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Bre30ssi$a 'is (ria %a e"ria %a ra%u)*"...

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BREVSSIMA HISTRIA DA TEORIA DA TRADUO NO OCIDENTE I. OS ROMANOS

Mauri Furlan UFSC

O presen e ar i!" #"ns i ui a pri$eira par e %e u$ es u%" s"&re a 'is (ria %a e"ria %a ra%u)*" n" O#i%en e+ %es%e a ,p"#a #l-ssi#a r"$ana a , " Renas#i$en ". . A" repassar a pr- i#a ra%u "ra reali/a%a n" per0"%" pr"p"s "+ n"ssa pre"#upa)*" se #en ra n"s $"%"s e$ 1ue %i a pr- i#a p"%e e2e i3ar4se e$ seus $"$en "s $ais e5pressi3"s. A ra%u "l"!ia ain%a es - se ar i#ulan%" para a #"ns i ui)*" %e u$a 'is (ria %" pensa$en " s"&re a ra%u)*"6 n" en an "+ i$p"r an es #"n ri&ui)7es 8$ si%" "2ere#i%as %ep"is 1ue se re#"n'e#eu a e"ria re (ri#a #"$" " #(%i!" prin#ipal %a e"ria %a lin!ua!e$ na An i!9i%a%e+ u$ #(%i!" 1ue %eu u$ $ar#" e(ri#" 2un%a$en al para as %is#uss7es a uais s"&re a ra%u)*" pr"%u/i%a a , " s,#ul" :VIII. Os R"$an"s A ra%i)*" es#ri a ensina 1ue n" II $il8ni" a.C.+ na ;sia Men"r+ ass0ri"s+ &a&il<ni"s e 'i i as reali/a3a$ u$ ra&al'" espe#iali/a%" %e es#ri ura= ra%u/ia$ a #"rresp"n%8n#ia "2i#ial %"s es a%"s >M"unin .?@A= BCD. Mas+ E par e "s per0"%"s p"u#" #lar"s %a 'is (ria %a ra%u)*" e " %a Sep ua!in a F a pri$eira !ran%e ra%u)*" >s,#ul"s III a.C. F I a.C.D #"n'e#i%a e$ n"ssa #ul ura+ 2ei a %" 'e&rai#" a"

RB

Mauri Furlan

!re!"+ G#aren e %e $,ri " li er-ri" H pla!a%a %e 'e&ra0s$"sI >Jar#0a Ke&ra .?L?= BCMD F+ a pri$eira ra%u)*" li er-ria %e u$a l0n!ua a "u ra >Hi!'e .??@= .@?D 2"i reali/a%a p"r 3"l a %" an" MAC a.C.+ #"$ a ra%u)*" a" la i$ %a O%iss,ia %e H"$er" p"r N03i" An%r<ni#"+ " Gpri$eir" ra%u "r eur"peuI >Ballar% .??M= BLD. Curi"sa$en e sua l0n!ua $a erna era " %(ri#"+ u$ %"s 1ua r" prin#ipais %iale "s %a l0n!ua !re!a. Fe/ sua ra%u)*" e$ 3ers"s sa urnin"s. Fra!$en "s %es a "&ra re3ela$ 1ue Gla ra%u##i(n era e5a# a+ el es il" F %e "r%inari" F si$ple H pre#is"+ #"n al!un"s l"!r"s+ per" $uH leO"s %e la 2le5i&ili%a% #a$&ian e %el !rie!"+ H en "#asi"nes %es3ia%"+ llen" %e ep0 e "s inP ilesI >BaHe .??@= QLD. A par ir %e en *"+ 3-ri"s au "res la in"s se ser3ira$ %e $"%el"s !re!"s seOa #"$" 2"n e para ra%u)7es $ais "u $en"s li3res+ seOa #"$" inspira)*" para suas >reD#ria)7es $ais "u $en"s pess"ais. A !8nese %a li era ura la ina es - na ra%u)*" e

i$i a)*" %e $"%el"s !re!"s.


A pri$eira ,p"#a na 'is (ria %a ra%u)*" li er-ria "#i%en al #"nsis e p"is e$ ra%u)7es %" !re!" a" la i$. C"n u%"+ "s r"$an"s+ e$&"ra en'a$ #"ns i u0%" sua li era ura s"&re $"%el"s !re!"s+ n*" in'a$ u$a ne#essi%a%e i$peri"sa %e ra%u/ir %" !re!"+ u$a 3e/ 1ue sua s"#ie%a%e era &asi#a$en e &il0n!9e. Suas ra%u)7es re3ela$ an es seu in eresse pelas #ria)7es li er-rias+ pel"s #"n'e#i$en "s #ien 02i#"s %e "u r"s p"3"s+ e " %eseO" %e eri!ir sua pr(pria li era ura. Ri a C"pelan% le$&ra 1ue "s r"$an"s re#"n'e#era$ a l0n!ua !re!a #"$" a $ais ilus re e 1ue+ p"r iss"+ a ra%u)*" %" !re!" a" la i$ p"%e ser %es#ri a #"$" u$ $"3i$en " 3er i#al %es#en%en e %" $ai"r a" $en"r >.??.= ..D. A e5al a)*" %"s $"%el"s !re!"s p"r par e %"s r"$an"s e$ si%" 3is a a$&,$ #"$" pr"3a %e sua 2al a %e "ri!inali%a%e. N" en an "+ es a , u$a #r0 i#a 1ue %es#"nsi%era " papel %a $0$esis na #ria)*" li er-ria %a An i!9i%a%e >Ri "r, .??Q= @CQD+ assi$ #"$" " 2a " %e 1ue "s r"$an"s se #"nsi%era3a$ #"n inua%"res %"s $"%el"s !re!"s+ e 1ue seu sis e$a li er-ri" in'a #ria%" u$a 'ierar1uia %e e5 "s e au "res 1ue supera3a "s li$i es lin!90s i#"s= es e sis e$a re2le ia " i%eal r"$an" %" es a%" 'ier-r1ui#"+ #en rali/a%" e u ela%"r+ &asea%"

Bre30ssi$a 'is (ria %a e"ria %a ra%u)*"...

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na lei %a ra/*" >Bassne .?LC= QBD.


