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LABOR STANDARDS
LAW 200M
Third Term, 2013-2014

Atty. Domingo T. Aonuevo
DLSU College of Law
domingo.anonuevo@dlsu.edu.ph
+639178129948


COURSE DESCRIPTION:


This course is about the fundamental principles of labor law, and the law
on recruitment and placement, labor standards, and termination of
employment.



LEARNING OUTCOMES (LO):


On completion of the course, the student is expected to be able to do
the following:


1.

State the legal bases of labor law and tell where it may be found;
recognize the basic rights of workers and employers;


2.

Tell when an employer-employee relationship exists; differentiate job
contracting from labor-only contracting;


3.

Distinguish labor disputes from other disputes;


4.

Tell when there is illegal recruitment; discuss the rights of apprentices,
learners and the disabled;


5.

Restate and apply the minimum standards on hours of work, rest days,
holidays, various leaves, minimum wages, payment and protection of
wages, 13
th
month pay, and the working conditions for women, minors,
house helps and other special groups of workers;


6.

Discuss the right to security of tenure; explain when an employee may quit
his/her employment; identify the just and business-related causes for
termination of employment; describe the procedural requirements of
termination of employment; and identify the reliefs and remedies in cases
of illegal dismissals;


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7. 7. 7. 7. Discuss the coverage of and the benefits under the various social
legislations.

8. 8. 8. 8. Teach workers the basic labor standards.

REQUIREMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS:

The student will be assessed during the term by the following:


Class participation 30.00%
Attendance/recitation 15.00%
Reports 15.00%
Quizzes 20.00%
Workers seminar 20.00%
Final examination 30.00%




Students should submit to DTA class cards with 1x1 photos and email
address not later than the 2
nd
class day.


Laptops and tablets may be used to take down notes but should be
turned off/closed when owner is called to recite. All notes and books
should be closed also during recitation.


Consultation is by appointment or through email.


No excuse will be accepted for failing to take a quiz or submitting a report
or paper.


Every student must present a report to the class on any of the topics
identified in the course outline.

Every gang of 2 students should be able to conduct a 2-hour seminar-
presentation to a group of employees on any of the above topics on or
before the last week of classes.


LEARNING PLAN:


LEARNING
OUTCOME:


Student should be
TOPIC DAYS


LEARNING
ACTIVITIES
3
able to
State the legal bases
of labor law and tell
where it may be
found; recognize the
basic rights of workers
and employers;
Part I:
Introduction
to Labor Law


Sections 1 - 4.


2.5
* Lecture
* Recitation

* Lecture
* Recitation
* Report on the Tonko cases
Tell when an
employer- employee
relationship exists;
differentiate job
contracting from
labor-only
contracting;
distinguish labor
disputes from other
disputes;
Part I:
Introduction
to Labor Law


Sections 5 & 6


2
Quiz on Part I
* Lecture
* Recitation
* Report on training and
employment of disabled
persons (handicapped workers)
Tell when there is
illegal recruitment;
Discuss when an alien
may be employed;
discuss the rights of
apprentices, learners
and the disabled;
Part II:
Recruitment
& Placement
of Workers/
Alien
Employment


Part III:
Human
Resources
Development


2
Quiz on Parts II & III
* Lecture
* Recitation
* Report on the Kasambahay
law
Restate and apply
the minimum
standards on hours of
work, rest days,
holidays, various
leaves, minimum
wages, payment and
protection of wages,
13
th
month pay, and
the working
conditions for
women, minors,
house helps and
other special groups
of workers;
Part IV: Labor
Standards

3
Quiz on Part IV
4
* Lecture
* Recitation
* Report on FASAP v. PAL, G.R.
No. 178083
Discuss the right to
security of tenure;
explain when an
employee may
terminate his/her
employment; identify
the just and business-
related causes for
termination of
employment;
describe the
procedural
requirements of
termination of
employment; and
identify the reliefs and
remedies in cases of
illegal dismissals;
Part V:
Termination
of
Employment


3
Quiz on Part V

REFERENCES:

SALVADOR A. POQUIZ, LABOR STANDARDS LAW WITH NOTES AND
COMMENTS, 2012 EDITION;

C.A. AZUCENA, JR., THE LABOR CODE WITH COMMENTS AND CASES, VOL. I,
2010 EDITION;



Nota bene:

Most of the case titles below are hyperlinked to websites containing
the cases' full texts.
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Part I:
INTRODUCTION TO LABOR LAW
1 Labor law, defined
2 Labor law, classified
3 Legal bases of labor law
3.1 Police power of the State

Philippine Association of Service
Exporters, Inc. v. Drilon, 163 SCRA 386
(1988); St. Lukes Medical Center
Employees Association-AFW v. NLRC, 517
SCRA 677 (2007); Magana v. Medicard
Phil., Inc., 638 SCRA 606 (2010)
3.2 Specific provisions of the 1987
Constitution

3.2.1 Social Justice

1987 Constitution, Art. II, Secs. 5 & 10; Art. XIII,
Secs. 1 & 2;
3.2.1.1 Defined

Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726 (1940); Fr.
Joaquin Bernas, The 1987 Philippine
Constitution: A Reviewer-Primer, 1987 ed., p.
23.
3.2.1.1 Applied

HFS Phil., Inc. v. Pilar, G.R. No. 168716, April
16, 2009; PLDT v. NLRC, 164 SCRA (1988);
Toyota Motor Phil. Corp. Workers
Association v. NLRC, G.R. No. 158786,
October 19, 2007; Paloma v. PAL, G.R. No.
163607, July 14, 2008;
3.2.1.3 Protection of
labor
CONST., Art. II, Sec. 18; Art XIII, Sec. 3.;
Cebu Royal Plant v. Hon Deputy Minister
of Labor, 153 SCRA 38 (1987); Gregorio
Araneta University Foundation v. NLRC,
155 SCRA 301(1987); Quitoriano v. Jebsens
Maritime, Inc., G.R. No. 179868, January 21,
2010.
3.2.1.3 Right to due
process and right to
labor as property
CONST., Art. IIL, Sec. 1;
Callanta v. Carnation Philippines, Inc.,
145 SCRA 268 (1986); Phil. Movie Pictures
Workers' Asso. v. Premiere Productions,
Inc., 92 Phil. 843 (1953).
6
3.2.3 Gender equality and
protection of women
CONST., Art. II, Sec. 14; Art. XIII, Sec. 14
Suggested reading: Emily Salcedo,
Romantic Paternalism in Philippine Labor
Law Revisiting the Tradition, Realizing its
Folly, and Proposing Reconstruction in the
Light of American Experience, DLSU Business
& Economics Review, 21.1 (2011), pp. 77-96.
3.2.4 Right of government
employees to organize
CONST., Art. IX-B, Sec. 2(5); Art. III, Sec. 8
3.2.5 Protection to rights of
employer
CONST., Art. II, Sec. 20 and Art. XIII, Sec. 3,
par. 4;
3.2.6.1 Definition &
Scope of
Management
Prerogatives (MP)

