4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Ch 06 HW
Due: 11:59am on Sunday, April 6, 2014
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy
Learning Goal:
To understand the meaning and possible applications of the workenergy theorem. In this problem, you will use your prior knowledge to derive one of the most important relationships in mechanics: the
workenergy theorem. We will start with a special case: a particle of mass moving in the x direction at constant
m
acceleration . During a certain interval of time, the particle accelerates from
a
v i nitial
to
v final
, undergoing displacement
s
given by
s = x
final
−
x initial
.
Part A
Find the acceleration of the particle.
a
Correct
Part B
Find the net force
F
acting on the particle.
Express your answer in terms of
m
and .
a
Hint 1. Using Newton's laws
Which of Newton's laws may be helpful here?
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
1/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
ANSWER: 

F = 
ma 

Correct 

Part C 

Find the net work 
W done on the particle by the external forces during the particle's motion. 

Express your answer in terms of 
F 
and . s 
ANSWER:
W =
Fs
Correct
Part D
F
Substitute for from Part B in the expression for work from Part C. Then substitute for from the relation in Part
a
A. This will yield an expression for the net work
W
done on the particle by the external forces during the particle's
motion in terms of mass and the initial and final velocities. Give an expression for the work quantities.
W
in terms of those
Express your answer in terms of ,
^{m}
^{v} i nitial
, and
^{v} final
.
ANSWER:
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
2/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Part E
Find the net work
W
done on the particle by the external forces during the motion of the particle in terms of the
initial and final kinetic energies.
Express your answer in terms of
K i nitial
and
K final
.
ANSWER:
W =
−K
initial
+
K final
Correct
This result is called the workenergy theorem. It states that the net work done on a particle equals the change in kinetic energy of that particle.
Also notice that if
K initial
is zero, then the workenergy theorem reduces to
W = K final
.
In other words, kinetic energy can be understood as the amount of work that is done to accelerate the particle from rest to its final velocity.
The workenergy theorem can be most easily used if the object is moving in one dimension and is being acted upon by a constant net force directed along the direction of motion. However, the theorem is valid for more general cases as well.
Let us now consider a situation in which the particle is still moving along the x axis, but the net force, which is still directed along the x axis, is no longer constant. Let's see how our earlier definition of work,
W = F ⃗ ⋅ s⃗ 
, 

needs to be modified by being replaced by an integral. If the path of the particle is divided into very small displacements 



and the work 
dW done to move the particle from x to 
x+ dx 
is 

dW = F dx 
, 

F where is the x component of the net force (which remains virtually constant for the small displacement from to x 

x+ dx ). The net work W done on the particle is then given by 

W =∫^{x} final ^{x} initial 
dW = 
^{x} final ∫^{x} initial 
F dx 

. 

Now, using 

F = ma 

and 

it can be shown that 
a=dv dt = 
dv dx 
dx dt 
=v 
dv dx 
, 

W = ∫ 
^{v} final 
mvdv 

. 

^{v} initial 

Part F 

Evaluate the integral W = ∫ 
^{v} final mvdv. 

^{v} initial 
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
3/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
ANSWER:
Correct
The expression that you havejust obtained is equivalent to
W = K
final
−
K initial
. Not surprisingly, we are
back to the same expression of the workenergy theorem! Let us see how the theorem can be applied to problem solving.
Part G
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
4/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Correct
It can also be shown that the workenergy theorem is valid for two and threedimensional motion and for a varying net force that is not necessarily directed along the instantaneous direction of motion of the particle. In that case, the work done by the net force is given by the line integral
^{S} final
^{S} initial
where
S initial
and
S final
are the initial and the final positions of the particle,
⃗
F
small displacement, and is the net force acting on the particle.
→
dL is the vector representing a
Two forces, of magnitudes
F 1
F 2
and , act in opposite directions on a block, which sits atop a frictionless surface.
Initially, the center of the block is at position
x i
. At some later
time, the block has moved to the right, so that its center is at
position
x 
f 
, where 
Find the work 
Part A
x
f
>
x i
.
W 1
done on the block by the force of magnitude
F 1
as the block moves from
x i
to
x f
.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables given in the problem introduction.
Hint 1. Formula for the work done by a force
The work
W
done by a force
⃗
F
s⃗
in producing a displacement is given by
where
_{∣} ∣ _{F} ∣⃗
∣
and
∣s∣⃗ ∣ ∣
⃗
W = F ⋅
s⃗
=
_{∣} ∣ _{F} ∣⃗
∣
∣s∣⃗ ^{∣} ∣
cosϕ
,
are the magnitudes of
⃗
F
and respectively, and is the smaller angle between the two
s⃗
ϕ
vectors.
The scalar that results from the operation
s⃗
and .
⃗
F ⋅ s⃗
is called the scalar product, or dot product, of the vectors
⃗
F
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
5/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
ANSWER: 