R"%e4se+ n*" "&s an e+ a2ir$ar+ #"$" " 2a/ F"lena+ 1ue " 2en<$en" %a ra%u)*" era para "s r"$an"s $ui " $ais i$p"r an e+ 'a&i ual e 2a$iliar 1ue para "s !re!"s. Rara es es+ " #"n#ei " #ul ural %e ra%u)*" , pra i#a$en e ine5is en e a , apr"5i$a%a$en e a ,p"#a ale5an%rina+ e a er$in"l"!ia per$ane#e !en,ri#a e $ui " p"u#" ,#ni#a+ en1uan " 1ue " la i$ apresen a para " #"n#ei " %" ra%u/ir Gar i#"la/i"ni #"$plesse e s" ili+ #"n una sin"ni$ia &en %i22eren/ia a in n"/i"ni e #"nn" a/i"ni par i#"lareI >F"lena .??.= LD. Na ra%u)*" ar 0s i#a+ u$a in3en)*" la ina+ se pr"%u/iu u$a r"$ani/a)*" n*" s( %a e5press*" $as a$&,$ %" #"n eP%"+ #"$ 8n2ase n" e5 " %e #'e!a%a+ e a es e n"3" 3al"r se %en"$in"u #"$ "s 3er&"s uer ere e " #"$pues " #"nuer ere+ ransuer ere e i$i ari. E5pli#are a$&,$ #"$par il'a es as n")7es+ $as e$ S*" Ser<ni$" assu$e " si!ni2i#a%" %e a#en ua)*" s"&re a 2un#i"nali%a%e se$Tn i#a $ais 1ue s"&re " "rna " re (ri#". Ou ras a#ep)7es la inas "2ere#e$ "s 3er&"s in erpre ari+ 1ue pare#e #"l"#ar a a en)*" s"&re " #"n eP%"+ a %epen%8n#ia e " es2"r)" %e 2i%eli%a%e %a #(pia6 e5pri$ere+ 1ue pare#e en2a i/ar a $ar#a 2"r$al %" #al#"6 e re%%ere+ 1ue in%i#aria a #"rresp"n%8n#ia 2"r$al n*" li eral en re "ri!inal e ra%u)*". N" la i$ ar%i" e na I%a%e M,%ia 3ai pre%"$inar " er$" rans2erre+ e+ ain%a $ais+ %e seu %eri3a%" par i#ipial+ " 3er&" ransla are+ 1ue "2ere#e " su&s an i3" ransla i" e " a!en e ransla "r. Ou r"s er$"s sur!ira$ e$ %i2eren es pa0ses eur"peus %uran e a I%a%e M,%ia+ al!uns #"nse!uin%" $an er4se p"r u$ e$p" $ai"r 1ue "u r"s. O 2ran#8s an i!" a#un'"u " 3er&" r"$an#ier+ #"$ " si!ni2i#a%" %e U#"l"#ar e$ l0n!ua r"$an#eV+ Ue5p"rV+ U#"l"#ar e$ ri$aV+ UnarrarV+ e %a $es$a rai/ " espan'"l ir"u r"$an)ar+ r"$an#ear. O i alian" #ri"u " 3er&" 3"l!ari//are+ 1ue %e#ai a par ir %" Tre#en "+ passan%" a %"$inar " rasla are #"$ u$ 3al"r $ais !en,ri#"+ in%i#an%" as ra%u)7es an " %e "u ras l0n!uas 3ern-#ulas #"$" %" la i$ a" i alian"+ e %e "u ras l0n!uas a" la i$. A rai/ %"s $"%ern"s U ra%urreV >.QMCD i alian"6 U ra%uireV >.QLCD 2ran#8s6 U ra%u#irV >.Q?B4?AD #as el'an"6 U ra%uirV >.ACWD #a al*"6 U ra%u/irV

RB

Mauri Furlan

>.ABWD p"r u!u8s6 Ua ra%u#eV ru$en"+ "ri!ina%"s %e ra%u#ere+ #"$e)a n" Hu$anis$"+ #"$ Ne"nar%" Bruni >F"lena .??.= L4.C6 .W4.?6

BQ6W.D.
Na 'is (ria %es es er$"s+ se!un%" " rela " %e F"lena+ a pri$eira apari)*" %e ra%u# i" se %- Oun " a" 3er&" ra%u#ere nu$a #ar a %e Bruni %a a%a %e A %e se e$&r" %e .QCC. Tra%u# i" seria u$a in"3a)*" se$Tn i#a 2un%a%a s"&re u$a passa!e$ %e Jeli" e$ N"# es A i#ae >I+ .L+ .D "n%e se 2ala %e u$ Gu"#a&ulu$ Jrae#u$ ra%u# u$ in lin!ua$ R"$ana$I. R"%e4se 1ues i"nar se se ra a %e u$ 2"r)a$en " in en#i"nal "u %e u$ $alen en%i%"+ u$ err" se$Tn i#" %e ra%u)*". O 3"#-&ul" ra%u# i" , O- usa%" p"r C0#er" >De "ra "re+ III+ QM+ .@WD #"$" u$ e#ni#is$" re (ri#"+ in%i#an%" a in r"%u)*" $a erial na l0n!ua %e #'e!a%a %e u$ 3"#-&ul" es ran!eir"+ "u seOa+ u$ e$pr,s i$". X a a ua)*" "p"s a a" rans2erre "u in erpre ari >F"lena .??.= WMD. Je"r!e S einer+ p"r u$ la%"+ a2ir$a 1ue GBruni in erpre ( $al una 2rase %e las N"#'es - i#as %e Aul" Jeli"+ %"n%e el la 0n si!ni2i#a en reali%a% U%eri3ar %e+ lle3ar aVI >.??L= BCMD. F"lena+ p"r "u r" la%"+ #r8 1ue Bruni n*" se e1ui3"#"u+ $as 1ue $ui " #"ns#ien e$en e es#"l'eu u$ 3"#-&ul" n"3"+
n"n #"nsun " #"$e rans2erre+ %"3e lV"pera/i"ne %i rapian " %Vuna in al ra lin!ua si $ani2es asse #"n $a!!i"r ener!ia e plas i#i E= e ra%u#" n"n s"l" era piP %ina$i#" %i rans2er"+ $a rispe " al su" piP 3ul!a " pre%e#ess"re #"n ene3a+ "l re al ra " se$an i#" %ellV Ga ra3ersa$en "I e %el G$"3i$en "I+ an#'e il ra " %ella Gin%i3i%uali EI " %ella #ausa i3i E s"!!e i3a >si pensi " %u#"Y%u5 rispe " a 2er"D+ s" "linean%" insie$e lV"ri!inali E+ lVi$pe!n" pers"nale e la Gpr"prie E le erariaI %i 1ues a "pera/i"ne se$pre $en" an"ni$a >F"lena .??.= WMD.

C"$ u$a p"s ura %is in a+ Aires Nas#i$en " apresen a a 'ip( ese %e 1ue "s er$"s ra%u#ere e ra%u# i" %e3ia$ es ar

Bre30ssi$a 'is (ria %a e"ria %a ra%u)*"...

