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Mary E.

Twomey 1
Unit Title: The Desire for Permanence

Lesson Plan 1: Monumental Events Memorialized Grade Level: 10
Teacher: Mary E. Twomey Time: 6 weeks

Learners Characteristics:

Lowenfelds period of decision occurs at age 14-17, art at this stage of life is something to
be done or left alone. Natural development will cease unless a conscious decision is made to
improve drawing skills. Students are critically aware of the immaturity of their drawing and
are easily discouraged. Lowenfeld's solution is to enlarge their concept of adult art to include
non-representational art and art occupations besides painting (architecture, interior design,
handcrafts, etc.).
Students at this stage will decide to continue drawing or view it as an activity without merit.
Because of the level of self-criticism inherent at this stage, many children, (now young adults)
view drawing as a skill that do they do not possess. Others, however, decide to continue working
on their drawing skills and continue to develop. I think that it is important to encourage students
to continue drawing despite their level of skill. Increased skill is attained only with practice. This
stage of artistic development is perhaps the most critical to the development of an artist.

Characteristics Of Students With Disabilities:

ADD and ADHD: Students with ADD and/or ADHD may be inattentive, hyperactive, and/or
impulsive. Students might exhibit the following: Fails to pay close attention to details, makes
careless mistakes, cannot sustain focused attention, does not appear to be listening, has difficulty
organizing tasks, activities, materials, does not like activities that require sustained focus, easily
distracted by extraneous environmental activity, often forgets routine activities, fidgets, moves
hands and feet, moves around in seat, cannot face still, gets out of seat often, runs in classroom,
all, climbs, has difficulty engaging in quiet activities, even quiet leisure activities, talks
excessively, blurts out answers to questions, sometimes even before questions are completed, has
difficulty waiting, taking turns, interrupts teacher and others frequently.
Autism: Students with autism have a lifelong developmental disability that affects their verbal
communication, nonverbal communication, and social interactions. Students might exhibit the
following: repetitive activities and movements resistance to changes in environment and daily
routine, unusual responses to sensory experiences, poor play skills, frequent conflicts with
others, lack of empathy and inability to see perspective of others, inability to tolerate overly
stimulating environments, lights, sounds, movements.
Behavioral, Emotional, and Social: students with behavioral challenges can be aggressive and
antisocial. Behavioral challenges may stem from a wide range of issuesgangs, drug use,
homelessness, familial abuse, medication, and health problems. Students with emotional
challenges can feel sad, depressed and have low self-esteem. Students with social challenges
have difficulty interacting with others, making and keeping friends and dealing with the
everyday demands of social activities. Students with behavioral, emotional and social learning
disabilities might exhibit the following: inability to learn that cannot be directly linked to health,
sensory environmental or cognitive intelligence, inability to establish and maintain good
interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers, voicing of inappropriate feelings or

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exhibiting inappropriate behaviors under normal classroom conditions, almost constant
unhappiness or moody or depression like behavior, passive aggressive behavior, responds with
trepidation and fear to ordinary classroom activities.
ELL and ESL: English Language Learners (ELL) are students who speak their native language
and are not proficient in English. They have difficulty understanding what is required of them in
classroom settings where English is the dominant language. They also have difficulty using
English to communicate with their teachers and most of their classmates. ELL students who are
proficient in their native language tend to develop English language skills more rapidly than
students who have difficulty communicating in their native language. Some ELL students may
also have other learning disabilities. English as a Second Language (ESL) students speak little or
no English for a while they may remain silent in class as they adjust to a new school, new
classroom environment and new culture. When seated next to a student who speaks his/her first
language, the student may easily and readily interact. However, when no such classmate is
available, ESL students generally remain in a silent period that may last just a few days to
several months or even a year; this is often a time of great discomfort for the ESL student. The
ESL student is concerned about decoding verbal and nonverbal communication as well as
understanding the socio-cultural framework of the school (i.e.: what are the expectations for
behavior, for school success, for making friends?). ESL students often performed at or above
their grade level in their first language and, once they learn English, that level of academic
performance may be maintained.

Permanence: As humans we seek to leave something of ourselves behind in an unending desire
for immortality or permanence. Some tangible evidence that we lived, we mattered. We build
monuments, buildings, commission statues, and portraits. Literature has been written, some
factual some not, that generation after generation has read and possibly will continue to do so.
Medicine to cure disease, postponing our death, continues to be developed, the search for the
proverbial fountain of youth endures with plastic surgery erasing the signs of aging from our
faces, even body sculpting.

Art has been created in commemoration of events of historical significance, in celebration of
victory, the heroic acts of individuals, while additional pieces memorialize those lost in a
tragedy. These works seek to influence public memory and opinion of events. Additional
factions, who have erected other works, sought to assert influence over others with visible
displays of their message or power. Architects and sculptors use materials meant to endure such
as: concrete, marble, granite, limestone, alabaster, bronze, and other metals.