Chu v. NLRC, 232 SCRA 764 (1994); San
Miguel Brewery Sales Force Union
(PTGWO) v. Ople, 170 SCRA 25 (1989);
Philippine Airlines, Inc. v. NLRC, 225 SCRA
301 (1993); Royal Plant Workers Union v.
Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, Inc.
Cebu Plant, G.R. No. 198783; April 15,
2013
3.2.6.2 Limits of MP

SHS Perforated Materials, Inc. v. Diaz, 633
SCRA 258 (2010); Supreme Steel Corp. v.
Nagkakaisang Manggagawa Ng
Supreme Independent Union (Nms-Ind-
Apl), G.R. No. 185556, March 28, 2011; PLDT
v. Paguio, G.R. No. 152689, October 12,
2005; Businessday Information Systems and
Services, Inc. v. NLRC, 221 SCRA 9 (1993)
3.3 Civil Code
CIVIL CODE, Arts. 1700 & 1701;
Brew Master International v. National
Federation of Labor Unions, 271 SCRA 275
(1997); PNCC Skyway Traffic
Management and Security Division
Workers Organization (PSTMSDWO) v.
PNCC Skyway Corp., 613 SCRA 28 (2010)
4 Sources of labor law
7
4.1 The Labor Code and its
implementing rules

4.1.1 Brief history
Poquiz, pp. 3-4, 37-38; Azucena, pp. 15-17
4.1.2 Name of Decree
LABOR CODE, Art. 1
4.1.3 Date of Effectivity
Id., Art. 2
4.1.4 Declaration of Basic
Policy
Id., Art. 3; CONST. (1973), Art. II, Sec. 9;
CONST., Art. XIII, Sec. 3
4.1.5 Construction in favor of
Labor
LABOR CODE, Art. 4; CIVIL CODE, Art. 1702

Reyes v. CA, 409 SCRA 267 (2003); J.K.
Mercado & Sons Agricultural Enterprises,
Inc. v. Hon. Patricia Sto. Tomas, G.R. No.
158084, August 29, 2008; PNCC Skyway
Traffic Management and Security
Division Workers Organization
(PSTMSDWO) v. PNCC Skyway Corp., 613
SCRA 28 (2010)
4.1.6 Rule-making power,
limitations
LABOR CODE, Art. 5;
Insular Bank of Asia and America
Employees' Union v. inciong, G.R. No. L-
52415, October 23, 1984
4.1.7 Applicability
LABOR CODE, Art. 6
4.1.7.1 Overseas
Workers

Sim v. NLRC, G.R. No. 157376, October 2,
2007; Santiago v. CF Sharp Crew
Management, G.R. No. 162419, July 10,
2007
4.1.7.2
Government
employees
CONST., Art. IX-B, Sec. 2(1); LABOR CODE,
Art. 276;
NASECO v. NLRC, G.R. No. L-70295,
November 29, 1988; PNOC-Energy
Development Corp. v. NLRC, 201 SCRA
487 (1991)
Liban v. Gordon, G.R. No. 175352, January
8
18, 2011, July 15, 2009
4.1.7.3 Employees of
International
Organizations and
Specialized Agencies

International Catholic Migration
Commission v. Calleja, 190 SCRA 130
(1990)
4.1.8 Enforcement and
Sanctions
LABOR CODE, Art. 128; D.O. No. 131-13 &
D.O. No. 57-04;

LABOR CODE, Arts.129 & 223 (a) (2), (3), (4),
& (6), 294, 295, 296, 297, & 298; CONST., Art.
III, Secs. 11 & 16
4.2 Decisions of the courts and
quasi-judicial bodies

Callanta v. Carnation Phil., Inc., 145 SCRA
268 (1986)
4.3 Labor Contracts
CIVIL CODE, Arts. 1305 & 1306;
Supreme Steel Corp. v. Nagkakaisang
Manggagawa Ng Supreme
Independent Union (Nms-Ind-Apl), G.R.
No. 185556, March 28, 2011; Mariveles
Shipyard Corp. v. CA, G.R. No. 144134,
November 11, 2003
4.4 Company Practice

Central Azucarera De Tarlac v. Central
Azucarera De Tarlac Labor Union-NLU,
G.R. No. 188949, July 26, 2010; Metropolitan
Bank and Trust Co. v. NLRC, G.R. No.
152928, June 18,2009; Pag-asa Steel Works,
Inc. v. CA, 486 SCRA 475 (2006)
4.5 Company Policy

Kimberly-Clark Phil., Inc. v. Dimayuga,
G.R. No. 177705, September 18, 2009; China
Banking Corp. v. Borromeo, G.R. No.
148415, July 14, 2008; GTE Directories Corp.
v. Sanchez, 197 SCRA 452, 466 (1991)
5 Work Relationship
5.1 Definition: Employer &
Employee
LABOR CODE, Arts. 97 (a), (b), (c); 167 (f), (g)
& (h); 212 (e) & (f)

A.C. Ransom Labor Union v. NLRC, 142
9
SCRA 269 (1988); Orlando Farms Growers
Association v. NLRC, 299 SCRA 364,
November 25, 1998; Far Eastern University
v. CIR, 5 SCRA 1080 (1962)
5.2 Employer-Employee
Relationship: Factors/Tests

Sonza v. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corp.,
431 SCRA 381(1904); Semblante v. CA, G.R.
No. 196426, August 15, 2011; Sy v. CA, G.R.
No. 142293, Feb. 27, 2003; Perpetual Help
Credit v. Faburada, G.R. No. 121948,
October 8, 2001; Jardin v. NLRC, 326 SCRA
299 (2000); Corporal Sr. v. NLRC, 341 SCRA
658 (2000);; Ruga v. NLRC, 181 SCRA 266
(1990); Mendiola v. CA, G.R. No. 159333,
July 31, 2006; Tongko v. The
Manufacturers Life Insurance Co. (Phils.)
Inc., G.R. No. 167622, November 7, 2008,
June 29, 2010, & January 25, 2011; Locsin v.
PLDT, G.R. 185251, October 2, 2009;
Francisco v. NLRC, G.R. No. 170087, August
31, 2006; Teng v. Pahagac, 635 SCRA
172(2010)
5.3 Independent Contractor and
Labor-only Contractor
LABOR CODE, Arts. 106, 107, 108 &109; D.O.
No. 18-A (2011)
Phil. Bank Communications v. NLRC, 146
SCRA 347 (1986); San Miguel Corp. v.
Maerc Integrated Services, Inc.; G.R. No.
144672, July 10, 2003; Wack Wack Golf and
Country Club v. NLRC, 456 SCRA 280
(2005); Aliviado v. Proctor and Gamble
Phils., Inc., G.R. No. 160506, March 9, 2010;
Spic n Span Services Corp. v. Gloria
Paje, et al., G.R. No. 174084, August 25,
2010;
5.4 Liability of Indirect Employer

GSIS v. NLRC, 635 SCRA 251 (2010);
Mariveles Shipyard Corp. v. CA, 415 SCRA
573 (2003)
6 Labor disputes
Labor Code (LC), Art. 218 (l);
Feati University v. Bautista, 18 SCRA 1190
(1966); San Miguel Corp. Employees
Union v. Bersamira, G.R. No. 87700, June
13, 1990; Halaguea v. PAL, G.R. No.
10
172013, October 2, 2009; Nestle Phils., Inc.
v. NLRC, G.R. No. 85197, March 18, 1991;
Jaguar Security and Investigation
Agency v. Sales, G.R. No. 162420, April 16,
2008;
Part II:
RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT OF WORKERS/ALIEN EMPLOYMENT

7 Recruitment and Placement of Workers Suggested reading:
Julyn S. Ambito and Melissa Suzette L.
Banzon, Review of Philippine Migration
Laws and Regulations: Gains, Gaps,
Prospects.

