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Teaching History Through Art

Springville Museum of Art

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These materials are limited to educational and personal use. Copyright is retained by SWAP and the Springville Museum of Art 2

Teaching History Through Art

All lessons cover social studies, and each lesson also covers at least one area of the arts. In the contents section, only the different areas of the arts are listed.

Special Education ART Expressing Emotions Through Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kindergarten ART Where is it? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Kindergarten ART Have Courage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 K3rd DRAMA Same & Different: George Washington and Abraham Lincoln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1stEarly Elementary ART Frederick the Field Mouse: Beauty and Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1st ART We All Play Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 2nd ART We Can All Play Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3rd ART Its a Beautiful World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3rd DRAMA Stories from the Abenaki Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3rd DANCE Conserve and Protect Natural Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3rd ART Native American Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 4th ART Erosion and Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 4th ART Adapting to Our Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 5th DANCE Underground Railroad and Freedom Poems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 5th ART Grade Artwork Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 5th & 6th Grade DANCE One Can Make a Difference! The History of Civil Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 5th Grade (adaptable to all elementary) ART What was America Like? American Regionalism . . . . .89 All Elementary Grades ART A Chronological History of Utah Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 All Elementary Grades MUSIC Folk Music as Historical Insight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5th Grade High School ART Life and Death Masks: Abraham Lincoln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 5th Grade High School MUSIC Jazz Music and the Clash of Cultures of the 1920s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 High School ART Considering Multiple Perspectives of History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 List of Artists & Artworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Teaching History Through Art:

Expressing Emotions through Color

Special Education Kindergarten, can be used with all ages by Beth Williams

OBJECTIVES Students will discuss how people are similar and different. Students will discuss as a class how colors can express common ideas/emotions in our culture today. Students will compare and contrast the works of Pablo Picasso and other artists, and discuss together what ideas/emotions they may have been trying to express through the colors they used in their artwork. Students will explore their own feelings, ideas and backgrounds in relations to different colors and complete a worksheet exploring their ideas and emotions concerning a color of their choice. Students will produce a piece of artwork using color(s) that represent(s) for them an idea or emotion. STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Social Studies Kindergarten Standard 1: Students will recognize and describe how individuals and families are both similar and different. Objective 1: Identify how individuals are similar and different. Fine Arts Visual Arts Standard 1 (Making): Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Standard 2 (Perceiving): Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Standard 3 (Expressing): Students will create meaning in art. Standard 4 (Contextualizing): Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning.

MATERIALS The Tragedy (1903), Pablo Picasso (National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.) http://arthistory.about. com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/chester_dale_collection/cdc_nga_2010-11_54.htm Portrait of Suzanne Bloch (1904), Pablo Picasso (Sao Paulo Museum of Art) http://www.picasso-paintings.org/portrait-ofsuzanne-bloch-1904-by-pablo-picasso/ Woman With a Crow (1904), Pablo Picasso (Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, OH) http://enskied.com/ picasso?c=picasso_gallery&p=311 The Actor (1904), Pablo Picasso (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) http://arthistory.about. com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/picasso-in-the-met/picasso-met-2010-06.htm 5

Storm Spirits on Horizon #6 (1997), Lee Ann Miller (Springville Museum Collection) on CD Untitled Abstract (1981), Sharon Jensen Shepherd (Springville Museum Collection), Abstract (1956), Dale Thompson Fletcher (Springville Museum Collection), Canto (diptych) (1996), Carolyn Ann Coalson (Springville Museum Collection), Amazing Grace (2006), Susan Swartz (Springville Museum Collection), Common Emotions handout, My Colors and Emotions Worksheet, construction paper in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, brown, black, gray and white, watercolor paints, paper, paintbrushes and water.

ACTIVITY 1. Invite two volunteers, students or teachers, up to the front of the class. Ask the volunteers questions such as, What is your favorite color? What is your favorite food? What is your favorite book? What food do you dislike? What is your preferred game to play at recess? Try to avoid comparative questions or discussion that might embarrass or hurt feelings of volunteers. Ask volunteers to sit down and then discuss with the class ways in which people around them are similar and different. Answers can be written on the board. Finally, talk about how we can use art to express who we are and how we feel. It can be a safe and inspirational way for us to share ourselves with others. Explain that in this lesson they will have opportunities to explore how they feel and think and to then express some of those ideas through artwork. 2. Pin or tape up different colors (i.e. red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, brown, gray, white, black) of construction paper on the board or pass them around among the students. Also pin up emoticons depicting different emotions (i.e., happy, sad, angry, scared, excited, hopeful) Point to specific colors and ask students what emotion or idea people might associate with this color. Depending on verbal and cognitive abilities of students involved, this may require more input from the teacher. i.e., Some people think of yellow as a happy color because it reminds them of sunshine and summertime. Other people think of gray as a scary color because it reminds them of thunderstorm clouds. 3. After talking about each color, discuss how artists also use color to convey ideas and emotions through color. Show them The Tragedy and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch by Pablo Picasso. Talk about how he painted for a few years using mainly cool blues and grays in his painting, because it was a time in his life where he was sad for a long time. Then show Woman With a Crow and The Actor by Picasso. Tell students how after a few years, he started feeling happier and began painting using different colors, like oranges and pinks. 4. Next pass around (or show through a projector) images of works from Miller, Shepherd, Fletcher, Coalson, and Swartz. Discuss as a group what emotions the artists may have been trying to convey through their artwork. 5. Pass out the My Color Emotions Worksheet and allow students time to choose a color they want to explore. Depending on the ability level of your students and the available aides, choose the worksheet that is most appropriate to your students. Written responses are required for worksheet A, while pictures and/or words can complete worksheet B. 6. Once students have filled out their My Color Emotion Worksheet they can move on to producing a piece of art that conveys an emotion through color. Students can draw something specific, such as a recognizable subject, using color to convey an emotion, or they can abstractly portray their emotion using colors, lines and forms. This aspect of the assignment is open to interpretation by the student. The end product should exhibit the students understanding of how emotion can be portrayed through color. ASSESSMENT Students will be assessed along the following criteria, although it will be according to each students 6

needs and abilities: 1. Student participated in class discussion of colors, emotions, and artwork: Yes/No. 2. Student chose a color to explore and attempted to complete a My Colors and Emotions worksheet: Yes/No. 3. Student used chosen color in an art piece to convey an emotion: Yes/No. SOURCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picasso%27s_Blue_Period http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picasso%27s_Rose_Period

ADAPTATIONS In cases where ability levels differ, use of other media to complete the assignment is appropriate. Other art media options may include colored paper, glue and scissors; crayons, colored pencils or markers. In some cases where a student uses computers to complete work, this assignment can be completed in Microsoft Paint or comparable computer program. It will be appropriate in some cases for a peer tutor, classroom aide, or special educator to assist student in completing worksheet and art piece. For students who exhibit difficulty in expressing and understanding emotions, more discussion and exploration on emotions, how to identify them in ourselves and others, and situations where certain emotions might exist, may be necessary. VARIATIONS Different media can be used to explore how color can be used to express emotions. This same lesson could be taught with colored play-dough, colored shaving cream, or colored sand and glue. For students with specific, focused interests, (i.e. if a student perseverates on clocks) the focus of the lesson could include producing artwork themed according to the students interest using an emotive color scheme (painting of a clock using shades of orange).

EXTENSIONS Students can learn how to express feelings/themselves through color in other ways, such as: Explore what different emotions can be portrayed through dance exploration using colored ribbon wands. Compose a poem including feelings regarding colors and/or using colorful markers. Write an essay about how a certain color causes specific emotions and why. Make puppets out of paper bags and add color using construction paper and markers and then present a puppet show, giving personality and emotions to specific bags according to the colors represented Make up a recipe to show what emotions the student is made of, using different amounts of color as the ingredients. In conjunction with this assignment, produce an art piece that is a selfportrait that visually represents the recipe showing the different emotions/colors that make up the student. As a class, produce a Rainbow Rap, allowing different students to write verses for a specific color. Then perform rap together as a class. Role play what emotions different colors have, taking turns to allow students to explore expressing what emotions they associate with different colors.











My Colors and Emotions Today I want to explore the color ___________________.


This color makes me think of ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ This color feels like ___________________________________________________ This color smells like _________________________________________________ This color sounds like _________________________________________________ This color looks like __________________________________________________ This color tastes like __________________________________________________ This color reminds me of when _________________________________________


Today I want to explore the color ___________________. This color looks like:

My Colors and Emotions This color smells like:


This color sounds like:

This color feels like:


http://www.lib.utexas.edu/ maps/utah.html


Teaching History Through Art:

Where Is It?

Kindergarten Social Science and Visual Arts Lesson By Vicki Gehring

OBJECTIVE Students will look at art by Utah artists; identify geographical formations in the artwork; locate the Cardinal directions on a map; and then draw a landscape of their own that includes geographic features they have learned. UTAH STATE CORE Social Studies: Standard 3 (Geography): Students will use geographic terms and tools Objective 1. Identify geographic terms that describe their surroundings. b. Identify and describe physical features (e.g., mountain/hill, lake/ocean, river, road/highway). d. Identify cardinal directions on a map. Social Studies Vocabulary: East, West, South, North, Hill, Mountain, River, Ocean, Lake

Visual Arts: Standard 1 (Making): Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Standard 2 (Perceiving): Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Standard 3 (Expressing): Students will create meaning in art Standard 4 (Contextualizing): Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning.

MATERIALS The following SWAP posters or postcards: Dennis Smith, Keeper of the Gate; Birger Sandzen, Moonrise in the Canyon; John Hafen, Mountain Stream; Maynard Dixon, Road to the River, Mount Carmel, Utah; You may also or digital images (on CD): Lorus Pratt, Fishing Along The Jordan; Paul Lauritz, Crashing Harmony; and Marguerite Pearson, Across the Harbor. Drawing paper, crayons A map of Utah or an outline drawing of the state on the board LESSON Show the students the artwork using the posters or postcards and have the students identify as many geographical features as they can, i.e. hills, mountains, lakes, streams, etc. Help them learn to 17

distinguish by size: ocean from lake, hills from Mountains, river from stream. Show the class some photographs of various areas of the state and let the students talk about how the artists renditions are different from the photographs, and how each artist has his or her own style. On the map, show the students where some of the places depicted are. Have the students identify North, South, East, and West on the map. Note: Look on the back of the poster/postcard for locations not mentioned in the title of the work.

ACTIVITY Have the students choose two or three of the scenic items they have learned about and draw their own landscape that includes those items. Ask the students to create an artwork of somewhere they might like to visit. Remind the students of the rules for neat coloring: short strokes, all going the same direction, slowly and carefully covering all the white paper, not rubbing your hand over the place you just colored and mixing colors together to get your own. If more appropriate for your class, start with part of the rules and add the others as the students master the first rules. (Rules for neat coloring from Joseph Germaine) ASSESSMENT 1. Have the students share their art and tell why they chose those geographical features to draw. 2. Did the drawing reflect an understanding of terms? 3. Can the students locate the cardinal directions on the map? ENRICHMENT Learn the first verse of the state song. (If necessary Google Utah State Song for audio sample)


Teaching History Through Art:

Kindergarten Social Studies, Literacy, and Arts Lesson By Louise Nickelson

Have Courage

OBJECTIVES Students will begin to understand what it means to have courage and be a leader by listening to The Lion and the Mouse, Dancing/Acting out the story, and identifying ways the characters have courage. Students will learn about some early American leaders and discuss how the artist has conveyed the individuals characters or roles. Students will develop skill with art materials as they create an artwork showing a way they could be a leader. UTAH STATE CORE Social Studies Standard 2 (Citizenship): Students will recognize their roles and responsibilities of being a good citizen. Objective 1 Demonstrate appropriate ways to behave in different settings. c. Identify examples of individual honesty and responsibility. d. Identify examples of honesty, responsibility, patriotism, and courage from history, literature, and folklore, as well as from everyday life (e.g., heroes of diverse cultures). e. Demonstrate respect for others, leaders, and the environment. From Social Studies Vocabulary Students Should Know and Use: consequence, courage, patriotism, leader, hero.

Visual Arts Standard 1 (Making): Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Standard 2 (Perceiving): Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Standard 3 (Expressing): Students will create meaning in art Standard 4 (Contextualizing): Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning.

MATERIALS The Lion and the Mouse (story included here, or your library may have an illustrated copy) The 2010 Caldecott Medal winner book ofThe Lion & the Mouse, illustrated and writtenbyJerry Pinkney(Little, Brown and Company Books for Young Readers) is a wonderful example. It has mostly just pictures, with little text. Images: Use the SMA Poster with Cyrus E. Dallins sculptures, or postcards of the sculptures, or the images on the CD. 19

The Lion and the Mouse A small mouse crept up to a sleeping lion. The mouse admired the lions ears, his long whiskers and his great mane. Since hes sleeping, thought the mouse, hell never suspect Im here! With that, the little mouse climbed up onto the lions tail, ran across its back, slid down its leg and jumped off of its paw. The lion awoke and quickly caught the mouse between its claws. Please, said the mouse, let me go and Ill come back and help you someday. The lion laughed, You are so small! How could ever help me?

The lion laughed so hard he had to hold his belly! The mouse jumped to freedom and ran until she was far, far away. The next day, two hunters came to the jungle. They went to the lions lair. They set a huge rope snare. When the lion came home that night, he stepped into the trap.

He roared! He wept! But he couldnt pull himself free. The mouse heard the lions pitiful roar and came back to help him. The mouse eyed the trap and noticed the one thick rope that held it together. She began nibbling and nibbling until the rope broke. The lion was able to shake off the other ropes that held him tight. He stood up free again! The lion turned to the mouse and said, Dear friend, I was foolish to ridicule you for being small. You helped me by saving my life after all!

LESSON 1 Read the story to the students and discuss it, helping the students identify how the story demonstrates consequences and courage. Dance & Drama Using a clear area like the lunchroom, have the students line up and have them walk across the room like a lion would. Side coach students by asking questions like How would a lion hold his head? How would the lion walk as if he were important and strong? Then have students move the way a mouse would, using questions such as How big would a mouses steps be? Would it walk quietly or loudly, quickly or slowly? Do the same for the hunters. Then divide the class into groups of mice, lions, and hunters, and act the story out together, reminding students to move in ways they discovered when they were exploring how different characters move. LESSON 2

Show the class the images of Dallins sculptures, briefly identifying what each did without attaching a value to their actions. Ask the students to explain why each person was or was not a hero or a leader, explaining the terms as needed. You may want to introduce the term patriotism. Have the students identify ways the sculptor has conveyed the character or role the person depicted played. Ask them to think back about the Dance/Drama section of the lesson. Next, ask the students to identify ways they could be a hero or leader, accepting all reasonable an20

swers. You may want to help the students differentiate between things they could actually do as opposed to things they wished they could do.

Pass out paper and pencils and have the students draw themselves being a leader or hero. Then have the students color their drawings after you have demonstrated the neat way to color: short strokes, all the same direction, covering the paper completely, and not putting their hands where they have colored. They may take a while to learn these skills, but they should understand that art is worth the care. If possible, have a teachers aide or older students help you write down what each student says about the person in their drawing. Display the pictures in the classroom and refer to them during the time theyre up when a related topic comes up.

EXTENSION 1 Due to the prevalence of TV shows and other media with superheroes and heroes who can defeat any challenger, you may want to introduce the idea that sometimes its best to run away, or get a teacher or parents help. Teach the students Going on a Bear Hunt. (on next page) EXTENSION 2 Have the class, as a group, write a class story about someone who shows courage.


Goin on a Bear Hunt Im not afraid Its a beautiful day The sun is shining The birds are singing The bees are buzzing Whats that? Tall grass (Sweeping arm motions making swishing sounds) Going on a Bear Hunt Im not afraid Whats that? Its a tall tree (Arm motion climbing up then climbing back down ) Going on a Bear hunt Im not afraid Whats that? Ohh, its mud (March through the mud making sloshing mud sounds ) Going on a Bear Hunt Im not afraid Whats that? Its a river Were going to have to swim (Swim the river) Going on a Bear Hunt Im not afraid Whats that? Ohh its a dark cave (Make gestures and sounds) I cant see anything I can feel something I can hear something We better take out our flashlights (Take out flashlight and flick it on) Oh its a bear RUN! (Repeat the sequence in reverse quickly and dramatically, slapping thighs and doing all the actions for each verse.) Wulf Barsch, Bear BYU MOA 22 Mahonri Young, Brown Bear BYU MOA

Teaching History
Same and Different:

Through Art:

K-3 Social Studies & Drama Lesson (Includes Adaptations for older students) By Teresa Dayley Love

George Washington and Abraham Lincoln

OBJECTIVES Students will identify and chart similarities and differences between George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and a student in the classroom. Students will make progress toward making their pantomimic activity specific and detailed. Students will pantomime specific activities of young George Washington and young Abraham Lincoln.

STATE CORE OBJECTIVES K-2 Social Studies Standard 1 (Describe how people within their community state and nation are similar and different) 3rd grade Social Studies Standard: Students will understand cultural factors that shape a community Pre-K-2 Drama (From drama Learning Map: http://www.schools.utah.gov/CURR/fineart/Elementary/ Drama_PreK-2_Combo.aspx Acting: Observe closely for details. Use my body to communicate thoughts, feelings and emotions. Sustain concentrated attentions. Pretend to be a character in a story. Use space for pretend. 3rd grade: Acting Standards MATERIALS Make a simple poster displaying a portrait of adult George Washington, and a portrait of adult Abraham Lincoln. Also, cut a hole that will fit the face of the student into the poster. (Alternatively, just obtain two portraits of Washington and Lincoln. You can compare the child by have the child just stand next to the portraits.) As a word strip, or written on white board: Pantomime is pretending without words. Chalkboard for chart to be developed. SWAP images: Boy and Cat: My little Son, Heber James by James T. Harwood, Portrait of John Hancock by Cyrus Edwin Dallin Vocabulary list on board, chart or handout: As appropriate to grade level) pantomime, specific, details, wealthy, breeches, overalls, tricorn If you Grew Up with George Washington, by Ruth Belov Gross, Scholastic, New York, 1993 If you grew Up with Abraham Lincoln by Ann McGovern, Scholastic, New York, 1976 Optional: Various images of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln as boys as found on the Internet. (There are too many to list here.) 23

ACTIVITY Background: Begin a discussion about birthdays. Tell the students that you just love birthdays too, and that you are all going to learn about some people who had birthdays in February. But first, you want to tell them, actually show them, what you had for your favorite birthday dinner last birthday. Ask the children not to shout out the answers until you are finished. Give them a cue to let them know you are done (When I fold my arms, Im done. Then you can raise your hands if you want to guess.) Then pantomime, in a complete and specific way, a meal. Suggestions: Spaghetti, pizza. You may use verbal sounds (slurping, sniffing, etc.) but no words. Once students have guessed, ask them for the specific clues that helped them figure out what you were portraying. Point out it is because you carefully showed the details, were specific that it was so easy to guess the food.

Invite the children too, on your cue, to show you their favorite birthday dinner. Watch them as they simultaneously make and eat their food. Note the very many different responses, and praise specificity, and detailed pantomimic work. You are trying to get a sort of baseline idea of their pantomimic skills so that you can press them to move beyond that baseline later in the lesson. Have all read together the definition: Pantomime is pretending without words.

Gilbert Stewart, The First Good President (1797) En.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gilbert_Stuart_ Williamstown_Portrait_of_George_Washington.jpg

Alexander Gardner, Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the United States (1863) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_ Lincoln_November_1863.jpg

Procedure: 1. Introduce the poster of the portraits of Washington and Lincoln. Ask the students to identify similarities and differences between the two men. This should, and will likely be, a wide-ranging discussion containing whatever knowledge the students already have about these gentlemen to the observa24

tions the students make about the portraits. (Artwork, social conventions such as clothing, etc.) 2. Once the above discussion has run its course, invite a student to put her face in the cutout space. Ask the class to compare and contrast the student with Washington and Lincoln. 3. Praise the students for all the information they have generated. Tell them that you think the information needs to be organized. A chart (Any type, including a Venn diagram) would help them do that. Ask the students to identify charts they have in the classroom. 4. Make a chart, which will compare Washington, Lincoln and the volunteer student. Be sure to ask for suggestions from the students to create symbols for the chart. Suggestions for comparison are: As children, did Washington, Lincoln and Student each sleep in a bed? As children, did GW, AL and Student go to school? As children, did GW and AL and Student dream of being President of the United States? As children, did GW and AL and Student wear nice clothes? 5. Help students to make some conclusions from the chart. (According to this information that we chose to compare, who is Student most like, Washington or Lincoln?) 6. Show the two SWAP images. Explain that the man in the sculpture is John Hancock, a contemporary of George Washington. Also explain that in the time they lived that the clothes for children were not different than the clothes of adults. Point out all the buttons (a sign of wealth) the ruffles at throat and cuff, the vest, breeches, stockings shoes, etc. You might also show any of the images of paintings of young George Washington, which you have located on the Internet. 7. Next show the Images of the young farm boy. Note that poor young boys clothing did not change for many years, and even though this is a boy in 1900, a boy like Abraham Lincoln could wear similar clothing. Speak to the worn nature of the clothes, how they may be too small for him. Note his hat and why it would be different from a tri-cornered hat from Washingtons age and class. If you d like, show the images of young Lincoln you have found on the Internet. 8. Show parts of the If You Grew Up books. This is not the time to read these books to the class, but to help them get some information from some of the pictures, and you summarize of the information so they will have lots of information to pull from when they do their pantomimes 9. Divide the class into two groups. Tell students they are going to pantomime either young George Washington, or young Abraham Lincoln getting up in the morning and getting dressed. Tell them that when one group is acting, the other is the audience and vice versa. Remind them that pantomime uses no words, though they may use appropriate sounds. Lead the students through the pantomimes, by side coaching. Press them to make the pantomimes as specific and detailed as possible. Challenge them when you see nonspecific behaviors. Lead them through Washington first, then Lincoln.

Cover the following areas: Waking up in bed, (Do you make your bed or not?), getting out your long socks, breeches, out of where? Drawer? Wardrobe, off a hook? Get your shirt, vest. Make sure the fastenings are well done, once you put on those clothes. Also find your shoes. What about your wig? (Yes, young boys of Georges class wore white wigs.) Adjust it in the mirror. Where is your tri-cornered hat? 25

Look at yourself in the mirror. Take a long bow, just as your dancing master taught you.

