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Aim To introduce the rules of diﬀerentiation. Learning Outcomes At the end of this section you will be able to: • Identify the diﬀerent rules of diﬀerentiation, • Apply the rules of diﬀerentiation to ﬁnd the derivative of a given function.

The basic rules of diﬀerentiation are presented here along with several examples. Remember that if y = f (x) is a function then the derivative of y can be represented dy df by or y or f or . The basic rules of diﬀerentiation, as well as several common dx dx results, are presented in the back of the log tables on pages 41 and 42. Rule 1: The Derivative of a Constant. The derivative of a constant is zero. Rule 2: The General Power Rule. The derivative of xn is nxn−1 . Example 1 Diﬀerentiate y = x4 . If y = x4 then using the general power rule, dy = 4x3 . dx

Rule 3: The Derivative of a Constant times a Function. The derivative of kf (x), where k is a constant, is kf (x). Example 2 Diﬀerentiate y = 3x2 . In this case f (x) = x2 and k = 3, therefore the derivative is 3 × 2x1 = 6x. Rule 4: The Derivative of a Sum or a Diﬀerence. dh dg df = ± . If f (x) = h(x) ± g(x), then dx dx dx 1

Calculus

Example 3 Diﬀerentiate f (x) = 3x2 − 7x. In this case k(x) = 3x2 and g(x) = 7x and so df = 6x − 7. dx Rule 5: The Product Rule. The derivative of the product y = u(x)v(x), where u and v are both functions of x is dy dv du =u× +v× . dx dx dx Example 4 Diﬀerentiate f (x) = (6x2 + 2x)(x3 + 1). Let u(x) = 6x2 + 2x and v(x) = x3 + 1. Therefore, du = 12x + 2 dx and dv = 3x2 . dx dk dg = 6x and = 7. Therefore, dx dx

Therefore using the formula for the product rule, df dv du =u× +v× . dx dx dx we get, df = (6x2 + 2x)(3x2 ) + (x3 + 1)(12x + 2), dx = 18x4 + 6x3 + 12x4 + 2x3 + 12x + 2, = 30x4 + 8x3 + 12x + 2. Rule 6: The Quotient Rule. The derivative of the quotient f (x) = u(x) , where u and v are both function of x is v(x)

du dx

v× df = dx Example 5 x2 + 7 . Diﬀerentiate f (x) = 3x − 1

−u× v2

dv dx

.

Let u(x) = x2 + 7 and v(x) = 3x − 1. Diﬀerentiate these to get Now using the formula for the quotient rule we get, 2

dv du = 2x and = 3. dx dx

Calculus

df (3x − 1)(2x) − (x2 + 7)(3) = , dx (3x − 1)2 6x2 − 2x − 3x2 − 21 = , (3x − 1)2 df 3x2 − 2x − 21 . ⇒ = dx (3x − 1)2 Rule 7: The Chain Rule. If y is a function of u, i.e. y = f (u), and u is a function of x, i.e. u = g(x) then the derivative of y with respect to x is dy dy du = × . dx du dx Example 6 Diﬀerentiate y = (x2 − 5)4 . Let u = x2 − 5, du ⇒ = 2x dx therefore and y = u4 . dy ⇒ = 4u3 . du

Using the chain rule we then get dy dy du = × , dx du dx = 4u3 × 2x, = 4(x2 − 5)3 × 2x, = 8x(x2 − 5)3 .

Related Reading

Adams, R.A. 2003. Calculus: A Complete Course. 5th Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Morris, O.D., P. Cooke. 1992. Text & Tests 4. The Celtic Press.

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