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- Speed of Sound IB Physics HL Lab report
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Jesus Rodriguez

Speed of Sound in Air

Physics 20 !ond"y 2#0pm $"%

P"rtners# Spencer Glackin

Veronica Hilliard

&o'em%er 1() 201

Purpose# The purpose of this experiment was to study sound waves and to

determine the speed of sound in air.

Procedure# We set up the resonance apparatus that consisted in a glass tube with

an open end and attached to a rubber tubing on the other end the rubber tubing is

attached to an aluminum cup. We added water to the aluminum cup! and placed the

thermometer near the apparatus.

The experiment began by stroking a tuning fork with a rubber hammer and placing

it " inch from the open end of the tube! while the tuning fork was still oscillating we

located the displacement of the nodes by ad#usting the height of the water until we

heard the resonance in the tube that is when the loudness is at maximum the

height of the water was ad#usted by raising or lowering the aluminum cup we did

this procedure $ more times until we found $ more nodes! we recorded the distance

of each node and calculated the distance between each node.

%sing the following formula we calculated the average distance between the node&

%sing the following formula we calculated the wavelength of standing wave&

We checked the temperature in the thermometer and calculated the accepted

velocity of sound with the following formula&

%sing the following formula we calculated the experimental velocity of sound&

%sing the following formula we calculated percent error&

We did this procedure with a di'erent Tuning fork which had a di'erent amplitude.

(onclusion& This experiment was very helpful to understand how wave acts! our

experimental calculation where less than percent accuarate

. until the glass tube was almost )lled a centripetal force apparatus and a

photogate the centripetal the centripetal force apparatus consisted of a vertical

rod! with a hook in the middle! attached with a hori*ontal rod to the end the

hori*ontal rod had a counterweight on one end and a suspended suspended mass in

the other end the counterweight was at a maximum distance because all the +at

portion of the hori*ontal rod was in the side of the suspended mass. Then! we

balanced the apparatus until the hori*ontal rod stayed stationary without rotating.

We measured the distance from the center of the suspended mass to the vertical

rod to determined the radius of revolution Subse,uently! we attached " rubber

band between the suspended mass and the hook in the vertical rod then we

attached a )shing line to the suspended mass and passed it through the pulley and

measured the amount of mass that put the system in e,uilibrium that force was

e,ual to the tension in the rubber band Then we removed the )shing line and the

mass. We set up the height of the photogate so that every time the index card

attached to hori*ontal rod passed through the photogate activated it. The photogate

was plug into a Vernier -ab.uest! we prepared the Vernier -ab.uest by changing

the /otion to 0ulse and by deleting the Velocity (olumn. The trials started by

gently turning the vertical rod until the suspended mass passed over the pointer

and maintaining a steady speed! at that moment we ran the Vernier -ab.uest and

stopped it when the suspended mass had approximately $1 revolutions.

Subse,uently! we selected graph! analy*e menu tab! statistics and then pulse time

which gave to us the minumum maximun mean standard deviation of the period of

revolutions and the number of measurements for the run. 2or part 3 we did 4 runs

with "! $ and 5 rubber bands. %sing the following formula 6 calculated the 3ngular

Velocity.

Part 1. Graph. Natural Log of Force as a Function of the Natural Log of

Angular Velocity

%sing excel! 6 set up 5 columns! column " with the values of 3ngular Velocity

column $ with the values of force column 4 with the ln73ngular Velocity8 and

column 5 with the ln72orce8 subse,uently 6 made a chart of columns 4 and 5! then

right9clicked one of the points in the chart and selected a linear trend line! that was

the best line that )tted my plots.

0art $

0art $ was similar to 0art " the di'erence was that this time we changed the radius

of revolution and the number of rubber bands were 5 for each run . :un " was the

same as run 4 of part 3 :un $ was made by ad#usting the hori*ontal rod #ust in the

middle of the +at part and by moving the counterweight " cm! we attached the

)shing rod to the hook on the suspended mass and measure the amount of weight

that put the system in e,uilibrium we took the )shing line out. The run started by

gently turning the vertical rod until the suspended mass passed over the pointer

and maintaining a steady speed! using the Vernier -ab.uest we got the values of

minumum maximun mean standard deviation of the period of revolutions and the

number of measurements for the run. 2or the last run we had to use the minimum

radius of revolution! we moved the counterweight " cm and ad#usted the point The

run started by gently turning the vertical rod until the suspended mass passed over

the pointer and maintaining a steady speed! using the Vernier -ab.uest we got the

values of minumum maximun mean standard deviation of the period of revolutions

and the number of measurements for the run.