7.1 Definition LABOR CODE, Art. 13(b);
People v. Panis, 142 SCRA 667 [1986)


7.2 Employment Policies



7.3 Employment Agencies/Entities


7.3.1 Allowed entities
LABOR CODE, Arts. 16, 18, 25 & 12(f);
Omnibus Rules, Book I, Rules III, IV, VII Sec
1.

7.3.2 Private employment
agency
LABOR CODE, Art. 13(c) & (d)

7.3.3 Private recruitment
entity
LABOR CODE, Art. 13(e) & (f)

7.3.4 Public employment
offices
LABOR CODE, Art. 12(f) & 14(a); E.O. No.
247 (1987), Sec. 3 (f),

7.3.5 Prohibited entity
LABOR CODE, Arts. 18, 16, 25 & 26; 2002
POEA Rules and Regulations Governing the
Recruitment and Employment of Land-
based Overseas Workers (2002 POEA
Rules), Part II, Rule 1, Sec. 2; 2003 POEA
Rules,and Regulations Governing the
Recruitment and Employment of Seafarers
(2003 POEA Rules), Part II, Rule I, Sec. 2

7.4 Government techniques of
regulation - private recruitment


11
7.4.1 Licensing
LABOR CODE, Arts. 27, 28, 29, 30 & 31;
2002 POEA Rules, Part II, Rule II, Secs. 1, 4, 6
& 7; 2003 POEA Rules, and Regulations
Governing the Recruitment and
Employment of Seafarers (2003 POEA
Rules), Part II, Rule I (a) & (b); Rule II, Secs.
1, 4, 6 & 7

7.4.2 Workers Fee
LABOR CODE, Art. 32

7.4.3 Reports/employment
information
LABOR CODE, Art. 33

7.5 Prohibited practices
LABOR CODE, Art. 34

7.6 Illegal recruitment
LABOR CODE, Art. 38(a) & (b); R.A. No.
8042, as amended, Sec. 6;
Boneng v. People; G.R. No. 133563,
March 4, 1999; People v. Gallo, G.R. No.
185277, March 18, 2010; People v. Hu,
G.R. No. 182232, October 6, 2008; People
v. Chua, G.R. No. 184058; March 10, 2010;
People v. Laogo, G.R. No. 176264,
January 10, 2011; Salazar v. Achacoso,
183 SCRA 145 (1990)

7.7 Enforcement & sanctions
LABOR CODE, Arts. 35, 36, 37, 38 & 39; R.A.
No. 8042, Secs. 6, 7, & 10;
Serrano v. Gallant Maritime Services,
Inc., G.R. No. 16714, March 24, 2009;
Eastern Assurance and Surety Corp. v.
Sec. of Labor, 181 SCRA 110 (1990); Sto.
Tomas v. Salac, G.R. No. 152642,
December 5, 2012;

7.7.1 Joint and several
liability of private
employment agency/
manning agent and
employer
R.A. No. 8042, as amended, Sec. 10, pars.
2 & 3; 2002 POEA Rules, Part II, Rule II,
Sec. 1(f)(3); 2003 POEA Rules, Part II, Rule
II, Sec. 1(e)(8);
Datuman v. First Cosmopolitan
Manpower and Promotion Services,
Inc., G.R. No. 156029, November 14, 2008

12
7.8 Jurisdiction


7.8.1 Regional Trial Court, for
criminal action for illegal
recruitment
R.A. No. 8042, Sec. 9

7.8.2 NLRC, for money claims
arising from employer-
employee relations
R.A. No. 8042, Sec. 10;
Serrano v. Gallant Maritime Services,
Inc., G.R. No. 16714, March 24, 2009.

7.8.3 POEA, for administrative
and disciplinary actions
Omnibus Rules Implementing R.A. No.
8042, Sec. 28

8 Alien employment regulation CONST., Art. XII, Sec. 12; Anti-Dummy Law
(Com. Act No. 108), Sec. 2-A, as
amended, in rel. to CONST., Art. XVI, Sec.
11(1), Art. XVI, Sec. 11(2), Art. XII, Sec. 11;
INVESTMENT CODE, Art. 76, par. 2; LABOR
CODE, Arts. 40, 41 & 42; Omnibus Rules,
Book I, Rule XIV; D.O. No. 97-09 (Revised
Rules for Issuance of Employment Permits
to Foreign Nationals)

8.1 Coverage
D.O. 97-09 , Secs. 1 & 2;
Almodiel v. NLRC, 223 SCRA 341 (1993)

8.2 Conditions for grant of permit
LABOR CODE, Art. 40; D.O. 97-09 , Sec. 10;
WPP Marketing Communications, Inc.
v. Galera, 616 SCRA 422 (2010); General
Milling Corp. v. Torres, 196 SCRA 215
(1991)

Part III
HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

9 Development of human resources LABOR CODE, Arts. 57-81; Technical
Education and Skills Development Act
(TESDA) of 1994 (R.A. No. 7796); Dual Training
Systems Act of 1994 (R.A. No. 7686); Magna
Carta for Disabled Persons of 1992 (R.A. No.
7277)

9.1 Policy, goals & objectives
R.A. No. 7796, Secs. 2 & 3

10 Training and employment of
apprentices


13
10.1 Apprentices, defined
LABOR CODE, Art. 58 ; R.A. No. 7796, Sec. 4
(j), (k), (l), & (m). See also: Child Abuse Law
of 1992 (R.A. No. 7610), as amended by R.A.
No. 7658, re: employment of children below
15 years

10.2 When apprentices may be
employed

Century Canning Corp. v. CA, 530 SCRA
501(2007); Nitto Enterprises v. NLRC, 248
SCRA 654 (1995); Atlanta Industries v.
Sebolino, G.R. Mo. 187320, January 26, 2011