Ask the audience to applaud those who have just pantomimed. Praise and point out different students who did a particularly good job of making their pantomime real. (Specific and detailed.) Refer to the vocabulary list as needed. Add any other words that came up. Challenge the Lincoln group to do even better than the Washington group. Do the same pantomime activities with Abe Lincoln, as appropriate with his impoverished childhood. Do the same follow up critiques. If there is time, have each child pantomime their own getting up in the morning procedures. Again, side coach as needed to challenge the students to be specific and detailed in their pantomimes. Ask all to give themselves a round of applause to end the lesson.

ASSESSMENT Did the students participate in the charting of specific information regarding Washington, Lincoln and a Student? (You can extend this by making a new chart showing what is same and different between the as young boys and students of today as discovered through the pantomimes.) Did the students make progress in making their pantomimic work specific and detailed? Did students pantomime specific activities of young George Washington and young Abraham Lincoln. Were their pantomimes general or specific? Did they increase in complexity and accuracy during the side coaching? SOURCES See Materials.

EXTENSIONS Have students explore the idea of whether it would have been better to grow up like Washington of Lincoln through the convention of Decision Alley. Have students make tableaux of various everyday activities in the life of Washington and Lincoln as well as everyday classroom students. Titles such as What I do for Fun? or When Im Hungry I etc. will further students understanding of comparing and contrasting the lives of the these two presidents as youngsters and their own contemporary lives. ADAPTATIONS For older students: There are many If you Grew Up books in the series. Students could read these on their own, and make individual charts comparing and contrasting various presidents or other historical figures. Students could work in groups to develop pantomimes to show to other members of the class. They could make their own if you grew Up book about themselves. They could do the research to compare and contrast with the current US president.


First Grade- Early Elementary By Elicia Gray

Frederick the Field Mouse: Beauty and Cooperation

Teaching History Through Art:

OBJECTIVES Students will investigate the artworks of Ottinger, Brainard, Kimball, Richards, Brienholdt, Gardner, and Fairbanks. Students will read and contemplate Frederick by Leo Lionni. Students will learn to identify aspects of beauty found in different paintings. Students will compose an acrostic poem based on a painting. Students will generate a group artwork using oil pastels. Students will create and wear a set of mouse ears. Students will become part of a community as they investigate and respond to artworks.

STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Social Studies First Grade Core (Standard 2) (Citizenship): Students will recognize their roles and responsibilities in the school and in the neighborhood. Objective 1. Describe and demonstrate appropriate social skills necessary for working in a group. Participate in a group activity modeling appropriate group behavior. Articulate how individual choices affect self, peers, and others. Art Objectives Standard 1 (Making): Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Standard 2 (Perceiving): Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Standard 3 (Expressing): Students will create meaning in art Standard 4 (Contextualizing): Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning.

MATERIALS All images from the Springville Museum of Art Collection are on the CD. George Martin Ottinger, Above Camp Douglas; Bruce Daniel Brainard, Afternoon Shower; Angels Peak and Kimball E. Warren, Deep Lake Wind River, Wyoming; Lee Greene Richards, Autumn Stream; Floyd E. Breinholt, Box Canyon; Henry Leroy Gardner, Bridal Veil Falls; John B Fairbanks, Sunset Wheat Fields Gray construction Paper, Fredericks Ears Worksheet, Frederick Poem Worksheet Crayons white butcher paper, oil pastels Childrens Book Frederick by Leo Lionni 27

ACTIVITY 1. Pass out Fredericks Ears Worksheet and ask students to color the ears however they desire. Have them cut out the ears, place a dab of glue at the bottom of each ear and pinch to create a fold. Hold fold for 20 seconds. Then bend each ear open a bit until it looks like a mouse ear. Cut strips of gray construction paper long enough to fit around the head of a student. Staple in back, and then staple the ears to each side of the construction paper. When finished, have students place the ears on their desks and come to the rug for a story. 2. Gather students in a circle on the rug and invite them to listen carefully as you read the book Frederick by Leo Lionni. A brief synopsis: While the other field mice work to gather grain and nuts for winter, Frederick sits on a sunny rock by himself. I gather sun rays for the cold dark winter days, he tells them. Another day he gathers colors and then words. And when the food runs out, it is Frederick, the dreamer and poet, whose endless store of supplies warms the hearts of his fellow mice, and feeds their spirits during the darkest winter days. 3. Have a class discussion about roles and responsibilities. What were the other mice doing while Frederick was gathering sun rays? How might the other mice have felt when Frederick was staring at the meadow? What were the mice doing that showed teamwork? How is teamwork important? Did Frederick show teamwork? In what ways did Frederick help the whole group? Point out that this is also a story about individuality and how everyone can make a contribution in their own way. Explain that when we work in a group, our actions affect ourselves, but they also affect others. 4. Point out that Frederick had a special talent. Have students identify that talent (He could recognize beauty, and he was a poet.) He also took time to share these talents with others. He was a part of a team that made everyone better. 5. Invite one student to the front of the class and ask him/her to pretend that he/she is Frederick the mouse. Have the student put on the mouse ears. Show the student Afternoon Shower, (2004) by Bruce Daniel Brainard. Invite the student to imagine she could feel, touch, taste, or smell anything in the painting. What sorts of things does the student notice? What kinds of things would she want to remember to bring with them into the little mouse cave for winter? What are the beautiful elements of the painting? 6. Show a different painting and have another volunteer pretend to be Frederick. Point out that each person might have different ideas about what is beautiful. Ask the students whether they think it is okay to have different ideas. How do different ideas make a community better? How do beautiful things make you feel? Are good feelings important in a community? 7. Explain that students will be divided into small communities of mice. Divide students into groups and have them put on their mouse ears. Give each group a large piece of white butcher paper, a set of oil pastels, and a copy of one of the artworks listed above. Invite each group to investigate the artwork they have been given, and to imagine that they must look for the beautiful or uplifting parts of the painting. Help them remember that these are the things that they would like to bring with them into the cave for winter. 8. As they identify the beautiful or memorable parts of the painting, have them represent these items on their large piece of butcher paper. They can represent their ideas in an abstract way, or they can represent them in a more formal way by creating a copy of their artwork. Remind students that the whole group must participate. Point out that when you live in a community each person must do his part and respect others. 9. When students have finished their artworks, have them compose an acrostic poem using the name Frederick. Pass out the Frederick Poem worksheet to help them. By definition, an acrostic poem is one in which the first letter of each line spells out a name when read from top to bottom. Students should apply the ideas that they gathered when looking at the painting as they 28

ASSESSMENT The teacher should carefully review the Frederick Poem worksheet that students composed in groups, checking for completion and quality reasoning. Teacher will monitor student involvement as students are working together. Teacher will also evaluate the group artwork, looking for evidence of effort, originality, and completion. SOURCES Frederick, by Leo Lionni

compose the poem. Poems may be one word or several on each line. 10. After students have finished their poems and their artworks, have them present them to the class. 11. When the presentations are completed, the teacher will have a follow-up discussion about cooperation and unity. Ask: How well did each of the groups work together? Were there any problems? If so, how were they resolved? Emphasize that working in a group at school is good practice for real life experiences.

ADAPTATIONS This lesson caters to students with special needs in that it emphasizes and praises those who approach life differently. If need be, students with difficulties may be paired with others, or given extra time to complete assignments. Teachers may also wish to point out that individuals with disabilities are also a big part of communities, and learning to include these people is an important life skill.

VARIATIONS Have students take a walk outside and gather items to bring into the cave. They may also gather ideas, sounds, feelings, and smells to bring with them. EXTENSIONS Invite different members of the community to come in and talk with students. You may choose to invite a police officer or a fireman, or even the school principal. Have them talk about how different members of society have different responsibilities, but they all contribute to making life better in different ways.



Fredericks Ears

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Color ears in desired shades. Cut out ears. Cut strip of construction paper large enough to fit around childs head. Place dab of glue in the bottom of each ear and pinch to create fold. Hold for 20 seconds. Bend ears open. Staple ears to each side of construction paper.




Teaching History
We All Play Together

Through Art:

1st Grade Social Studies and Visual Arts Lesson by Vicki Gehring

OBJECTIVE Students will learn the similarities and differences between themselves and students in the past, and between members of their own classroom and will demonstrate their understanding by creating a class mural. UTAH STATE SOCIAL STUDIES CORE Standard 1: Students will recognize how schools and neighborhoods are both similar and different.

MATERIALS SWAP poster, Christian Schussle, Game of Marbles, drawing paper, markers, scissors, glue, a mural-size piece of butcher paper, paint and brushes, etc. Pre- activity Have students find out from their parents what kind of school games or activities they played when they were in elementary school. LESSON Show poster, Game of Marbles by Christian Schussele, UMFA Elementary Poster Set

Discuss the following: What are the differences between themselves and these school children? What is the same? Do you know what game they are playing? Have you ever played this game? Have students share the information about the kinds of school games their parents played. What kind of equipment or apparatus was needed? What is your favorite game at school? Talk about the differences and similarities between the games they play and the games their parents played. Who do you play with at recess? Discuss the similarities between the games each group of students like to play? What is different? 33

Activity Explain to the students that they are going to create a mural of themselves on the playground. Have a group of students paint a playground on the mural paper, which includes the playground equipment used by the students. (teacher assistance okay) Have each student draw and cut out a figure of themselves. (optional: give a size suggestion for the figures) Have each student glue his/her figure on the mural according to the playground equipment and/or group of students they play with. Display the mural with the title -We all play together ASSESSMENT Discuss the mural and the differences and similarities they find when playing games. Review the similarities and differences between generations. Have students discuss how similarities can make connections.

VARIATIONS If you do not have room to create a class mural, have small groups of students make mini murals using 1 sheet of large paper for the playground per group. Or, have each student create a drawing of themselves playing their favorite game or on their favorite piece of playground equipment.

Playing at School, by Ella, age 6


Swinging by Sophie, age 3-1/2



Teaching History
We Can All Live Together

Through Art:

2nd grade Social Studies and Visual Arts Lesson by Vicki Gehring

OBJECTIVE Students will recognize that people can have individual differences, but still have many things in common. They will come to learn that their classroom/ neighborhood, etc. is a community.

UTAH STATE SOCIAL STUDIES CORE Standard 1: Students will recognize and describe how people within their community, state, and nation are both similar and different. MATERIALS Image or poster of Wash Day in Brigham City, by Calvin Fletcher drawing paper, markers or crayons, scissors, glue, two large pieces of butcher paper for murals large enough to accommodate the cut out house drawings made by the students, paints, brushes, etc. music from the various countries represented by class members, library books with pictures of houses/ dwellings from different countries (a few are included on the CD) Enrichment activity: play music from various countries during the art activities. Lesson: Part One Show Wash Day in Brigham City and discuss the following How can you tell this picture is not about our day? What things are the same? How is the house in the picture similar to the houses we live in today? Talk about why people live in houses, and the common things found in them.

Activity 1: Have each student draw and color a picture of a house the way they normally do. ( The lesson is counting on the fact that most 2nd graders have a pretty standard way of rendering a house.) *Note: In order to have some control of how the mural will turn out, instructions might be given about a suggested size of the house drawing. Organize two groups of students to paint a road, grass area, and sky on each of the two mural papers. Choose one of the painted mural papers and have all the students cut out their house drawings and glue them to the mural. Hang up this mural. 37

Lesson: Part two Discuss with the class the different countries either they or their ancestors came from or a country they have lived in or visited. *Note: If the students arent familiar with this information, give it as a homework assignment.

Have each student find a book with a picture of a house typical of their country. Talk about why the houses in the various countries are different ( available building materials, climate, etc.) Discuss some of the differences and similarities between the way people live. (for example: people in tropical countries may still hang clothes outside, Eskimos probably dont have patios, etc.) Activity 2: Have each student draw and color a house like the one in their book. Cut it out and glue it on the second mural. Hang the second mural in a place where the students can see both murals.

Lesson: Part Three Discuss why the houses in our neighborhoods look more like the first mural and dont look like the second mural. Talk about community and what makes a community. Discuss family traditions and how they might be the same or different from their ancestors, and/or their neighbors or class members. Talk about what things class member have in common even though their families may have come from different countries. Ask what they noticed about the music they listened to. Point out that even though the music sounded different, each culture has traditional music. ASSESSMENT Have the students tell which mural they like the best. Why? Let them tell what they have learned from making the murals. Give students credit for completing their part in the murals. Ask the students what they have learned about themselves and the other students in the class. Evaluate whether the students have improved their understanding of community.


Teaching History
Its a Beautiful World

Through Art:

3rd Grade Social Studies & Visual Art Lesson by Vicki Gehring

OBJECTIVE Students will learn how people and communities adapt to the environment (ecosystem) in which they live. UTAH STATE SOCIAL STUDIES CORE Social Studies: Standard 1: Students will understand how geography influences community location and development.

MATERIALS SMA images (on CD): Paul Sample, Winter Holiday; Fredric Whitaker, Fountain Granada library books with images of dwellings of the different geographical regions (a few are included on the CD) 9 x 12 drawing paper and 12 x 18 drawing paper pencils, markers, crayons or colored pencils, scissors, glue LESSON Show the SMA images and discuss the differences in the lifestyles of people who might live in the kind of climates indicated in the pictures. Assess what the students know about how people in different geographical regions live. (Tropical, arctic, etc.) Divide the class into four groups each assigned to a different geographical region: tropical desert mountainous arctic

Assign the students to research the ecosystem and topography of their assigned region, and write a short collaborative report about the lifestyle and dwellings of the people in that region, and how their life style is influenced by the environment, with an emphases on how people have adapted to that environment, including, if possible, changes that have occurred in modern times. See if they can find a recording of some traditional music typical of some of the people of their region. Activity 1: Divide each group into two sections. One section to create one or more landscape drawings of the 39

region on the 12 x 18 papers and color it with markers, and the other to draw dwellings and animals typical of the region on the 9 x 12 papers, and color them with crayons or colored pencil. They will then create a collage(s) by cutting out the dwelling and animal drawings and gluing them on the landscapes. Note: The students coloring the landscapes will need to completely fill in the paper with the markers. Scribbled coloring will not make a successful collage.

ACTIVITY 2: Each group will present their collage(s) to the class and share their report and the music typical of the people from that region. ASSESSMENT Did the students come to understand how the ecosystem of the region influenced the lifestyle of the people as well as the style and structure of their dwellings?


Teaching History Through Art:

Stories from the Abenaki Nation

A Third Grade Blended Social Studies/Drama Lesson by Teresa Dayley Love, BYU Dept. of Theatre and Media Arts, mathulove@gmail.com

OBJECTIVES Students will experience Abenaki (a Northeastern native people) stories through the oral storytelling tradition, choral reading, playmaking and process drama conventions. The students will identify how elements within two Abenaki stories serve as expressions of the culture (specifically language, religion, customs) of that people.

Students will demonstrate their dramatic abilities to use sensory recall, and develop creative voice, visual and movement expression as appropriate to the story. Students will develop an understanding of how story is used in the Abenaki culture. This will be demonstrated by students active and thoughtful participation in class discussion as well as the scenes students create.

UTAH STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Social Studies Third Grade Standard II: Students will understand cultural factors that shape a community. Objective 1: Evaluate key factors that determine how a community develops. Indicators: a. Identify the elements of culture (e.g. language, religion, customs, artistic expression, systems of exchange). b. Describe how stories, folktales, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture. Drama (from 3rd Grade Rainbow Teaching Chart) Use cultural tales with choral readings, readers theatre, narrative mimes, etc. to apply and practice: sensory recall, visualization, expressive voice, expressive movement

(Background for teachers: Teacher learn to tell two short Abenaki stories: Glooskap and Wasis, the Baby, and Azban, the Racoon. Teachers should also be familiar with the idea of storytelling being central to Abenaki culture, and indeed many North American Native cultures. See Sources at the end of this document for links to the stories, as well as a script for the Choral Reading. Student Prior Knowledge: Students should be aware that many indigenous peoples lived in North America before the 41

Use process drama techniques with grade level curriculum, classroom situations, and community events to deepen understanding.

MATERIALS Butcher Paper and crayons and markers Time frame: One hour to an hour and a half. Can be divided into two half-hour sessions, or even three sessions, if desired. ACTIVITY 1. Teachers and Students participate in the theatre game Emotional Orchestra. As Facilitator, teacher puts special emphasis on helping students heighten their initial creative choice, and also respond to the directions of the conductor appropriately. Point out how bodily expression became naturally added as vocal expression was heightened and or decreased.

arrival of European settlers, and that the Abenaki people lived in the areas of what is now the northeast US and Canada. Students should have generalized knowledge of what life for native peoples at that time might include, such as hunting, fishing, basket making, homebuilding, family roles, tribal councils, etc. as well some geographical aspects of the northeast. It is preferable, but not necessary, students have had some experience with Drama as described in the K-2 Drama Student Learning Maps)

2. Teacher gathers students to the classroom storytelling rug. Teacher recalls to the students minds the facts the students already know about the Abenaki people. Teacher then asks students to close their eyes and imagine themselves to be one of the Abenaki, all those years ago, sitting in a gathering, perhaps around a campfire, or maybe by the ocean, or perhaps in a wigwam, as a community storyteller (a Nudatlogit) prepares to tell the story of Glooskap and Wasis. Have them not only visualize themselves in that role, but also to hear, see and feel the environment around them. What sound do you hear? What is the temperature of the air? Is it light or dark outside? Show by the way you are sitting if you are on sand, or a grass mat, or a blanket. Kenneth Little Hawk, Native American Storyteller When you know who and where you are in this environhttp://knitonepearlonion.blogspot.com/2012/10/ the-tree.html ment, you may open your eyes, and I will tell you the story of Glooskap and Wasis..the Baby! 3. The teacher tells the story. At the end of the story the teacher tells the students she will clap three times, and then they will be back in the classroom, as our regular selves. Teacher and students discuss the story. Possible discussion questions: What is this story about? What is it really about? Why would a teller relate this story? Why would people listen? As answers come up such as to entertain, to teach, or to warn one another, etc. the teacher shares her knowledge of how important storytelling is in this culture (which, she remembers to inform the children, still exists today in modern times.) 3. The teacher leads a choral reading of Glooskap and Wasis, the Baby using the script. She helps students decide how to use their voices to show the intention of the words chosen to tell the story. Creative choices are discussed and tried out before the classroom performance. 42

4. The teacher leads a post performance discussion asking if they have anything to add about what the story is about, or why it would be told long ago, now that they have participated as storytellers themselves. Possible questions to begin this discussion might include: What did you learn playing Glooskap? Or the baby, Wasis? Or one of the women? What do you know now you didnt know before? She then asks students to identify things they know about being an Abenaki in ancient times. A list is generated, and written on the board under topic titles of Language, Religion and Customs. A mark is placed by those things that children say they learned just from hearing the story. (If the session is to be divided, this is a good place to do so. Remember to do a warm up before starting the next section if a significant period of time has passed between the two sessions. )

5. Teacher invites the children to the storytelling rug again. This time she says that she will clap three times and they will be back in time, as the Abenaki person they were before, ready to hear another story. This time the teacher tells the story of Azban, the Racoon. 6. At the end of the story, after clapping again to bring the students back, the teacher invites the children to act out the story. She assigns parts, including those in the role of audience member. (Note: It is important to realize that inanimate objects, trees, rocks, etc, as certainly the waterfall are all parts worthy of acting out.) Any clear space in the classroom can be the stage.

7. Teacher then narrates the story, pausing to leave spaces for the student actors to perform action, speak dialogue, etc. After the first playing, she can lead discussion as to how successful they were at making the story come alive through their creative choices, especially of body, voice, and mind (imagination). Suggestions can be made, repeated playing can take place or new students actors may take over. The teacher can leave out the narration and let the actors carry on the plot events by themselves. Or, a student, or pair of students may narrate while classmates act. 8. Discussion is held. Why would this story be important to tell? What is it about (plot)? What is it really about (issues)? Who would need to hear this? If this has not come up before, the teacher introduces the fact that the Abenaki people did not strike their children as punishment, but would often use stories for discipline. In other words, if you got into trouble, they would tell you a story that was supposed to teach you what to do to be a good member of the community, or warn you about consequences that could happen to you if you kept up your bad behavior. Also, children told other children stories. 9. Students are then divided into groups of three or four. They are told to come up with a situation in which somebody might need to be told the story of Azban and his adventure with the waterfall. The last line of their scene should be Oooooo! You need to hear the story about Azban! Have them repeat this line several times so they know it well. 43

10. If students are new to such dramatic work, the teacher can help the whole group come up with a list of situations dealing with pride, recklessness, not doing your chores, or being in the wrong place at

the wrong time, etc. Then students can choose one situation to enact. It doesnt matter if two groups choose the same situation because it will likely be acted out differently Scenes should be very short, but we should be able to tell by the way you use you body and voice what is going on and why the story should be told to at least one member of the group. 11. Students perform scenes for one another. Teacher facilitates discussion regarding students successes at expressing their ideas through their creative choices as evidenced through their expressive bodies and voices.

ASSESMENT Keep students in their performing groups. Give each group a large piece of butcher paper and crayons or markers, for Role on the Wall activity. Teacher instructs the students to trace around the body of one of the students in the group. Then they are to use that form, and label it Nudatlogit, the Abenaki Storyteller. They are to write within the form all the things they have learned about storytelling in the Abenaki culture. The teacher may remind them by asking questions such as Why did the Abenaki tell stories long ago? What were the stories about? When did they tell stories? Do they still tell stories? Who told the stories? Who listened? What new Abenaki words do you know from these stories? What do you now know about Abenaki religious beliefs? If they have time students can draw outside the form any images they liked from any of the stories they heard or scenes they participated in or watched as theyve been learning about Abenaki storytelling. Teacher should post the students work, and use what they have done to assess if learning outcomes have been met. Teacher marks on Class Spiral Learning Map Drama learning outcomes that were accomplished in this lesson. Students may also mark their milestone on their own Student Spiral Learning Maps.