W 1 = F ( 1 Correct 

Find the work 
x i
)
x f
−
W 2
done by the force of magnitude
F 2
as the block moves from
x i
to
x f
.
Part B
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables given in the problem introduction.
Hint 1. Is the work positive or negative?
The force of magnitude
F 2
acts in the opposite direction to that of the motion of the block. Therefore, the
work done by that force must be negative.
ANSWER:
W 2 = −F ( 2 Correct 
x f 
− 
x i 
) 

Part C 

What is the net work 
W net 
done on the block by the two forces? 

ANSWER: W net = (F 1 
− F 2 
)( x 
f 
− 
x 
i 
) 
Correct
Part D
Imagine that the two forces are equal in magnitude,
=
^{F} 2
, and that there are no other horizontal forces acting
on the block. Determine the change
K
f
−
^{K} i
in the kinetic energy of the block as it moves from
^{x} i
to
^{x} f
.
Hint 1. If the forces are equal, how can the block be moving?
Although the net horizontal force acting on the block (and therefore the acceleration of the block) is zero, the block may have had some initial velocity.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
6/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
ANSWER:
K
f
−
^{K} i
= 0
Correct
Learning Goal:
To understand how to compute the work done by a constant force acting on a particle that moves in a straight line.
⃗ 

In this problem, you will calculate the work done by a constant force. A force is considered constant if 
F( 
r⃗ 
) 
is 
r⃗ independent of . This is the most frequently encountered situation in elementary Newtonian mechanics. 
Part A
⃗
F
Consider a particle moving in a straight line from initial point B to final point A, acted upon by a constant force .
In the figure the force is indicated by a series of identical vectors pointing to the left, parallel to the horizontal axis. The vectors are all identical to reflect the idea that the force is constant everywhere along the path. The
F magnitude of the force is , and the displacement vector 

⃗ 

from point B to point A is L L (of magnitude , making an 

θ angle (radians) with the positive x axis). Find 
^{W} BA 
, the 

⃗ 

work that the force 
F 
performs on the particle as it 

moves from point B to point A. 

Express the work in terms of , , and . Remember L F θ 
to use radians, not degrees, for any angles that appear in your answer.
Hint 1. Formula for work done by a constant force
⃗
F
For a particle subjected to a constant force along a straight path represented by the displacement vector
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 

L 
, the net work done by 
F 
is 
F ⋅ L 
. 