10.3 Conditions of employment
LABOR CODE, Arts. 61, 72 &124, last par.

10.4 Enforcement
LABOR CODE, Arts. 65, 66, & 67

11 Training and employment of learners

11.1 Learners, defined
LABOR CODE, Art. 73; R.A. No. 7796, Sec.
4(n)

11.2 When learners may be
employed
LABOR CODE, Art. 74; R.A. No. 7796, Sec.
4(n)

11.3 Conditions of employment
LABOR CODE, Arts. 75, 76 & 124, last par.

12 Training and employment of disabled
persons (handicapped workers)
LABOR CODE, Arts. 78, 79, 80, & 81; Magna
Carta for Disabled Persons of 1992 (R.A. No.
7277)

12.1 Definition
R.A. No. 7277, Sec. 4(a), (b), (c), & (d)

12.2 Policy declaration
R.A. No. 7277, Sec. 2

12.3 Coverage
R.A. No. 7277, Sec. 3

12.4 Rights and privileges
R.A. No. 7277, Secs. 5, & 6
Bernardo v. NLRC, 310 SCRA 186 (1999)

Part IV
LABOR STANDARDS

13 HOURS OF WORK LABOR CODE, Arts. 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87,
88, 89 & 90; Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rules I,
IA, & II

13.1 Regulation; rationale

Manila Terminal Co. Inc., v. CIR, 91 Phil.
625, 636 (1952)

14
13.2 Coverage: all employees, in
general
LABOR CODE, Arts. 82 & 276; Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule I, Secs. 1 & 2

13.3 Exemptions


13.3.1 Government
employees
CONST., Art. IX-B, Sec. 2(1)

13.3.2 Managerial
employees
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2(b) &
(c);
San Miguel Corp. v. Layoc, Jr., 537 SCRA
77 (2007)

13.3.2.1 Rationale

NAWASA v. NAWASA Consolidated
Unions, 11 SCRA 766, 776 to 779 (1964)

13.3.2.2 Supervisors
are managerial
employees

National Sugar Refineries Corp. v. NLRC,
G.R. No. 101761, March 24, 1993.

13.3.3 Field personnel
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2 (f);
Far East Agricultural Supply, Inc. v.
Lebatique, 515 SCRA 491(2007); Mercidar
Fishing Corp. v. NLRC, 297 SCRA 440
(1998); Union of Filipro Employees v.
Vivar, 205 SCRA 200 (1992)

13.3.4 Dependent family
members


13.3.5 Domestic helpers
LABOR CODE, Arts. 141 &145; Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2 (d)

13.3.6 Persons in the
personal service of another
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 2 (d)

13.3.7 Piece workers
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule VII, Sec. 8 (e);
Labor Congress of the Philippines v.
NLRC, 290 SCRA 509 (1998)

13.4 Normal hours of work
LABOR CODE, Art. 83

13.4.1 Change in work hours



15
13.4.1.1 A
management
prerogative

Union Carbide Labor Union v. Union
Carbide Phils., Inc., 215 SCRA 554 (1992)

13.4.1.2 Compressed
work week
Department Order (D.O.) No. 21, Series of
1990, Guidelines on the Implementation of
Compressed Workweek; Department
Advisory No. 02-04; Department Advisory
No. 02-09:
Bisig Manggagawa sa Tryco v. NLRC,
G.R. No 1513098, October 15, 2008

13.5 Compensable hours of work -
in general


13.5.1 On duty
LABOR CODE, Art. 84(a); Omnibus Rules,
Book III, Rule I, Sec. 3 (a) & Sec. 4 (a)

13.5.2 At work
LABOR CODE, Art. 84 (b); Omnibus Rules,
Book III, Rule I, Sec. 3 (b)

13.6 Specific rules


13.6.1 Rest period


13.6.1.1 Short duration
or coffee break
LABOR CODE, Art. 84, 2nd par.; Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 7, 2nd par.

13.6.1.2 More than 20
minutes
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 4 (b)

13.6.2 Meal period


13.6.2.1 Regular meal
period (one hour)
LABOR CODE, Art. 85; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule I, Sec. 7, 1st par.;
Philippine Airlines v. NLRC, 302 SCRA 582
(1999)

13.6.2.2 Shorter meal
period (less than one
hour but not less than
20 min.)
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 7, 1st
par.

13.6.3 Waiting time
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 5 (a);
Arica v. NLRC, 170 SCRA 776 (89)

16
13.6.4 On call
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 5 (b)

13.6.5 Inactive due to work
interruptions
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 4 (d);
University of Pangasinan Faculty Union
v. University of Pangasinan, G.R. No. L-
63122, February 20, 1984

13.6.6 Work after normal
hours
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 4 (c)

13.6.7 Lectures, meeting,
trainings
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Sec. 6

13.6.8 Travel time

Rada v. NLRC, 205 SCRA 69 (1992)

13.6.9 "No Work, No Pay"
principle

University of Pangasinan Faculty Union
v. NLRC, 127 SCRA 691 (1984); Prieto v.
NLRC, 226 SCRA 232 (1993)

13.7 Overtime work/pay
LABOR CODE, Arts. 87, 88, 89 & 90;
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule I, Secs. 8, 9, &
10

13.7.1 In general
LABOR CODE, Art. 87

13.7.1.1 Rationale for
overtime pay

PNB v. Phil. National Bank Employees
Association, 115 SCRA 507 (1982)

13.7.1.2 Overtime
work: voluntary/
consensual
LABOR CODE, Art. 87

Interphil Laboratories Employees' Union-
FFW v. Interphil Laboratories, Inc., G.R.
No. 142824, December 19, 2001.

13.7.1.3 Overtime
instruction, not
required

William Lines, Inc. v. Lopez, 96 SCRA 593
(1980)

13.7.1.4 But evidence
of performance of
overtime work
required

Cagampan v. NLRC, G.R. No. 85122-24,
March 22, 1991

13.7.1.5 No offsetting
of overtime with
under time
LABOR CODE, Art. 88

17
13.7.2 Emergency or
compulsory overtime work
LABOR CODE, Art. 89;

13.7.3 Computation
LABOR CODE, Art. 90

13.8Night work
LABOR CODE, Art. 86; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule II, Secs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6

14 WEEKLY REST PERIODS LABOR CODE, Arts. 91, 92 & 93; Omnibus
Rules, Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule III, Secs.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9

14.1 Coverage
LABOR CODE, Arts. 82 & 91

14.2 Determination, compulsory
work; compensation
LABOR CODE, Arts. 91, 92 & 93;


15 HOLIDAYS LABOR CODE, Art. 94; R.A. No. 9849;
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule IV

15.1 Coverage
LABOR CODE, Art. 94 (a);
Mantrade/ FMMC Division Employees
and Workers Union v. Bacungan, 144
SCRA 510 (1986)

15.1.1 Exception: retail
establishment
LABOR CODE, Art. 94 (a); Rules
Implementing R.A. No. 6727, par. f

15.1.2 Exception: service
establishment
LABOR CODE, Art. 94 (a); Rules
Implementing R.A. No. 6727, par. g

15.2 Holiday pay
LABOR CODE, Art. 94(c);
Asian Transmission Corp. v. CA, G.R. No.
144664, May 15, 2004

15.2.1 Faculty in private
school
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule IV, Sec. 8 (a);
Jose Rizal College v. NLRC, 156 SCRA 27
(1987)