SOURCES http://www.abenakination.org/stories.html, http://www.abenakination.org/azban.html and http://pyramidmesa.netfirms.com/algonquin1.html Teacher should be able to facilitate the warm up theatre game Emotional Orchestra. For one version, see: http://plays.about.com/od/actvities/qt/orchestra.htm Teacher should have a basic working knowledge of how to direct a choral reading. There are many resources describing choral reading on line but this is a very good one: http://education. byu.edu/arts/documents/LisaBeanChoralReading.pdf Third grade Drama Rainbow Teaching Chart http://www.schools.utah.gov/curr/FineArt/Core_Curriculum/Elementary/documents/FY08-09_ Rainbow_Charts/Dance/Dance%20Teaching%20Map_Third.pdf

3-6th Grade Drama Class Spiral Learning Map 3-6th Grade Student Spiral Learning Map http://www.schools.utah.gov/curr/FineArt/Core_Curriculum/Elementary/FY08-09_Learning_Maps/ Drama/Drama_3-6_Combo.pdf Glooskap and Wasis script by Teresa Dayley Love (See on Next Page)


Glooskap and Wasis, the Baby. A Choral Reading, based on the Abenaki Tale by Teresa Dayley Love

The parts can be divided any way youd like. This is only one suggestion: Group 1: Boys Group 2: Girls Group 3: Boys and Girls It is important to color the words by varying, pacing, pitch, tone and volume. Express the emotions dramatically! And remember, this is a funny story!(Well, maybe not to Glooskap!) Speeches can be divided within the group, so that some lines can be solos, or two or three voice, or however youd like. Sound effects and rhythms can certainly be added. Give students as much creative leeway as they can handle, and as will serve the story. All We are the Abenaki

Group 1 We tell to teach and teach to tell. Group 2 Our children learn, Group 3 Learn very well!

Group 1 Here is a story about someone who bragged too much about himself. Group 2 Glooskap!

Group 2 Glooskap, the First Man, the Creator of Men, the Maker of All Things. The Mighty Glooskap! Group 1 I am Glooskap. You see those mountains over there? I made them. I have battled sorcerers and won! I have fought goblins and fiends and won! I have tamed the wind, captured summer, vanquished winter! I am the most clever and the most strong! I have conquered all and none have conquered me! Group 2 Yet! 45

Group 3 Who-skap?

Group 1 You havent heard of my glorious adventures? Group 2 The battles against sea serpents and giants? The battles against Darkness and Magic? Glooskap, your strength is legendary, your courage ferocious! Its all very impressive. Group 1 No one shall conquer Glooskap! Group 2 Except Wasis!

Group 2 You have not been conquered!...YET!

Group 1 What did you say?

Group 2 Wasis! Wasis is the very mighty creature who will conquer Glooskap. Group 1 Wasis! But Wasis is a baby! Group 3 A baby!

Group 1 Huh? What did you say?

Group 2 I say a baby will conquer the mighty Glooskap! Group 1 Thats laughable! Group 2 We shall see.

Group 1 (Sweetly) Come here Wasis...Come here Wasis. Group 3 (Makes baby noises that mean No!) Group 1 46

Never fear, I have an idea. Babies like babies, and babies like animals. I shall turn myself into a baby bird. (Makes bird noises.) Come here Wasis! Little, sweet Wasis, come to me! Group 2 (Begins to laugh, in derision.)

Group1 (More firmly.) Wasis, come here!...Why you little--Dont you know who I am? Group 2 Guess not!

Group 1 (Threateningly) You dont want to get me angry. Come here Wasis! Group 3 (Bursts into loud wails.) Group 1 Now what?

Group 1 I know! I call forth all my magical powers. Ill spin terrible spells! Ill dance to raise the dead! (Sound effects that make us think that Glooskap has done all the things he just said he would!) What do you think of that, Wasis? Group 3 (Completely unafraid Wasis bursts out laughing.) Group 1 I give up!

Group 2 Well, youre the mighty Glooskap!

Group 2 So every time you hear babies say Group 3 GOO,GOO!

Group 3 (Pointing at Glooskap) GOO,GOO!

All Remember the time a baby conquered-Group 1 47

Even the mighty All Glooskap!

Group 1 We tell to teach and teach to tell. Group 2 Our children learn, Group 3 Learn very well!

All We are the Abenaki.

Abenaki Couple, artist unknown 18th C watercolor

http://commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Abenakis.jpg


Teaching History
Conserve and Protect Natural Resources

Through Art:

Third Grade Social Studies & Dance Lesson by Chris Roberts

OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to explain and give examples of what it means to reduce, reuse, and recycle. Students will properly warm-up, move and create a dance to show the concepts of reducing, reusing, and recycling.

UTAH STATE CORE OBJECTIVES: Third Grade Social Studies Standard 1, Obj. 3: Describe ways to conserve and protect natural resources (e.g. Reduce, reuse, recycle). MATERIALS: Drum, music, plastic bag, milk jug, McDonalds bag, cardboard box (from a toy or electronic game), and a movie about a recycling plant (or better than that; a field trip to a recycling plant). ACTIVITY: Discuss background knowledge of students understanding of the 3 Rs. Discuss what they are doing right now in their personal and family lives to implement them. Take the class to a recycling plant or show them a movie of a recycling plant. This step should be done before beginning the dance class.

Moving: Bring students to gym or open space (like a vestibule) or arrange space in classroom. Lead students in a warm-up that begins slowly and builds up to more movement. Include activities that build strength (push-ups, squats), endurance (jumping jacks for 1 min.) and flexibility (stretching). Investigating: Review elements of dance (Body, Energy, Space and Time) while exploring the 3 Rs.

Reduce: Body: Make large movements with various body parts and whole body and then reduce to very tiny movements. Energy: Try different explosive movements with body parts and with whole body and then reduce to soft movements. Space: Locomote (walk, run, skip, gallop, slide, jump, hop, leap) through general space (the whole space) and gradually reduce space to smaller and smaller while still moving without touching other dancers. 49

Time: Start with a high shape and slowly (take as much time as possible) melt down. Have the students begin in a high shape again but this time reduce the time to get down by half. Start again and reduce that time by half (1/4 of original time). Start again and reduce time by half again (1/8 of the original time).

Reuse: Have students get into small groups of 5 to 6 and form circles. Give each group one of the following: plastic bag, milk jug, McDonalds bag, and cardboard box. Have each student share with the group another way to use the object their group has. Students should show this through movement (only use words if necessary). Have each group choose their best idea and then go around and have each group share with the whole group. Recycle: Discuss the steps that objects go through in a recycling plant and begin exploring movement ideas to show those steps. Students may wish to include sounds.

Creating Discuss with students if whole group wants to work together to create a dance showing the 3 Rs or if they want to divide into 3 groups with each group creating a dance on one of the 3 Rs. After the decision is made, allow the students to begin creating their dance. Remind them there has to be a clear beginning, middle, and end. This part of the lesson will take time, so allow students to work on it for a period or two. Show the finished product to other classes, especially younger students. ASSESSMENT: 1. Did the dance clearly teach the concepts of the 3 Rs? 2. Did the dancers show performance commitment during their entire dance? 3. Did the students listen to each other and cooperate during group work? 4. Did the audience enjoy the performance?


Teaching History Through Art:

Native American Life

3rd Grade Social Studies, Literacy, and Visual Arts Lesson By Louise Nickelson

OBJECTIVES Students will examine artworks to discover clues to Native American life. They will learn about the Ute Indians, about their culture, make a beaded headband or bracelet, and wear the item while they listen to a Ute story. UTAH STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Social Studies Third Grade Standard II: Students will understand cultural factors that shape a community. Objective 1: Evaluate key factors that determine how a community develops. Indicators: a. Identify the elements of culture (e.g. language, religion, customs, artistic expression, systems of exchange). b. Describe how stories, folktales, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture. Objective 2: Explain how selected indigenous cultures of the Americas have changed over time. Visual Arts Standard 1 Making, Standard 4 Contextualizing

Maynard Dixon, Round Dance, BYU MOA

MATERIALS images of artworks: Joseph Henry Sharp, Playing the Game; Lou Jene Carter, Navajo Girl; Cyrus E. Dallin, Appeal to the Great Spirit, Chief Washakie, and Sacajewea; John Hafen, Teepee; Minerva Teichert, Indian Captives at Night; Maynard Dixon, Round Dance. Examples of Beading Copy of Ute Childrens story (included here) or a book about a native legend Small colored glass beads, wooden beads, antler, or porcupine quills (optional) Beading graphs, brown paper or brown paper bags, crayons or markers, scissors, glue Information on the Ute tribe from your Social Studies text or from one of the sources. 51

ACTIVITY Show the class the images of the artworks and ask them to identify some things that were important to the Native Americans, based on the images. For example, they hunted animals, they liked to dance, they played games, they made useful items, which they decorated, etc. Ask students to discuss what everyday life might have been like for the Native Americans: what did they eat and how did they get that food? Where did they liuve? What might they have done for fun? How did they feel about the land and the animals that lived in their areas? ART PROJECT Native Americans first used natural materials, often in the shape of some kind of bead, to decorate their clothing and personal items. Show the class some images and ask the students to identify or to brainstorm what may have been used as beads. If you have some beads made from natural materials, show the students. Then show them the small glass beads and ask the students to think about where and when the Native Americans got glass beads. Show the class some images of beaded items decorated with glass beads. Explain that they are going to make a beading design.

Ask the students to think about where Native Americans got their ideas for their beaded Beaded Horse Bag, Ute designs. Help them to understand that most Public Domain of the designs were very simplified. For http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:UteBeadworkHorseBag.jpg example, lighting or a series of mountain peaks might become zig-zag lines, and an animal would be indicated by its basic shapes. Give students a sheet of paper for planning their design. They should make several simple sketches and choose the best design. Encourage them to keep the designs simple by showing them examples from the beadwork. Pass out the beading graphs and have students use one to make a light sketch on, indicating the outlines of the shapes. They can then choose the colors for their design. When they have chosen the colors, they should carefully recreate the design on the second piece of beading graph paper, leaving out the outlines. When they are done with the designs, they can carefully cut out the designs and glue them onto a long piece from a brown paper sack which is then glued or stapled so it can fit their head or wrist. You will need strips of paper 2 larger than the childs head or wrist. LITERACY Explain that one way to understand the early Native Americans is to experience their customs. You may have a member of the community you can invite to share a traditional story with the students, you can use the one included here, or a storybook your school has. Help the students understand how important their stories were for a people who did not have a written language. ASSESSMENT Younger students can be assessed simply for completion of the project and for participation in the class discussion. Older students should also be assessed for originality of design and for neatness. 52

SOURCES Ute Story from http://utemountainute.com/legends.htm Basic history and culture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ute_Indians History and culture from the point of view of the Utes http://utemountainute.com/story.htm Childrens books about Native Americans, recommended by Native Americans http://americanindiansinchildrensliterature.blogspot.com/2010/07/top-ten-books-recommended-for.html LITERACY EXTENSION You can choose to have the class write their own legend. Put the completed story in a binder and let students add artwork to the story if they have finished their assignments.

ART EXTENSION Older students can make a beaded bag or vest. You will need a small paper sack (like a lunch sack) or a medium-sized grocery bag for each student. Students can fringe the ends of the bag or vest by cutting narrow slits into the edges of the bag. Size the beading graphs to fit the project you are making. Springtime and the Bear Dance When spring came and the last of the snows were falling in the mountains, the Utes prepared for the special time of the year. This was the time when each family and band met together for celebrations. It would be a happy time of visiting, dancing, wedding celebrations, story telling, and playing games. Many of the people in the seven Ute Bands may not have even seen the others during the harsh winter unless they were attacked by an enemy tribe. So springtime would be the time for a great celebration It would all begin with the Bear Dance. The Utes had a story about how they first learned the Bear Dance. They said that a man went to sleep and had a dream about a bear. He dreamed that if he would go the a place in the mountains, a bear would teach him something of great strength. When he woke up, he went up to the mountain and saw al bear dancing back and forth. The bear spoke to the man who listened to his words of wisdom and then the bear taught him how to do this dance and to sing the Bear Dance song. The man came home and taught the dance and song to his people. Every spring after that, the Utes gathered for this important celebration. The Utes have always loved to sing and dance and play games. They often danced before traveling to a new camp and then again when they arrive at the new encampment. In the early days the Bear Dance was their favorite, but they knew many other dances. They liked the Bear Dance because they felt it was a dance of strength which usually lasted for several days and which always ended with a great feast. For the Bear Dance, the Utes played and sang to the music of the morache or rasp. The music of the morache is supposed to sound like a bear waking from his long winter nap. The Bear Dance became a favorite of other Indian tribes, who learned it from the Utes. http://utemountainute.com/legends.htm



Teaching History
EROSION: Erosion and Art

Through Art:

4th Grade Social Studies & Visual Arts Lesson, adaptable for all ages by Elicia Gray

OBJECTIVES Students will investigate the artworks of Covington, Dibble, Tallant, Breinholt, Kimball, Salisbury, Fairbanks, Munger, Gardner, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, and Smithson. Students will evaluate the validity of environmental art. Students will participate in a debate about environmental art and public health and safety. Students will compose a personal artists statement based on their artwork. Students will generate a diorama that will add to, adapt, or mimic a Utah landscape. Students will share their projects and ideas with the whole class. UTAH STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Social Studies Fifth Grade Core (Standard 1) Students will understand the relationship between the physical geography in Utah and human life - Examine the interactions between physical geography and public health and safety - Examine the forces at work in creating the physical geography of Utah Visual Art Objectives Standard 1 (Making): Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Standard 2 (Perceiving): Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Standard 3 (Expressing): Students will create meaning in art Standard 4 (Contextualizing): Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other

MATERIALS Angels Landing, Zions, (Isaac) Loren Covington; Between Big & Little Cottonwood Canyon, George S. Dibble; Black Rock, Great Salt Lake, Richard H. Tallant; Box Canyon, Floyd E. Breinholt; Entrance to Zions, Ranch S. Kimball; Great White Throne, John B. Fairbanks; Bridal Veil Falls, Henry Leroy Gardner; (all SMA images, on the CD) Images of Robert Smithsons Spiral Jetty (on CD) Other images in sources Images of works by Christo and Jeanne-Claude, bed sheet, twine, chair, cardboard boxes, packaging peanuts, fabric scraps, found objects, glue gun, salt dough

ACTIVITY 1. Gather students onto the carpet and explain that you are now going to create a piece of art for them to enjoy. Grab one of their chairs and drape it lightly with a sheet, then wrap it with twine. Stand back and say, This is my art. It is called Daniels Chair, Wrapped. Step back and let 55








students investigate what you have just done. Let students argue the validity of such a piece. Is it art? What about it is or is not art? Why? Be sure to ask questions of an ethical nature as well. Is the sheet hurting the chair? What if it was not a chair under the drape. What if it was a living thing? Would it change your opinion of the art if it did damage to the environment, or to the object? Introduce students to the artists Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Explain that they are a married couple who create environmental works of art. Some of their works include the wrapping of the Reichstag in Berlin and the Pont-Neuf bridge in Paris, the 24-mile (39km)-long artwork called Running Fence in Sonoma and Marin counties in California, and The Gates in New York Citys Central Park. Show images of these works if possible. What is different about these works? Their work is enormous and often controversial, but the artists have repeatedly denied that their projects contain any deeper meaning. They claim their works are purely aesthetic. The purpose of their art, they contend, is simply to create works of art or joy and beauty and to create new ways of seeing familiar things. How might covering or draping something help us to see things differently? How do you think viewers feel about Christo and Jeanne-Claudes works? What are some of the setbacks they might encounter? Summarize the New York Times article about the Artists new project called Over the River. This project is a $50 million dollar installation of anchored fabric over the Arkansas River in Colorado. The project will include eight suspended panel segments totaling 5.9 miles along a 42-mile stretch of the river. It will take two years to construct, and will be in place for two weeks. Divide students into two groups. One group should support the artists, and the other should oppose the artists project. In groups have students brainstorm the effects of both sides. What environmental impact could the project have? How could a big project like this affect a small town? What about land and animals? How might the project affect businesses? Think about the interactions between physical geography and public health and safety. (You may have students peruse the article entitled Evaluating Installation Art, Should Environmental Cost Be Considered? Link provided below) Stage a debate between the two sides. Is there an easy solution to this artistic problem? Every artist in the world likes his or her work to make people think. Imagine how many people were thinking, how many professionals were thinking and writing in preparing that environmental impact statement.-- Christo Introduce students to Robert Smithsons Spiral Jetty. This monumental earthwork is located on the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Using black basalt rocks and earth from the site, the artist created a coil 1,500 feet long and 15 feet wide that stretches out counter-clockwise into the translucent red water. Emphasize that this is a massive artwork found in Utah that transformed the landscape of an area. What is a jetty? How is the Spiral Jetty different that a jetty that is built for protection? Have a discussion about artists intent, and how that affects artworks. Pass out images of Covington, Dibble, Tallant, Breinholt, Kimball, Salisbury, Fairbanks, Munger, and Gardner. Invite students to identify the landscape that is unique to Utah. What types of different environments are represented? What makes them unique? What forces of nature were at work in creating this physical geography? Explain that students will be creating some environmental art in the form of a diorama just like Christo and Jeanne-Claude and Smithson. Students must choose a geographic area in Utah that they would like to use as a canvas. Next they will decide on a method of integrating an art piece. They can add to the landscape, like Christo and Jeanne-Claude, they can adapt the landscape, like Smithson, or they can mimic the landscape like all of the painters they just reviewed. Invite students to fill out the Environmental Art Worksheet in order to help them work through their idea. 56

ASSESSMENT The teacher will evaluate the Environmental Art Worksheet. The teacher should carefully review the artists statement. The teacher will also evaluate the dioramas, looking for evidence of effort, originality, and quality completion. SOURCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christo_and_Jeanne-Claude http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/26/us/26artist.html?ref=christo http://hyperallergic.com/11316/evaluating-installation-art-environmental-cost/ http://governor.utah.gov/photos/Photos%20from%202008/04%20-%20April/04-14-08/Spiral%20 Jetty%20Visit/ (this site has images that include close-ups) ADAPTATION For very young children, have them create different landscapes or regions out of clay or even play dough. Show how different elevations have completely different landscapes throughout Utah.

9. Give each student a small cardboard box to use to create their idea. Now that students have selected a specific environment, they may begin adding, adapting, or mimicking different physical attributes. Students can do this in a number of ways, but packaging peanuts and salt dough are simple ways to provide texture and sculptural elements. Invite students to integrate found objects and images. Students may use low heat glue guns in order to secure items in place. 10. When sculptures are finished, invite students to create a title and an artists statement for their work. What are some of the problems they encountered? How did they resolve those problems? 11. Invite students to share their projects with the class.

VARIATION Choose a destination and have students create a piece of earth art or environmental art. Show pictures of Andy Goldsworthy and have students compare and contrast these works with Smithson and Christo and Jeanne-Claude.

EXTENSION Organize a field trip to go and see the Spiral Jetty. Experience environmental art personally by walking on the Jetty. Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty Photograph by Rickety http://www.rickety.us/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Spiral_Jetty_08.jpghttp://leroyspinkfist. blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_27.html


Environmental Art Worksheet

1. I have chosen to _____add_____adapt______mimic a landscape. (please choose one) 2. The area or landscape I have chosen is: (Please describe in detail)

3. What are the physical characteristics of the area?

4. Please explain how you will add/adapt/mimic the area.

5. What supplies will you need in order to complete your diorama? (It would be helpful to integrate a
photograph of the area somewhere in your diorama)

6. What environmental problems might you encounter? How will your project affect the community, the wildlife, the landscape?

7. What other ideas or difficulties will you need to address?


Teaching History Through Art:

Adapting to Our Environments

4TH GRADE Social Studies and Visual Arts Lesson by Amanda Toler

OBJECTIVES Students will be able to: -Analyze the various landscapes of Utah -Infer how the environment one lives in can affect how homes are built, what clothes are worn, what jobs are available, food is eaten, transportation and so on. -Create a new environment and infer its effect on a population and paint a representation of the environment.

UTAH STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Fourth Grade Social Studies: Utah Studies Standard I: Students will understand the relationship between the physical geography in Utah and human life. Objective 1: Classify major physical geographic attributes of Utah. Objective 2: Analyze how physical geography affects human life in Utah. Indicators: a. Identify population concentrations in the state and infer causal relationships between population and physical geography. c. Compare the development of industry and business in Utah as it relates to its physical geography (e.g. mining, oil, agriculture, tourism). d. Make inferences about the relationships between the physical geography of Utah and the states communication and transportation systems (e.g. trails, roads, telegraph, rail lines). Objective 3: Analyze how human actions modify the physical environment. Indicators: a. Describe how and why humans have changed the physical environment of Utah to meet their needs (e.g. reservoirs, irrigation, climate, transportation systems and cities). MATERIALS -pencils, paper, paint, crayons, brainstorming worksheet. -information on Utah landscapes and natural resources and influences on living conditions. Possible Utah landscape images: Birger Sandzen, Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab; Calvin Fletcher, Wash Day in Brigham City; Maynard Dixon, Road to the River; plus any of the other Utah Landscapes on the CD 59

Additional Landscapes: John Tullidge, Minnie Lakes; Reuben Kirkham, Castaway; Paul Lauritz, Crashing Harmony; Gilbert, Near Monterey; John Heber Stansfield, Canadian Rockies; Montague Charman, Going Home ACTIVITY Motivation: To introduce the idea of adapting to the environment change the layout of the classroom for a day. When students walk in perhaps the heat will be up higher or the room will be very cold and the desks will be place on top of each other or in a different order. Students will have to adapt to the classroom environment so they can still learn. Where will they sit? How will they cool down or get warmer so they can concentrate on learning? Discuss how the environment surrounding a community can greatly affect the way the way the people there live.

Art History Show various Utah landscape paintings and discuss the geographic make-up of Utah. Why does Utah have so many different types of landscapes? For example, there are different kinds of mountains in southern Utah than in Northern Utah. How were these mountains formed? How did indigenous people live differently in the different parts of Utah? Why did Utahans settle in the areas that they did? For example, why would we choose to live in Utah Valley rather than on top of a mountain? Aesthetics Many people come to Utah because the landscape is said to be so diverse and beautiful. Have students explore the aesthetic question, What is Beauty? by analyzing various images of Utahs landscape. Students should be put into small groups with postcards or posters of various photographs or paintings of Utah landscapes. The students should put these images in order from what the group considers the most beautiful to the least beautiful landscape. Each group should present their final decisions and support their reasoning to the class. As a class, discuss the different reasons each group Carol P. Harding, Zion Evening, View West of Springdale thought different landscapes were more (1997) SMA beautiful or aesthetically pleasing. Have students write or draw what they would consider the most beautiful landscape they would want to live in.