.A

"#"rren%" O- an eri"r$en e a" ra a%" &runian"+ u$a 3e/ 1ue u$ ne"l"!is$" %es e ip" Grepresen aria u$a #"n#ess*" $en"s espera%a p"r par e %e u$ puris a %a l0n!ua la ina #"$" era a1uele 'u$anis aI >.??L= .BBD+ e 1ue+ se 2"sse u$ ne"l"!is$"+ eria $ere#i%" al!u$a e5pli#a)*".
E$ R'e "ri#+ Her$eneu i#s+ an% Transla i"n in 'e Mi%%le A!es+ .??.+ Ri a C"pelan% 2a/ u$a e5#elen e an-lise s"&re a #"n#ep)*" %a ra%u)*" en re "s r"$an"s+ en2"#a%a a par ir %" $ar#" e(ri#" %a re (ri#a e %a !ra$- i#a+ %a 1ual 3ale re#"r%ar al!u$as i%,ias. As es#"las r"$anas pra i#a3a$ u$ $"%el" %e ensin" se$el'an e a" %as es#"las !re!as+ e e$ a$&as a %is#iplina %e !ra$- i#a #"$preen%ia n*" s"$en e " es u%" ,#ni#" %a lin!ua!e$ $as a$&,$ " #"$en -ri" "u #r0 i#a e5 ual+ e a %is#iplina %e re (ri#a ensina3a #"$" pr"%u/ir ar!u$en "s persuasi3"s e %is#urs"s pP&li#"s. A $ai"r %i2eren)a en re es as es#"las+ e 1ue n"s in eressa a1ui+ , 1ue na r"$ana a ra%u)*" era u$a pr- i#a #"$u$ an " n" apren%i/a%" %e !ra$- i#a #"$" %e re (ri#a. N"s es u%"s !ra$a i#ais+ era #"nsi%era%a u$a 2"r$a %e #"$en -ri" e5 ual+ e n"s %e re (ri#a+ u$a 2"r$a %e i$i a)*". Da0 a$&,$ a !ran%e superp"si)*" en re as pr- i#as %e #"$en -ri"s+ ra%u)*" e i$i a)*" li er-ria >.??.= ?4.CD. A ra%u)*" en re "s r"$an"s es a3a 3in#ula%a E e"ria e pr- i#a %a i$i a)*" %e $"%el"s li er-ri"s+ $as %i2eren e$en e %e "u ras 2"r$as %e i$i a)*" re (ri#"4li er-ria+ a e"ria %a ra%u)*"
is 2i!ure% as a pa ern "2 rans2eren#e+ su&s i u i"n+ an% ul i$a elH %ispla#e$en "2 'e s"ur#e. Z[\ T'e ai$ "2 ransla i"n is " rein3en 'e s"ur#e+ s" 'a + as in r'e "ri#al 'e"rH+ a en i"n is 2"#use% "n 'e a# i3e pr"%u# i"n "n a ne] e5 en%"]e% ]i ' i s "]n a22e# i3e p"]ers an% sui e% " 'e par i#ular 'is "ri#al #ir#u$s an#es "2 i s re#ep i"n. Z[\ T'is ai$ 'as ]" #auses= 2irs + ransla i"n arises 2r"$ an a#^n"]le%!$en "2 %i22eren#e6 an% se#"n%+ 'e R"$an re3eren#e 2"r Jree^ #ul ure ]as si$plH a #"r"llarH "2 'e

RB

Mauri Furlan

%esire " %ispla#e 'a #ul ure+ an% eli$ina e i s 'e!e$"ni# '"l%+ 'r"u!' #"n es a i"n an% 'en#e %i22eren#e >C"pelan% .??.=

BCD.
A are2a %a ra%u)*" , #"n#e&i%a #"$" a pr"%u)*" %e u$a r,pli#a a ra3,s %a %i2eren)a+ %" %esl"#a$en "+ %a su&s i ui)*" e %a apr"pria)*" #ul ural "u #an<ni#a. E a re (ri#a "2ere#e u$ $"%el" %e 'er$en8u i#a para a reali/a)*" %es a are2a. F"i n" #lassi#is$" la in" "n%e sur!ira$ as pri$eiras re2le57es $ais si!ni2i#a i3as s"&re a ra%u)*"+ Gals %ie r_$is#'en Au "ren si#' in i'ren Ori!inal]er^en $e'r 3"n %en V"r&il%ern l_s en+ un% u$!e^e'r si#' in %en `&erse /un!en s ar^er u$ !enaue Na#'&il%un! &e$9'en ^"nn enIM >S "l/e MCC.= .LD. O prin#ipal e(ri#" %a ra%u)*" e ra%u "r %" per0"%" #l-ssi#" 2"i Mar#" TPli" C0#er" >.C@4QB a.C.D. C0#er" Du/en "s an"s %ep"is %e R"$a er #"n'e#i%" a O%Hssea+ na ra%u)*" %e N03i" An%r<ni#"+ C0#er"+ e$ Q@ a.C.+ "2ere#e a pri$eira re2le5*" s"&re a ar e e a are2a %" ra%u/ir+ prin#ipal$en e e$ De "p i$" !enere "ra "ru$3 + le3an an%"+ se!un%" a in erpre a)*" %e J. M"unin+ " !ran%e pr"&le$a e(ri#" 1ue %"$inar- a ra%u)*" p"r %"is $il an"s= %e3e4se ser 2iel Es pala3ras %" e5 " "u a" pensa$en " #"n i%" neleb >.?@A= B.D. Nas p"u#as lin'as 1ue ra a$ %a ra%u)*"+ De "p i$" !enere "ra "ru$ assinala %uas $aneiras %e ra%u/ir= a %" U"ra%"rV e a %" Uin ,rpre eV.
Ne# #"nuer i u in erpres+ se% u "ra "r+ sen en iis is%e$ e earu$ 2"r$is a$1ua$ 2i!uris+ uer&is a% n"s ra$ #"nsue u%ine$ ap is. In 1ui&us n"n uer&u$ pr" uer&" ne#esse 'a&ui re%%ere+ se% !enus "$ne uer&"ru$ ui$1ue seruaui. Z[\ cu"ru$ e!" "ra i"nes+ u sper"+ i a e5presser" uir u i&us u ens ill"ru$ "$ni&us+ i% es sen en iis e earu$ 2i!uris e reru$ "r%ine+

Bre30ssi$a 'is (ria %a e"ria %a ra%u)*"...

.W

uer&a perse1uens ea enus+ u ea n"n a&'"rrean a $"re n"s r"[

>C0#er" .??@= BL6 QC6 V+ .Q6 VII+ MBD.