15.2.2 Divisor as factor

Trans-Asia Phil. Employees Association v.
NLRC, 320 SCRA 347 (1999);

15.2.3 Sunday

Wellington Investment Inc. v. Trajano,
245 SCRA 561 (1995)

15.2.4 Muslim holiday

SMC v. CA, 375 SCRA 311 (2002)

18
16 SERVICE INCENTIVE LEAVE, PATERNITY
LEAVE AND PARENTAL LEAVE
Art. 95; Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule V;
Paternity Leave Act of 1996 (RA 8187); Solo
Parents Welfare Act of 2000 (RA 8972)

16.1 Service incentive leave
coverage
LABOR CODE, Art. 95 (a) (b); Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule V;
Makati Haberdashery Inc. v. NLRC, 179
SCRA 449 (1989); Labor Congress v.
NLRC, 290 SCRA 509 (1998); Serrano v.
Severino Santos Transit, 627 SCRA
483(2010)

16.2 Paternity leave
Paternity Leave Act of 1996 (R.A. No.
8187), Secs. 1-6; Impl. Guidelines

16.3 Parental leave
Solo Parents Welfare Act of 2000 (R.A. No.
8972)

17 SERVICE CHARGES LABOR CODE, Art. 96; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule VI

17.1 Covered employees/sharing
LABOR CODE, Art. 96

18 MINIMUM WAGES AND WAGE FIXING
MACHINERY



18.1 Minimum wages
LABOR CODE, Art. 99; CONST., Art. XIII, Sec.
3

18.1.1 Rule


18.1.1.1 No work, no
pay/ a fair days
wage for a fair days
labor

Aklan Electric Corp., Inc. v. NLRC, 323
SCRA 258 (2000); Social Security System v.
SSS Supervisors' Union, 117 SCRA
746(1982)

18.1.1.2 Equal pay for
work of equal value
LABOR CODE, Art. 135;
International School Alliance of
Educators v. Quisumbing, G.R. No.
128845, June 1, 2000

18.1.1.3 Form:
agreement for
compensation of
services

Arms Taxi v. NLRC, 219 SCRA 306 (1993)

18.1.2 Coverage
LABOR CODE, Arts. 97 (b), (c ) & (e) & 98;

19
Phil. Fisheries Development Authority v.
NLRC,213 SCRA 621 (1992)
18.1.3 Minimum wage
LABOR CODE, Arts. 99, 97(f), 61, 75(c), &
80(b);
R.A. No. 9547, Sec. 2

18.1.4 Determination of
compliance with minimum
wage

Iran v. NLRC, 289 SCRA 433 (1998)

18.1.5 Facilities and
supplements/allowances

Millares v. NLRC, 305 SCRA 500 (1999); SLL
International Cables Specialist v. NLRC,
644 SCRA 411 (2011)

18.1.6 Cash
wage/commission

Songco v. NLRC, 183 SCRA 610 (1990);
Boie Takeda v. De la Serna, 228 SCRA
329 (1993); Phil. Duplicators v. NLRC, 241
SCRA 380 (1995)

18.1.7 Gratuity and
salary/wages, difference

Plastic Town Center Corp. v. NLRC, 172
SCRA 580 (1989)

18.1.8 Effect on benefits -
LABOR CODE, Art. 100;
Davao Fruits Corp. v. ALU, 225 SCRA 562
(1993)

18.2 Wage-fixing machinery
Wage Rationalization Act (R.A. No. 6727)
which amended Art. 120-127 & Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule IX

18.2.1 Rationale for wage
rationalization
RA 6727, Sec. 2

18.2.2 Agencies in wage
fixing machinery


18.2.2.1 National
Wages and
Productivity
Commission
RA 6727, Sec. 3; LABOR CODE, Arts. 120,
121 & 126

18.2.2.2 Regional
Tripartite Wages and
RA 6727, Sec. 3; LABOR CODE, Arts. 122,
126


20
Productivity Board
Nasipit Lumber Co. v. NWPC, 289 SCRA
667 (98)
18.2.3 Standards/criteria for
minimum wage fixing
RA 6727, Sec. 3; LABOR CODE, Art. 124

18.2.4 Wage order
LABOR CODE, Arts. 123 & 124

18.2.4.1 Methods of
fixing


18.2.4.1.1 Floor
wage method


18.2.4.1.2
Salary - ceiling
method
Employers Confederation of the
Philippines v. NWPC, 201 SCRA 759 (1991)

18.2.4.2 Validity

Cagayan Sugar Milling Co. v. Secretary,
284 SCRA 150 (1998); Metropolitan Bank
and Trust Company, Inc. v. NWPC, 514
SCRA 346(2007)

18.2.4.3 Wage
distortion
LABOR CODE, Art. 124;
Prubankers Association v. Prudential
Bank & Trust Co., 302 SCRA 74 (1999); P.I.
Manufacturing, Inc., v. P.I.
Manufacturing Supervisors and
Foremen Association, 543 SCRA 613
(2008)

18.3 WAGE PAYMENT AND
PROTECTION
LABOR CODE, Arts. 102, 103, 104, &105;
Civil Code, Art. 1705

18.3.1 Form of payment
LABOR CODE, Art. 102; Civil Code, Art.
1705;
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule VIII, Secs. 1 &
2;
Congson v. NLRC, 243 SCRA 260 (1995)

18.3.2 Time of payment
LABOR CODE, Art. 103; Sec. 3

18.3.3 Place of payment
LABOR CODE, Art. 104; Sec. 4

18.3.4 Direct payment of
LABOR CODE, Art. 105; Omnibus Rules,

21
wages Book III, Rule VIII, Secs. 5 & 6;
Bermiso v. Escano Inc., 105 Phil. 231
(1959)
18.4 WAGE PROHIBITIONS


18.4.1 Prohibition against
interference in disposal of
wages
LABOR CODE, Art. 112; Omnibus Rules,
Book III, Rule VIII, Sec. 12

18.4.2 Prohibition against
wage deduction
LABOR CODE, Art. 113; Omnibus Rules,
Book III, Rule VIII, Sec. 13;
Apodaca v. NLRC, 172 SCRA 442 (1989)

18.4.3 Prohibition against
requirement to make
deposits for loss or damage
LABOR CODE, Art. 114 & 115; Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule VIII, Sec. 14;
Dentech Manufacturing Corp. v. NLRC,
172 SCRA 588 (1989); Five J Taxi v. NLRC,
235 SCRA 556 (1994)