Art Criticism Each student will receive an image of a landscape. These can all be different Utah landscapes or any landscape. The students will use a basic criticism model (describe, analyze, interpret, judge) that is modified to explore the landscape. Have students write as follows: -Describe: Students should describe exactly what they see in the image. What are the colors? Is the landscape flat, mountainous, full of water? -Analyze: Based on the description of the landscape, students must write about what the environment is like. Does it seem like a cold place? A desert? How was the landscape formed based on what they have learned about land formations? What resources may be available? 60

-Interpretation: Students should now interpret how life would be lived in this type of landscape if people were to populate there. What kinds of clothes should they wear? What would some of the jobs be? How would transportation be set up? What would people build their homes like? -Judgment: Have students write whether they would want to live in this environment and why or why not. Studio After a thorough introduction to environments and adapting to ones environment, students will have a chance to create their own environment. Each student should brainstorm an environment and all the details of what would happen if it were populated. These environments should be created by the student and should be something they personally have never experienced. They could be an environment in a different country or planet they have heard about or even an environment read about in a book like one by Dr. Suess, or an environment they completely make up like Candyland. Have students fill out the brainstorming sheet included at the end of the lesson. After the brainstorming is complete, the students will paint a landscape of the environment they created. The image should include a living quarter for a resident and perhaps an image of a person and what type of clothes people may wear. A business may be included to show what kind of jobs people in this environment might have. ASSESSMENT Assess the Critique in the Criticism activity like an essay. The final studio project should be graded with a rubric such as the one below: CRITERIA Craftsmanship: Was the drawing or painting done well? Did the student take the time to draw or paint neatly? Brainstorming: Were all the questions answered on the brainstorming sheet thoroughly? Creativity: Did the student create a new environment that is unfamiliar? Were the students ideas creative? Fulfillment of requirements: Does the final picture include the color of the environment and the landscape? Does it include at least one example of a home and a person and what the person would wear? Use of class time: Did the student use class time wisely focusing on completing the assignment in a timely manner while maintaining quality? TOTAL POINTS Score 1-5


SOURCES USOE curriculum site for 4th grade Social Studies content Springville Museum of Art website collection images

ADAPTATIONS For younger ages give students the criteria for the environment instead of having them make it up. Then the students must draw the environment based on the information presented. Older students may want to address even more detail and create the landscape using sculpture techniques.

VARIATIONS The idea of adapting to ones environment can be taken in many different directions. For example, in the art realm, the teacher can focus on installation art and how creating an artwork for a specific site can change its meaning and the audience reaction. How can changing the environment in a small space change peoples reactions? A good artist to look at would be Sandy Skoglund. This can also be a tool to have students analyze the difference between the environments they are in every day. How do they act at home compared to how they act at school? How does the environment they are in seem to change their behavior?

EXTENSIONS A great literacy extension would be to have students create a tourist guide to the environment or landscape they created. Have them look at tourist guides for Utah and what is included and then design and write one for their creation.


QUESTION What is the basic landscape? (Mountainous, flat, desert, water, green, brown, red etc.) How was the landscape created? (Erosion, earthquake, tornado, candy fell from the sky etc.) What is the climate? (Four seasons, always cold, 3000 degrees, weather changes every second, windy, no gravity etc.) What would a typical home look like? Why? (Utah homes usually have slanted roofs because of the snow needing to fall off so it does not become to heavy and cave in the roof.) What different types of clothes would people need to wear and different times of the year? (Warm clothes, cool clothes, or if little gravity perhaps heavier clothes so people dont float away) What kind of animals may be present in this environment? (Skin of animal, water dwelling, land dwelling) What types of jobs will be needed? (Utah has a lot of mining jobs because of natural resources like oil, copper, and coal) What kinds of transportation would be best? (Flying cars, trains, roads with cars) Would you like to live in the environment you created? Why or why not? 63 ANSWER


5th Grade Social Studies and Dance Kelby McIntyre-Martinez and Chris Roberts

Underground Railroad and Freedom Poems

Teaching History Through Art:

Essential Questions: The key idea, the bigger conceptual picture What does freedom mean to you as an individual? As a society? Culturally? As a nation?

OBJECTIVES Students will be able to write an original freedom poem and create an original freedom poem dance through the use of energy, space, and time (body percussion, locomotor and axial movements, pathways). Students will be able to complete these objectives as they engage in the creative and writing process; students will generate several drafts of their freedom poems and freedom dances.

UTAH STATE CORE STANDARDS Fine Art Core: Dance 5th grade Research/Create Cultural Objective Create a group dance based on two principles discovered (one from each genre). Using unique movement. Dance 5th grade Analyze/Integrate Dance a 16 count rhythm pattern in a canon/round. Analyze music and choreography that uses the canon/round structures.

Social Studies Social Studies Fifth Grade Standard III: Students will understand the rights and responsibilities guaranteed in the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights. Objective 2b. Identify how the rights of selected groups have changed and how the Constitution reflects those changes (e.g. women, enslaved people). Social Studies Fifth Grade Standard I: Students will understand how the exploration and colonization of North America transformed human history. Compare the geographic and cultural differences between the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies (e.g., religious, economic, political). Language Arts: Language Arts 2nd 6th Pre-writing Generate ideas for writing by reading, discussing, researching, and reflecting on personal experiences. Language Arts 2nd 6th Compose a Draft Draft ideas on paper in an organized manner 65

Explicit Vocabulary In Both Areas of Instruction: Fine Art Vocabulary: Energy, Space, Time, Locomotor, Axial, Hambone, Body Percussion, Poly-rhythms. Social Studies Vocabulary: Underground Railroad, North America, West Africa, Civil War, Slavery, Culture, Human Rights, Liberty. MATERIALS Freedom poem template, the picture book Show Way written by Jacqueline Woodson, map of the United States of America, boom box, Music: Follow The Drinking Gourd. LESSON PLAN INSTRUCTIONS: How to lead this integrated lesson with your students. 1. Warm Up: Body Percussion/Hambone with the Slave Song Mutton Stew If you want to get to Heaven let me tell you what to do You gotta grease your feet in Mutton Stew Slide right out of the slippery sand And ooze on over to the promised land

Incorporate Freedom Train dance and leap to Freedom as the class crosses the Mason Dixon Line.

2. Partners: Leading and Following one person is the leader and the other partner has to follow the leader. a. Leaders should be encouraged to use levels, energy, and various axial movements. b. Let each student have an opportunity to lead. c. Guiding Questions: i. Discuss how it felt to have all the power over someone else. ii. Discuss how it felt when you had no power what-so-ever. 3. Discuss the Underground Railroad as we look through the book Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson a. Guiding Questions: i. What emotion do the images evoke? ii. What would you do if you were taken from your family? iii. What colors do you see? iv. What movement qualities are present in the illustrations (energy, shapes, levels) 4. Create a group tableau inspired by one of the illustrations using energy and space a. Using hand claps or a drum, as you clap have the students: i. change the direction of their focus ii. change an arm position iii. change their back b. Discuss how the energy and focused changed as they adjusted their bodies 5.

Create a FREEDOM WORD WALL a. Have students share the first word that comes to their mind when they think of FREEDOM b. Write each word on the word wall and hang it up in front of the class. c. This will help students create their Freedom Poems. 66

6. Freedom Poem Creation: Concrete to Symbolism to Abstraction a. Break students into small groups and have them write their first freedom poem draft b. Have students share it with the class and gain feedback and insight. c. Have students create movement to their poem using time (body percussion) space and energy. d. Now have students create a second draft of their poem and tweak movements accordingly. e. Final draft - have students finalize their written and performance creations.

7. Sharing: a. Have students share their pieces. b. The first time they share, have students speak their poem as as they dance. c. Connect each groups poem (one group performs and freezes, the next group performs etc.)

8. Putting It All Together: Take the voice away! Add in music Follow the Drinking Gourd. a. Connect each groups poem. Each group starts on stage in an opening tableau (starting position) b. The whole class will start with the Mutton Stew body percussion, no voice. c. Each group will then return to their opening tableau. d. Each group will perform their Freedom Poem, no voice as the other groups remain frozen in their tableaux. (one group performs and freezes, then next group performs etc.) e. Finally, have each group connect for the Freedom Train dance. f. As the class winds around into a straight line, they hold hands and leap together to freedom. g. Take a bow!

9. Cool Down and Reflection: a. Guiding Questions: i. How did taking our voices away and adding music enhance our movement and the story we were telling through our Freedom Poems? ii. What are some historical facts that you learned through this process? iii. What can we learn from our past? iv. What does freedom mean to you as an individual? v. To us as a society? Culturally? vi. As a nation?


FREEDOM POEM Freedom looks like __________________________________________ Freedom smells like _________________________________________ Freedom tastes like _________________________________________ Freedom sounds like ________________________________________ Freedom feels like ___________________________________________

Template Developed by Kelby McIntyre-Martinez College of Education, University of Utah 68

African American History Timeline

Time 1619 Event The First African Slaves Arrive in Virginia Fine Arts Activity Middle Passage activity with shape and space


photograph of a newspaper advertisement from the 1780s LOC Slavery is made illegal in the Northwest territory. Slavery is made illegal in the Northwest territory. Eli Whitneys invention of the cotton gin greatly increases the demand for slave labor. A federal fugitive slave law is enacted, providing for the return slaves who had escaped and crossed state lines.

Mapping activity compass rose & mapping



1808 1820

poster advertisement for run away slaves from 1860 LOC Gabriel Prosser, an enslaved African-American blacksmith, organizes a slave revolt intending to march on Richmond, Virginia. The conspiracy is uncovered, and Prosser and a number of the rebels are hanged. Virginias slave laws are consequently tightened. Congress bans the importation of slaves from Africa. The Missouri Compromise bans slavery north of the southern boundary of Missouri. William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing the Liberator, a weekly paPersuasive arguper that advocates the complete abolition of slavery. He becomes one ments and essays of the most famous figures in the abolitionist movement. 69



The Talking Drum Because of the perceived potential of talking drums to speak in a tongue unknown to slave traders and thus to incite revolt, resistance and rebellion, in 1838 these and other drums were banned from use by Africans in the United States.

Mutton Stew
If you want to get to heaven let me tell you what to do you gotta grease your feet in mutton stew. Slide right out of the slippery sand and ooze on over to the promised land

Handbone & Step dance 1846 Frederick Douglass launches his abolitionist newspaper.


Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery and becomes one of the most effective and celebrated leaders of the Underground Railroad.

Quilt making art activity


Harriet Beecher Stowes novel, Uncle Toms Cabin is published. It becomes one of the most influential works to stir anti-slavery sentiments.

1857 1861 1863

The Dred Scott case holds that Congress does not have the right to ban slavery in states and, furthermore, that slaves are not citizens. The Confederacy is founded when the deep South secedes, and the Civil War begins. President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that all persons held as slaves within the Confederate states are, and henceforward shall be free. 70

Slow motion fight scenes Freedom poems Freedom tastes like ______;


1865-1866 1867


Congress establishes the Freedmens Bureau to protect the rights of newly emancipated blacks (March). The Civil War ends (April 9). Lincoln is assassinated (April 14). The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Tennessee by ex-Confederates (May). Slavery in the United States is effectively ended when 250,000 slaves in Texas finally receive the news that the Civil War had ended two months earlier (June 19). Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, prohibiting slavery (Dec. 6) Black codes are passed by Southern states, drastically restricting the rights of newly freed slaves. A series of Reconstruction acts are passed, carving the former Confederacy into five military districts and guaranteeing the civil rights of freed slaves. Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, defining citizenship. Individuals born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens, including those born as slaves. This nullifies the Dred Scott Case (1857), which had ruled that blacks were not citizens. Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, giving blacks the right to vote. The Black Exodus takes place, in which tens of thousands of African Americans migrated from southern states to Kansas. Plessy v. Ferguson: This landmark Supreme Court decision holds that racial segregation is constitutional, paving the way for the repressive Jim Crow laws in the South. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is founded in New York by prominent black and white intellectuals and led by W.E.B. Du Bois.

1870 1879




The Harlem Renaissance flourishes in the 1920s and 1930s. This literary, artistic, and intellectual movement fosters a new black cultural identity.

Rap-a-tap-tap activity

The Hot Chocolates at the Cotton Club xroads.virginia.edu/~asi/musi212/emily/style gallery.html Educational Fair Use



Jackie Robinson breaks Major League Baseballs color barrier when he is signed to the Brooklyn Dodgers by Branch Rickey.


1952 1954 1955

Although African Americans had participated in every major U.S. war, it was not until after World War II that President Harry S. Truman issues an executive order integrating the U.S. armed forces. Malcolm X becomes a minister of the Nation of Islam Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. declares that racial segregation in schools is unconstitutional (May 17). A young black boy, Emmett Till, is brutally murdered for allegedly whistling at a white woman in Mississippi. Two white men charged with the crime are acquitted by an all-white jury. They later boast about committing the murder. The public outrage generated by the case helps spur the civil rights movement (Aug.). Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat at the front of the colored section of a bus to a white passenger (Dec.1). In response to her arrest Montgomerys black community launch a successful year-long bus boycott. Montgomerys buses are desegregated on Dec. 21, 1956. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), a civil rights group, is established by Martin Luther King, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth (Jan.-Feb.) Martin Luther King is arrested and jailed during anti-segregation Choreograph 3 protests in Birmingham, Ala. He writes Letter from Birmingham Jail, part dances or which advocated nonviolent civil disobedience. theatre tableaux based on phrases The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is attended by about from the I have a 250,000 people, the largest demonstration ever seen in the Dream speech nations capital. Martin Luther King delivers his famous I Have a Dream speech. The march builds momentum for civil rights legislation (Aug. 28).





President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. It prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin (July 2). Martin Luther King receives the Nobel Peace Prize. (Oct.) Malcolm X, black nationalist and founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity, is assassinated (Feb. 21). In six days of rioting in Watts, a black section of Los Angeles, 35 people are killed and 883 injured (Aug. 11-16).



Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in Memphis, Tenn. (April 4). President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing (April 11). The first race riots in decades erupt in south-central Los Angeles after They call me step a jury acquits four white police officers for the videotaped beating of & African dance African-American Rodney King (April 29). On November 4, Barack Obama, becomes the first African American to be elected president of the United States.





5th Grade Social Studies & Visual Arts Lesson (can be adapted to any grade) The Library of Congress process for looking at a piece of art involves three steps:

Artwork Analysis Tool

Teaching History Through Art:

Observe, Reflect, Question

1. Description (Observe) What is the source of this picture/photograph?________________________________ Who is the artist?______________________________________________________ What is the date? If there is no date, can you guess the period?__________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Artwork Analysis (Reflect) Write a brief description of the artwork:_____________________________________ Use the chart below to list people, objects, and activities in the artwork or photo.




What was the purpose of the artwork or photo? (visual pleasure, commercial commission, poster, advertising, propaganda, etc.)__________________________________________ How would you describe the mood of the picture?______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ What makes this an effective or ineffective piece of art?__________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 75

3. What questions does the artwork bring to mind? ( Question)______________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Is this artwork meant to convey a message? If so, what?__________________________ Is this artwork an effective piece of work, one that is attractive and appealing to the viewer? Why or why not?__________________________________________________

How to analyze a Primary source: (From the American Art Museum conference session)
We are commenting on, not illustrating history. Content: ( Observation) What does it say? Composition: (Interpretation) How does it say it? Context: (Research) Who created it? Who is it intended for? What is it? When was it created? Why was it created? How was it created? Questions: What do you see? Generate lists. What do you think is going on? What decisions has the artist made in terms of lighting, color, focus? Learning to look strategies: Visual thinking strategies Observation Dividing up the artwork Westward Course picture: look at the land, the people, the border Matching text and image Acting out the artwork

Westward Course mural discussion: (large images on the CD) Is this a real place? (Land appears empty.) This comes with a cost. This artist used triangles a lot. See the Madonna-like figure in the 1861 draft for the mural? Compare with the final version. See a black man has been added? How does that change The meaning of the picture? Also added American flags in the final version of the mural. See Daniel Boone and William Rogers Clark portraits on the bottom border. Clark is wearing an ermine 76

Emanuel Leutze, Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way (1861)

Emanuel Leutze, Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way (mural study) (1861) 77

cap which was a gift to him. Dogs, tools were added to final version. It is also more fertile, green terrain No burial in final version. It appears that the artist got better reports after her had made the first draft of the picture. He had never been there. Is this a primary source? Yes and no. It is a reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation. The artist did leave a description of why he painted the picture. See the native Americans in the top border running away from an eagle? The borders have Biblical, historical, and mythological scenes in them. This is the same painter as George Washington Crossing the Delaware. VARIATION You can adapt this approach to any artwork that relates to your social studies curriculum and to any age group. The following page is a suggestion for a way you can use the


Fifth Grade Art Bulletin Board Schedule

shacken@alpinedistrict.org By Sara Hacken

Month September October November December January

Theme Mens Portraits Sea, Boats (Explorers) Animals (Vertebrates) Christmas Women

February March April May

Impressionism Figure Study Astronomy and Sky (Moon unit) Mother and Child (Mothers Day)

Pictures Man with a Golden Helmet (Rembrandt) Man with Bandaged Ear (Van Gogh) Head of Man (Klee) Boats at Argenteuil (Monet) Breezing Up (Winslow Homer) Fur Traders Descending the Mississippi (Bingham) Peaceable Kingdom (Hicks) Virgin Forest (Rousseau) The Bullfight (Goya) Young Hare (Durer) Numbering at Bethlehem (Breughel) St. Joseph (De la Tour) Christinas World (Wyeth) The Lacemaker (Vermeer) Mona Lisa (DaVinci) An Afternoon at La Grande Jatte (Seurat) Luncheon of the Boat Party (Renoir) I and My Village (Chagall) Dempsey and Firpo ( Bellows) The Dancing Class ( Degas) Night Watch (Rembrandt) Blue Boy (Gainsborough) Starry, Starry Night (Van Gogh) View of Toledo (El Greco) Rockets and Blue Lights (Turner) The Cradle (Morrisot) Mother and Child (Picasso) Gypsy with Baby (Modigliani)



Martin Luther King (6th grade), Ruby Bridges (1st -5th grades) Written by Holly Markgraf-Mayne holly.markgrafmayne@nebo.edu

One Can Make a Difference! The History of Civil Rights

Teaching History Through Art:

6th grade curriculum Standard V: Objective 2: Assess the impact of social and political movements in recent United States history. a. Identify major social movements of the 20th century (e.g. the womens movement, the civil rights movement, child labor reforms). b. Identify leaders of social and political movements Objective3: a. Assess differing points of view on the role of the US as a world power (e.g. influencing the spread of democracy, supporting the rule of law, advocating human rights, b. Identify a current issue facing the world and propose a role the United States could play in being part of a solution civil rights, education, genocide. 1st grade Social Studies Grade Standard II: Students will understand cultural factors that shape a community 5th grade Standard III: Students will understand the rights and responsibilities guaranteed in the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights. Objective 2b. Identify how the rights of selected groups have changed and how the Constitution reflects those changes (e.g. women, enslaved people). 2nd grade Objective 1b. Explain ways people respect and pass on their traditions and customs.

This lesson has several parts and may be used and adapted to fit your individual grades. There are so many layers to these lessons. There is however, an underlying theme, the difference one person can make and how it can effect and change history.

Equipment Needed: Hand Drum (for cueing); Music (I Have a Dream Mix, or your choice) Book: Martins Big Words by Doreen Rappaport (can find to watch on Teacher Tube, and fantastic for all grades especially 6th), The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles (grades 1-5), Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson (grades 1-5) March On! The Day My Bother Martin Changed the World by Christine King Farris 81

*This can be used as one lesson, or best if used as two. Mirroring I would do one day, and then the book another day.

EXPERIENCE/IDENTIFY: What makes a good leader? What makes a good follower? (Ask these questions but dont have students answer them just yet, let them start to think about it. They will answer it later.

Have students mirror any movement that you begin to do slowly. Use levels (high, medium, low); use the Energy qualities of smooth and sustained movement. Make sure every student can follow you exactly, as if they were watching in a mirror. (You can play slow tempo music)

CONNECT/ANALYZE Pull students back together and ask them the same questions that you did at the beginning of class. What makes a good leader? What makes a good follower? What changes as a leader you had to make so that the follower could follow? How did it feel to be the leader/follower? Did you like being the leader or follower and why?

EXPLORE/INVESTIGATE After you have lead the students, have students (back to back with another student) find a partner and repeat the same exercise taking turns who leads and who follows. Direct them to do it without talking. As you walk around the room students should be able to stay together if they are not remind them a good leader never moves faster then the follow can follow. The movement should be exactly the same that it is hard for you to tell who is the leader and who is the follower. Then challenge them to switch on their own who leads and follows without stopping and without saying a word with the movement continuously going. This involves high concentration, and the room should be silent except for the music playing and cues that the teacher is giving.

You could choose to have students repeat the same exercise and improve upon what they have just discussed, or you can go on to the next part. (I like to repeat the exercise you are able to see a big difference after students have analyzed what they have just done.) *Here you choose what book you are going to use to best fit your curriculum and grade. Book: Martins Big Words by Doreen Rappaport Music: I Have a Dream mix.

EXPLORE/INVESTIGATE We are now going to learn about a man that was a great leader. Read, or show book. (Upper grades you might have them write down any words or phrases that stick out in their mind as you read.) (You may have phrases from the book already printed on paper and cut out for each group, or you could have them written on your board, or you could use the ones your students wrote down.) Pick one phrase you can model for students and do together so they understand what you are asking them to do. Dance the phrase out using dance elements: Body, Time, Space, and Energy You are as good as anyone When I grow up Im going get big words, too Everyone can be great teachings of Gandi 82

Love, others said Hate Hate cannot drive out hate: Only love can do that Sooner or later all the people of the world will have to discover a way to live together When the history books are written someone will say there lived black people who had the courage to stand up for their rights Wait! For years I have heard the word wait we have waited more than 340 years for our rights Love is the key to the problems of the world I have a dream that one day in Alabama little black boys and little black girls will join hands with little white boys and little white girls as sisters and brothers CREATE/PERFORM Get into groups of 4 or 5 and give students one of these phrases. Have the groups come up with movement that represents their phrase. Have students begin with a group shape and end in a group shape. Also make sure as they are coming up with the movement they use levels, find a way to make it travel, not to pantomime but to exaggerate, or use interesting gestural movements. Have students add a turn while they do their movements etc. This should take 10-15 min. Have them show each other do it with the words first. After everyone has performed give feedback. What did you like and why? Did you see levels, traveling through the space, beginning and ending shapes, turns, etc? What could they do to make it better? Revise: give students 4 min. or so to make changes. Show again, without words with music. CONNECT/ANALYZE What did you like that we did today? Was there anything that you learned about yourself that you didnt know? Is your life different today because of Martin Luther King Jr.? How did he solve problems? How did he change the history of our country? What things are different today because of him and what he believed? Can one person make a difference? How?