N*" ra%u/i #"$" in ,rpre e+ $as #"$" "ra%"r+ #"$ "s $es$"s pensa$en "s e suas 2"r$as &e$ #"$" #"$ suas 2i!uras+ #"$ pala3ras a%e1ua%as a" n"ss" #"s u$e. Rara an " n*" i3e ne#essi%a%e %e ra%u/ir pala3ra p"r pala3ra+ $as $an i3e " !8ner" %as pala3ras e sua 2"r)a. N*" #"nsi%erei+ p"is+ ser $is er enu$er-4las a" lei "r+ $as #"$" 1ue pes-4las. Z[\ Se+ #"$" esper"+ eu i3er assi$ repr"%u/i%" "s %is#urs"s %"s %"is ser3in%"4$e %e "%"s seus 3al"res+ is " ,+ #"$ "s pensa$en "s e suas 2i!uras e na "r%e$ %as #"isas+ &us#an%" as pala3ras a , " p"n " e$ 1ue elas n*" se %is an#ie$ %e n"ss" us"[

Rara C0#er"+ U ra%u/ir #"$" "ra%"rV , #"nser3ar "s $es$"s pensa$en "s e suas 2"r$as e 2i!uras+ #"$ pala3ras a%e1ua%as a" #"s u$e r"$an"+ se$ ne#essi%a%e %e ra%u/ir pala3ra p"r pala3ra $as $an en%" " $es$" !8ner" >1uali%a%e+ #"n%i)*"+ #ar- erD. O Uin ,rpre eV+ p"r sua 3e/ F se %e%u/ F+ a$&,$ %e3eria $an er " #"n eP%" l(!i#" %" "ri!inal e repr"%u/ir #"$ a $ai"r e5a i%*" p"ss03el as i%,ias+ as 2i!uras e a "r%e$ e5p"si i3a. A %i2eren)a en re a$&as a i u%es se re2eriria Es pala3ras. O in ,rpre e ra%u/iria pala3ra p"r pala3ra >uer&u$ pr" uer&"D+ repr"%u/in%"4as in#lusi3e n" $es$" nP$er" >a%nu$erareD e$ 1ue se en#"n ra3a$ n" "ri!inal. Es e pensa$en " %e C0#er" se pres "u+ a" l"n!" %"s s,#ul"s+ a in erpre a)7es $ui " %is in as+ en%" si%" u ili/a%" 2re19en e$en e para Ous i2i#ar a ra%u)*" 2un%a%a s"&re u$a apreens*" !l"&al %" sen i%"+ e$ "p"si)*" a u$a ra%u)*" li eral= Gn"n uer&u$ pr" uer&" ne#esse 'a&ui re%%ere+ se% !enus "$ne uer&"ru$ ui$1ue seruaui.I Op"n%"4se a u$a l"n!a ra%i)*"+ Valen 0n Jar#0a Ke&ra+ a" in3es i!ar a ra%u)*" e$ C0#er"+ a2ir$a 1ue Gna%a Ous i2i#a 1ue se le #"nsi%ere el pri$er e(ri#" " pre#ep is a %e la ra%u##i(nI >.?LC= .AMD+ a2ir$an%"= .D a $en)*" 2ei a a" Gin ,rpre eI "&Oe i3a s"$en e $ar#ar a %i2eren)a en re a $aneira %e ra&al'ar %es e e a %e C0#er"6 MD apenas in%ire a$en e se p"%e %e%u/ir sua #"n#ep)*" %e U ra%u)*"

RB

Mauri Furlan

%e in ,rpre eV6 BD C0#er" nun#a 1uis "2ere#er pre#ei "s para a a i3i%a%e %"s ra%u "res >.?LC= .AMD. E al,$ %iss"+ " es e$un'" %e S*" Ser<ni$"+ e$ sua ep0s "la A% Ra$$a#'iu$ %e "p i$" !enere

in erpre an%i+ G#"n2ir$a 1ue " #"nuer ere "u uer ere %e C0#er" n*" era U ra%u/irV+ $as+ Upara2rasearV+ Ure2un%irV "u Ua%ap arVI >.?LC= .A.D=
cuan a in illis ZCi#er"\ prae er$iseri + 1uan a a%%i%eri + 1uan a $u a3eri + u pr"prie a es al erius lin!uae suis pr"prie a i&us e5pli#are [ >Ser<ni$" .??@= AC6 V+ MD. [ "%as as "$iss7es+ a#r,s#i$"s e $u%an)as 1ue ZC0#er"\ in r"%u/iu nessas ra%u)7es #"$ " "&Oe i3" %e rasla%ar as e5press7es pr(prias %a "u ra l0n!ua ser3in%"4se %a1uelas %a sua.

Se!uin%" es a lin'a %e pensa$en "+ Mi#'el Ballar% >.??MD le$&ra 1ue a re2le5*" %e C0#er"+ apresen a%a #"$" u$ pre2-#i" E ra%u)*" %e %"is %is#urs"s+ u$ %e Xs1uines e "u r" %e De$(s enes+ n*" 2"i ela&"ra%a nu$ ra a%" espe#02i#" %e ra%u)*" $as nu$ ra a%" %e el"1u8n#ia+ s"&re u$ !8ner"+ a i$i a)*"+ n" 1ual " pr(pri" au "r assinala n*" er pra i#a%" u$ ra&al'" %e ra%u "r $as u$ ip" %e i$i a)*"= Gne# #"nuer i u in erpres+ se% u "ra "rI. A ra%u)*" %e 1ue 2ala C0#er" seria u$a 2"r$a %e i$i a)*" e seu ra#i"#0ni" apresen aria #"n ra%i)7es=
#e %,sir %e pri3il,!ier la laan!ue %darri3,e par s"u#i %de22i#a#i , es #er es %,2en%a&le+ $ais une s"r e %e #,#i , lin!uis i1ue lde$p8#'e %e 3"ir 1udil ne peu pr, en%re %"nner une i%,e %dun s Hle en la inisan le e5 e !re#+ e 1udil a une s"r e %e #"n ra%i# i"n E pr, en%re "22rir un e5 e "e Gles pens,es res en les $8$es+ ainsi 1ue leur "ur e leurs 2i!uresI e "e Gles $" s s"n #"n2"r$es E lVusa!e %e n" re lan!ueI >Ballar% .??M= Q.D.

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Seria+ p"r an "+ n" $ar#" %e u$a a i3i%a%e i$i a i3a "n%e C0#er" 2alaria %a ra%u)*"+ nu$ ra a%" #uO" "&Oe " , a a1uisi)*" %a el"1u8n#ia pela i$i a)*" %e "ra%"res !re!"s+ e "n%e a2ir$a n*" er 2ei " ra%u)*" $as i$i a)*". Nes e sen i%"+ $as #"$ %is in as #"n#lus7es+ para Ri a C"pelan% a e"ria %a ra%u)*" #"n i%a n"s es#ri "s %e C0#er" 2"i 2"r$ula%a Gn" ]i ' 'e e5press ai$ "2 %e2inin! 'e pra# i#e "2 ransla i"n i sel2+ &u ra 'er as a ]aH " %e2inin! 'e s a us "2 r'e "ri#