%sing the following formula 6 calculated the average angular velocity

%sing the following formula 6 calculated the force;angular velocity

Part 2. Graph. Natural Log of Radius of Revolution as a Function of the

Natural Log of Force Divided y the !"uared of the Angular Velocity

%sing excel! 6 set up 5 columns! column " with the values of 2orce <ivided by the

S,uared of the 3ngular Velocity column $ with the values of :adius of :evolution

column 4 with the ln72orce <ivided by the S,uared of the 3ngular Velocity8 and

column 5 with the ln7:adius of :evolution8 subse,uently 6 made a chart of columns

4 and 5! then right9clicked one of the points in the chart and selected a linear trend

line! that was the best line that )tted my plots.

The free fall apparatus had two voltage supply one low voltage which caused the

electromagnet to hold the plummet and one high voltage! when on! made a =>

sparks every second. The experiment began by turning the low voltage o' and

holding the spark switch on so that the electromagnet released the plummet and

in its way downs there was a spark every 7

1

60

8 of a second Then! we turned

o' the apparatus and removed the spark tape! the spark tape had a dot for every

spark We extended the spark tape on the table and we circled every dot and

numbered them! being our )rst circle number > and our last dot number $?! then

we measured the distance! x! from the starting point to every dot with a ruler in

centimeter we collected the data and added it to the datasheet. We calculated the

velocity of the body in each interval of time except interval > and interval $? to

calculate the velocity we used the formula&

1

60

The Velocity of a 2reely 2alling @ody as a 2unction of Time

With all the data that we obtained 6 did a graph of velocity as a function of time on a

linear graph paper the y9axis was the time in seconds! where each s,uare was

Object6

of a second and the x9axis was the velocity in

Object8

! where each s,uare was

""

cm

s

. 6 plot the data from my measurements and calculation then made a line

that best )tted my graph. Subse,uently! 6 made a hori*ontal and vertical line where

the )rst line passed on the corner of a s,uare. With that two lines 6 got a right

triangle to )nd the slope 6 use the formula slope=

rise

run

being my rise value and

my run value which 6 got ! which is the acceleration of the body.

The Velocity of a 2reely 2alling @ody as a 2unction of <istance 2rom Starting 0osition

With all the data that we obtained 6 did a graph of velocity as a function of distance

on a linear graph paper the y9axis was the distance in cm! where each s,uare was

1 cm of and the x9axis was the velocity in

cm

s

! where each s,uare was ""

cm

s

.

6 plot the data from my measurements and calculation and got a curve.

The <istance from the Starting 0oint of a 2reely 2alling @ody as a 2unction of Time

With all the data that we obtained 6 did a graph of velocity as a function of time on a

linear graph paper the y9axis was the time in seconds! where each s,uare was

1

60

of a second and the x9axis was the distance in centimeters ! where each

s,uare was 4 cm. 6 plot the data from my measurements and calculation and got a

curve which slope is velocity.

*i"gr"m#

+uestions#

". What physical ,uantity corresponds to the slope of the position as a function

of time curve at a point on the curveA @e speci)c in your answer

The slope of the position as a function of time is the ,e-ocity of the body at a

point on the curve. The derivative is the slope of a tangent line at a point of the

curve if we derivate 0osition with respect time we obtain ,e-ocity.

$. 6f the plummet had been given an initial downward velocity rather than being

released from rest! would the observed value of acceleration of gravity 7g8

have been di'erentA Why or why notA

Bo! because gravity is a force which on earth have a constant acceleration of

C.?" ! the initial velocity of the body would accelerate a that constant rate so

the )nal velocity will also be higher than if the body was released from rest so

the slope will stay the same giving the same value for gravity.

4. Sketch a graph of speed as a function of time for a falling ob#ect that is so

light that friction is signi)cant. What is terminal velocityA

Terminal velocity of a free9falling ob#ect itDs when the downward force of

gravity e,uals the upward force of drag This causes the net force on the ob#ect

to be *ero! resulting in an acceleration of *ero.

5. Beglecting the e'ect of friction would a heavier plummet have a given a

di'erent value of acceleration of gravity 7g8A Why or why notA

Bo! because gravity is a force which on earth has a constant acceleration of C.?"

! so the heavier ob#ect would have the same acceleration as a lighter ob#ect.

/onc-usion& To summari*e! 6 would say that since 6 was in high school 6 started to

use vectors in physics problems! however! 6 never got the chance to actually do an

experiment of vector combination! so for me vectors were only abstracts numbers

in a sheet of paper. 6 got really surprise of how precise the force table is! because

we got close values to the actual analytical values. 3s recommendation 6 think that

the force table is easy to handle and to set it up !however! is really hard to actually

see if the ring is in the center of the force table when balancing! so 6 would like an

electronic device attached to the force table to tell how close to the center the ring

is. 3lso to have " gr mass available so the resulting mass9force can be more

accurate.

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