Book: Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson (grades 1-5) Music: Black Spirituals We are now going to learn what a Show Way is. Read the book. Soonies great-grandma was only seven when she was sold away from her parents in Virginia and sent to South Carolina. All she had was a piece of muslin from her mother, two needles, and bright red thread. She was raised by Big Mama, who cared for the plantation children and at night whispered stories of freedom. Big Mama taught great-grandma how to sew messages and directions into quilt patterns, a Show Way. The quilt-making tradition is passed down through successive generations of women in the family. The Show Ways were maps with directions to freedom.

A Show Way is a quilt with secret meanings, and the image works as both history and haunting metaphor in this exquisite picture book. Based on Woodsons own history, the unforgettable story tells of African American women across generations, from slavery and the civil rights movement to the present. The cut-out jacket design is impressive, as is Talbotts mixed-media artwork inside, which extends Woodsons clear poetic narrative with beautiful collages that make use of big triangles, squares, and curves to emphasize portraits and landscapes and show connections and courage. The first doublepage spread is of anguished separation when Soonies great-grandmother is sold without her ma or pa. Growing up on a plantation in South Carolina, Soonie learns from Big Mama about children growing up and getting themselves free, and also how to sew quilts with signs that show the way to 83

freedom. Time passes: Soonies granddaughter, Georgiana, has twin girls who march for freedom in the 1960s. The final glorious spread shows Georgianas granddaughter, Jacqueline Woodson, laughing at home with her own beloved daughter, Toshi Georgiana, whose picture is embedded in a quilt, connecting her with those who came before. A must for the classroom, this story will move many readers to explore their own family roots; civil rights, history, and culture. owes to those who came before her. EXPLORE/INVESTIGATE Show Ways were part of the Underground Railroad to help free slaves. The Slaves would use talking drums to send messages (like they did in Africa) of how to escape. When the Masters figured it out they took away their drums. So the Slaves would use Body Percussion to send their secret messages.

Teach: Right hand slaps your right thigh, Left hand slaps your left thigh, and clap, repeat again but this time dont clap your hands instead snap your right hand. Repeat 4 times. Slide to your right 1 clap on 2, slide to your left 3 clap on 4 repeat slide to right 5 clap 6, slide to left 7 clap on 8. Repeat 12345678. Hit your chest with your right hand 2 times (count 1&) snap right hand on count 2 repeat 3&4. Hit your left shoulder with right hand 5 hit chest & (right hand) snap right hand 6 both hands on thighs 78. Repeat several times making sure all students are successful. Slow it down if you need to. Repeat, Repeat.

CREATE/PERFORM After students can do it, have them make up their own 4 Body Percussion counts. Put that all together and practice a few times. Next piece, Have students describe what a quilt looks like and describe it. It has tread that ties it all together, cut of several different pieces, takes a lot of time and work, is beautiful when its finished etc. We are going to find a way to all move in our own special way and figure out how we all can connect. 16 counts or more if needed. Are we connected using levels and different body parts to connect? Lets try it again. (Repeat) Find a way to make the connected shape breathe together. 3 sets of 8 counts Ask students, is it easy to connect? What makes it easy or hard and why? Make those changes and Try it again. Repeat. Have them do the whole dance together with music. CONNECT/ANALYZE Ask: Is it important that we help others? Should everyone have the opportunity to be free, and why? Should we know the history of where we come from and why its important? What is your life like and how is it different? Younger grades 1-2 Music: Follow the Drinking Gourd or music of your choice tempo of a ballad.

EXPLORE/INVESTIGATE Have students dance with scarves creating different floor and air pathways using levels (high medium low) creating the secret pathway to freedom that the slaves took. See if they can use the Energy quality of smooth and quiet, sometimes sneaking. 30 counts. Before they begin dancing have them make a beginning shape. After the 30 counts of pathways hit the drum and have them make a new interesting shape. (Hold for 8 counts) Have the girls continue holding their shape while the boys dance through them. Have boys freeze in a shape and girls dance in and out through them (each taking 16 counts). Have all students facing front lift their scarves holding two corners tilting them from side to side stretching with their bodies. 4 counts on each side repeat 3 times. Slide to the right 4 times and to the left 4 slides. Have 84

students find a partner and have one person be the leader and the other the follower and dance creating floor pathways (16 counts) finding their way to freedom. Have students find an interesting way to move showing they found their way to freedom and finish in a creative shape together. CREATE/PERFORM Have students do the whole thing with music a couple of times.

CONNECT/ANALYZE Ask students what did they like? Did they learn anything that they didnt know before? Is it important to know our own family history and culture? Is it part of who we are and why? What is freedom? Who should be free? Book: The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles (grades 1-5)

EXPLORE/INVESTIGATE We are going to learn how one little girl made a difference in our country. Read book. We are going to make shapes of different characters in our story. Think about what kind of feelings each character has and put that into your shape. The Mob-- What kind of emotion do they have? (Anger, mad, mean,) Show me your shape representing those feelings. (Twisted, sharp, angular shapes) The Police Power, strength (long straight lines with energy) Ruby Bridges small, young, strong (lower levels, concentrated energy) Have students memorize the 3 shapes. Practice them, hit the drum and call out shape one the mob, shape 2 the police, 3 Ruby. Do this several times until students are clear and use the same shapes. (Also make sure the shapes are on different levels) Explore all the ways the Mob would move (sharp, mean, loud or big with body etc) Explore all the ways the Police would move. Explore all the ways Ruby would move. (Skips, twirling, jumps etc.) Put it all together in a sequential order. First make Rubys (shape 3) hold for 8 counts, and then have them move 16 counts like Ruby. Hit drums call out shape1 the Mob hold for 8 counts then have students move in sharp, punching movement 16 counts. Shape 2 the police hold for 8 counts, and then move how a Policeman would move using the whole body (more straight and angular movement) 16 counts and freeze.

CREATE/PERFORM Now you can set it up like the story. Have some of your students represent each group. Have the Mob on two sides that Ruby and the Police have to go through to get to the school. Have the students get into their shapes. Have the police close to the mob and group that represents Ruby on the inside. Make sure the Mob doesnt cross the lines but can move around in the outside space. Have them use the counts and movements that you practiced previous. You can also create it how you would want to have students dance it. For example maybe you would have the Mob use more axial movement (stays in place) instead of locomotor (moves through space). Make sure they are clear on how each character moves. Then you can create transitions using locomotor movement (skipping, sliding, hop, jump etc) or stretching for your students to rotate and be able to dance each part. 85

Mob Mob Mob Police Police

------Police--------Police--------Mob CONNECT/ANALYZE Can you imagine what it would be like if you werent allowed to go to school? Would that be fair? Why or Why not? How would YOU feel if you werent allowed to go to school because your eyes were the wrong color, or your hair? How did you feel when you danced each characters part? (Police, Ruby, Mob) What did you like that we did today? Was there anything that you learned about yourself that you didnt know? Is your life different today because of Ruby Bridges? How did she solve problems? How did she change the history of our country? What things are different today because of her and what she believed? Can one person make a difference? How? CONNECT/ANALYZE (This has 5th grade questions for any lesson used) 5th grade additional questions: What rights and responsibilities are guaranteed in the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights? How have the rights of selected groups (blacks) changed and how does the Constitution reflect those changes (e.g. women, enslaved people)? The Civil Rights Struggle in Modern Times 1954-- U.S. Supreme Court declares school segregation unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling. *1955 Rosa Parks refuses to move to the back of a Montgomery, Alabama, bus as required by city ordinance; boycott follows and bus segregation ordinance is declared unconstitutional. Federal Interstate Commerce Commission bans segregation on interstate trains and buses. 1956 Coalition of Southern congressmen calls for massive resistance to Supreme Court desegregation rulings. Martin led the Montogomery Bus Boycott. The United States Supreme Court ruled that the laws requiring segregation on buses were unconstitutional. *1957-- Arkansas Gov. Orval Rubus uses National Guard to block nine black students from attending a Little Rock High School; following a court order, President Eisenhower sends in federal troops to ensure compliance. 1960-- Four black college students begin sit-ins at lunch counter of a Greensboro, North Carolina, restaurant where black patrons are not served. Congress approves a watered-down voting rights act after a filibuster by Southern senators. 1961-- Freedom Rides begin from Washington, D.C., into Southern states. *1962-- President Kennedy sends federal troops to the University of Mississippi to quell riots so that James Meredith, the schools first black student, can attend. The Supreme Court rules that segregation is unconstitutional in all transportation facilities. The Department of Defense orders full integration of military reserve units, the National Guard excluded. 86 Mob


1963--Martin Luther King Jr. Gave his March on Washington I Have a Dream speech. Named Man of the Year by Time magazine. 1963-- Civil rights leader Medgar Evers is killed by a snipers bullet. Race riots prompt modified martial law in Cambridge, Maryland. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers I Have a Dream speech to hundreds of thousands at the March on Washington. Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, leaves four young black girls dead. 1964-- Congress passes Civil Rights Act declaring discrimination based on race illegal after 75-day long filibuster. Three civil rights workers disappear in Mississippi after being stopped for speeding; found buried six weeks later. Riots in Harlem, Philadelphia. 1964- Martin Luther King Jr. at age 35 became the youngest man to receive the Noble Peace Prize. 1965-- March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, to demand protection for voting rights; two civil rights workers slain earlier in the year in Selma. Malcolm X assassinated. Riot in Watts, Los Angeles. New voting rights act signed. 1966-- Edward Brooke, R-Massachusetts, elected first black U.S. senator in 85 years. 1967-- Riots in Detroit, Newark, New Jersey. Thurgood Marshall first black to be named to the Supreme Court. Carl Stokes (Cleveland) and Richard G. Hatcher (Gary, Indiana) elected first black mayors of major U.S. cities. 1968-- Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee; James Earl Ray later convicted and sentenced to 99 years in prison. Poor Peoples March on Washington -- planned by King before his death -- goes on. 1973-- Maynard Jackson (Atlanta), first black elected mayor of a major Southern U.S. city. 1975--Voting Rights Act extended. 1978-- Supreme Court rules that medical school admission programs that set aside positions based on race are unconstitutional (Bakke decision). 1979-- Shoot-out in Greensboro, North Carolina, leaves five anti-Klan protesters dead; 12 Klansmen charged with murder. 1983-- Martin Luther King Jr. federal holiday established.



What Was America Like?

5th Grade & Elementary Social Studies, Literacy & Visual Arts Lesson By Joseph Germaine

Teaching History Through Art:

(The good old days!)
American Regionalism

OBJECTIVE Students will demonstrate an understanding of early and middle 20th century America by studying the work of the American Regionalist painters and writing a short essay on what they think life was like, what was different, what was surprising about people at that time based on the subject matter of the paintings. MATERIALS Reproductions and books of the work of Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton, John Steuart Curry, and perhaps Edward Hopper (a few are included on the CD). There are some other artists from the Utah collection that can be used such as Calvin Fletcher.

PROCESS: The learning thrust of this lesson is to study the work of American artist who painted works that depict Life in America and to help students develop an appreciation for what life was like in early 20th century America. Paintings can be a valuable window into the history of the past. This lesson can either have a broad range of times and places or in this case a much narrower view. We want to know what it was like to live in America in the 1920s and 1930s. This era includes post World War I, the Roaring 20s, the Stock Market Crash of 1929, the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl and the beginning of the move to Urbanization. This is a lively and dramatic period in American history and Grant Wood, The Birthplace of Herbert Hoover, West we are lucky to still have a few survivors of Branch, Iowa (1931), Public Domain the era with us. We will focus on the work of http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Grant_Wood_Birthplace_of_ the three premire Regionalists, Grant Wood, Herbert_Hoover_MIA_81105.jpg 1891-1942, Thomas Hart Benton, 18891975, and John Steuart Curry, 1897-1946. All three of these artists worked a lot in the rural, American Mid Western life genre. This is the American History we want to focus on. 89

Regionalism not only depicted rural American life but had a strong influence on what it actually was and how we all thought about it by championing an emerging American value system. These types of images were popular in periodicals and advertisements of the day. The regionalists were often called American Scene Painters. Even childrens books illustrations were influenced and they frequently turned their attention to the rural life as Americas cultural backbone. The basic concept of the Regionalist movement was that it was the peoples art and anyone could be depicted doing any normal everyday activity. Check out Holling Clancy Holling, author and illustrator of Paddle to the Sea, 1942 and many more. Do you think the culture was influenced by the art or was the art influenced by the culture? The answer is YES!

Covers of Paddle-to-the-Sea by Holling Clancy Holling and Blueberries for Sal by Robert McCloskey Both are images of book covers and are used here to illustrate the idea being discussed.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PaddleToTheSea.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/21/Blueberries_for_Sal.jpg

Using posters and prints, divide students into small discussion groups and let them choose which images to use for discussion. We usually focus on the 1920s and 1930s. The time focus can be broader or narrower depending on the part of the History and Social Studies Curriculum you are working on. For the Regionalists lesson we can focus on the work of Wood, Benton and Curry. There are other artists who fit somewhat into this category of recording American Life during the early 20th Century. Try the early work of Maynard Dixon, The Forgotten Man, 1934 or Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936. Some other related artists that would work for this project are some of the genre type paintings of Edward Hopper 1882-1967, George Bellows 1882-1925 and of course, Norman Rockwell 1894-1978. Even Mahonri Young painted and sculpted images of social reality. Have students choose several images of one artist. Let them discuss what this artist had to say in his paintings about what it was like to live in the good old days. Also address, how good it was or wasnt in the good old days. After a brief discussion about compare and contrast, have students write down what they observed in the artwork that relates to real life. Here are some questions for looking: >What were the homes like? What is similar and what is different? >What are the modes of transportation? Are they the same today? >What did the clothes look like? Would they look ok today? Would you wear them to school? 90

The point here is to compare and contrast our lives today in our homes and communities with the lives of people in the mid 20th century in their homes and communities as seen in the various artworks of the Regionalists. What was similar and what was different? How do you feel about it? Why are thing different or the same? Writing examples from the Good Old Days project. Arbor Day by Grant Wood In Arbor Day by Grant Wood it is a painting of school kids planting trees for Arbor Day. We did it too. The difference is how the school looks. In the picture it is a little wooden building with one big room. My school has many classrooms and is a large building. There is a kid pumping water for the tree and we have faucets and hoses. I guess they didnt have water inside their school either. The worst thing in this picture is the little white building behind the schoolhouse. Mr. Germaine said it was called a outhouse or a privy. It was the bathroom. It sounds really bad to me and Im positive I would wait until I got home. The kids all look barefoot but we have shoe rules even when it is hot. The clothes look different too. Way back in the back is a farmer plowing a field with a horse and in the very front is a man in a wagon with horses. Now we got tractors and cars. I am glad I live now but it looks sorta like fun to live in the olden days. I am glad I dont have to be in the same classroom with my little brother. That would really suck. By Kylie, 6th grade. The History of Country Music by Thomas Hart Benton I like this picture cause I love country music. It is all about country music. There are people singing and dancing and playing all kinds of instruments. We play the same instruments today but Im not sure the music sounds the same. It was probably old time music back then. There are fiddles and guitars and banjos. There is a instrument in the front that I dont know. Teacher said it is a dulcimer. Everybody is dressed different from us. The ladies have on funny hats like pioneers. They dont wear bonnet hats today. The train has smoke and way in the back is a steamboat with smoke. We dont have those today. We still got boats and trains but they are much better cause they are new. I like this picture cause its like I can hear it. By Dallin, 4th grade Image: Iowa Quarter, Reverse Side 2004 Image based on Grant Woods Arbor Day Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iowa_quarter,_reverse_side,_2004.jpg 91

>What does the rural landscape look like? Can you still see this open kind of country today? Where? >What inventions do you think changed how we live? >Research to find out when these inventions were made. >What T.V. shows do you think people watched? >What books do you think they were reading?

Tornado Over Kansas by John Steuart Curry It looks like a farm. There are too many animals. They dont have shoes. I have shoes. I only have a dog. There is a toy wagon in front. I like it. I dont even have a wagon. And there is a tornado coming but we dont get tornados now. By Bryant, 4th grade American Gothic by Grant Wood I dont like this picture too much. It is about olden times but it looks just like my Grandma and Grandpa do but they are older. My Grandpa wears overalls and is baldheaded too and my Grandma combs her hair the same and they dont like to smile too much. I dont think nothing much changes. Olden stuff is just old. By Reese, 3rd grade. This writing was submitted by the students and then entered into the computer. Some of the spelling and grammar errors are intact but most of the spelling errors have been corrected. I tend to let the students writing stand as is.

Students hold their chosen images for writing In The Good Old Days Left to right, Carrie holding Arbor Day by John Steuart Curry, Kalani holding The Wreck of Old 79, by Thomas Hart Benton, Josh holding Iowas Product by Grant Wood.


EXTENSIONS and VARIATIONS: For a different writing project, have students describe what it might have been like on a specific day and what they might find themselves doing and what they were doing it with. Have students name the day and place and what they were doing. The more specific the day and activity is, the easier it will be to describe. Read to each other in the discussion group and have fellow students evaluate. Have students create an original work of art that depicts the activities of the day they were writing about. Any medium will work. I like to use watercolor for this project, but use what ever you feeling comfortable with and have the resources to provide. For this kind of writing project I usually have students work from Calvin Fletchers 1929 painting Wash Day in Brigham City. REMEMBER: History is not what happened in the past but what was recorded about the past and MUSIC, DANCE, DRAMA and VISUAL ART are legitimate ways of recording something about what happened in the past. Oh Yeah! Everything is in the past because whatever you think is happening now is immediately the past the moment you think of it.

Rosie, 6th grade, holding an image of Wash Day in Brigham City, 1929 by Calvin Fletcher

The obvious way to extend this lesson is to have students take one of the Regionalists works and translate it visually into todays environment using current clothes and homes and technology and tools and inventions and living conditions. Pen and ink with watercolor is a good illustrative medium.

Another natural is to use the work of Norman Rockwell to learn about life in the early to mid 20th century. To extend this idea into other arts genre, students can write songs, choreograph dances or create dramatic interpretations of these genre paintings. Use the music of Woody Guthrie or Aaron Copelands music such as Billy The Kid, Appalachian Spring, Rodeo and Fanfare for the Common Man. Try using the photographic work of Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936 from the Great Depression and perhaps Maynard Dixons social commentary work, The Forgotten Man, 1934. Try using Edward Hoppers urban landscapes. Winslow Homer is a great hit among my elementary students. Of course we should not overlook the work of Utahs own regionalist genre painters such as George M. Ottingers, Self-Portrait as Fire Chief, 1877, James T. Harwoods Harvest Time in France, 1890, most of C.C.A Christensens work, Calvin Fletchers Washday in Brigham City, 1929, Irene Fletchers Cache Valley Innocence, LaConte Stewarts, Private Car, 1937, Carlos Andresons work, and many more. One of our favorite ways to learn history from art is to look through bound copies of old magazines like Life, Look, Times, National Geographic and so on. 93

Dont forget that all of this can be done in other culture such as Europe, Latin America and Asia. We have used the grand tradition in Japanese Woodblock Prints to see what life was like in the mid 17th and 20th centuries. The ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) is a genre of woodblock prints or woodcuts of extreme skill and beauty that depicts much of real life and drama. We use this to understand life in Japan while we create our own collagraphic prints based on ukiyo-e. Japanese history is hard for Westerners to grasp but the visuals tell an understandable story. RESOURCES: Utah Art by Swanson, Olpin and Seifrit, 1991 Artist in Overalls, The Life of Grant Wood by John Duggleby Thomas Hart Benton: A Life by Justin Wolff, 2012 Renegade Regionalists: The Modern Independence of Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton, and John Steuart Curry by James M. Dennis, 1998 Thomas Hart Benton: Drawing from Life by Henry Adams, 1993 John Steuart Curry: Inventing the Middle West by Patricia Junker, Charles C., Thomas Hart Benton, 1998 The Regionalists, by Julia Williams, 1976 DVDs Whos The Artist? Painters of the American Scene by Crystal Productions Dropping In On Grant Wood by Crystal Video

Websites: Arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/americanevolution/ This is a terrific website from the Corcoran Gallerys collection of American art. The exhibition is titled The American Evolution: A History through Art. There are over 200 images dating back to colonial times. This is were we get many of the images we use in this lesson.

http://smofa.org/collections/index.html I know this may be self-promoting but you should really check out the Springville Art Museums collection. This website is well organized and easy to navigate and a must, especially for studying Utah History. I use images from this site nearly everyday in my Elementary classroom. Check it out!

Irene Fletcher, Laid Off, and Cache Valley Innocence Carlos Andreson, A Break From Plowing 94

Elementary Social Studies & Visual Art Lesson

OBJECTIVE Students will demonstrate a chronological understanding and appreciation of Utah history as recorded in the art and artifacts of the past by organizing postcard-size images of Utah art and artifacts in chronological order and trying to glimpse the Nature of the Times as recorded in the artwork. MATERIALS Use the postcards from Springville Art Museum and put them in chronological order.

A Chronological History of Utah Art

Teaching History Through Art:

PROCESS This is a simple and accessible lesson that does not take a long time but can have powerful learning results. I first started doing this when Bob Nickelson printed up the postcards from the Springville Museum of Arts collection. Please get a set. I was not sure what to do with them until I had a group of very quick fourth graders on an inside rainy day. We played concentration and organized the 4 motifs of landscape, portrait, still life and design. It worked and really occupied their minds for the lunch hour. There are also some great sets of posters with lessons and history on the back that are available through the Museum. Before you get started, remind your students that this is only the history of Utah since the pioneers came in 1847. See the extensions lesson on the Native population of Utah, prepioneer settlement. Here is a way to use these postcard images to learn history. There are several sets of cards. Edit through so you can use about 9 or 10 that fill in a decent time line of artworks. Too many images will frustrate the younger students but with 5th and 6th graders, the more the merrier. Let the students know that just looking at subject matter isnt enough because some very recent artists have painted pictures of pioneers and Indians. Remind the students to look for stylistic clues to the dates. If students are struggling, try adding titles and artists names to their available information before they turn the postcards over. After the students have discussed the order and lined them up, without your interference, let them turn the cards over and check out the dates and then line them up again. Have them discuss what changed in their order, what didnt, and maybe why. This is a game. It should be fun and maybe a little noisy. Like all games, it should be repeated often. After a few times most students will know and remember the sequence. Mess with them by adding new or different images. I have some 6th grade students who can rattle off about 50 titles and artists and approximate dates. Can you? Maybe you should play this game with them. It is good to model learning to your students. It is amazing what one can learn from play. RESOURCES: The postcards come from The Springville Art Museum. The BYU Museum of Art also has a packet. Many museums have a collection of postcard size images to use. I have found that many 95

art institutions will send some images free of charge if you only ask. Dont be afraid to make your own more specific packets to help students learn history by studying art. Nearly everything we know about our ancient past is the Art that our progenitors produced going clear back to cave paintings. VARIATIONS and EXTENSIONS Try having the students line up the cards by birth date of the artists. It changes the order a lot. Try to find other ways of organizing and categorizing the images. I have also augmented the Springville cards by cutting up a copy of Utah Art to make more postcards. One of my families donated a tattered copy of the book, and I already had two in my classroom so we cut it up to make usable images to study from and to play the Chronology Game. I know that to many teachers, cutting up a book may sound horrific, so please forgive me. My only excuse is that small human minds were calling. Another way to use this idea is to make a set of postcard images of Native American artifacts from the Utah region. Some of the cultures you may want to research are the Paleo-Indian, 12000 years ago, Archaic Peoples, Fremont Culture, Basket Makers (early Anasazi), Anasazi, Shoshone, Goshute, Ute and Navajo. There are others. Many images can be legally downloaded from the Internet. Be carful. I have made replica artifacts for the Museum of Peoples and Cultures at BYU and have made other replica artifacts and use photographs of these items to avoid copyright issues. If you are interested, contact me at Shelley Elementary in American Fork.

