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decidedly in error. It certainly gives impetus to needed revisions.

R. L. Krahn: The author wishes to express

his appreciation to Mr. Lawton and Mr.

Whitney

ments

for their discussions. Their com-

add emphasis to the need for addi-

tional test data to allow development of

more accurate formulas for turbine losses with subsequent revision of standards.

Whitney's remark on the risk in

Mr.

operating with the seal water shut off on

turbines, even for the short

Francis-type

necessary for a test reading, is

There has been at least one

case where the turbine seized during such

an operation

indeed true.

period

resulted in extensive damage

to the

machine. Because of this possibility

ease of separating, it

is the author's

tests on Francis-type turbine-driven units should be made uncoupled if it is at all

to start the generator electrically

possible

from rest. By proper planning, the un-

coupling work can be integrated into the

test

In any case, the

accuracy and elimina-

tion of the risk of turbine damage is con-

justification for the addi- With Kaplan-type turbines,

however, uncoupling is difficult and expen-

sive so that a real need exists for accurate calculated values to allow suitable coupled

tests. Mr. Whitney also brings out the inter- esting point that the method of util-

tional work.

sidered ample

inherent better test

appreciably iengthened.

schedule so that the test period is not

opinion that all efficiency

and the comparative

izing the turbine-calculated losses in di-

viding

between the two machines is different in

the ASME and AIEE rules. The author agrees that the AIEE method is, in general,

the most equitable.

affecting the total over-all unit

the total combined losses by test

Although not ap-

preciably

efficiency, it would seem that, in addition to aiding in the efficiency guarantee de-

terminations, a correct division of losses would help the designer in properly evaluat- ing the true effect of ventilation innova-

tions. The use of procedures

also basically

and results

disturbing

author hopes that sufficient interest

which are obviously in error

The

is

from an engineering standpoint.

has been created in this matter to start others on similar investigations for the benefit of the industry.

Sag-Tension Computations and Field

Measurements of Bonneville Power

Administration

PAUL F. WINKELMAN

ASSOCIATE MEMBER AIEE

miles of transmission lines is constructed in some of the most rugged mountain

terrain in the United States and in

areas of severe icing. BPA became ex- posed very early in its construction program to the problems of stringing large conductors over steep, inclined

spans at relatively low tensions. As a result, there evolved methods of sag- tension calculations and field measure-

ments that are a blending and simplifica-

tion of old methods.

This paper will describe the BPA

method of computing sag-tension data and also some of the controls used in

applying these data to the field.

Sag-Tension Computations

A conductor, whether suspended be-

tween towers or supported on the ground,

will change in length due to changes in

temperature and tension. At -constant

temperature and within the elastic limit,

its change in length, AL, for a given change in tension, AT, follows Hooke's law:

A NY TRULY flexible material of uni-

*4~form weight, which a conductor

approximates, will conform to a catenary when suspended between two supports.

However, many forms of sagging compu- tations are based on the simpler parabolic equation or on a comproniise between the catenary and the parabolic equation as shown for some of the basic catenary equations in Fig. 1. For example, the value of y (level span sag) for a catenary

tnay be written as:

bolic sag based on uniform weight along the chord similar to the cable loading on a suspension bridge. The firsttwo terms of the series give a close approximation of the true y value as expressed by either

the hyperbolic or exponential form of

the catenary equation. In all cases, the sag from the series equation will be less than that for a true catenary. It is interesting to note that any inflexi-

bility in a cable will also result in a sag

somewhat less than the catenary sag.

For heavy loading areas with compara-

tively low stringing tensions in long spans,

and particularly in steep inclined spans,

the difference between the catenary and

the parabolic curve can be appreciable.

Thus, it is important to know the

limitations of methods used in computing

sags and tensions in the office and in making measurements in the field.

This matter takes on additional impor-

tance in view of trends toward reduced

clearances and less "built-in" protection

as reflected in proposed National Elec-

tric Safety Code (NESC) revisions for high voltage transmission.