in rela i"n " !ra$$ar. Z[\ an% " #"nser3e 'e s a us "2 r'e "ri# as 'e $as er %is#iplineI >.??.= ?6 ?@D.
N" en an "+ %"s e5 "s #i#er"nian"s se %epreen%e u$a #"n#ep)*" %e ra%u)*" >u "ra "rD+ #uO" $, "%" e 2inali%a%e se ase$el'a$ Es 3ers7es 1ue se 2a/ia$ #"$u$en e %" !re!"+ "s 1uais p"%e$ ser $el'"r en en%i%"s 1uan%" ilu$ina%"s pel"s es#ri "s %e cuin ilian". Nu$a %as passa!ens %e sua Ins i u i" "ra "ria >:+ A+ M4AD 1ue a&"r%a$ " e$a+ " pr"2ess"r %e re (ri#a e5p7e a ra%u)*" #"$" u$ e5er#0#i" re (ri#"+ 1ue %e3e 2a/er us" %e re#urs"s %es a ar e e #"$pe ir #"$ seu $"%el"6 #"$en a a$&,$ 1ue C0#er" ra%u/iu %es a 2"r$a "&ras %e Rla *" e :en"2"n e=
Ver ere Jrae#a in Na inu$ ue eres n"s ri "ra "res "p i$u$ iu%i#a&an >:+ A+ MD. E ipsis sen en iis a%i#ere li#e "ra "riu$ r"&ur+ e "$issa supplere+ e22usa su&s rin!ere >:+ A+ QD. Cir#a e"s%e$ sensus #er a$en a 1ue ae$ula i"ne$ >:+ A+ AD. I% Ci#er" sua ipse pers"na 2re1uen issi$e prae#epi + 1uin e ia$ li&r"s Rla "nis a 1ue :en"p'"n is e%i%i '"# !enere rala "s >:+ A+ MD. Tra%u/ir %" !re!" a" la i$ era+ na #"n#ep)*" %e n"ss"s an i!"s "ra%"res+ " $el'"r e5er#0#i". Z[\ A"s pensa$en "s $es$"s se p"%e a#res#en ar a 2"r)a "ra (ria+ suprir "s in#"$ple "s+ en#ur ar "s e5 ens"s. Z[\ E$ "rn" a"s $es$"s pensa$en "s 'aOa lu a e e$ula)*". Z[\ Is " a#"nsel'a 2re19en e$en e " pr(pri" C0#er" e$ pess"a+

RB

Mauri Furlan

1ue$ a$&,$ pu&li#"u "s li3r"s %e Rla *" e :en"2"n e ra%u/i%"s %es a $aneira.
Ta$&,$ Rl0ni" " S"3e$+ #a. .CC %.C.+ nu$a #ar a a Fus#" >VII+ ?D+ apresen a a ra%u)*" #"$" u$ e5er#0#i" %e re (ri#a+ n" 1ual a ra%u)*" 1ue se pra i#a3a #"nsis ia e$ !ran%e par e %e par-2rases e i$i a)*"=
V ile in pri$is+ e $ul i prae#eperun + uel e5 Jrae#" in Na inu$ uel e5 Na in" uer ere in Jrae#u$6 1u" !enere e5er#i a i"nis pr"prie as splen%"r1ue uer&"ru$+ #"pia 2i!uraru$+ uis e5pli#an%i+ prae erea i$i a i"ne "p i$"ru$ si$ilia inuenien%i 2a#ul as para ur. Si$ul 1uae le!en e$ 2e2ellissen rans2eren e$ 2u!ere n"n p"ssun >VII+ ?+ MD. An es %e u%" , P il+ e $ui "s re#"$en%ara$ ra%u/ir seOa %" !re!" a" la i$ seOa %" la i$ a" !re!"6 p"r1ue #"$ es e ip" %e e5er#0#i" se pr"#ura a pr"prie%a%e e " resplen%"r %as pala3ras+ a ri1ue/a %as 2i!uras+ "s $, "%"s para a$pli2i#ar+ e+ al,$ %iss"+ a 2a#ul%a%e para #riar %e $aneira si$ilar a par ir %a i$i a)*" %"s $el'"res. A" $es$" e$p"+ " 1ue 'aOa 2al'a%" a" lei "r+ n*" p"%e es#apar a" ra%u "r.

Assi$+ #"$par il'a$ 3-ri"s in3es i!a%"res a 'ip( ese %e 1ue a ra%u)*" E 1ue se re2ere C0#er" , an es i$i a)*". Rara Juiller$" Ser,s >.??WD+ " 1ue C0#er" %e2en%e , a ra%u)*" %e2ini%a #"$" i$i a i" "u ae$ula i"+ a 1ue+ n" 2i$ %as #"n as+ apresen a %i!ni%a%e li er-ria. Tra%u)*" , reela&"ra)*". Rara iss" , ne#ess-ri" " us" %a "ra (ria e %a el"198n#ia+ ransplan an%" e na urali/an%" " $"%el" "ri!inal= G ra%u#ir 3ale an " #"$" suplan ar re (ri#a$en e el "ri!inal+ rein3en ar la el"1uen ia !rie!a+ apr"pi-rsela+ "+ $eO"r+ la ini/arlaI >Ser,s .??W= MWD. Iss" si!ni2i#a ra%u)*" re (ri#a e %e2esa %" e5 " %e #'e!a%a+ #"$" a$&,$ " #"nsi%era$ Sean Delisle e Su%i ' f""%s]"r '+ 1ue #i a$ C"pelan%=

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Au e$ps %e ldE$pire r"$ain+ la ra%u# i"n se %,2inissai s,paran une ra%u# i"n %e s"n "ri!inalI>Delisle4f""%s]"r ' .??A= WLD.

Na in erpre a)*" %e Ri a C"pelan%+ "s pre#ei "s %e C0#er" %e ra%u/ir n"n uer&u$ pr" uer&"+ $as %e $an er a 2"r)a e as 2i!uras %a lin!ua!e$ e as sen en iae e$ !eral+ represen a$ u$ prin#0pi" %e #"nser3a)*" %iri!i%" n*" a" ser3i)" %" e5 " 2"n e+ $as e$ &ene20#i" %a l0n!ua %e #'e!a%a. Rara C0#er"+ re#"ns i uir " e5 " 3er&al e es ilis i#a$en e represen a u$ a " %e resi!ni2i#a)*"+ n" sen i%" %e u$a U$u%an)a #"rren eV= "%"s "s ele$en "s %" e5 "+ 2"r$a e es il"+ %epen%e$ %a in erpre a)*"+ s*" a%ap a%"s a% n"s ra$ #"nsue u%ine$+ ransplan a%"s+ na urali/a%"s+ rans2eri%"s a" sis e$a %" la i$ #"rren e+ Gs" 'a 'e ransla i"n #an 3ir uallH supplan 'e "ri!inal as a r'e "ri#al $"%elI >.??.= BB4BQD. Rara C0#er"+ as rei3in%i#a)7es %a ra%u)*" se e5presa$ e$ er$"s %e rans!ress*" e5 ual+ e$ er$"s %e #apa#i%a%e 'eur0s i#a %a el"#u i" >.??.= QWD. Es a in erpre a)*" %e C"pelan% , rea2ir$a%a p"r F"lena >.??.= LD+ para 1ue$+ a ra%u)*" %e 1ue 2ala C0#er" #"$p"r a u$ plen" %"$0ni" %e "%a a #"$p"si i" re (ri#a+ "u seOa+ u$a ar i#ula)*" 'ar$<ni#a e es u%a%a %" per0"%". Ser,s le$&ra 1ue as %ire ri/es e(ri#as %e C0#er" %e3e$ ser Oul!a%as %es%e sua perspe# i3a 'is (ri#a+ is " ,+ %e3e4se #"nsi%erar+ p"is+ 1ue na1uele e$p" 'a3ia u$ 2"r e sen i$en " %e ae$ula i" e %e %e2esa %a la ini as+ e 1ue 'a3ia u$a !ran%e 2a$iliari%a%e #"$ a l0n!ua !re!a F a s"#ie%a%e #ul a era &il0n!9e F+ e p"r iss" a 2inali%a%e %a ra%u)*" n*" era prin#ipal$en e %e in2"r$a)*" "u a$plia)*" #ul ural para a1ueles 1ue n*" %"$ina3a$ a l0n!ua es ran!eira+ $as " Gper2e##i"na$ien " %e la peri#ia re (ri#aI >.??W= MWD. Ta$&,$ C"pelan% #r8 1ue " "&Oe i3" !eral %" e5 " %e C0#er" , G " $e%ia e A i# prin#iples &H $a #'in! 'e$ ]i ' 'eir Na in #"rresp"n%en sI >.??.= BBD. C"$ u$ en2"1ue %is in " %" %e Jar#0a Ke&ra+ para Ser,s+ C0#er" a" 2alar %e ra%u)*" u in erpres e u "ra "r e5p7e