⃗ 
⃗ 

Hint 2. Find the angle between 
F 
and 
L 

⃗ 
⃗ 

F You need to find the angle between the vector , which is directed horizontally to the left, and the vector 
L 
θ
in the direction of the particle's motion (at an angle (radians) relative to the positive x axis). It may help to
visualize
⃗
F
ϕ
directed along the negative x axis at the origin. What is the angle between
⃗
F
⃗
L
and ?
Express your answer in radians, not degrees.
ANSWER:
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
7/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
ANSWER:
W
BA
= −Fcos(θ)L
Correct
F
This result is worth remembering! The work done by a constant force of magnitude , which acts at an angle
of
ϕ
L
with respect to the direction of motion along a straight path of length , is
W
BA
= FLcos(ϕ)
. This
θ
equation correctly gives the sign in this problem. Since is the angle with respect to the positive x axis (in
radians),
ϕ = π− θ
; hence
cos(ϕ) = cos(π −θ) = −cos(θ)
.
Part B
⃗
F
Now consider the same force acting on a particle that travels from point A to point B. The displacement vector
⃗
L
now points in the opposite direction as it did in Part A.
Find the work
W AB
done by
⃗
F
in this case.
Express your answer in terms of , , and .
L
F
θ
Hint 1. A physical argument
The easiest argument to make is a physical one: If the particle were to go straight from point A to point B and then back from point B to point A with the same force acting, the total work done would be zero (i.e., the gain in energy on the way to point B due to this force would be lost on the way back, and vice versa). This holds for all conservative forces (but does not hold for nonconservative forces), and a constant force is
indeed conservative. Therefore,
W
BA
+
W AB
= 0.
ANSWER:
W
AB
= FLcos(θ)
Correct
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
8/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
k g
A factory worker pushes a 31.5 crate a distance of 4.2 along a level floor at constant velocity by pushing downward
m
∘
at an angle of 29 below the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and floor is 0.25.
Part A
What magnitude of force must the worker apply to move the crate at constant velocity?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
ANSWER:
F = 100 N
Correct
Part B
How much work is done on the crate by this force when the crate is pushed a distance of 4.2 ?
m
Express your answer using two significant figures.
ANSWER:
W = 380 J
Correct
Part C
How much work is done on the crate by friction during this displacement?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
ANSWER:
= 380
J
Correct
Part D
How much work is done by the normal force?
ANSWER:
W
nf
= 0
J
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
9/27
4/9/2014
Correct
Ch 06 HW
Part E
How much work is done by gravity?
ANSWER:
W
g
= 0
J
Correct
Part F
What is the total work done on the crate?
ANSWER:
W
net
= 0
J
Correct
Two tugboats pull a disabled supertanker. Each tug exerts a constant force of 1.7×10 ^{6} north and the other an angle 15 east of north, as they pull the tanker a distance 0.86
∘
N
km
∘
, one an angle 15 west of toward the north.
Part A
What is the total work they do on the supertanker?
Express your answer using two significant figures.
ANSWER:
W
=
2.8×10
9
J
Correct
The figure represents a multiflash photograph of a ball being shot straight up by a spring. The spring, with the ball atop,
was initially compressed to the point marked
Y bot
Y 0
and released. The point marked is the point where the ball would
remain at rest if it were placed gently on the spring, and the ball reaches its highest point at the point marked
Y top
.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
10/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
For most situations, including this problem, the point
Y 0
may
be taken to be at the top of the spring, where the ball loses
contact with the spring.
Part A
Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Assume that air resistance is negligible.
The speed of the ball was greatest at point
Y 0
when it was still in contact with the spring.
The speed of the ball was decreasing on its way from point
Y 0
to point
Y top
.
The speed of the ball was zero at point
Y top
.
The speed of the ball was the same for all points in its motion between points
Y 0
and
Y top
.
Enter t for true or f for false for each statement. Separate your responses with commas (e.g., t,f,f,t).
Correct
Part B
Consider the kinetic energy of the ball. At what point or points is the ball's kinetic energy greatest?
Hint 1. What equation to use