With the service area of the Bonneville

Power Administration (BPA) in the

Pacific Northwest extending from the Rocky Mountains across two major mountain ranges to the Pacific Ocean,

a considerable portion of our over 8,000

x

y=H/w(cosh-1 )or

H

WX23

W3X4

-+24+

2H

24HW

w(2n-i)x2n

(2nOH(2' - 1)+'''

The first term in the series is a para-

Paper

mission

59-900,

recommended

Wash., June

by

the AIEE Trans-

approved

Department

and Pacfic

Con-

Manu-

and Distribution Committee and

Operations

Summer

at the AIEE

and Air

by the AIEE Technical

for

presentation

General Meeting

ference,

Seattle,

script

Transportation

21-26,

1959.

made available

for

PAUL F. WINKELMAN is with the Bonneville Power

Administration, Portland, Oreg.

The author wishes to thank Irwin Pietz, who

submitted March 24, 1959;

printing April 29, 1959.

developed

Adams,

the

who

catenary

developed

paper

function

tables,

A. A.

the short cut method of

sag

corrections,

who

Simonsen,

suggestions

computing insulator

Bellerby

effects and and J. Carl

William

J.

the other

reviewed the

and

Power Adminis-

tration in transmission design who, as a group,

outlined in this

in the development

and made valuable

of the

principles

outlined,

associates at Bonneville

have established the practices

paper.

1532

LAT

AL (Area)(Modulus of Elasticity) Hooke's law may be graphically illus-

trated by tension-strain curves. The

slope of these curves for copper and

aluminum changes with tension within the working limit of the conductor.

Furthermore, the slope of these curves

for bimetallic conductor such as ACSR (aluminum cable steel reinforced) also

changes with temperature.

On the other hand, a conductor of a given uniform weight suspended as a

catenary between two towers will also follow the law of the catenary; that is,

tension and sag are a function of slack

(difference between curve length L

and straight line length C between

FEBRUARY 1960

Winkelman-Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of BPA

A

PRECISION METHOD

(BS USE OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS)

TEM

HO

H cosh K1-

H

w

2

3

2

y

1

y-

H

x w

H sinh

w

KCs H/lw

H

w cosh

w

H/w

-I)

4 SLACK* L -A FOR LEVEL SPAN *

5

SLACK

L - C FOR INCLINED SPAR

T , Hcosh- x-

w

H/w

H/w

H*HcoSh

w

2(J - x

1,* .l,-C

-X

H/w

-H

NOMENCLATURE

3,C -HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL.AND SLOPE DISTANCE VEEN SUPPORTS.

L

- 1, + 12 = CONDUCTOR LENCTH BETWEEN SUPPORTS

S

= SAC * DISTANCE IN VERTICAL PLANE REASUREO FRON

APPROXI MATE METHOD

( ITENS ANDS EXPANDED sT RACLAURIN'S SERIES)

TEN

(e +-le V )/=

H

.

wx

04

w2H 24H

2

H

2.y YXw

2H

N3

24H3

tI C.- )(

.

RDOINATES NEASURED FROM POINT Of HORIZONTAL CENCT O1 CONDUCTOR.

x y ' AlY POINT

XI,y-

x2, y,&UPPER SUPPORT

X3, y3 SAC POINT

LOVWER SUPPORT

OROINATE REASURED fHR0 DIRECTRI (Ix-AOIS1

CONDUCTOR LENCTH REASURED tROM LOW POINT AN POINT x , y

ITEN

NO. 6A

PRECISION METHOD

(BT USE OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONSI

=s

6

Bsy Y2- Y H(CoShi

cost)

AND FROR cosh N-coshM 3 (2x,nh)m

A-_H

xe r2 ~Hw s

XI

sn-I

B/2

|H sinh

w

H/w

LINE BETWEEN SUPPORTS TO THE POINT ON TOE CONDUCTOR

WITA B/A SLOPE

H zHORIZONTAL CONPONENT OF CONDUCTOR TENSION

Tr CONOUCTOR TENSION AT ANY POINT ON CATENARY w = WEICHT OF CONDUCTOR PER UNIT LENGTH

WHEN x 0

HI/wOVALUE OF

APPROXIMATE METHOD

ITEN

NO.