RB

Mauri Furlan

u$a &ip"lari%a%e+ in erpre a i" a% uer&u$ e i$i a i" "u ae$ula i"+ %i2eren#ia%"ra %e %"is ip"s %e ra%u)*". A %" in erpres "u a% uer&u$ , es ri a$en e ,#ni#a+ e "&Oe i3a e5pli#ar "u es#lare#er6 a se!un%a+ %" "ra "r "u i$i a i" , a li er-ria. A 2inali%a%e %a ra%u)*" a% uer&u$ G en0a p"#" sen i%" Z[\ p"r1ue el pP&li#" a 1ue se %iri!0a Ci#er(n era #apa/ %e leer un "ri!inal !rie!"I >.??W= M@4MLD. A #"n#lus*" , %e 1ue C0#er" ra%u/iu seus U$"%el"sV #"$ u$ !ran%e %eseO" %e #"n2i!ura)*" li er-ria+ " 1ue se 3in#ula es rei a$en e a" #"n#ei " li er-ri" %e ae$ula i" #"$" repr"%u)*" #"$pe i i3a >S "l/e MCC.= .LD. U$a %as in erpre a)7es $ais in eressan es+ p"r seu #ar-# er %i3er!en e+ s"&re a #"n#ep)*" #i#er"niana %e ra%u)*" , a %e Se&as ian" Faus " %a N"n!ian" n" Dial"!" %el $"%" %e l" ra%urre %Vuna in al ra lin!ua se#"n%" le re!"le $"s ra e %a Ci#er"ne+ .AA@. Faus " %a N"n!ian" >.??.= gg W.4.MCD %e2en%e a ese %e 1ue C0#er" ra%u/ia u in erpres e 1ue a%3"!a3a p"r es e ip" %e ra%u)*"+ " 1ual se %i2eren#ia3a $ui " p"u#" %" ip" u "ra "r F a !ran%e se$el'an)a en re as %uas 2"r$as %e ra%u)*" a$&,$ , rea2ir$a%a p"r C"pelan% F. A ra%u)*" #i#er"niana %"s %is#urs"s !re!"s a 1ue se re2ere C0#er" seria an es u$a e5#e)*" e$ sua pr- i#a ra%u "ra+ p"r1ue se n*" " i3esse 2ei " %e $aneira %is in a E 'a&i ual n*" eria %i " 1ue " 2i/era u "ra "r. Rara es e 'u$anis a+ n*" se p"%e a ri&uir a C0#er" a al erna i3a %e ra%u)*" se!un%" a le ra "u se!un%" " sen i%" F #"$" in erpre a M"unin+ p"r e5e$pl" F p"r1ue " "ra%"r r"$an" n*" 2ala e$ nen'u$a %e suas "&ras a respei ". O ra%u "r 2iel a" sen i%" F n*" %is#u i%" p"r C0#er" F+ rairia " es il" %" "ri!inal para a%e1uar4se a" !"s " %" n"3" pP&li#".
Na %i22eren/a ra il G#"n3er ere u in erpresI F a #ui 3a il 2a3"re %i Faus " F e il G#"n3er ere u "ra "rI #"nsis e %un1ue nel 2a " #'e lVGin erpresI perse!ue #"n #"eren/a la ripr"%u/i"ne %ell" s ile %ellV"ri!inale in u i i #asi in #ui la lin!ua %Varri3" l" per$e a+ $en re lVG"ra "rI+ nel su" en a i3" %i ripr"%u/i"ne+ ri#"rre in $isura $a!!i"re a e1ui3alen/e s ilis i#'e nella lin!ua %i arri3" >Ju '$9ller .??.= Q.D.

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H"r-#i"
Cer#a %e rin a an"s %ep"is %" #"$en -ri" %e C0#er" s"&re a ra%u)*"+ H"r-#i" es#re3e a Epis ula a% Ris"nes+ #a. .B a.C.+ s"&re pr"&le$as rela i3"s E es , i#a li er-ria+ E #ria)*" p", i#a+ e 1ue p"r seu #"n eP%" essen#ial$en e e(ri#"+ , ra a%a #"$" u$ G e5 " #ien 02i#"I >S#'a2er .?L?= A@D p"u#" e$p" %ep"is %e sua pu&li#a)*"+ e n"$ea%a p"r cuin ilian" e$ sua Ins i u i" "ra "ria >I+ L+ BD #"$ " 0 ul" %e Ni&er %e ar e p"e i#a. Nes e e5 "+ H"r-#i" ra a &asi#a$en e %" ea r"+ sen%" u$ %e seus prin#ipais p"s ula%"s " %e 1ue a #ria)*" p", i#a , u$a i$i a)*" e sua 2inali%a%e , a represen a)*" #8ni#a >Jri$al .?@L= BLD. A" la%" %" e5 " %e C0#er"+ "s 3ers"s .BB4.BQ %a Ars p"e i#a 2i/era$ 'is (ria n" uni3ers" %a ra%u)*"+ e 2"ra$ in erpre a%"s e u ili/a%"s an " pel"s %e2ens"res %a ra%u)*" li3re #"$" pel"s %a li eral=
Ne# uer&u$ uer&" #ura&is re%%ere 2i%us In erpres.