Photography chronology is a terrific way to teach history. I have taught photography to my students for years and we have accrued a large number of historical photographs of Utah, (my students just love Elfie Anderson) the United States and of other regions of the world, especially the South Pacific and Hawaii. I feel good about using old books from D.I to cut out examples and to make postcard- size images. I dont believe there is any copyright infringement doing this. With a little imagination you will come up with your own way to use artistic statements and artifacts to teach your students history. The visual image is a powerful memory device.

Danika (4th), Brittney (4th), Cheyenne (6th), Laila (6th) studying the postcard images to determine the chronological order. The point here is to get students to really look at the images for subject matter and stylistic details and clues to learn from each other in a collaborative way.


It took this very talented group, along with Clayton (1st) over 40 minutes to agree on the order of the images. I helped by taking all of the figure sculptures out. Because the sculptures are mostly of historical figures it is confusing as to when they were created. We decided to do this again with sculptures only but the sculpture cards took in the whole history of mankind starting with the Lion Man, from the Hohlenstein-Stadel Caves in Germany about 30,000 BC. We are constantly updating the sculpture project which currently ends with Antony Gormleys Iron Man, 2005 and Anish Kapoors, Turning the World Upside Down, 2010.

Now they turn the cards over to see the accurate dates. There are 20 images to organize and they only had 7 in the right place although many were adjacent to the right images but in the wrong overall chronology. There was a lot of discussion, laughter and Oh Wows going on. This is an interesting spectator sport. It is also called learning. Remember: One cannot learn what one already knows and frequently the Joy of Learning can be noisy.


This is the finished order of the cards. It only took 5 minutes to arrange them once they had the correct dates. The students were encouraged to look carefully at the order. By the end of this project I noticed that these students were using title names and artist names to identify the images. This was self-taught and not necessarily part of the objective of this lesson. We all seem to be able to learn easily what we think we need to know. The next day they tried it again and got 17 out of 20 without looking at the dates and it only took 7 or 8 minutes. On the third try they got them all correct in just under 5 minutes without seeing the dates.


Teaching History Through Art

Elementary Music, Social Studies, and Visual Arts Lesson By Joseph Germaine

American Folk Music as Historical Insight

OBJECTIVES Students will demonstrate an understanding of folk music and traditional songs as a window into the historical past by learning to sing a traditional folk song, rewriting their own lyrics, and illustrating the song. MATERIALS Some common traditional tunes and lyrics in the form of CDs, DVDs or sheet music writing materials and whatever art supplies necessary for the illustration. (I usually have the students do pen and ink drawings with black ballpoint and use colored pencils if color is needed.) We also use the Internet extensively as well as our school library for research purposes. We also use the Orem Audio Librarys extensive collection of folk music. BACKGROUND: Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk music revival. The term originated in the 19th century but is often applied to music that is older. Some types of folk music are also called world music. Wikipedia suggests that traditional folk music is music transmitted by mouth, music of the lower class or common people, and as music with unknown composers. For our elementary grades purposes we will define folk music as music that tells a story about history.

The first step, of course, is to be exposed to and learn some simple and familiar folk songs. Here is a list of some obvious traditional songs that might be considered folk songs: All The Pretty Horses The Ants Go Marching The Bear Went Over The Mountain B-I-N-G-O Bicycle Built For Two My Darling Clementine Do Your Ears Hang Low This is Sophias illustration of Dem Bones. Home On The Range Sophia is in the first grade. 99

Ive Been Working On The Railroad Lavender Blue Dilly Dilly Little Liza Jane Dem Bones Down in the Valley The Erie Canal For Hes a Jolly Good Fellow Michael Row The Boat Ashore My Bonnie Lies Over The Ocean Oh Susannah, by Stephen Foster Polly Wally Doodle Red River Valley Row, Row, Row Your Boat Shell Be Coming Around The Mountain Skip To My Lou Buffalo Gals Cockles and Mussels When Johnny Comes Marching Home Yankee Doodle Dandy

Of course there are hundreds more, and you should choose the ones that you are familiar with and comfortable with so you can teach them to your Oh Susannah (banjo on my knee) students. I accompany the singing with ukulele but by Laila, 6th grade any instrument will do. I use the Uke instead of the piano because it is easier to maintain eye contact with my students and with very young students, eye contact is an essential part of the relationship. To make this a history-oriented lesson it is important to share some of the history of the music and some historical color commentary of the time and theme of the song to help students illustrate the song later.

PROCESS After students have sung several of the songs enough to remember them (it wont take long) it is time to illustrate the folksong. If some historical background is available and some discussion about what the song means it becomes very easy for the students to imagine a picture for the lyrics. I have the students first do the illustration in pen and ink. If they think that color would make the illustration better, then we have colored pencils to use for that. It can also be a watercolor project. If you want students to watercolor make sure you give them a heavier gauge paper like a 60 weight sulphite white. CRITERIAASSESSMENT If you keep the work as a pen and ink project, make sure the students are given the criteria of using black and white and three shades of gray all done with a black ballpoint. If it is a watercolor project, make sure they know to mix colors to get their own. If it is to be a colored pencil project, make sure the students use the Neat coloring strategy of short strokes, all going the same direction, slowly and carefully covering all the white paper, not rubbing your hand over the place you just colored, and mixing colors together to get your own. 100

Skip To My Lou, by James, 4th grade

When the students have completed their illustration it is time to rewrite the lyrics. Have them first sing the song (especially the rhythm and cadence) to your version, and then have them create their own words. For most students this is difficult because they want to do it all at once. So have them first think of subject matter for their song like pets, someplace they have been, something they like to do or eat or wear Make sure they start with a theme and the rest will fall into place. Help with rhyming, especially with young students. Help by proofreading to make sure the rhythm and beat work. Do not red-pencil the work. That is a kind of graffiti. Coach the students by asking pointed questions instead of telling them how to fix it. We want student ownership to be prominent. This is a short and simple lesson to present. The work comes in the research. Make sure you have done your research, so you can guide your students with theirs. Books, CDs, and Movies are great sources of history about somewhat obscure topics. American folk music is a powerful and unacknowledged folk literature. It is, in fact, a powerful expressive culture that reflects and dramatizes the same kinds of themes found in formal American literature: personal empowerment, freedom within a social structure, preserving tradition within a protean world, maintaining values, and finding strategies for seeking justice. Be assured that American folk music constitutes an important if much neglected chapter in American culture, and that its themes and concerns often overlap with those of the more formal culture. Instead of writing books and plays, the artists of the folk music tradition craft songs and ballads, hymns and protests. Their art has generally been oral, passed on by word of mouth, or by custom and imitation. One must remember that at the time most of what we think of as folk music was created by the average, common person who was illiterate. Singing and story telling was their literature. EXAMPLES: Here are some examples of what we have done in my class:

Bicycle Built For Two: This song was originally titled Daisy Belle. It was written by Harry Dacre and published in 1892. Dacre was an English composer who immigrated to the United States. He brought his bicycle with him to America and was charged a duty fee. A friend suggested that if it had been a bicycle for two he 101

would have been charged twice as much. Dacre was taken with the phrase, Bicycle Built for Two and soon used it in a song. The song was first performed in London but soon became a popular song in America. It was first published in 1892 and soon became a national hit. In those days before records, radio or T.V. a song became popular because of the printed sheet music. A point of interest is that the earliest patent for a tandem (fore to aft) bicycle built for two was not until 1898 by Danish inventor Mikael Pedersen. This only happened after the song became popular. Pedersen also invented a side by side bicycle called a sociable. In 1961 this song became the first song ever sung by a computer. It was also used in the 1968 film 2001: Space Odyssey and creepily sung by a mentally deteriorating computer named HAL 9000. Every song has a story. This is called HISTROY! Lyrics: The lyrics that most of us are familiar with are actually the chorus to the original. Daisy, Daisy, give me your answer, do Im half crazy all for the love of you. It wont be a stylish marriage, I cant afford a carriage, But youll look sweet upon the seat. Of a bicycle built for two. New lyrics by Milton, 3rd grade We like ice cream Give us a bowl today If you cant do it You better just go away ICECREAM IS WHAT WE WANT

We need to eat some right now We need to eat it some how But when were through Were telling you It really did taste like WOW!

Im not really sure what like wow means but I am assured that older High School sisters use it constantly. I believe it is considered retro.

The Lion Sleeps Tonight, by Mia, 1st grade

Oh, My Darling, Clementine: Oh, My Darling, Clementine is an American western folk ballad usually credited to Percy Montrose (1884). The song is believed to have been based on another earlier song called Down by the River Livd a Maiden by H. S. Thompson (1863). The melody is probably derived form an old Mexican love ballad popular during the California gold rush in 1849.

While the song starts out as a romantic ballad sung by a bereaved lover it rapidly deteriorates into a tongue-in-cheek parody. For example, in the second verse we learn that Clementines feet are so big that she has to wear boxesalso her feet were so big that she died from a splinter in her toe that caused 102

her to fall down and drown. Not exactly the stuff of a love song. Finally, the lover forgets Clementine after one kiss from her little sister. The exact setting for this song is a bit nebulous but is probably set during the California gold rush. Lyrics: In a cavern, in a canyon, Excavating for a mine Dwelt a miner forty niner, And his daughter Clementine Drove she ducklings to the water Evry morning just at nine, Hit her foot against a splinter, Fell into the foaming brine. Chorus Ruby lips about the water, Blowing bubbles, soft and fine, But, alas, I was not swimmer, So I lost my Clementine. Chorus How I missed her! How I missed her, How I missed my Clementine, But I kissed her little sister, I forgot my clementine.

Chorus Oh my darling, oh my darling, Oh my darling, Clementine! Thou art lost and gone forever Dreadful sorry, Clementine

Light she was and like a fairy, And her shoes were number nine Herring boxes, without topses, Sandals were for Clementine. Chorus

This is a good starter for studying about the westward movement and the California gold rush. There are many other verses that have been sung and published for this song. Some are not appropriate for young students. New Lyrics by Abe, 5th grade. Oh! A Black Cat In My Path

I was walking down the sidewalk When a black cat crossed my path It really scared me so I kicked it And my brother started to laugh I was sorry for the kitty So I kicked my brother too Then I figured out the problem I was wearing just one shoe

My brother cried and told my Mommy I was really scared by now I tried to fix it but I couldnt Just because I didnt know how If youre ever on the sidewalk And a big black cat walks by Turn around and walk away And by now you should know why

This was a somewhat collaborative effort with a couple of pals. They wouldnt let me see all of the verses and I didnt really want to. 103

Yankee Doodle: The origins of Yankee Doodle date back to the Seven Years War, (1754-1763). In North America it was known as the French and Indian War. Later it was sung as a patriotic American song and today it is the state anthem of Connecticut. Yankee Doodle is a pre-Revolutionary War song originally sung by British military officers to mock the disheveled and disorganized colonial Yankees with whom they had served during the French and Indian War. It is believed that the tune originally came from a British nursery rhyme, Lucy Locket. One version of the Yankee Doodle lyrics is generally attributed to Doctor Richard Shuckburgh, a British Army surgeon.

As a term, Doodle first appeared in the early seventeenth century, and is thought to derive from Low German dudel or dodel, meaning fool or simpleton. The Macaroni wig was an extreme fashion in the 1770s and became contemporary slang for foppishness. Macaroni, in mid-18th century England, was a fashionable fellow who dressed and even spoke in outlandishly affected and epicene manner. The term pejoratively referred to a man who exceeded the ordinary bounds of fashion. This pseudo-fashionable was also associated with the great-vowel-shift in London in the mid-1700s, which has given rise to what Americans think of as a British accent. The Macaronis were precursors to the dandies. The macaroni is also Italian type dumpling pasta associated with the ill-breed and regarded as coarse peasant fare. The implication here is that the Yankees were so unsophisticated that they thought that sticking a feather in a cap would make them the height of fashion. By the end of the Revolutionary War the Colonial Soldiers had adopted it as a comic marching song, which of course defused its anti-colonial propaganda intensions. There is a good lesson in there about how to overcome bullying slander. There are some terrific paintings that could accompany this song. Try The Spirit of 76 by Archibald MacNeal Willard, circa 1875. (on the CD, and on the next page, upper right)

The history of words, their pronunciation and meaning and evolution is called Etymology. The study of language is called Linguistics and Literacy is the study of reading and writing and Orthography is the study and use of standardized systems for using writing symbols. You can see that there are many kinds of historical research that does not focus on politics and war. Lyrics: The earliest known version of the lyrics comes from 1755. Before it was Yankee Doodle, it was Brother Ephraim, probably Colonial Ephraim Williams of the Massachusetts Colonial Militia Brother Ephraim sold his Cow And bought him a commission; And then he went to Canada To fight for the Nation;

But when Ephraim he came home He proved an arrant coward, He wouldnt fight the Frenchmen there For fear of being devourd (Note that the sheet music, which accompanies these lyrics, reads, The Words to be Sung through the Nose, & in the West Country drawl & dialect.) There are many versions and a long list of verses but here is todays version. 104

YANKEE DOODLE Yankee Doodle went to town A-riding on a pony, Stuck a feather in his cap And called it macaroni.

Chorus: Yankee doodle keep it up, Yankee doodle dandy, Mind the music and the step, And with the girls be handy.

Fathr and I went down to camp, Along with Captain Gooding, And there we saw the men and boys As thick as hasty pudding. Chorus:

Hasty pudding was a popular poor persons food in both England and America. It was made of boiled milk and grain: wheat or oats or corn. It was thick and sticky but it worked. My grandmother called it Lumpy Dick. It was a Mormon Pioneer staple. New Lyrics: I taught Yankee Doodle to my first graders. I was surprised that no one knew this song although some thought it was familiar but couldnt remember any lyrics. After singing it 5 or 6 times they all pretty well knew the words and for sure knew the melody. Kindergarteners and first graders have a very hard time with rhyme because they dont understand syllables. We write songs by using alliteration. That is, we list on the board all of the words we can think of that start with the same sound; in this case, the Y sound. We then edit through them to find words and syllables that fit the rhythm and cadence of the tune. These songs dont make any sense, but we have learned something sensible from the nonsense. YUCKY YODLE Yucky Yodel You Yo-Yo Yellow Years Youre Yawning Yahoo Yesterday Yard Yam Eucalyptus Yogurt

O.K. eucalyptus doesnt start with a Y but it does have a Y sound and it fits and this is ART! When we sing the new lyrics the students are so excited, but I have had concerned parents call to know why we were perverting patriotic songs. They were not calmed by my explanation that the original song was a put down to patriotic Americans, and the song the kids created was not related to either the original Yankee Doodle or the drinking song melody that the verse was based on. 105

When Johnny Comes Marching Home The lyrics to When Johnny Comes Marching Home were written by an Irish-American band leader, Patrick Gilmore, during the American Civil War. The first sheet music publication was in 1863 and was credited to Louis Lambert. Lambert was actually Gilmore but published under a pseudonym probably because Irish immigrants were not very popular in the United States at the time. Gilmore is said to have written the song for his sister who was engaged to a young Army officer. There is some speculation that the tune was originally an Army drinking song, Jonny Fill Up The Bowl. When Johnny Comes Marching Home was immensely popular in both the North and the South during the war. It was also very popular in England and has been revived many times as new wars are fought and young soldiers march away. The childrens song, The Ants Go Marching Two By Two was written to the same melody. Lyrics: The original lyrics written by Gilmore are: When Johnny comes marching home again Hurrah! Hurrah! Well give him a hearty welcome then Hurrah! Hurrah! The men will cheer and the boys will shout The ladies they will turn out And well all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home.

The old church bell will peal with joy Hurrah! Hurrah! To welcome home our darling boy, Hurrah! Hurrah! The village lads and lassies say With roses they will strew the way, And well all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home. (The song was originally published with two more verses.)

New Lyrics: Here are some new lyrics written by a sixth grader using the words to Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address. Four score and seven years ago, hurrah hurrah Our fathers made something new and then, hurrah hurrah A new nation in liberty And dedicated to equality They all gave their lives so our nation might survive Any nation so conceived, hurrah hurrah And dedicated can long endure, hurrah hurrah They gave their lives so we could live Those brave men living and dead They all gave their lives so our nation might survive


The whole world will little note, hurrah hurrah Or long remember what we say, hurrah hurrah But well never forget what they did here Its for the living to finish the work For they who fought here have so nobly advanced

It is for us to be dedicated, hurrah hurrah To this great task remaining for us, hurrah hurrah That government of the people By the people and for the people Shall never perish from upon the earth I wrote these words to Johnny Came Marching Home but I used the words to the Gettysburg Address by Lincoln. They didnt exactly match up and I had to add some extra syllables to make it work. I dont think President Lincoln will mind. Mr. Germaine gave me a book of famous speeches and I took it home and worked on it all weekend. I got a little help from my sister but it is mostly mine. Our Dad was in Afghanistan and when I read the speech and sang the old song it made me think of him. When I showed it to him he cried a little. By Jared, 6th grade

Avard Tennyson Fairbanks, Portrait Bust of Abraham Lincoln (1963) SMA Collection

This is a little long for a short lesson outline, but I wanted to share this beautiful story with you. What we do as art teacher really does matter. Jason is a gifted young student who can draw amazing pictures with words. We need it all.

RESOURCES Teaching American History With Favorite Folk Songs, by Tracey West. This book includes a CD and song sheets. A Folk Song History of America, by Samuel L. Forcucci. This book is a little deep for most Elementary students but is great for teachers to develop a little background to teach from. Folk Song Style and Culture, by Alan Lomax. This book is written by the most important folk music archivist in America and is chuck full of interesting tid bits about things we think we know but dont. Patriotic Music Companion Fact Book: The Chronological History of Our Favorite Traditional American Folk Songs. A great resource but pretty intense. Life Flows On in Endless Song: Folk Songs and American History (Music in America series) by Robert V. Wells. This is a beautiful book with a gentle sentiment about American music. 107

DVD: Classic American Folk Music Films DVD: 1940s-1950s Historic Folk life, Folksongs, Folk Dance, and Historical Films featuring Pete Seeger playing the banjo, 2006. If you are not already a fan of Pete Seeger, this DVD will make you one. I use it a lot.

WEBSITES www.sqidoo.com>Music>Music Genres>Folk This site is thick and leads to other interesting fact sites. www.contemplator.com/america/ This site is primarily an extensive list of popular songs in America by date, subject matter and style. americanfolklore.net/folklore/2010/10/american_folksongs.html This is a great site for lyrics of many folksongs and stories for children. Also try Wikipedia.com EXTENSIONS Remember that HISTORY is not what happened in the past but rather it is what was recorded about what happened in the past. Songs are a historical record as are paintings and drawings and writings. Not all history is old. History happens the moment one records it. It is the moment after NOW! The past is all around us. It does not disappear or go away. Sometimes we are unaware of it, but that of course is a choice we make. It is still there to be discovered.

Here are some of the many variations and extensions to this folk music lesson: Try to broaden the scope of the lesson to include World Music folk traditions. In third-world countries where literacy is not universal, the singing and story-telling tradition is the cultural glue that holds the culture together. The Mexican culture has an amazingly large body of folk music that tells the story of their development as a cultural and national identity. Many American folk song catalogues include familiar Mexican songs. Most of us know La Bamba, Cielito Lindo, La Cucaracha, or Besame Mucho. I have many Spanish-speaking students in my art classes and using traditional music in their language is always a big hit. Dont forget Irish and British folk songs, Italian and German, Native American, Caribbean, Asian, and Pacific Islander songs: all reveal insight into the culture and histories.

Instead of illustrating the folk songs in this lesson, we can create dances that illustrate the story in the folk song. I am aware that most of you have the same performance anxiety that I have about dancing, but I promise you that dancing a little ditty that illuminates the words to Shell Be Coming Round The Mountain, or Yankee Doodle will open learning vistas for you and your students that you cannot get to in any other ways. To make a dance project from a folk song, it is pretty important for you as the learning facilitator to first demonstrate. It is ok to work within the range of your current limitations, but it is not ok to abdicate. One only gets good at dancing by dancing. Solo dances are great, but group choreographed dances rock (no pun intended). Get the students together in groups and have them create dance steps to dramatize the story in the song. Freeform and free association of body movement to a song is also a powerful learning activity. The more parts of your brain you use to learn an idea the easier it is to retrieve the information when you need to use it. This is all true for Dramatic presentation of folk song content also. My older students can improvise a dramatic scenario to one of these songs at the drop of a hat. Once the more bashful and retiring students see their learning colleagues risking it to make a dramatic point and have some fun, the easier it is to get them all out of their protective shell and into the expressive world that we are supposed to be introducing and making available. One of our tried and true upper grades (5th & 6th) homework assignments is to research the oldest (whatever we are studying) they can find. This is mostly a computer search project and not everyone 108

has the resource. I asked the students to try to find the oldest song in America. They found one called Old 100. It was published in 1612 by Henry Ainsworth, eight years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. The lyrics were the words to Psalm 100 and sung to an older tune, Shout to Jehovah all the Earth. Unfortunately, we were never able to find an audio recording of this song, but we did find a reprint of the sheet music. The oldest American published song we have found so far is The Bay Psalm Book, printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1640 without music but with a preface written by John Cotton. What is the oldest song known to history? In 1972 Professor Anne Kilmer at U.C. Berkley transcribed one of the oldest known pieces of music notation in the world. The music had been written on clay tablets in the cuneiform style in the Hurrian language and found in the Ugarit ruins in Syria. The tablets date back to approximately 1400 B.C. and contain a hymn to the moon gods wife, Kikal. The tablets also contain detailed performance instructions for a singer and harpist. I wonder how many songs have been sung to and about the moon.