18.4.4 Prohibition against
withholding of wages
LABOR CODE, Art.116; Civil Code, Art. 1706

18.4.5 Prohibition against
deduction to ensure
employment
LABOR CODE, Art. 117

18.4.6 Prohibition against
retaliatory measures
LABOR CODE, Art. 118

18.4.7 Prohibition against
false reporting
LABOR CODE, Art. 119; Omnibus Rules,
Book III, Rule X, Sec. 13

18.4.8 Prohibition
against keeping of
employees records
in a place other than
the workplace
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule X, Sec. 11;
South Motorists Enterprises v. Tosoc, 181
SCRA 386 (1990)

18.4.9 Prohibition
against garnishment/
execution
Civil Code, Art. 1708;
Gaa v. CA, 140 SCRA 304 (1985)

18.5 WORKERS PREFERENCE IN THE
LABOR CODE, Art. 110; Civil Code, 1707,
2241, 2242, 2244;

22
EVENT OF BANKRUPTCY
DBP v. Secretary of Labor, G.R. 79351,
November 28, 1989; Barayoga v. Asset
Privatization Trust, 473 SCRA 690 (2005)
18.6 WAGE RECOVERY/
JURISDICTION
LABOR CODE, Arts. 128, 129, 217, & 111;
Balladares v. Paek Ventures Corp., G.R.
No. 161794, June 16, 2009; Meteoro v.
Creative Creatures, Inc., G.R. No. 171275,
July 13, 2009.

19 Thirteenth month pay Pres. Decree No. 851

19.1 History of the law

Dentech Manufacturing Corp. v. NLRC,
172 SCRA 588 (1989)

19.2 Coverage
Revised Guidelines on the Implementation
of 13
th
Month Pay Law (Revised
Guidelines);
Archilles Manufacturing Corp. v. NLRC,
244 SCRA 750 (1995)

19.3 Rationale
P.D. No. 851 -(Whereas Clauses)

19.4 Amount and date of payment
Revised Guidelines, Sec. 4

19.4.1 Basic
wage/commissions
Revised Guidelines, Sec. 4;
Songco v. NLRC, 183 SCRA 610 (1990);
Boie Takeda v. dela Serna, 228 SCRA 329
(1993); Phil. Duplicators Inc. v. NLRC, 241
SCRA 380 (1995); Iran v. NLRC, 289 SCRA
433 (1998)

19.4.2 Substitute payment

Framanlis Farms, Inc. v. MOLE, 171 SCRA
87 (1989)

20 Bonus

20.1 Nature:

Phil. Duplicators Inc. v. NLRC, 241 SCRA
380 (1995)

20.2 Definition; when demandable

Producers Bank of the Philippines v.
NLRC, 355 SCRA 489 (2001; Eastern
Telecomunications Phil. Inc. v. Eastern
Telecoms Union, G.R. No. 185665,
February 8, 2012

21 Working conditions for special group

23
of workers
21.1 WOMEN
LABOR CODE, Art. 130, 131, 132, 133, 134,
135, 136, 137, &138; Omnibus Rules, Book
III, Rule XII. See also Women in
Development and Nation Building Act, R.A.
No. 7192 (1992); and Anti-Sexual
Harassment Act of 1995, R.A. No. 7877

21.1.1 Women under the
Constitution - Art. II, Sec. 14;
Art. XIII, Sec. 14

Phil. Telegraph and Telephone Co., v.
NLRC, 272 SCRA 596 (1997)

21.1.2 Coverage
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule XII, Sec. 1

21.1.3 Prohibited acts


21.1.3.1 Night
work/exception
LABOR CODE, Arts. 130, & 131; R.A. No.
10151

21.1.3.2
Discrimination
LABOR CODE, Art. 135

21.1.3.3 Stipulation
against marriage
LABOR CODE, Art. 136; Philippine
Telegraph and Telephone Co. v. NLRC,
272 SCRA 596 (1997); Star Paper Corp. v.
Simbol, 487 SCRA 228(2006)

21.1.3.4 Discharge on
account of
pregnancy
LABOR CODE, Art. 137

21.1.4 Facilities
LABOR CODE, Arts. 132 & 134

21.1.5 Special women
workers
LABOR CODE, Art. 138

21.1.6 Maternity leave
Social Security Act of 1997, RA No. 8282,
Sec. 14-A

21.1.7 Sexual harassment
RA No. 7877 ;
Domingo v. Rayala, G.R. No. 155831,
February 18, 2008

21.2 MINORS
LABOR CODE, Arts.139 &140; Omnibus
Rules, Book III, Rule XII, Secs. 2 & 3; Special

24
Protection of Children Against Abuse,
Exploitation and Discrimination Act (R.A.
No. 7610), as amended by the Special
Protection of Children Act (R.A. No. 7658)
21.2.1 Minors under the
Constitution
CONST, Art. II, Sec. 13

21.2.2 Coverage
Omnibus Rules, Book III, Rule XII, Sec. 1

21.2.3 Working children
LABOR CODE, Art. 139 ; RA 7610, as
amended, Secs. 12-16; DOLE Memo
Circular No. 2, s. 1998 Re: Hazardous and
non-hazardous establishments

21.2.4 Discrimination
LABOR CODE, Art. 140

21.3 HOUSEHELPERS/ CAREGIVERS
R.A. No. 10361; Implementing Rules and
Regulations of R.A. No. 10361;
ILO Domestic Workers Convention, 2011
(No. 189)

21.4 PROJECT EMPLOYMENT
LABOR CODE, Art. 280 1st par.;
PNOC Energy Development Corp. v. NLRC,
G.R. No. 169353, April 13, 2007; Aro v. NLRC,
G.R. No. 174792, March 7, 2012; William
Construction Corp. v. Trinidad, G.R. No.
183250, March 12, 2010;

21.5 CASUAL EMPLOYEES

LABOR CODE, Art. 280 2nd par.; Omnibus
Rules, Book VI, Rule 1, Sec. 5 (b)

21.5.1 Nature of work

Dealco Farms, Inc. v. NLRC, G.R. No.
153192, January 30, 2009

21.5.2 One year service

Kimberly-Clark (Phils.), Inc. v. Secretary
of Labor,G.R. No. 156668, November 23,
2007

21.6 FIXED-TERM EMPLOYEES

Brent School v. Zamora, G.R. Mo. L-48494,
February 5, 1990; Price v. Innodata Phil.,
Inc., G.R. No. 178505, September 30, 2008

21.7 SEASONAL EMPLOYEES

Cebu Metal Corp. v. Saliling, G.R. No.
154463, September 5, 2006; Hacienda
Bino v. Cuenca, 456 SCRA 300 (2005)

25
21.8 PROBATIONARY EMPLOYEES
LABOR CODE, Art. 281; 61, 2nd sentence;
Omnibus Rules, Book VI, Rule I, Sec. 6;
LABOR CODE, Art. 75 (d)

21.8.1 Definition/purpose

Woodridge School v. Pe Benito, G.R. No.
160240, October 29, 2008; Cebu Marine
Beach Resort v. NLRC, G.R. No. 143252,
Oct. 23, 2003