N" en an "+ a" $en"s %es%e " s,#ul" :VI F 3eOa4se+ p"r e5e$pl"+ Sa#1ues Rele ier+ " #ap0 ul" Des ra%u# i"ns %e sua Ar p", i1ue+ .AAA F+ al!uns es u%i"s"s ap"n a$ u$ e1u03"#" na in erpre a)*" %"s 3ers"s '"ra#ian"s 1ue+ G#uri"sa$en eI+ #"$" " 1uali2i#a Jar#0a Ke&ra >.??QD+ persis e a , n"ss"s %ias. A" es#re3er esses 3ers"s+ " p"e a r"$an" n*" se %iri!ia a ra%u "res $as a es#ri "res+ a#"nsel'an%"4 "s a &us#ar "ri!inali%a%e n*" n" 1ue %i/e$+ $as na $aneira %e %i/84l". O U ra%u "rV , u$ ele$en " %e #"$para)*"= " es#ri "r+ a" ra ar u$ assun " #"n'e#i%"+ n*" %e3e 2a/84l" ser3in%"se %as $es$as pala3ras %e sua 2"n e+ p"is iss" , " 1ue 2aria u$ U ra%u "r 2ielV. H"r-#i" n*" es a3a %an%" pre#ei "s para a ra%u)*". A in erpre a)*" err<nea par e %a %es#"n e5 uali/a)*" %"s 3ers"s. Bas a #"$ 1ue se #"nsi%ere al!uns 3ers"s an eri"res para #'e!ar a "u ra #"n#lus*"=

RB

Mauri Furlan

Di22i#ile es pr"prie #"$$unia %i#ere6 u1ue Re# ius Ilia#u$ #ar$en %e%u#is in a# us cua$ si pr"2erres i!n" a in%i# a1ue pri$us. Ru&li#a $a eries priua i iuris eri + si

N"n #ir#a uile$ pa ulu$1ue $"ra&eris "r&e$+ Ne# uer&" uer&u$ #ura&is re%%ere 2i%us In erpres ne# %esilies i$i a "r in ar u$+ Un%e pe%e$ pr"2erre pu%"r ue e au "peris le5. >Ars p"e i#a+ 33. .ML4.BAD

X %i20#il #"n ar+ #"$ pr"prie%a%e+ #"isas p"pulari/a%as. Tu+ p"r,$+ p"%es p<r e$ #ena u$ #an " il0a#" $ais #"n3enien e$en e %" 1ue se $"s rasses pela pri$eira 3e/ #"isas %es#"n'e#i%as e in,%i as. Ma ,ria pP&li#a ser- %e %irei " pri3a%"+ se n*" %elirares e$ "rn" %e u$ p"n " %espre/03el e &anal+ ne$ 2iel ra%u "r ra ares %e ra%u/ir pala3ra p"r pala3ra+ ne$ i$i a%"r e lan)ares nu$a si ua)*" e$&ara)"sa+ %e "n%e a i$i%e/ "u a es ru ura %a "&ra n*" per$i a sair.

Fre%eri#^ Rener #r8 1ue+ nes a passa!e$+ H"r-#i" es %is in!uin%" en re " pl-!i" >2ur u$D e a i$i a)*". A i$i a)*" seria re#"$en%a%a se " p"e a 2"sse #"$pe en e+ "u seOa+ #apa/ %e %issi$ular a 2"n e e in#"rp"rar " $a erial e$pres a%" nu$a n"3a e #"esa #ria)*" >.?L?= BCLD. A Faus " %a N"n!ian" a$p"u#" l'e passa %esper#e&i%a a pr"&le$- i#a %e in erpre a)*" %" e5 " '"ra#ian" >.??.= gg .B.4 .BWD. O 'u$anis a i alian" per#e&e 1ue a Ars p"e i#a "2ere#e %is in as p"ssi&ili%a%es %e #"$preens*"= se H"r-#i" ra a3a %a i$i a)*"+ a ra%u)*" a 1ue se re2eria seria a %as pala3ras+ e a#"nsel'a3a a" i$i a%"r a n*" 3er er pala3ra p"r pala3ra+ p"r1ue is " , ra&al'" %" U ra%u "r 2ielV e n*" %" i$i a%"r. R"r "u r" la%"+ se H"r-#i" 2ala3a %e ra%u)*" e n*" %e i$i a)*"+ p"%eria es ar alu%in%" an " E ra%u)*" %" sen i%" #"$" %as pala3ras. Da ,p"#a %"s r"$an"s+ #uOa li era ura nas#e %a ra%u)*"+ sa&e4 se 1ue '"u3e u$a a i3i%a%e ra%u "ra e li er-ria 1ue+

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en re$es#la%as+ pr"%u/ira$ " 1ue '"Oe se #"n'e#e #"$" a li era ura r"$ana. C"n u%"+ "s p"u#"s re!is r"s %e re2le57es s"&re a pr- i#a %a ra%u)*" nes e per0"%" n*" 2"ra$ es#ri "s #"$ " pr"p(si " %e in3es i!ar " e$a e$ si "u %e "2ere#er pre#ei "s s"&re a $el'"r $aneira %e ra%u/ir+ $as 1ue se en#"n ra$ %e 2"r$a 1uase #asual e$ e5 "s 1ue ra a$ %e "u ras 1ues 7es. D"is %"s $ai"res es#ri "res r"$an"s+ C0#er" e H"r-#i"+ 1ue 8$ si%" #i a%"s %uran e s,#ul"s prin#ipal$en e e$ %e2esa %a ra%u)*" li3re n*" 2"ra$ pre#ep is as %a ra%u)*". N" en an "+ es es par#"s es e$un'"s %" passa%" %*" a #"n'e#er a #lara e5is 8n#ia %e a" $en"s %uas 2"r$as %e ra%u)*" pra i#a%as en re eles+ a ra%u)*" %e pala3ra p"r pala3ra "u G ,#ni#aI >Ser,sD e a ra%u)*" para2r-s i#a+ #ria i3a "u re (ri#a6 "u+ e$ "u r"s er$"s+ a ra%u)*" !ra$a i#al e a re (ri#a. Da%a a e5is 8n#ia %" &ilin!9is$" "u $es$" rilin!9is$" %a s"#ie%a%e r"$ana e a%$i i%a sua 3is*" %a ra%u)*" #"$" pr"%u)*" li er-ria+ a2ir$a Bassne 1ue a ar e ra%u "ra en *" pra i#a%a 2"i Pni#a n" !8ner"= " lei "r r"$an" p"%ia #"nsi%erar a ra%u)*" u$ $e a e5 " e$ rela)*" #"$ " "ri!inal+ e " ra%u "r r"$an"+ 1ue era Oul!a%" p"r sua 'a&ili%a%e e$ usar

#ria i3a$en e seu $"%el"+ p"%ia #"n#e&er a are2a %a ra%u)*" #"$" e5er#0#i" %e es il0s i#a #"$para%a >.?LC= QAD.

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. R"s eri"r$en e ser*" pu&li#a%"s p"r es a re3is a "u r"s %"is ar i!"s rela i3"s a" e$a F GA I%a%e M,%iaI e GO Renas#i$en "I F+ 1ue a&ran!er*" " per0"%" pr"p"s ". M [ G1uan%" "s au "res r"$an"s+ e$ suas "&ras "ri!inais+ $ais se a2as ara$ %"s $"%el"s+ e+ a" #"n r-ri"+ nas ra%u)7es+ pu%era$ se es2"r)ar $ais in ensa$en e p"r u$a repr"%u)*" e5a# a.I >T"%as as ra%u)7es nes e ar i!"+ 1uan%" n*" 2a/e$ re2er8n#ia a" ra%u "r+ s*" %e $in'a au "riaD.