E B:- Y2

OR X

2S

w(A-A

2

x,w

2 H -2H

)

2

4

5.

H.

2w

6H"

H

)

120H

H Iwxa

SLACI * L-A FOR LEVEL SPAR

, * ALAs L4 AS

24H2

1920H4

+

SLACK -

L-C FOR INCLINED SPAN

, wZ A4+ w4 A6 24CH 1920CH4

T - H +wy

+.

Fig. 1.

H

(H

IREF. 2 )

lEEF. 21

8

x

2

+

w*

H si

dy a sinh x

dx

H/w

nh A2

9. S :(a)ETERHINE xs DISTANCE TO POINT POll

CURVE WHERE SLOPE

/A USIC ITEN 8

(b)DETERRINE y3 AND ELEVATION P FOR THE

RSINC ITEN 2

(c)DETERNINE ELEVATlON POINT Q

(d)S, ELEVOATION'Q - ELEVATIOANP

VALVE OF xK

Basic catenary equations

7

x2

dy

dx

A (S.

wx

H

w3x0

SUBSTITUTING ITEN 6 oH 7 FOR x ANO USINC

w. PART OF SERIES ONLY. THEN

(o) APPROXIMATE SLOPE AT LOWER SUPPORT=

w/H[S- (SB- = wA (4S -8)

w(b) ~

4

B

8HS

A4S-8)

A

(bI APPROXIRATE SLOPE AT UPPER SUPPORT.(AS )

8A. 3A- 21

8

H

144C

'A

wC

8H3

A

(REF 2

supports). This law may be graphically illustrated by catenary function curves

in which per-cent slack, 100(L-C)/L,

is plotted as abscissa with tension and sag as ordinate.

A most convenient and accurate method of computing sags and tensions for a conductor suspended as a catenary for different loadings and temperatures is a semigraphical method. In this

method the catenary function curves for a given span length are superimposed over the tension-strain curves of the conductor plotted for each temperature

This method is used bv

concerned.

BPA and is similar to that used by Var- ney' for level spans and Ehrenburg2 for steep inclined spans.

The BPA method involves the use of new catenary function tables for level dead end (DE) spans. These tables and other simplifications reduce com- putations and possible errors.

TENSION-STRAIN CURVES

These curves are developed from repeated tension-strain test data taken at approximate stranding temperature

for the conductor concerned. For ACSR

conductor, tension-strain curves are re- quired for both the complete conductor and the steel core. The procedure sum-

marized here is similar to that shown in

reference 1. As shown in Fig. 2, with per cent strain (IOOAL/L) plotted as abscissa and ten- sion in pounds as ordinate, certain loads are held for a period of time to stabilize

the conductor. A large percentage (tests

showed 90% in one case) of the elongation occurring during these holding periods

is caused by strand setting. The re- mainder is creep. After each hold period

the conductor is unloaded and then

reloaded. A curve drawn through the points at the end of each hold period is called the virtual initial tension-strain

curve. The duration of hold periods shown in Fig 2 is not necessarily adequate for all types of stranding or material. However, later field prestressing (tension and time> for sagging is correlated bv BPA with the elongation represented by

this virtual initial tension-strain curve.