21.8.2 Duration:
rule/exception

A Prime Security Services, Inc. v. NLRC,
322 SCRA 283 (2000); Canadian
Opportunities Unlimited, Inc. v. Dalangin,
G.R. No. 172223, February 6, 2012

21.8.3 Extension of contract

Phil. Federation etc. v. NLRC, G.R. No.
121071, December 11, 1998

21.8.4 Standards - not
determined

Davao Contractors Development
Cooperative v. Pasawa, G.R. No. 172174,
July 9, 2009

21.8.5 Private school
teachers -- rule

Lacuesta v. Ateneo de Manila
University, 477 SCRA 217 (2005); Aklan
College, Inc. v. Guarino, G.R. No. 152949,
August 14, 2007

Part V
Termination of Employment

22 General Concepts

22.1 Coverage
LABOR CODE, Art. 278

22.2 Security of tenure
LABOR CODE, Art. 279;

22.2.1 Nature of
right/rationale

Llosa Tan v. Silahis International Hotel,
181 SCRA 738 (1990); City Services Corp.
Workers v. City Services Corp., 135 SCRA
564 (1985)

22.2.2 Coverage

Inter Orient Maritime Enterprises, Inc. v.
NLRC, 235 SCRA 268 (1994); Woodridge
School v. Pe Benito, G.R. No. 160240,
October 29, 2008

22.2.3 Requisites of valid
termination

Ting v. CA, G.R. No, 146174, July 12, 2006

26
22.2.4 Measure of penalty

Bago v. NLRC, G.R. No. 170001, April 4,
2007; Sagales v. Rustans Commercial
Corp., G.R. No. 166554, November 27,
2008.; Negros Slashers, Inc. v. Teng, G.R.
No. 187122, February 22, 2012

23 Termination of employment By
employee


23.1 Resignation

Virgen Shipping Corp. v. Barraquio, G.R.
No. 178127, April 16, 2009; Casa Cebuana
Incorporada v. Leuterio, G.R. No.
176040, September 4, 2009; Mora v.
Avesco Marketing Corp., G.R. No.
177414, November 14, 2008

23.1.1 Just causes
LABOR CODE, Art. 285 (b)

23.1.2 Without just cause
LABOR CODE, Art. 285 (a)

23.2 Performance of military or
civic duty
LABOR CODE, Art. 286; Omnibus Rules,
Book VI, Rule I, Sec. 12

24 Termination of employment by
employer


24.1 Substantive requirements - just
causes
LABOR CODE, Art. 282; 279; 277 (b)

24.1.1 Basis - management
prerogative

Ocean East Agency Corp. v. NLRC, 287
SCRA 546 (1998)

24.1.2 Serious
misconduct/willful
disobedience
(insubordination)

LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (a);

Yabut v. MERALCO, G.R. No. 190436,
January 16, 2012;

First Dominion Resources Corp. v.
Penaranda, 480 SCRA 504 (2006);
Bascon v. CA, 422 SCRA 122 (2004);
Lores Realty Enterprises, Inc., v. Virginia
E. Pacia, G.R. No. 171189, March 9,
2011.

24.1.3 Gross and habitual
neglect of duties
LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (b);
Talidano v. Falcon Maritime and Allied

27
Services, Inc., G.R. No. 172031, July 14,
2008; School fo the Holy Spirit of Quezon
City v. Taguiam, G.R. No. 165565, July 14,
2008; Eastern Overseas Employment
Center, Inc. v. Bea, 476 SCRA 384 (2005)
24.1.4 Loss of trust and
confidence
LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (c);
James Ben L. Jerusalem v. Keppel
Monte Bank, et al.,G.R. No. 169564. April 6,
2011; Salas v. Aboitiz One, Inc., G.R. No.
178236, June 27, 2008; Eats-cetera Food
Services Outlet v. Letran, G.R. 179507,
October 2, 2009

24.1.5 Commission of crime
LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (d)

24.1.6 Analogous causes
LABOR CODE, Art. 282 (e);
Heavylift Manila, Inc. v. CA, 473 SCRA
541 (2005); John Hancock Life Insurance
Corp. v. Davis, G.R. 169549, September 3,
2008; Yrasuegui v. PAL, G.R. No. 168081,
October 17, 2008

24.1.7 Others


24.1.7.1
Abandonment

Harpoon Marine Services, Inc. v.
Francisco, GR No. 167751, March 2, 2011.

24.1.7.2 Courtesy
resignation

Batongbacal v. Associated Bank, 168
SCRA 600 (1988)

24.1.7.3 Change of
ownership

Manlimos v. NLRC, 242 SCRA 145 (1995)

24.1.7.4 Habitual
absenteeism

Quiambao v. Manila Electric Co., G.R.
No. 171023, December 18, 2009

24.1.7.5 Fixed-term
employment

Medenilla v. PVB, G.R. No. 127673; March
13, 2000; Pamantasan v. Civil Service
Commission, 241 SCRA 506 (1995)

24.1.7.6 Past offenses

McDonald's (Katipunan Branch) v.
Alba, G.R. 156382, December 18, 2008

24.1.7.7 Immorality


28
24.1.7.8 Conviction of
crime

Sampaguita Garments Corp. v. NLRC,
233 SCRA 260 (1994)

24.1.8 Constructive dismissal

Gilles v. CA, G.R. No. 149273, June 5, 2009.
Chiang Kai Shek College v. CA, 437
SCRA 171 (2004). La Rosa v. Ambassador
Hotel, G.R. No. 177059, March 13, 2009

24.1.9 Transfer

Aguanza v. Asian Terminal Inc., G.R. No.
163505, August 14, 2009; Herida v. F&C
Pawnshop and Jewelry Store, G.R. No.
172601, April 16, 2009; PLDT v. Paguio, 472
SCRA 453 (2005)

24.1.10 Promotion

Phil. Telegraph v. CA, G.R. No. 152057,
Sept. 29, 2003

24.1.11 Preventive
suspension
Old Omnibus Rules, Book V, Rule XXIV, Secs.
3 & 4;
Philippine Airlines Inc. v. NLRC, 292 SCRA
40 (1998)

24.1.12 Residency training

Felix v. Buenaseda, 240 SCRA 139 (1995)

24.2 Substantive requirements -
business related causes
LABOR CODE, Art. 283

24.3 Basis - employer right

Edge Apparel Inc. v. NLRC, 286 SCRA 302
(1998); Elleccion v. NLRC, G.R. No. 184735,
September 17, 2009

24.4 Business-related or authorized
causes:


24.4.1 Installation of labor-
saving devices
LABOR CODE, Art. 283

24.4.2 Retrenchment to
prevent losses
LABOR CODE, Art. 283

Flight Attendants & Stewards
Association of the Philippines v. PAL,
G.R. No. 178083, July 22, 2008; Emcor, Inc.
v. Sienes, G.R. No. 152101, September 8,
2009; Metro Construction Inc. v. Aman,
G.R. No. 168324, October 12, 2009