The kinetic energy is given by
K = (1/2)mv ^{2}
, where
m
is the mass of the object and is its speed.
v
ANSWER:
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
11/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Correct
A uniform board of length
L
and mass
M
lies near a boundary that separates two regions. In region 1, the coefficient of
kinetic friction between the board and the surface is
shown in the figure.
μ 1
, and in region 2, the coefficient is
μ 2
. The positive direction is
Part A
Find the net work
W
done by friction in pulling the board directly from region 1 to region 2. Assume that the board
moves at constant velocity.
Express the net work in terms of
M
,
g
,
L
,
μ 1
, and
μ 2
.
Hint 1. The net force of friction
Suppose that the right edge of the board is a distance from the boundary, as shown. When the board is at
x
this position, what is the magnitude of the force of friction, moving)?
F
net
(x)
, acting on the board (assuming that it's
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
12/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Express the force acting on the board in terms
of
M
,
g
,
L
,
x
,
μ 1
, and
μ 2
.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
13/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Correct
This answer makes sense because it is as if the board spent half its time in region 1, and half in region 2, which on average, it in fact did.
Part B
What is the total work done by the external force in pulling the board from region 1 to region 2? (Again, assume that the board moves at constant velocity.)
Express your answer in terms of
M
,
g
,
L
,
μ 1
, and
μ 2
.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
14/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Hint 1. No acceleration
Since the board is not accelerating, the sum of the external forces on it must be zero. Therefore the external force must be oppositely directed to that of friction.
Correct
N
You throw a 20 rock vertically into the air from ground level. You observe that when it is a height 14.6 above the
m
ground, it is traveling at a speed of 24.1
m/s
upward.
Part A
Use the workenergy theorem to find its speed just as it left the ground.
ANSWER:
v = 29.4
0
m/s
Correct
Part B
Use the workenergy theorem to find its maximum height.
ANSWER:
h = 44.2 m
Correct
k
Consider a spring, with spring constant , one end of which is attached to a wall. The spring is initially unstretched, with
the unconstrained end of the spring at position
x = 0
.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
15/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Part A
The spring is now compressed so that the unconstrained end moves from
x = 0
to
x = L
. Using the work integral
x f
x i
,
find the work done by the spring as it is compressed.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
16/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
A hammer of mass
The hammer is observed to drive the nail a distance deeper into the block.
Part A
F
Find the magnitude of the force that the wooden block exerts on the nail, assuming that this force is independent
of the depth of penetration of the nail into the wood. You may also assume that
v
0
≫ √ 2gL
−−−−
, so that the change
in the hammer's gravitational potential energy, as it drives the nail into the block, is insignificant.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
17/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Correct
Part B
Now evaluate the magnitude of the holding force of the wooden block on the nail by assuming that the force necessary to pull the nail out is the same as that needed to drive it in, which we just derived. Assume a relatively
heavy
M = 0.5 kg
hammer (about 18 ounces), moving with speed
v
0
= 10 m/s
. (If such a hammer were swung
L
this hard upward and released, it would rise 5 m). Take the penetration depth to be 2 cm, which is appropriate for
one hit on a relatively heavy construction nail.
Express your answer to the nearest pound. (Note:
1 lb = 4.45 N
.)
ANSWER:
⃗
F
_{=} 281 lb
Correct
A block of weight
mg
sits on an inclined plane as shown. A force of magnitude
F
is applied to pull the block up the
incline at constant speed. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the plane and the block is .
μ
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
18/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Part A
ANSWER:
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
19/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
W
f ric
= −(F −mgsin(θ))L
Correct
Part B
W F
⃗ 