For an ACSR conductor, the steel core is subject to the same type of re- peated loading. The steel core is loaded

to match the initial elongation of the

ACSR conductor at each hold period

and then held for the same

time. For example, at the first hold period the steel core is stressed in pounds

to equal Ta,E,/aE. With elongation,

AL, and sample length, L, made the same for both the ACSR conductor and the steel core stress-strain tests, then

period of

A TL

AL =~ aE

aE

=

a TsL

asEs

for T and T, initially equal to zero

T

and Ts = tension for conductor and steel

core

E

and E. =modulus of elasticity for con-

ductor and steel core

a

and a, = cross-section area for conductor and steel core

Plotting both the ACSR conductos and the steel core data to the same scale

as in Fig. 2, one can obtain the virtual

initial and final tension-strain curves

for the aluminum strands of the ACSR

conductor by direct subtraction. There are now tension-strain curves

for the aluminum and steel components

FIEBRUARY 1960

Winkelman-Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of BPA

1533

TENSION - STRAIN CURVES AT OOF

N W.T BASED ON HEAVY LOADING (1/2' ICE,

8 LBS WIND, OaF)

1. ALUMINUM AND STEEL CURVES SHIFTED FROM TEST TEMPERATURE

(761F) TO 0'F AND ADOED TOGETHER FOR COMPOSITE CURVES.

2 ALUMINUM AND STEEL RETURN CURVES INTERSECT THEIR VIRTUAL

INITIAL CURVES AT A POINT DIRECTLY BELOW MN T. VALUE ON

COMPOSITE VIRTUAL INITIAL CURVE.

120'F

90"F

76F

60F

30F

I5'R

OF

F

F

120'F

90'F 766F 60'F

 

30'S 15'S 0'F

 

t

-0 06

- 0 04

-0.02

0.00

0.02

004

0 06

0U08

SCALE FOR SHIFTING COMPONENTS

PERCENT STRAIN ( -L 100)

,ALUMINUM, do 0.000,012O8

STEEL, a - 0.000,0064

'% STRAIN

Fig. 2. Tension-strain curves For ACSR Pheasant conductor, rated strength 44,800 pounds, test temperature 76 F

of the ACSR conductor at test tempera-

tures. By shifting the aluminum and

steel curves horizontally to right or left by the product of the temperature change

desired and the coefficient of expansion

of the components and then adding the

two shifted curves together, one obtains the tension-strain curves, initial and final, for the complete ACSR conductor

for any temperature desired.

Fig. 3 shows tension-strain curves

constructed in this manner for ACSR

Pheasant conductor at stringing tempera-

tures. Final curves are constructed for

maximum working tension (MWT) of

8,000 pounds and 16,700 pounds at 0 F (degrees Fahrenheit). These are the

MWT values used by BPA for this con- ductor for wood pole and steel construc-

tion, respectively. Note that the inter-

section of initial and final curves increases from the MWT value on the 0 F curve

to progressively higher values on the

32 F and 120 F curves. This is the

result of the aluminum strands taking a larger percentage of the total load at 0 F

than at the higher temperatures. Thus,

at the higher temperatures the aluminum

strands are still at final modulus of

elasticity for tensions in excess of MWT. As shown in the insert on Fig. 2,

the intersection of the initial and final

curves for MWT value must be first

located on the component aluminum and steel curves with the curves shifted

horizontally to the temperature for the

MWT loading, such as 0 F for heavy loading. Then, in subsequent shifting

of components for other temperatures,

both the initial and final curves shift

together.

CATENARY FUNCTION CURVES

Curves in Fig. 4 give for a certain span length the catenary relationship between

per-cent slack plotted as abscissa and

sag and tension plotted as ordinate.

The catenary function curves are plotted

to the same scale as the aforementioned tension-strain curve. Both the slack,

L-C, of the catenary function curves

and the change in conductor length,

AL, for the tension-strain curves are plotted as abscissa in per cent of conduc-

tor ]J'ngth-stressed in the former and un-

stressed in the latter case. The resulting

error from using stressed length is very

small, but greatly simplifies the com- putation of the catenary function curves. A practical scale for the abscissa is:

1 inch = 0.02% slack or 0.02% strain

A tension curve is computed for each

type of conductor loading for which

sag-tension data are desired. The sup-

port tension (Tm) curve is the value of tension in the catenary at the support.