24.4.3 Redundancy
LABOR CODE, Art. 283;

29
Lowe Inc. v. CA, G.R. No. 164813, August
14, 2009; AMA v. Garcia, G.R. No. 166703,
April 14, 2008
24.4.4 Closure of business
LABOR CODE, Art. 283;
Eastridge Golf Club Inc. v. Eastridge
Golf Club Inc. Labor Union, G.R. No.
166760, August 22, 2008; Elcee Farms, Inc.
v. NLRC, G.R. No. 126428, January 25, 2007

24.4.5 Temporary closure
LABOR CODE, Art. 286;
Valdez v. NLRC, 286 SCRA 87 (1998);
Eagle Star Security Services, Inc. v.
Mirando, G.R. No. 179512, July 30, 2009

24.5 Disease
LABOR CODE, Art. 284;
Duterte v. Kingswood Trading Co., G.R.
No. 160325, October 4, 2007; Crayon
Processing v. Pula, G.R. No. 167727, July
30, 2007

25 Procedural requirements LABOR CODE, Art. 277 (b);
Omnibus Rules, Book VI, Rule I, Secs. 1, 2 &
3

25.1 In general

Phil. Movie Pictures Workers' Assciation
v. Premiere Productions, Inc., 92 Phil. 843
(1953);
Agabon v. NLRC, 442 SCRA 573 (2004);
King of Kings Transport, Inc. v. Mamac,
G.R. No. 166208, June 29, 2007

25.2 Right to counsel

Salaw v. NLRC, 202 SCRA 7 (1991)

25.3 Notice

Casa Cebuana Incorporada v.
Leuterio, G.R. No. 176040, September 4,
2009

25.4 Hearing

Perez v. Philippine Telegraph and
Telephone Co., G.R. No. 152048, April 7,
2009; Suico. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 146762,
January 30, 2007

25.5 Decision - award

Dela Cruz v. Maerks Filipinas Crewing,
Inc., G.R. No. 172038, April 14, 2008

30
25.6 Burden of proof

Macasero v. Southern Industrial Gases
Phil., G.R. No. 178524, January 30, 2009;
Gallego v. Bayer Phil., Inc., G.R. No.
179807, July 31, 2009

25.7 Degree of proof

Mitsubishi Motors Phils. Corp. v. Simon,
G.R. No. 164081, April 16, 2008; Rentokil
(Initial) Phil., Inc. v. Sanchez, G.R. No.
176219, December 23, 2008.

25.8 Prescription

Callanta v. Carnation Phil., Inc., 145 Scra
268 (1986)


26 Reliefs/remedies in illegal dismissal LABOR CODE, Arts. 279 & 223

26.1 Reinstatement


26.1.1 Definition

Pheschem Industrial Corp. v. Moldez,
458 SCRA 339 (2005); Citytrust Banking
Corp. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 104860; July 11,
1996

26.1.2 Reinstatement
pending appeal

Pfizer, Inc., et al. v. Velasco, G.R. No.
177467, March 9, 2011.

26.1.3 Exceptions


26.1.3.1 Closure of
business
Philippine Engineering Corp. v. CIR, 41
SCRA 102 (1971)

26.1.3.2 Prayer is for
separation pay in lieu
of reinstatement
Citytrucking, Inc. v. Balajadia, G.R. No.
160769, August 9, 2006; Pheschem
Industrial Corp. v. Moldez, 458 SCRA 339
(2005)

26.1.3.3 Economic
business conditions
Electruck Asia, Inc. v. Meris, 435 SCRA
310 (2004; Union Supervisors etc. v. Sec.
Of Labor 128 SCRA 442 (1984)

26.1.3.4 Employees'
unsuitability
Divine Word High School v. NLRC, 143
SCRA 346 (1986)

26.1.3.5 Employees
retirement/overage
Citytrust Banking Corp. v. NLRC, G.R. No.
104860; July 11, 1996

26.1.3.6 Strained
relations
Acesite Corp. v. NLRC, 449 SCRA 360
(2005); Pentagon Steel Corp. v. CA,
G.R. No. 174141, June 26, 2009.; Cabigting

31
v. San Miguel Foods Inc.,G.R. No. 167706,
November 5, 2009
26.1.3.7 Not Feasible Goma v. Pamplona Plantation, Inc.,
G.R. No. 160905, July 4, 2008

26.1.3. 8 Offer to
reinstate

Ranara v. NLRC, 212 SCRA 631 (1992)

26.2 Backwages


26.2.1Effect of failure to
order

Asian Terminals, Inc. v. NLRC, G.R. No.
158458, December 19, 2007.

26.2.2 Computation

Triad Security and Allied Services, Inc. v.
Ortega, Jr., 481 SCRA 591 (2006);
Philippine Journalists, Inc. v. Mosqueda,
429 SCRA 369 (2004); PLDT v. Paguio 472
SCRA 453 (2005); Torres v. Rural Bank of San
Juan, Inc., G.R. No. 184520, March 13, 2013.

26.3 Damages and attorneys fees

M + W Zander Phil., Inc. v. Enriquez, G.R.
No. 169173, June 5, 2009.

26.4 Separation pay

Siemens Phil., Inc. v. Domingo, G.R. No.
150488, July 28, 2008; Nissan North EDSA
Balintawak v. Serrano, G.R. No. 162538,
June 4, 2009.

26.4.1 Computation/
rationale

Businessday Information Systems and
Services, Inc. v. NLRC, 221 SCRA 9 (1993;
PLDT v. NLRC, 164 SCRA (1988); Songco v.
NLRC, 183 SCRA 610 (1990);

26.4.2 Effect of receipt

Amkor Technology Phil., Inc. v.
Juangco, G.R. No. 166507, September 27,
2006

26.5 Interest
Nacar v. Gallery Frames, G.R. No. 189871,
August 13, 2013.

26.6 Financial assistance


26.5.1 When allowed/not
allowed

Luna v. Allado Construction Company,
Inc., G.R. No. 175251,May 30, 2011;
Apacible v. Multimed Industries, et
al.,G.R. No. 178903,May 30, 2011 ; Bristol
Myers Squibb v. Baban, G.R. 167449,

32
December 17, 2008; Phil. Long Distance
Tel. Co. v. NLRC, 164 SCRA 671 (1988).
26.7 Indemnity

Arms Taxi v. NLRC, 219 SCRA 306 (1993)

26.8 Solidary liabilty of corporate
officers

Harpoon Marine Services, Inc. v.
Francisco, GR No. 167751, March 2, 2011.

27 Retirement LABOR CODE, Art. 287; Retirement Pay Law
(RA No. 7641); Implementing Rules;
Labor Advisory on Retirement Pay (Oct.
1999);
Oxales v. Unilab, G.R. No. 152991, July 21,
2008; Quevedo v. Benguet Electric
Cooperative, Inc., G.R. No. 168927,
September 11, 2009