F 
as the block moves a distance 

m 
, 
g 
, 
θ 
, 
L 
, and 
F 
. 
What is the total work incline?
done on the block by the applied force
Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables ,
ANSWER:
W
F
=
FL
Correct
Now the applied force is changed so that instead of pulling the block up the incline, the force pulls the block down the incline at a constant speed.
Part C
What is the total work incline?
^{W} fric
done on the block by the force of friction as the block moves a distance down the
Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables ,
μ
m
,
g
,
θ
,
L
, and
F
.
ANSWER:
W
fric
= −(mgsin(θ) +F)L
Correct
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
20/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Part D
What is the total work
W F
done on the box by the appled force in this case?
Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables ,
μ
m
,
g
,
θ
,
L
, and
F
.
ANSWER:
W
F
=
LF
Correct
A force in the
+ x
direction with magnitude
F(x) = 18.0 N− (0.530 N/m)x
F(x)
is applied to a 7.90
on the horizontal, frictionless surface of a frozen lake.
is the only horizontal force on the box.
kg
box that is sitting
Part A
If the box is initially at rest at
x = 0
, what is its speed after it has traveled 17.0
m
?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Correct
The engine in an imaginary sports car can provide constant power to the wheels over a range of speeds from 0 to 70
miles per hour (mph). At full power, the car can accelerate from zero to 30.0
mph
in time 1.20 .
s
Part A
At full power, how long would it take for the car to accelerate from 0 to 60.0
mph
? Neglect friction and air
resistance.
Express your answer in seconds.
Hint 1. Energy and power
In the absence of friction, the constant power of the engine implies that the kinetic energy of the car
increases linearly with time.
Hint 2. Find the ratio of kinetic energies
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
21/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
4.80 s
Correct
Of course, neglecting friction, especially air friction, is completely unrealistic at such speeds.
Part B
A more realistic car would cause the wheels to spin in a manner that would result in the ground pushing it forward
with a constant force (in contrast to the constant power in Part A). If such a sports car went from zero to 30.0
mph
in time 1.20 , how long would it take to go from zero to 60.0
s
mph
?
Express your answer numerically, in seconds.
Hint 1. How to approach the problem
Constant force means constant acceleration. Use this fact to find how the speed increases with time.
ANSWER:
2.40 s
Correct
This is probably the first and last time you will come across an imaginary car that goes slower than the real
one!
A pump is required to lift a mass of 760
17.0
m/s
.
kg
of water per minute from a well of depth 14.0
m
and eject it with a speed of
Part A
How much work is done per minute in lifting the water?
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
22/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
ANSWER:
W
=
1.04×10
5
J
Correct
Part B
How much in giving the water the kinetic energy it has when ejected?
ANSWER:
K
=
1.10×10
5
J
Correct
Part C
What must be the power output of the pump?
ANSWER:
P = 3570 W
Correct
A 7.0
kg
box moving at 3.0
m/s
on a horizontal, frictionless surface runs into a light spring of force constant 70
N/cm
.
Part A
Use the workenergy theorem to find the maximum compression of the spring.
Express your answer using two significant figures.
ANSWER:
x = 9.5 cm
Correct
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
23/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
k g
A block of ice with mass 6.10 is initially at rest on a frictionless, horizontal surface. A worker then applies a
⃗
F
horizontal force to it. As a result, the block moves along the xaxis such that its position as a function of time is
given by
x(t) = αt
2
+β t ^{3}
, where
α
= 0.190
m/s ^{2}
and
β
= 1.95×10
−2
m/s ^{3}
.
Part A
t
Calculate the velocity of the object at time = 4.40 .
s
Express your answer to three significant figures.
ANSWER:
v = 2.80 m/s
Correct
Part B
⃗ 

Calculate the magnitude of 
F 
t at time = 4.40 . s 
Express your answer to three significant figures.
ANSWER:
F = 5.46 N
Correct
Part C
⃗ 

F Calculate the work done by the force during the first time interval of 4.40 of the motion. s 
Express your answer to three significant figures.
ANSWER:
W = 24.0 J
All attempts used; correct answer displayed
Use the workenergy theorem to solve each of these problems. You can use Newton's laws to check your answers.
Neglect air resistance in all cases.
Part A
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
24/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
A branch falls from the top of a 95.0 tall redwood tree, starting from rest. How fast is it moving when it reaches
m
the ground?
ANSWER:
v 
= 43.2 m/s 

Correct 

Part B 

A volcano ejects a boulder directly upward 527 into the air. How fast was the boulder moving just as it left the m 

volcano? 

ANSWER: 

v 
= 102 m/s 

Correct 

Part C 

A skier moving at 5.50 
m/s encounters a long, rough horizontal patch of snow having coefficient of kinetic friction 

0.220 with her skis. How far does she travel on this patch before stopping? 

ANSWER: 

s = 7.02 m 

Correct 

Part D 

Suppose the rough patch in part C was only 2.90 long? How fast would the skier be moving when she reached m 

the end of the patch? 

ANSWER: 

v 
= 4.21 m/s 
Correct
Part E
∘
At the base of a frictionless icy hill that rises at 30.0 above the horizontal, a toboggan has a speed of 12.0
m/s
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
25/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
toward the hill. How high vertically above the base will it go before stopping?
ANSWER:
h = 7.35 m
Correct
A 5.00
k
=500
kg
block is moving at 6.00
m/s
along a frictionless, horizontal surface toward a spring with force constant
N/m
that is attached to a wall (the figure ). The spring
has negligible mass.
Part A
Find the maximum distance the spring will be compressed.
ANSWER:
x = 0.600 m
Correct
Part B
If the spring is to compress by no more than 0.350 , what should be the maximum value of
m
v _{0}
?
ANSWER:
v = 3.50
0
m/s
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
26/27
4/9/2014
Ch 06 HW
Correct
Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 96.5%.
You received 30.88 out of a possible total of 32 points.
http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=2832920
27/27