The effective tension (T,) curve is the value of tension for the catenary that

1534

Winkelman-Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of BPA

FEBRUARY 1 960

PERCENT STRAIN ( L 100)

Fig. 3. Tension-strain curves for ACSR Pheasant conductor, stringing temperatures

20000

16000

In

z 12000

0

ck-

z

0

L

z

L40

8000

4 000

O L4

0.40

0.44

0.48

0.52

PERCENT SLACK ( L

100)

0.56

88

84

COMPUTATIONS OF DATA FOR

CATENARY FUNCTION CURVES

A

1800 FT

Aw3 ' 5803 LBS

FOR TENSION AND SAG FACTORS SEE TABLE I

B-O

Aw2 ' 5051 LBS

C 2 A

Aw, = 2943 LBS

80 H

% SLACK (TABLE VALUE) 0.40O0.44 0.48 0.52-0.560.60

Tm, MAXIMUM DESIGN LOADING

LBS

17,316 16,654 16,065

LL-

(Aw3) (SUPPORT TENSION FACTOR)

Tm-Te, MAXIMUM DESIGN LOADING LLBS

165

17I

178

CD (Aw3) (SUPPORT- EFF TENSION FACTOR)

76 CO

Te, ICED CONDUCTOR, NO WINDB (Aw2) (EFFECT1VE TENSION FACTOR)

Te, BARE CONDUCTOR, NO WINO LBS 9,523 9,083 8,698 8,359 8057 7,786

16,345 15,588 14,928 14,341 13,829 13,363

LS

(Awl) (EFFECTIVE TENSION FACTOR)

72

SAG (A) (SAG FACTOR)

FEET 69.95 73.39 16.68 19.84 82.88 85.82

68

0.60

Fig. 4. Catenary Function curves, ACSR Pheasant conductor, 1 ,800-Foot span

FEBRUARY 1960

Winkelman-Sag-Tension Computations and Field Measurements of BPA

1535

1536

U.

10C-

0

S3

t

I

L.2

000~~~~~~00"400000.00'to01C000"40014000000'D t-

o00o.c'~~ 0.0- 00010Q1M0. 0."4"4000CO00

"a

20

0 Cl

t3004

ba

rb

fi

0

4-b

11

04

MW

00

0

0-

0

0

v I ".

ti

qj

;

I

M

0

is

so.0

mw

60

12

v

1 04-

el

pq H

u

it

a

0 t

I

0

,

t

a

el

A

li

m19

" to~cot

;00

"40. % 00140C4*

 

t- t-00.

 

Lo-

Co 0.

0.00t-Rt0000C r (t000000.

Co

400-

" c,-4

-14

-4000000000000t

Q14t

--

o000o

0

04CIOLo C t

~

~

~

~

0

0. 0

CO

1

00 001C 10.Co

v,

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1-

0000Co 0C 0C'

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t- 0 CM V - .dq 00 0v

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1410 co0.00000OS CD,-1 C00coco"4000000 4 141 41

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satisfies Ilooke's law.

the unstressed length

For example, if

of a conductor sus-

pended as a catenary is stressed uniformly

value for

the catenary, the conductor will elongate to the same length as that of the con-

throughout its length by the

T,

ductor suspended

may be

in the catenary. T.

than (Tm+

considered the average tension

of the

acting on the catenary length

conductor and is always less

H)/2.

The catenary function tables developed

by BPA

provide a direct, simple and

accurate method of determining the

data for plotting the catenary function

curves for any level DE span.

DERIVATION oF EQUATIONS FOR CATENARY FuNCTiON TABLES

Precise equations in Fig. I may be

written for the level span in Fig. 5 as follows:

Sag = y =H/w(cosh - ~- i)

(1)

Total conductor length, L = 21= 2H sinhbw

Support tension, Tm = T=H cosh -

H

(2)

(3)

The length

of a small element of un-

stressed

becomes' (T

conductor (A4,) when suspended

for conductor of cross-section area (a) and modulus of elasticity (E).

t= I d4u+-1

aEJ

or

Td4 aE

t Td4u=4tu+

T.