Non-Art Discipline ConceptSocial Studies:
Examining periods corresponding to works depicting/commemorating historical events or
individuals. Students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past
and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage.
Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental
rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global

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Concepts in Art Disciplines

Art Production/Art Making:
A. Elements or Principle of Design
Students will demonstrate use of balance and space when they are designing the composition
for their monument. They will have to make a conscious decision regarding the use of form,
shape, creating negative space, scale, the effects of light, movement.
B. Technique/Process
Students have the opportunity to develop competence in a variety of media including:
ceramic, fiber, metal, wood and plaster. Students will learn new skills and apply previous art
experience and knowledge to more complex problems in 3D design, technique, and creativity
while working subtractively and additively.

Does art have to be beautiful?
What does an artwork mean?
If a work is not traditionally beautiful can understanding the artists meaning make you see or
appreciate its beauty differently?
Are the materials important to its meaning?
How would this work be different if the artist had used a different medium, i.e., clay?
Does knowing the artists intent and meaning change how you feel about the art work?

Art Criticism (Select one work of art for whole-class art criticism discussion.):
Four levels of formal analysis will be used during the process of critique of an art work:
A. Description
Pure description of the object without value judgments, analysis, or interpretation; students
answer the question, "What do you see?"
What colors do you see?
What shapes do you see?
What kinds of lines do you see?
B. Formal Analysis
Determining what the features suggest and deciding why the artist used such features to
convey specific ideas; students answer the question, "How did the artist do it?
How did the artist
use space- positive or negative area around and through the piece?
use Form vs. Shape?
create Balance?
use size or amount of material that is used to create Volume or Mass?
use Line?
use Light-reflection of light, how does the piece casts shadows?
use Movement-how your eye moves around the piece in space?
create Texture-feeling, smoothness, softness, etc. ?
C. Interpretation
Establishing the broader context for this type of art; Students answers the question, "Why did
the artist create it and what does it mean?
a. Main idea: What is the overall meaning of the work?

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b. Interpretive Statement: Express what you think the artwork is about in one sentence?
c. Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the artwork supports your interpretation?

D. Judgment
Judging a piece of work means giving it rank in relation to other works and of course
considering a very important aspect of the visual arts; its originality. Students answer the
question, Is it a good artwork?
Criteria: What criteria do students think are most appropriate for judging the artwork?
Evidence: What evidence inside, or outside, the artwork relates to each criterion?
Judgment: Based on the criteria and evidence, what is the students judgment about the
quality of the artwork? Is this a successful work of art? Why/why not?

Art History
(Artist or Art Movement/Period)
National Monuments
The monuments, statues, and architecture we create leave clues to our society, as well as leave
our mark, and highlight what we conceive to be significant events of our time. Why is our
history important?

Learning Objectives
Art Disciplines
Universal themes exist in art across historical eras and cultures. Art may embrace multiple
solutions to a problem. All students will synthesize those skills, media, methods, and
technologies appropriate to creating, performing, and/or presenting works of art in dance, music,
theatre, and visual art.

Art Disciplines Learning Modifications:
Written, oral, and visual directions and instruction are provided for each assignment.

Non-Art Discipline:
Students will understand the production of national symbolism in the 1930s implied by 19th
century monuments were propelled by underlying propaganda goals.
The intent of President Roosevelt's New Deal art support programs, like the Federal Art
Project (FAP), was to develop national pride in American culture.
Students will understand that this facilitated the development of public art during the
Great Depression to shape public understanding of the past.
Students will understand in what ways these programs altered the relationship between the
artist and society by making art accessible to all people.

Non-Art Disciplines Learning Modifications:
Provide: extra time, printed materials targeted towards different levels of literacy, audio visual

Democratic Skills
Students will display mutual respect during class discussions and critiques, and accepting of the
right of others in the classroom community to be treated with respect of their rights. Students

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will also be open-minded and ready to see the other side of any issue, and to revise their opinions
in light of further evidence. All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think
analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment
shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed
decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in
local, national, and global communities.

Sequence of Classroom Activities
Discuss monuments and why they are erected.
Discuss the idea of permanence
Look at images of National monuments and discuss what inspired them.
Individual and group discussions
Brainstorming sessions
Preliminary/thumbnail sketches
Experimentation with materials and techniques
Create sculpture/monument

Materials & Equipment
Artist/student choice, may include:

Found objects

Basic hand tools
Art history references will be viewed, discussed, and researched through presentations and other
assets online.