Another variation to this lesson is the focus on the work of Stephen Foster (1826-1864). Many of the old minstrel songs that he wrote have older antecedents in the Slave Spirituals tradition but since these were never published Foster got the copyright. Foster is considered by most historians to be the first great American songwriter. He is best known for songs such as Camp Town Races, Old Folks At Home, My Old Kentucky Home, Old Black Joe, and Beautiful Dreamer, to name a few. Have students learn the song and create aesthetic responses to the music in the form of visual art, dance, drama, or other music. One of our favorite things to do with this original folk song lesson is to scan the original lyrics, the new lyrics and student illustrations and maybe some history into the computer, print them up and then trade them between the students and have students collate them into homemade books. There are a lot of Evening for Educators bookmaking lessons and many fine bookbinding resources in books and online sites. Just Google bookbinding.

Other associated projects that we have tried are to write our own folk songs about specific historical subjects. With fourth grade we usually write a pioneer westward movement song and sing it on our annual handcart trek. Sometime we collaborate on a specific song about the history of American Fork. These songs are seldom worth remembering past the class but are great learning devices. If you learn it in a song, you will always remember it. Other song and illustration subjects are War, Politics, Native Americans, Pioneers, Gold Rush, Local Geography and Western History. For one more variation on this folk music project, we decided to write a song about the history of American Fork. This was a 6th grade project and we did this in class and at home after reading a short history of American Fork that we found online. The first thing was to decide what melody we wanted to use. Students were invited to bring in songs that they thought would be accessible for new lyrics. This of course bred a lot of heated argument as each class divided up into red and blue states and couldnt agree on anything but we were able to find common ground based on common need and emphasizing common good, so we could get the job done and move on. In the end most of the students settled on an old Johnny Horton song, The Battle of New Orleans that was a hit back in 1959. Hey! There is some history to it. Each work group wrote a verse based on a segment of the towns history and added a chorus. This is what they came up with. It may be a little cumbersome to fit the lyrics into the old melody, but the history is accurate. 109


In 1850 we loaded up our carts We left Salt Lake City with very heavy hearts. In 1852 Utah Lake looked so pretty We started up a town and called it Lake City. Chorus: First there were the Adams then there were the Chipmans And then there were the Eldredges, Ira & John We settled by the river---The natives werent too happy We had to build a fort but it didnt last too long In 1860 we changed our name cities name To American Fork but the town was still the same We started up some farms and upend up some stores & The first Territory Public School, who could ask for more? Chorus: We got the railroad in 1870 Had a feud with Lehi over the sugar factory.

Well we got down to business and built Geneva Steel Mill We celebrate the Steel Days and probably always will. We built ourselves a Hospital and fancy Health Care Center They filmed us in The Sandlot, Footloose and in all the other.

By 1890 it was all a done deal We built A.F. Co-operative and Chipmans Mercantile

Chorus: There used to be big fields and chicken coups and barns A lot of open spaces and a lot of family farms.

Now our town is growing with houses and with stores And everywhere you look there are people with lawn mowers.


Teaching History Through Art:

Life and Death Masks Abraham Lincoln

Upper Elementary, Junior High, High School Social Studies and Visual Arts Lesson By Elicia Gray

OBJECTIVES Students will investigate the artworks of Malin, Porter, Dallin and Fraughton. Students will evaluate the difference between Lincolns life masks in 1860 and 1865. Students will learn some interesting facts about Abraham Lincoln. Students will generate a plaster Life Mask much like the one belonging to Abraham Lincoln. Students will compose a freestyle poem based on their Life Mask. Students will become part of a team as they create and display their Life Masks.

UTAH STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Social Studies Fifth Grade Core (Standard 4) Students will understand that the 19th century was a time of incredible change for the United States, including geographic expansion, constitutional crisis, and economic growth. -Evaluate the course of events of the Civil War and its impact both immediate and long-term. -Identify the key ideas, events, and leaders of the Civil War using primary sources. Visual Arts Objectives Standard 1 (Making): Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Standard 2 (Perceiving): Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Standard 3 (Expressing): Students will create meaning in art Standard 4 (Contextualizing): Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning.

MATERIALS Chief John Duncan, Ute, Millard Fillmore Malin; Negro Head, Elbert Hindley Porter; One Nation, Edward J. Fraughton; Jimbo (1928) Cyrus Edwin Dallin; Phillip, Son of Kicking Bear, Cyrus Edwin Dallin; (all SMA and on CD), Documentaries about Lincolns Life Masks (History Channel), Abraham Lincoln Life Masks Worksheet, Vaseline, hair dryers, plaster gauze, paper

ACTIVITY 1. Ask students the following question: How much can you tell about an individual just by looking at their appearance? Show students the sculptures by Malin, Porter, Fraughton, and Dallin. Divide students into groups and give each group a picture of one of the sculptures. Invite them to make a list of the things they can infer just by looking at the images. How old are the individ111


3. 4.


6. 7.

8. 9.

uals? What is their ethnicity? Have they experienced loss? Do they seem innocent? Share the following quote from Edward J. Fraughton: My quest as a sculptor has been to sculpt a three-dimensional design. Sculpture should never be designed from a narrow point of view. The best sculpture makes you move around it. A painter directs your eye from one part of the picture to another, the sculptor surrounds it. How can sculptures give us a better likeness of an individual? Pass out the Abraham Lincoln Life Masks worksheet, and invite students to scrutinize the masks. What can they infer? Are the masks on one side of the worksheet different than those on the other side of the worksheet? What are the similarities? What are the differences? Are students able to infer more about Lincoln because they are familiar with his life? Pass out the Abraham Lincoln True/False quiz, and ask students to make their best guesses about the information given. (All of the answers are true) Discuss the answers in detail, and talk about the reasons why Abraham Lincoln wasand isa beloved figure in American history. (Some answers may include: He freed the slaves, He united a country that was divided, He was honest, He came from a poor family and still became the President of the United States and so forth.) Show one of the documentaries from the History Channel about Death masks (some links are provided below). Point out that Death masks (or life masks) were often made of prominent individuals because they provided a complete record of the way a face looked. They were even more precise than a photograph because of their threedimensional nature. Explain that life and death masks were created by placing plaster/gauze strips on the face and allowing the plaster to dry. When the plaster was dry, the mask was removed, creating a perfect cast of the individual. The cast was then filled with beeswax or other materials that could be cast in bronze. Invite students to re-visit the life masks of Lincoln, and this time, point out that these two masks were made only five years apart, yet Lincoln seems to have aged considerably more than that. What are some of the things that may have aged Lincoln so quickly? Experts have hypothesized that the burdens of his high office may explain his premature aging. Some other reasons may include: He never could escape the pressures of being the Commander in Chief. He was emotionally connected to every wound experienced in the Civil War. He was painfully aware of the more than 600,000 lives that were lost in the Civil War. He experienced loss on a very personal level as wellout of his four children, only one lived to see adulthood. Stress accelerates the aging process. Explain that many times life experiences are shown in subtle ways in our appearance. Point out that just like Lincoln, our faces may tell a story as well. Inform students that they will be making their own life masks, similar to Abraham Lincoln. 112

ASSESSMENT Teacher will evaluate the Abraham Lincoln Quiz. Teacher should carefully review the freestyle poem and the Lincoln Life Maskswhat I learned worksheet. Teacher will monitor student involvement as students are working together. Teacher will also evaluate the masks, looking for evidence of effort, originality, and completion. SOURCES http://myloc.gov/Multimedia/LincolnLifeMasks.aspx http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JE7lHV0J41w http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1Jp7wQh8C8

10. Organize students into groups of three. Each student will have the chance to be a doctor, a nurse, and a patient. The doctor applies the plaster, the nurse cuts the strips, and the patient has the plaster put upon his/her face. Remind students that they must be patient during the whole process. When Lincoln was asked about the plaster experience in 1860 he said it was Anything but pleasant. 11. Before you begin, make sure that each group has 1 hair dryer, 1 warm bucket of water, 1 long strip of plaster (4-6 feet long) and one pair of old scissors. The patient will sit on the table. The patient must cover his/her face with Vaseline. The patient must also cover his/her lap and shoulders with old shirts or aprons. 12. The nurse (whose hands should remain dry) will cut strips of plaster about 1x4 in diameter. The doctor will then soak one strip at a time in warm water for a couple of seconds, and then apply the plaster to the patients face. Begin with an X in between the eyes, and overlap strips after that. When finished, the mask should have 2-3 layers of plaster. 13. When the layers are complete, use a hair dryer to quickly dry plaster. Before removing the mask, have the teacher check for hardness. The teacher may remove the mask by pulling gently on the edges. 14. When the first mask is finished, have students trade places so that each person in the group has the chance to be the doctor, the nurse, and the patient. 15. After all of the masks have been completed, compare the masks to the sculptures that students encountered at the beginning of the lesson. What are the similarities? What are the differences? Then have students compare their masks with the Lincoln Life Masks. What are the similarities and differences? 16. Just as they did with the Lincoln masks, have students spend some time evaluating their own images. Have students make a list of the things they observe. What stories do their faces tell? What kinds of life experiences might be portrayed? Then have students make predictions. If they were to make the same masks in five years how would they change? What kinds of things would be evident in their faces? 17. Using the lists they just composed, have students create a freestyle poem about their mask. Students should include brief tidbits about their own appearance, as well as information about their life and/or future life. Also invite students to create a title for their mask. 18. Display masks and poems in the hall for everyone to see. Are other students able to identify who the mask belongs to? What other observations do other students make about the masks? 19. Have students fill out the Lincoln Life Maskswhat I learned worksheet and discuss findings.

ADAPTATIONS Some students are extremely nervous about the idea of putting plaster on their faces. For these students, you may provide a plastic mask for them to plaster, or you may ask another student to be proxy 113

so that every student still ends up with a mask. If students do not have a mask of their own face made, have them evaluate a photograph of themselves for the introspective part of the lesson. VARIATIONS Have students paint or decorate their masks, and explain that traditional masks fit into a number of different categories. Some may include disguise, protection, entertainment, or concealment. Explore the different types of masks that can be found in different countries throughout history.

EXTENSION Complete an authentic rendition of a Life Mask by pouring beeswax or plaster into the mold that students have created. You may also choose to gently place clay inside of the mold. These types of masks would be much easier to compare to those that were made of Abraham Lincoln.


Life Masks

Abraham Lincoln




_______1. He was known as The Great Emancipator. _______2. He felt enslaved as a child. _______3. He didnt shy away from a fistfight. _______4. He wanted to be a man of peace, but was prepared to be a man of force. _______5. He was full of fun and loved frolicking and laughing. _______6. He said, Let us have faith that right makes might. _______7. He was an inventor. _______8. He tested new weapons by shooting them on the White House lawn. _______9. He was the tallest U.S. President at 64. _______10. His tall hat once saved his life by taking a bullet for him. _______11. He created the Secret Service the day before he was assassinated. _______12. He was photographed with his killer. _______13. He was the most photographed person of his time. _______14. The second most photographed person of Lincolns time was an actor named John Wilkes BoothThe same man who later shot and killed him. _______15. He had four children, and only one survived into adulthood. _______16. He was the first president to have a beard. _______17. His wife was called Mary Todd Lincoln, who was brought up into a very wealthy family. _______18. Marys parents disagreed with her marrying Abraham because he had a poor background. _______19. He was strong, and a talented wrestler. _______20. Lincoln, one week before his death, had a dream of someone crying in the White House. When he found the room, he looked in and asked who had passed away. The man in the room said the President. When he looked in the coffin, it was his own face he saw.

Abraham Lincoln
True or False


Take a few minutes to reflect on your experience with the Life Masks. Think about some of the things that we discussed what were the most interesting things you remember? What were some of your ah-Ha! moments? Make a list of at least ten of these ideas. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Lincoln Life MasksWhat I learned



Jazz Music and the Clash of Culture in the 1920s

5th Grade High School Music & Social Studies Lesson By Jeffery D. Nokes BACKGROUND One of the themes of the 1920s in United States history is the clash between traditional culture and rapidly changing society. An influx of immigrants, the growth of cities, new technologies, the newlywon right to vote for women, continued racial discrimination, new scientific theories, Prohibition, and new forms of music were all causes and symptoms of this clash. This lesson uses jazz music, and peoples reaction to it, as a medium for exploring this cultural clash.

Teaching History Through Art:

OBJECTIVES 1. Students will explore the clash between tradition and change that occurred during the 1920s. 2. Students will make connections between the recurring historical clash between tradition and change and current similar conflicts. 3. Students will contrast jazz music produced in the 1920s with other forms of popular music from that era. 4. Students will practice sourcing and perspective acknowledgement when working with primary source historical documents. 5. Students will use historical documents as evidence to support an interpretation of a historical question.

MATERIALS 1. Copy of Jazz Document Analysis graphic organizer for each student 2. Copy of Jazz Age Documents for each student 3. PowerPoint presentation with embedded music links (for anticipatory set) and documents (for document analysis activity) if possible

PROCEDURES 1. Anticipatory set: play students an example of jazz music from the 1920s followed by music that would not be considered jazz. Allow students to discuss the difference between the two songs. Continue to alternate between jazz and non-jazz through 4 or 5 selections with students discussing the characteristics of all of the examples and how they are different from the non-examples. Students might name the examples as being jazz and should point out characteristics of jazz such as scatting, riffing (you might have to give these terms as students give descriptions of what they hear), African American performers, spontaneity, certain types of instruments, etc. 119

Examples: When the Saints go Marching in http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wyLjbMBpGDA When Youre Smilin http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOH_mioL3TU Big Butter and Egg Man from the West http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1g2BH2Wi1Q Tiger Rag http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CaPeks0H3_s Singin the Blues http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Ue9igC7flI Saint Louis Blues http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2TUlUwa3_o Non-Examples: Carolina Moon http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-GkoZBOfVaw That Old Irish Mother of Mine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUJkcFU6D-c Ill be with You in Apple Blossom Time http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LREpVzEQ1T8 My Little Bimbo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wPW_u7HH8DM Old Man River http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eh9WayN7R-s T for Texas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEIBmGZxAhg

Below are links to some examples and non-examples that are available on youtube:

2. Document Analysis Activity A. Explain to students that in spite of the seemingly harmless sound of songs like When Youre Smilin there was considerable opposition to jazz music. The students are going to consider two questions as they look at historical documents: 1) Why was there opposition to jazz music? 2) How did jazz musicians respond to the opposition? B. Pass out the Jazz Document Analysis graphic organizer C. Model for the students your analysis of the excerpt from the magazine. Show them how to consider the source. Talk them through filling out the first row of their graphic organizer. D. Model with students an analysis of the quote from a Denver Co-ed. Have them contrast this source with the previous source. E. Allow students to work in groups on the remaining documents. Circulate as they work. F. After they have finished all of the documents in their packet, show the video: I Love to Singa (Warner Brothers, 1936). (This can be found online). Consider it as an artifact of 1936. (Analyze it like an archeologist would think about an old piece of pottery or other artifact). What do you observe in the video? (For example, the traditional musicians speak with a German accent.) What can you infer based on your observations? (Classical music came out of Germany and so classical musicians were more often opposed to jazz.) 120

ASSESSMENTS 1. The anticipatory set is meant to be inductive. Help students self-assess their understanding of jazz music as you play examples and non-examples, discovering and refining their ideas as the activity continues. 2. The graphic organizer provides a chance to review whether students understand and apply the sourcing strategy when working with documents and whether they use the documents as evidence to support their interpretations. 3. The graphic organizer can be used to assess their ability to make connections between historical cultural clash and current cultural clashes.

G. Engage the whole class in a debriefing. Discuss the two original questions. Why was their opposition to jazz music? How did jazz musicians respond to the opposition? Require students to cite specific examples from the documents to support their interpretations (For example, a student might claim that the jazz musicians embraced their bad reputations. Both the concert advertisement and the photograph suggest that the jazz musicians wanted to be seen as rebellious.) The graphic organizer provides a place for them to write answers these questions, either on their own before discussion, or during a class discussion. H. If there is time left in class, discuss with the whole class other instances of the cultural clash of the 1920s. (For example, the Scopes Monkey Trial or women bobbing their hair.) Ask students if they can think of examples of a current cultural clash where some people favor tradition and others favor something new. The graphic organizer provides a place for them to answer these questions, either on their own or during a class discussion.

ADAPTATIONS/EXTENSIONS 1. Students might read the entire article Does Jazz put the Sin in Syncopation? rather than the short excerpt. 2. Discuss one or more of the following clashes between tradition and change in the 1920s a. The Scopes Monkey Trial b. Prohibition c. The Harlem Renaissance vs. the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan d. Changing clothing styles for women e. Changes in courtship 3. Lead the class in a discussion about the dangers of eliminating some traditions and the dangers of clinging to other traditions? How should you judge?


Jazz Age Documents Document 1: Magazine Article Excerpt

Therefore, it is somewhat of a rude awakening for many of these parents to find that America is facing a most serious situation regarding its popular music. Welfare workers tell us that never in the history of our land have there been such immoral conditions among our young people, and in the surveys made by many organizations regarding these conditions, the blame is laid on jazz music and its evil influence on the young people of to-day. Never before have such outrageous dances been permitted in private as well as public ballrooms, and never has there been used for the accompaniment of the dance such a strange combination of tone and rhythm as that produced by the dance orchestras of today. Source: Excerpt from Does Jazz Put the Sin in Syncopation? by Anne Shaw Faulkner, head of the Music Department, General Federation of Womens Clubs. Published in Ladies Home Journal, August 1921. (See full text below). Document 2: Quote 1 from an interview

To me the Jazz Age signifies an age of freedom in thought and action. The average young person of today is not bound by the strict conventions which governed the actions of previous generations. Source: Unidentified Denver Coed, Sunset Magazine, 1926. Found at http://www. trailend.org/dow-jazzage.htm

John Held Jr., Dancin in the Jazz Age (1920) SMA

When my grandmother found out I was playing jazz music in one of the sporting houses in the District, she told me that I had disgraced the family and forbade me to live at the house She told me that devil music would surely bring about my downfall but I just couldnt put it behind me.

Document 3: Quote 2 from an interview

Source: Jelly Roll Morton, jazz composer. Culture Shock: The TV Series and Beyond: The Devils Music: 1920s Jazz, PBS. 122

Document 4: Political Cartoon

Caption reads: These men were great from the ears up, but now you have to be great from the knees down. Source: Political cartoon from the mid 1920s. Source unknown. Document 5: Photograph

Source: King Olivers Creole Jazz Band 1923 by an unidentified photographer. (This is a copyrighted photo, but teachers can use a copy in their classroom. Original is at the Louisiana State Museum. http://www.knowla.org/image.php?rec=298 Document 6: Ad

Source: Advertisement for a Jazz concert by the Lucas Jazz band, mid 1920s, Buffalo, New York This is a recreation of the ad (all that was readable). A larger copy is included on the CD.


We have all been taught to believe that music soothes the savage beast, but we have never stopped to consider that an entirely different type of music might invoke savage instincts. We have been content to accept all kinds of music, and to admit music in all its phases into our homes, simply because it was music. It is true that frequently father and mother have preferred some old favorite song or dance, or some aria from opera, to the last best seller which has found its way into the home circle; but, after all, young people must be entertained and amused, and even if the old-fashioned parents did not enjoy the dance music of the day, they felt it could really do no harm, because it was music.

Does Jazz Put the Sin in Syncopation? by Anne Shaw Faulkner, head of the Music Department of the General Federation of Womens Clubs. Published in Ladies Home Journal, August 1921,pp. 16-34.

Therefore, it is somewhat of a rude awakening for many of these parents to find that America is facing a most serious situation regarding its popular music. Welfare workers tell us that never in the history of our land have there been such immoral conditions among our young people, and in the surveys made by many organizations regarding these conditions, the blame is laid on jazz music and its evil influence on the young people of to-day. Never before have such outrageous dances been permitted in private as well as public ballrooms, and never has there been used for the accompaniment of the dance such a strange combination of tone and rhythm as that produced by the dance orchestras of today. Certainly, if this music is in any way responsible for the condition and for the immoral acts which can be traced to the influence of these dances, then it is high time that the question should be raised: Can music ever be an influence for evil?

The Rebellion In history there have been several great periods when music was declared to be an evil influence, and certain restrictions were placed upon the dance and the music which accompanied it. But all of these restrictions were made by the clergy, who have never been particularly enthusiastic about dancing anyway. Today, however, the first great rebellion against jazz music and such dances as the toddle and the shimmy comes from the dancing masters themselves. Realizing the evil influence of this type of music and dancing, the National Dancing Masters Association, at their last session, adopted this rule: Dont permit vulgar cheap jazz music to be played. Such music almost forces dancers to use jerky half-steps, and invites immoral variations. It is useless to expect to find refined dancing when the music lacks all refinement, for, after all, what is dancing but an interpretation of music? Several of the large dance halls in the big cities are following the lead of the proprietor of one of them in Chicago, who, when he opened his establishment a few years ago, bravely advertised that no jazz music and no immoral dances would be allowed on his floor. His announcement was met with ridicule, but his dance hall has become the most popular one in Chicago. The place is crowded every evening, and yet nothing except waltzes and two-steps are allowed on the floor and absolutely no jazz music is tolerated. That jazz is an influence for evil is also felt by a number of the biggest country clubs, which have forbidden the corset check room, the leaving of the hall between dances and the jazz orchestras--three evils which have also been eliminated from many municipal dance halls, particularly when these have been taken under the chaperonage of the Womens Clubs. 124

King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra, Houston, Texas (1921)

Photo by Robert Runyon, University of Texas at Austin, Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jazzing_orchestra_1921.png

Still another proof that jazz is recognized as producing an evil effect is the fact that in almost every big industry where music has been instituted it has been found necessary to discontinue jazz because of its demoralizing effect upon the workers. This was noticed in an unsteadiness and lack of evenness in the workmanship of the product after a period when the workmen had indulged in jazz music.