Td-4,

.

0

11-

4

o

0

4.0

IL)I lu

to 04 g

OD 0

b.

=

a

t;

.1 4.0

0

to

04

t a U,

;-.

,

4)

9

0.1,6.

Ch

,A4 0. It

u

041010 OMNIV00000 -'0

St-40

000.0014"40 oCoo 4000000110140.00qvg00

00

-1,

0Co00010400t."4WW00004000Q 00'"-0.0c0100

O0

N

0

0

0

Cto

140- "0 '-k644

0001

4.0

"

"4000

00

0~CO'C

.CO~~~~~0. '.4000

"N4 CD

ko

0

"4004q

0C01400000000'4"4- "4"44CO

Co0.0.00tt-t-00

'-

-4 C014 CO 000-0Co

10

""'4000 0000

0.0.001 Co 14o4C0

0Co1400040000

~

-00000000000aW c

t-

0 oD

~

00 00't- o0t'00,~CO m

,m

As this is an expression of Hooke's

law and the effective tension is the value

of tension that satisfies Hooke's law,

T, 1 4Td4

or very nearly

To

Tdt

where i is the

in the catenary

Substituting

integrating:

length of stressed cable

equations 2 and 3 and

Winkelman-Sag-Tension Computactions and Field Measurements of BPA

FBRAY16

FEBRUARY

1960

Fig. 5. Level span catenary Conductor length between supports: 21=L

To = t Icosh2

dx

H2 (sinh w

2wt\

H

Slack= 2(t-x)

h wx

wx

H HI

(4)

% Slack_ -=100=(lj)100 =

or using equation 2

% Slack=100(-

let

wx

H

wx

H sir h-

H

)

then

% Slack=100(1- Z

sinlh Z/

also

sinh Z

Z

1

1% Slack

1-

100

100- 100Z

sinh Z

(5)

DEVELOPMENT OF CATENARY FUNCTION

TABLES

By use of hyperbolic tables, the value of Z corresponding to each per-cent slack

selected for the first column of Table I

is found from equation 5 by trial and error

method and interpolation. The National Bureau of Standards, United States Department of Commerce, publishes

9-place "Tables of Circular and Hyper- bolic Sines and Cosines for Radian Arguments" that are excellent to use for these computations. Having calculated the Z value for

each selected per-cent slack, it is possible to derive sag and tension factors appli-

cable to any span length by expressing equations 1, 3, and 4 in terms of the

then known values of Z and isolating

the unknowns (span length A and con-

ductor weight w). Thus,

sag=y= (cosh Z-1 )

from equation 1

A

sag=- (coshZ-1)

2Z

sag

sag factor=-=-

A

1

2Z

(cosh Z-1)

support tension, TmAw (cosh Z)

from equation 3

support tension factor= Am co2-Z

(6)

(7)

effectivetension,T,=.A-w

from equations 2 and 4

effective tension factor

[cosh Z

L

4

Z

+

11

4sinhZj

T,

Aw'

cosh Z

4Z

+

1

4 sinhZ

(8)

If the support tension factor is de-

termined first from

equation 7, the

effective tension factor can be more

conveniently

found by expressing equa-

tion 8 as follows:

effective tension factor

= [2Z(support tension factor)-

%slack

gC

Sakl]

1

100+1

(9)

Horizontal tension may be computed as follows:

H=Aw (support tension factor- sag factor)

(10)

Or from

approximate equation under

item 2 in Fig. 1,

level span sag y= -

wA'

+

w3A'

8H 384H3

then

(11)

Fig.

6.

Fig.

4

superimposed over

Fis. 3

FEB1RUARY 1960

20000

q

,- _" 11

s

-

-I

- -

Mw T 16,700 LBS

STARTING POINT

O (SAG -CORR)

662,200

S"O

,,

FOR w

Tm

1,e

1/2"