RB

Mauri Furlan

B C0#er" apresen a "u r"s #"$en -ri"s s"&re a ar e %a ra%u)*" e$ A#a%.+ I+ .C6 II+ B.6 Ne!.+ II+ .W6 Tus#.+ III+ Q.6 III+ QQ6 A%. A .+ VI+ M+ B6 De 2in.+ II+ .B6 III+ .A6 III+ BA.

Bi&li"!ra2ia #i a%a

BANNARD+ Mi#'el+ .??M+ De Ci#,r"n a BenOa$in F ra%u# eurs+ ra%u# i"ns+ r,2le5i"ns+ Nille+ RUN. BASSNETT4MCJUIRE+ Susan+ .?LC+ Transla i"ns s u%ies+ Nue3a K"r^+ Me 'uen h C". BAKET+ Sean+ .??@+ Ni era ura la ina+ Bar#el"na+ Ariel. Tra%. %e S"s,4I!na#i" Ciruel". CCERO+ Mar#" TPli"+ .??@+ GDe "p i$" !enere "ra "ru$YS"&re el $eO"r !,ner" %e "ra%"resI+ en F. Na2ar!a >e%.D+ El %is#urs" s"&re la ra%u##i(n en la 'is "ria. An "l"!0a &ilin!9e+ Bar#el"na+ EUB+ pp. BM4QQ. Tra%. %e S"s, I!na#i" Jar#0a Ar$en%-ri/. CORENAND+ Ri a+ .??.+ R'e "ri#+ 'er$eneu i#s+ an% ransla i"n in 'e Mi%%le A!es F a#a%e$i# ra%i i"ns an% 3erna#ular e5 s+ Ca$&ri%!e+ Uni3ersi H Rress. DENISNE+ Sean h fOODSfORTH+ Su%i '+ .??A+ Nes ra%u# eurs %ans lV'is "ire+ O a]a+ Uni3ersi ,. FAUSTO DA NONJIANO+ Se&as ian"+ .??.+ GDel $"%" %e l" ra%urre %Vuna in al ra lin!ua se#"n%" le re!"le $"s ra e %a Ci#er"neI+ en cua%erni Vene i+ .M+ pp. AW.BM.

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FONENA+ Jian2ran#"+ .??.+ V"l!ari//are e Tra%urre+ T"rin"+ Uni"ne Tip"!ra2i#"E%.

T"rinense.
JARCA KEBRA+ Valen 0n+ .?LC+ GiCi#er(n H H"ra#i" pre#ep is as %e la ra%u##i(nbI+ en Cua%ern"s %e 2il"l"!0a #l-si#a+ :VI+ pp. .B?4.AQ. + .?L?+ En "rn" a la ra%u##i(n F e"r0a+ #r0 i#a+ 'is "ria+ Ma%ri%+

Jre%"s.

JRIMAN+ Rierre+ .?@L+ Essai sur ldAr R", i1ue %dH"ra#e+ Rar0s+ SEDES. JUTHM`NNER+ B"%"+ .??.+ GFaus " %a N"n!ian" e il pr"&le$a %el ra%urreI+ en cua%erni Vene i+ .M. Tra%. %e R"sa$aria Bran% h Ni#"le a Ne!ri. HIJHET+ Jil&er + .??@+ Na ra%i#i(n #l-si#a+ M 3"ls.+ M,5i#"+ FCE. Tra%. %e A. Ala "rre. HORACIO+ .?@.+ Sa ire+ Epis les an% Ars p"e i#a+ N"n%res+ N"e& Classi#al Ni&rarH. SERjNIMO+ S*"+ .??@+ GEpis ula NVII. A% Ra$$a#'iu$. Ni&er %e "p i$" !enere in erpre an%iYCar a NVII a Ra$$a1ui"+ s"&re el $eO"r !,ner" %e ra%u##i(nI+ en F. Na2ar!a >e%.D+ El %is#urs" s"&re la ra%u##i(n en la 'is "ria. An "l"!0a &ilin!9e+ Bar#el"na+ EUB+ pp. Q@4W.. Tra%. %e S"s, I!na#i" Jar#0a Ar$en%-ri/. MOUNIN+ Je"r!es+ .?@A+ Te"ria e s "ria %ella ra%u/i"ne+ T"rin"+ Einau%i. NASCIMENTO+ Aires A.+ .??L+ GTra%u/ir+ 3er&" $e%ie3al= as li)7es %e Bruni Are in" e Al"ns" %e Car a!enaI+ en R,re/ J"n/-le/ >e%.D+ A# as II #"n!res" 'isp-ni#" %e la 0n $e%ie3al >Ne(n+ ..4.Q %e n"3ie$&re %e .??WD+ Ne(n+ Se#re aria%" %e Ru&li#a#i"nes+ pp. .BB4.A@. RNNIO " S"3e$+ .?ML+ Ne resYEpis ulae. T"$" III+ li&r"s VII4I:+ Rar0s+ Nes Belles Ne res.

cUINTINIANO+ .?W?+ Ins i u i"n Ora "ireYIns i u i" "ra "ria+ Rar0s+ Nes Belles Ne res.

RB

Mauri Furlan

RENER+ Fre%eri#^

M.+ .?L?+ In erpre a i" F lan!ua!e an% ransla i"n 2r"$ Ci#er" " TH ler+ A$s er%a$YA lan a+ R"%"pi.
RITORX RONCE+ S"a1u0n+ .??Q+ GI%eas s"&re la ra%u##i(n H #"n#ep#i"nes %e la len!ua en l"s au "res an i!u"sI+ en Re2le5i"nes s"&re la ra%u##i(n+ C-%i/+ Uni3ersi%a%+ pp. @CB4@... SCHkFER+ E#^ar + .?L?+ GNa#']"r I+ en Ars p"e i#aYDie Di#' ^uns + S u !ar + Re#la$. SERXS+ Juiller$"+ .??W+ Na ra%u##i(n en I alia H Espala %uran e el si!l" :V. Na GIl0a%a en r"$an#eI H su #"n e5 " #ul ural+ Sala$an#a+ Uni3ersi%a%. STEINER+ Je"r!e+ .??L+ Despu,s %e Ba&el. Aspe# "s %el len!uaOe H la ra%u##i(n+ M,5i#"+ F"n%" %e Cul ura E#"n($i#a. Tra%. %e A%"l2" Cas al(n H %e Aureli" MaO"r. STONmE+ Ra%e!un%is+ MCC.+ `&erse /un!s 'e"rien. Eine Ein29'run!+ Tu&in!a+ Jun er Narr Verla!.