Many people classify under the title of jazz all music in syncopated rhythm, whether it be the ragtime of the American Negro or the csardas of the Slavic people. Yet there is a vast difference between syncopation and jazz. To understand the seriousness of the jazz craze, which, emanating from America, has swept over the world, it is time that the American public should realize what the terms ragtime and jazz mean; for the words are not synonymous, as so many people suppose.

The Elements of Music Out of Tune Jazz is not defined in the dictionary or encyclopedia. But Groves Dictionary of Music says that ragtime is a modern term of American origin, signifying in the first instance broken rhythm and melody, especially a sort of continuous syncopation. The Encyclopedia Britannica sums up syncopation as the rhythmic method of tying two beats of the same note into one tone in such a way as to displace the accent. Syncopation, this curious rhythmic accent on the short beat, is found in its most highly developed forms in the music of the folk who have been held for years in political subjection. It is, therefore, an expression in music of the desire for that freedom which has been denied to its interpreter. It is found in its most intense forms among the folk of all the Slavic countries, especially in certain districts of Poland and Russia, and also among the Hungarian gypsies. For the same reason it was the natural expression of the American Negroes and was used by them as the accompaniment for their bizarre dances and cakewalks. Negro ragtime, it must be frankly acknowledged, is one of the most important and distinctively characteristic American expressions to be found in our native music. Whether ragtime will be the cornerstone of the American School of Music may be a subject for discussion; but the fact remains that many of the greatest compositions by past 125

and present American composers have been influenced by ragtime. Like all other phases of syncopation, ragtime quickens the pulse, it excites, it stimulates; but it does not destroy.

What of jazz? It is hard to define jazz, because it is neither a definite form nor a type of rhythm; it is rather a method employed by the interpreter in playing the dance or song. Familiar hymn tunes can be jazzed until their original melodies are hardly recognizable. Jazz does for harmony what the accented syncopation of ragtime does for rhythm. In ragtime the rhythm is thrown out of joint, as it were, thus distorting the melody; in jazz exactly the same thing is done to the harmony. The melodic line is disjointed and disconnected by the accenting of the partial instead of the simple tone, and the same effect is produced on the melody and harmony which is noticed in syncopated rhythm. The combination of syncopation and the use of these inharmonic partial tones produces a strange, weird effect, which has been designated jazz. The jazz orchestra uses only those instruments which can produce partial, inharmonic tones more readily than simple tones--such as the saxophone, the clarinet and the trombone, which share honors with the percussion instruments that accent syncopated rhythm. The combination of the syncopated rhythm, accentuated by the constant use of the partial tones sounding off-pitch, has put syncopation too off-key. Thus the three simple elements of music--rhythm, melody and harmony--have been put out of tune with each other.

Its Effect Jazz originally was the accompaniment of the voodoo dancer, stimulating the half-crazed barbarian to the vilest deeds. The weird chant, accompanied by the syncopated rhythm of the voodoo invokers, has also been employed by other barbaric people to stimulate brutality and sensuality. That it has a demoralizing effect upon the human brain has been demonstrated by many scientists.

There is always a revolutionary period of the breaking down of old conventions and customs which follows after every great war; and this rebellion against existing conditions is to be noticed in all life to-day. Unrest, the desire to break the shackles of old ideas and forms are abroad. So it is no wonder that young people should have become so imbued with this spirit that they should express it in every phase of their daily lives. The question is whether this tendency should be demonstrated in jazz--that expression of protest against law and order, that bolshevik element of license striving for expression in music. The human organism responds to musical vibrations. This fact is universally recognized. What instincts then are aroused by jazz? Certainly not deeds of valor or martial courage, for all marches and patriotic hymns are of regular rhythm and simple harmony; decidedly not contentment or serenity, for the songs of home and the love of native land are all of the simplest melody and harmony with noticeably regular rhythm. Jazz disorganizes all regular laws and order; it stimulates to extreme deeds, to a breaking away from all rules and conventions; it is harmful and dangerous, and its influence is wholly bad.

A number of scientific men who have been working on experiments in musico-therapy with the insane, declare that while regular rhythms and simple tones produce a quieting effect on the brain of even a violent patient, the effect of jazz on the normal brain produces an atrophied condition on the brain cells of conception, until very frequently those under the demoralizing influence of the persistent use of syncopation, combined with inharmonic partial tones, are actually incapable of distinguishing between good and evil, right and wrong. 126

Such music has become an influence for evil.

Last winter, at one of the biggest high schools in one of our largest cities, a survey was made of the popular songs of the day by the music supervisor, who suggested that a community sing be held for one assembly each week. He requested the students to bring all the popular songs to school that a choice might be made of what to sing. At the end of two weeks he had in his office over two thousand best sellers. He asked the student body to appoint from among themselves a committee of six to choose the songs to be sung at the assembly. This committee, after going through the two thousand songs, chose forty as being fit for boys and girls to sing together. With this evil influence surrounding our coming generation, it is not to be wondered at that degeneracy should be developing so rapidly in America.

In a recent letter to the author, Dr. Henry van Dyke says of jazz: As I understand it, it is not music at all. It is merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the strings of physical passion. Its fault lies not in syncopation, for that is a legitimate device when sparingly used. But jazz is an unmitigated cacophony, a combination of disagreeable sounds in complicated discords, a willful ugliness and a deliberate vulgarity. Never in the history of America have we more needed the help and inspiration which good music can and does give. The music department of the General Federation of Womens Clubs has taken for its motto: To Make Good Music Popular, and Popular Music Good. Let us carry out this motto in every home in America firmly, steadfastly, determinedly, until all the music in our land becomes an influence for good.

Bird, Elzy J. Bill, Dancing, U.S.O. Springfield MO No. 1 (1943)


Name __________________________ Date __________________________

Jazz Document Analysis

Use evidence from historical documents to answer the following questions: Why was there opposition to jazz music? How did jazz musicians respond to the opposition? Text Source and Context (Who said it? Who were they speaking to? Why did they say it? What was going on around them?) Summary (What did they say? What were their main ideas?) Analysis Notes (Do you trust this source? Why or why not? What patterns do you see across documents? What evidence does this give?)

Doc 1: Article Excerpt Doc 2: Quote 1 Doc 3: Quote 2 Doc 4: Political Cartoon Doc 5: Photo


Text Source


Analysis Notes

Doc 6: Ad Doc 7: Cartoon

Why was there opposition to jazz music?

How did jazz musicians respond to the opposition?

Now think about how this relates to the larger context of history. How was opposition to jazz a symptom of the cultural clash of the 1920s?

Now make a connection to today. What are some areas today where there is a clash between tradition and change?


Image, Upper left: Dutch Gap, Virginia. Picket station of Colored troops near Dutch Gap canal Digital ID: (digital file from original neg. of left half) cwpb 01930 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.01930 Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01930 (digital file from original neg. of left half) LC-DIG-cwpb-01929 (digital file from original neg. of right half) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/ loc.pnp/pp.print 130

Teaching History Through Art:

Considering Multiple Perspectives in History
High School Art and History classes (Grades 10-12) Written by Bus and Jethro Gillespie

OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will research an historical event or time period from at least two different perspectives. 2. Students will analyze their research, and consider how the different perspectives from their chosen historical event or time period fit (and/or do not fit) together. 3. Students will create an artwork (video, performance, photo, painting, etc.), which demonstrates evidence of their findings from at least two perspectives from a historical event or time period. 4. Students will present their artwork to the class, and explain what they have learned, what they chose to make, and why. UTAH STATE CORE OBJECTIVES: This lesson helps fulfill some objectives from all four of the main standards (Making, Perceiving, Expressing, and Contextualizing) that have been outlined for each of the Visual Arts classes by the Utah State Office of Education. (http://www.schools.utah.gov/CURR/fineart/Secondary/Visual-Art-and-Film.aspx) Depending on the chosen time period or historical event, this lesson also fulfills part of the required core curriculum for Social Studies- United States History 1: (http://www.uen.org/core/core.do?courseNum=6120)

Standard 1- Students will interpret the role of geography in shaping United States history. Standard 2- Students will investigate the relationship between events of different time periods. Standard 3- Students will understand the changes caused by European exploration in the Americas. Standard 4- Students will analyze European colonization and settlement of North America. Standard 10- Students will understand the development of the American West following the Civil War. MATERIALS: - History books or computer lab with Internet for researching (if possible, a collaboration with a cooperating in-house History teacher) 131


- The student art project for this lesson is designed to be open-ended and adaptable to various art classes, therefore the choice of materials can be decided by the teacher (for a mediaspecific class), or left for the students to decide what materials they want to use depending on their own project. 1. The teacher can introduce a historical event or time period to the students, discussing various viewpoints about the event. 2. Show various professional and historical examples of artists work that deal with multiple perspectives of history (see below- Sources section for some examples in this lesson). 3. Have students research a historical event (either alone or in groups) and find at least two different perspectives from the event, and at least 2 sources for each perspective(see attached worksheet Research). 4. Using the findings from their research, give students time to analyze, consider, and brainstorm how they will synthesize the data into a useful manner for an art project. Use a large brainstorming cloud format. 5. Give students time and necessary materials to create an art project that comes out of the research, data, and brainstorming. 6. Give each student (or group of students) time in class to present their project, explaining their process and conclusions (see attached worksheet Assessment).


Most of the assessment for this project could be formativehelping students during informal conversations, class discussions, and studio time in class. The teacher could use the attached assessment sheet as a tool for a summative, final assessment for the projects. SOURCES: Robert F. Berkhofer, The White Mans Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present, Vintage Books, 1979

William Kentridge (Art21- South African) http://www.art21.org/artists/william-kentridge/videos

Shane Cotton, (New Zealand Maori artist) http://www.thearts.co.nz/artist_page.php&aid=24

Yinka Shonabare, MBE (Art21- Headless sculptures) http://www.art21.org/artists/yinka-shonibare-mbe/videos

Davids Coronation of Napoleon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Coronation_of_Napoleon Matthew C. Perry (US Commodore to Japan) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_C._Perry 132

Mary Reid Kelley (Art21- French Revolution performance)

http://www.art21.org/artists/mary-reid-kelley/videos Walton Ford (Art21- Watercolorist/ researcher) http://www.art21.org/artists/walton-ford/videos ADAPTATIONS: For younger grades, the teacher could choose one specific historical event to research, or make a short list for the students to choose from. The teacher could also simplify the process by choosing certain articles or readings for the students. Teachers could also specify the art media to be used. VARIATIONS: There are many ways in which this lesson could be varied to fit the schedules, interests, and cultures of different schools and situations. For example, with collaborating teams of Art teachers and History teachers, Art teachers could invite History teachers to be present for the final presentations and help assess the projects.

Research Name_________________________________Per______ 1. Time Period or Historical Event to be studied (example: Civil War) 2. Find at least two differing perspectives written about this event or time period. What are they? Be specific. (example: 1. White people from New York in 1860, 2. White People from Alabama in 1860, 3. Black People from Alabama in 1860) 1. 2. 3. 133

3. Find historical sources (original if possible) written from each of these perspectives. Read at least 2 sources for each perspective and take notes about what stands out to you. List your sources below1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Assessment Name____________________________________Per_______ 1._______ Students chose a clear historical time period or event.

2._______ Students chose at least 2 differing perspectives to research. 4._______ Students made notes (gathered data) about their reading.

3._______ Students used at least 4 historical sources in their research. 5._______ Students created a brainstorm cloud to help analyze their data.

6._______ Students created an original art project based on their findings.

7._______ Students art project was technically crafted and conceptually sound (appropriate to material, time given, & teacher discression).

8._______ Students presented their art project to the rest of the class, and were able to effectively communicate their understandings. 134

Teaching History
Barriers: Addressing Student Barriers to Teach the Berlin Wall

Through Art:

High School Social Studies and Visual Arts Lesson by Kellie Hardin

OBJECTIVES Students will learn about physical barriers in the world, specifically the Berlin Wall. Students will talk about the difference between social, physical and emotional barriers. Students will learn a new art technique (paint transfers). Students will break a barrier in their own lives. Students will visually represent an experience.

STATE CORE OBJECTIVES Standard 1: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. Standard 1, Objective 1: Explore a variety of art media, techniques, and processes. Standard 2: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. Standard 3: Students will create meaning in art. Standard 3, Objective 1: Create content in works of art. Standard 4: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Standard 4, Objective 1: Align works of art according to history, geography, and personal experience. Pieces of the Berlin Wall Standard 4, Objective 2: Synthesize art with other educational subjects. Standard 4, Objective 3: Evaluate the impact of art on life outside of school. MATERIALS Images: New Americans by Nicholas Britsky, 1974 (Springville Museum of Art, on CD) Tilted Arc by Richard Serra http://www.daschkenasphoto.com/#/Tilted%20Arc%20Richard%20 Serra/Tilted%20Arc%20Richard%20Serra/10 Mining the Museum by Fred Wilson http://www.artsjournal.com/flyover/Wilson-silver-shackles.jpg 135

El Bocho + CNNs Berlin Wall Tape Art Project (http://vimeo.com/11892811) Flash Mobs (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EYAUazLI9k)

ACTIVITY Introduction: The class will address the concept of barriers (emotional, physical, social, etc.) They will discuss artists who use barriers in their work and respond to the discussion visually. Talk about the building and fall of the Berlin Wall, and Flash Mobs. Talk about the Berlin Wall as a physical barrier and Flash Mobs as an activity that breaks social barriers. Challenge students to do something that makes them uncomfortable or breaks a barrier. Give them a few days to complete the challenge at home. Students will be taught a new technique that they can choose to use or not, and given a constraint. In this class, students are required to not use words in their project. Once they are done with their project, ask students how they felt about the constraint. Was it good or bad? Did it enable or stifle? How did you feel about the freedom to use the technique or not? Art History: Show students work from the following artists. Talk about how each artist breaks a barrier of some sort. Show them one artist a day in the beginning of class for the duration of the project. Richard Serra, Tilted Arc Fred Wilson, Mining the Museum Matthew Ritchie, The Universal Cell http://www.matthewritchie.com/ projects/15UniversalCell/src/images/image1.jpg El Bocho (CNNs Going Beyond Borders Berlin Wall 20th Anniversary Tape Art) Flash Mobs Frank Warren, Postsecret http://www.postsecret.com/ Links: Here are some links to videos on barriers.

Richard Serra, Tilted Spheres Photo by Ian Mutto CCS-AA 2.0


1. CNNs Go Beyond Borders (http://vimeo. com/11892811) 2. Ted Wish (http://www.ted.com/talks/jr_s_ted_prize_wish_use_art_to_turn_the_world_inside_out.html) 3. History of Berlin Wall (http://www.5min.com/Video/The-Berlin-WallHistory119996232, http:// 4. Fall of Berlin Wall (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmRPP2WXX0U ) 5. The Trial of Tilted Arc (http://www.sfmoma.org/explore/multimedia/videos/90)

Discussion Questions: Talk about barriers constructed for us and ones we put up ourselves. Talk about self-imposed limitations, and the concept of cant. List some good barriers and bad barriers. How does one break barriers that are bad? By being uncomfortable? How does being uncomfortable inspire change? How does the artist of the day do that? 136

Technique: Paint transfers. Students will learn how to mix ink and cornstarch together and roll it onto a Plexiglass plate. They will place a paper on the solution and draw an outline of an image of their choice onto the paper. When I did this technique, I gave the students the choice to use it in their final project or not. All that was required of them concerning this technique was to learn it, then choose to use it or not. Studio: Students have studio time to create a project that responds to the prompt (do something that makes you uncomfortable) in whichever medium they choose. When I did this project, I had students making drawings, paintings, 3-D sculptures using energy drink cans, painting Barbie dolls, etc. I felt like having an open prompt allowed the students to use their creativity and find the best way for them to get their idea across.

ASSESSMENT At the end of the lesson, I have attached two worksheets. The first one is for students to brainstorm ideas and choose a barrier to break. The second one is for students to complete after they have broken a barrier. They will brainstorm how to turn their experience into a visual art piece. After students have finished their projects, ask the class, How did you feel being given a constraint? A few student responses: I told my dad I loved him multiple times one day until he told me he loved me back. He is a gruff farmer and shows his love but never says it. I went and sat on the curb next to a homeless man and had a conversation with him. I went to church goth. I want to wake up every morning, look in the mirror and look deeply and say one thing about myself about what I like. I cant say anything negative about myself. By doing this challenge I learned that I am beautiful, smart, that I cant let myself down. I learn that I am worth something and that I am not worthless. I came to school without make-up on or doing my hair. I usually do those things every day. I got the nappy award of the day in Drill Team that day. My friends thought I was crazy, but I didnt care. SOURCES 1. CNNs Go Beyond Borders (http://vimeo.com/11892811) 2. Ted Wish (http://www.ted.com/talks/jr_s_ted_prize_wish_use_art_to_turn_the_world_inside_out.html) 3. History of Berlin Wall (http://www.5min.com/Video/The-Berlin-WallHistory119996232, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmRPP2WXX0U), 4. Fall of Berlin Wall (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmRPP2WXX0U ) 5. The Trial of Tilted Arc (http://www.sfmoma.org/explore/multimedia/videos/90) 6. Flash Mobs (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EYAUazLI9k) 7. El Bocho + CNNs Berlin Wall Tape Art Project (http://vimeo.com/11892811) 8. Mining the Museum by Fred Wilson (artsjournal.com) 9. Tilted Arc by Richard Serra (daschkenasphoto.com) ADAPTATIONS For younger students, talk about physical barriers and make a small 3-D Great Wall of China using cardboard and paper mache. This is a good time to teach students about scale and proportion. 137

VARIATIONS You may teach students any technique you choose and make them use it in their final project. Have students break a barrier in groups in class instead of individually outside of class. EXTENSIONS Focus more on physical barriers in the world; Talk about the Great Wall of China and the Iron Curtain. Talk about their purposes and the history behind them. Have students invent their own physical barrier as a class.

Barriers Worksheet #1 What is a barrier? Are barriers good or bad?

Name ___________ Period ______

Write down some social, emotional, or physical barriers.

In a way, each of us is in our own prison. Its the prison of biology, the social structure of your life, and how that is both sort of a challenge and an opportunity. -Matthew Ritchie What does Matthew Ritchie mean when he says we are each in our own prison? How do you break a bad barrier? Challenge: Do something that makes you uncomfortable, changes a routine, or breaks down a barrier. Really do it, because your project will address your challenge. Brainstorm below:


Barriers Worksheet #2

Challenge: Do something that makes you uncomfortable, changes a routine, or breaks down a barrier. Really do it, because your project will address your challenge. For my challenge, I...

Name ___________ Period ______

By doing this challenge, I learned...

Your job now is to use what you learned in your challenge to inspire your Barriers Project. Brainstorm below about how you can visually represent your experience. 1.





Teaching History Through Art

Artists & Artworks
Springville Museum of Art Images Bruce Daniel Brainard, Afternoon Shower (2004) Nicholas Britsky, New Americans (1974) Carolyn Ann Coalson, Canto (diptych) (1996) Lou Jene Carter, Navajo Girl Montague F. Charman, Going Home (1946) Carolyn Coalson, Canto (Isaac) Loren Covington, Angels Landing Russell Cowles, Farmer and the Raincloud Linda Curley, Rabbit Brush (2007) Cyrus E Dallin, Appeal to the Great Spirit Chief Washakie Jimbo Paul Revere Phillip, Son of Kicking Bear John Hancock Sacajewea With Massasoit George Dibble, Between Big and Little Cottonwood Canyon (1938) Maynard Dixon, Road to the River, Mount Carmel, Utah Round Dance (BYU MOA) John B Fairbanks, Great White Throne Sunset Wheat Fields Calvin Fletcher, Wash Day in Brigham City (1929) Dale Thompson Fletcher, Abstract (1956) Irene Fletcher, Cache Valley Innocence Edward Fraughton, One Nation Henry Leroy Gardner, Bridal Veil Falls (1927) Arthur Hill Gilbert, Near Monterey (1930) John Hafen, Mountain Stream Teepees James T. Harwood, Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James (Boy with a Bun) (1910) John Held Jr., Dancin in the Jazz Age Ranch Kimball, Entrance to Zions Reuben Kirkham, Castaway (1882) Paul Lauritz, Crashing Harmony (1930) Millard Fillmore Malin, Chief John Duncan, Ute (1935) Lee Anne Miller, Storm Spirits on Horizon #6 Gilbert Davis Munger, Great Salt Lake Utah and the Wasatch Mountains (1880) 141

George Martin Ottinger, Above Camp Douglas (1868) Marguerite Stuber Pearson, Across the Harbor (1966) Elbert Hindley Porter, Negro Head (1930) Lorus B. Pratt, Fishing Along the Jordan (1916) Lee Greene Richards, Autumn Stream (1930) Paul Starrett Sample, Winter Holiday (1954) Sven Birger Sandzen, Moonrise in the Canyon Joseph Henry Sharp, Playing the Game Sharon Jensen Shephard, Untitled Abstract (1981) Dennis Von Smith, Keeper of the Gate Lawrence Squires, Cornstalks and Pumpkins (1919) John Heber Stansfield, Canadian Rockies Susan Swartz, Amazing Grace Richard Tallant, Black Rock, Great Salt Lake (1890) Minerva B. Kohlhepp Teichert, Indian Captives at Night (1939) John Elliot Tullidge, Minnie Lake (1887) Glen H. Turner, The Broken Windmill, Missouri (1948) Kimball Warren, Angels Peak Frederic Whitaker, Fountain Granada(1959) Other Images Abenaki Couple, an 18th-century watercolor by an unknown artist. Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the United States (1863) Ancient Citadel of Bam, Kerman, Iran 500 BC or earlier Beading Examples Thomas Hart Benton, Cut the Line (1944) John Steuart Curry, Ajax (1937) Edgar Degas, The Parade (Race Horses Before the Stands) (1872) House, Adobe, Yemen House, Switzerland House, Making Adobe Bricks 1 House, Making Adobe Bricks 2 How to Build an Igloo Igloos Jazz Ad Making Adobe Bricks 2 Making Adobe Bricks 1 Martin Luther King Jr., Photograph by Dick DeMarsico (1964) Emanuel Leutze, Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way (1861) Emanuel Leutze, Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way (Mural Study) (1861) Richard Serra, Tilted Spheres Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty and Spiral Jetty 2 Stewart, Portrait of George Washington Sudanese Thatched House Ute Petroglyphs West German children play on the newly erected Berlin Wall, 1962. Archibald MacNeal Willard, The Spirit of 76 c. 1875 Grant Wood, The Birthplace of Herbert Hoover, West Branch, Iowa (1931) 142