List of Art Works:
1. Lincoln Memorial, Henry Bacon, Marble, Washington, DC, 1922, 98' (30 m)
2. Washington Memorial, Washington, DC, 1878
3. Mount Rushmore National Memorial, Lincoln Borglum, Gutzon Borglum, Granite, Mica,
Keystone, South Dakota, 60, 19271941
4. Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Maya Lin, Washington, DC, 1993
5. National September 11 Memorial, Michael Arad, Daniel Libeskind, Peter Walker, New
York, 66', 2011
6. Additional Local Memorials/Statues

Supporting Materials (Vocabulary Lists, artists biographies, historical information,
student self-assessment, rubric):
Student Self-Assessment Sheet is an extension of learning, not a test, aids students

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Narrative of Classroom Procedures
Introduction/Discussion/Questions (about theme concept, concepts in art disciplines, non-art
discipline concepts, art works, democratic behaviors):
Students will discuss monuments of the past (Mount Rushmore, Washington Monument, Lincoln
Memorial, etc.) and present (World War II Memorial, Vietnam Veterans Memorial 9/11
Memorial, etc.) and the people and events that initiated their production.
How does permanence affect art? Is permanence a requisite characteristic of a successful work of
art? Some pieces are temporary, as in performance art or art installations. Is the piece the art or
once the work no longer exists physically are the photographs that remain the art? Or is the art
the experience of the work, not the physical piece itself? Is true permanence real or achievable?
Alternatively, is it only possible to achieve durability and longevity?
Consider societal or political changes, which become the catalyst for protests and the symbolic
razzing of structures or tearing down of monuments.

Stimulation Activity
In pairs, list any memorial you know. What event does it commemorate? Who create it? Come
up with as many as you can in 3 minutes. We will come back to the big group and share the
monuments that students are already familiar with and create a master list. Do students know its
meaning? Do they know the artist or architect who created it?

I Want You to (Problematized instructions for individualized and/or small group art making):
Reflect upon your life and define a pivotal event or influential person that has been significant to
your life. Using this person or event as your inspiration, create a personal memorial to
commemorate it or them. Brainstorm ideas, make thumbnail sketches of several ideas. Will it be
a sculpture? A building or structure? A bas relief plaque? Design and plan the location for
installation. Use elevated drawings from multiple perspectives: front, back, side, top. Execute a
model of your memorial using ! scale (! inch = 1 foot) in the medium of your choice.

More Questions, Statements, Positive Verbal Reinforcement, Suggestions, and Clarification
of Tasks (related to theme concept, concepts in art disciplines, non-art concept, democratic skills):
Critique of student monuments. What or who does the monument commemorate? What
motivated your choice? What are your reasons for dedicating a monument to this event or
person? In what way are your feelings and rationale represented in the work?

Concluding the Lesson (Discussion, Questions, Sharing of Productions, Recapping):
Consider societal or political changes, which become the catalyst for protests and the symbolic
razzing of structures or tearing down of monuments. Can you think of any monuments that have
been destroyed as part of a protest? Can you think of any monuments that have been removed
resulting from a change in societys perspective?
Students will hang or display their work for a class critique. Ask students: What do you see?
What do you think this work is about? What feelings or emotions does it express?

Lesson Extensions/Connections:
In small groups, of 2 to 3, students plan the positioning of their monuments together in one
location, i.e., a park, a plaza, a garden, or other public space. What characteristics define the

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space? How would they coexist harmoniously? How does location affect the public impact of a


A. One Visual Arts Standard and Indicator
1.3 Performance: Strand D. Visual Art
All students will synthesize those skills, media, methods, and technologies appropriate to
creating, performing, and/or presenting works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.
Content Statement: Universal themes exist in art across historical eras and cultures. Art
may embrace multiple solutions to a problem.
CPI#/Cumulative Process Indicator
1.3.8.D.4: Delineate the thematic content of multicultural artworks, and plan, design, and
execute multiple solutions to challenging visual arts problems, expressing similar thematic

B. Social Studies Standard and Indicator
Strand D: History, Culture, and Perspectives
Content Statement: Historical symbols and the ideas and events they represent play a role in
understanding and evaluating our history.
CPI#/Cumulative Process Indicator
6.1.4. D.17: Explain the role of historical symbols, monuments, and holidays and how they
affect the American identity.

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Teacher Evaluation

Lesson Plan:
1. Are the activities in the lesson age appropriate?
2. Are there parts of the lesson that require too much time/parts that dont allow enough time
for adequate understanding?
3. Did all parts of the lesson engage and maintain students interest?
4. Does the lesson conceptually link art with another subject in an integrated way that is both
implicit and explicit?
5. Are the learning activities presented in the best sequence for maximizing students
understanding and participation?

Teaching of Lesson:
1. Did I allow enough wait time?
2. Did I make eye contact with students?
3. Was I excited about the lesson?
4. Did I ask enough open-ended questions?
5. Did I speak clearly and loudly enough for the students to hear me?
6. Did I check for students understanding throughout my demonstration?

Student Outcomes:
1. Did students show understanding of the vocabulary during oral discussion?
2. Was this project too difficult for the students?
3. Were the materials used correctly and safely?
4. Did students stay on task?
5. Are students working in a timely manner to complete the assignment?
6. Did students successfully use scale to make their model?

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Monumental Events
Student Self-Evaluation
Student Name _________________________________________ Date: _______________

1. How did you show emotions in your monument?

2. How did you depict your reasons to memorialize this particular person in the monument?

3. Do you expect your monument to exist far into the future?

4. What did you like best about this project?