELL: 03339971417

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