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MEDT 6466
June Clark Brittany Barnes
Janice Jackson Shanna Pavlak

Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who
forge greater opportunities for learners. Through consistent initiatives
with teachers, administrators, and parents, they develop programs and
advocate for educational opportunities for the learning community.
(Library Media Standards)

A study of Ohio school libraries found twice as many schools with above
average standardized tests scores had full-time media specialists.
(Baxter & Smalley, 2003)

Whats the BIG picture?

Study showed that at each grade level, state standardized test scores
were higher in schools with a media program.

Students scored higher when the student to book ratio was larger.

Higher student use of the library showed higher test scores than lower
student use.

Elementary and middle school scores were higher when there was a
media instruction program.

Elementary and high schools students with a full-time media specialist
scored higher than those who did not.

School library programs are a valuable component of a childs education
because they help a child achieve.

The highest achieving students attend schools with good school
libraries. (Baughman, 2000)
Schools with library media centers and
services show 10.6 percent positive
relationship with student achievement.

Three library components have biggest
influence on student achievement library
access, summer reading program, library
usage. (Show me connection: How school
library media center services affect student
achievement, 2003)
How are librarians raising
student achievement?
How does a full time librarian affect
reading scores?
According the Colorado study during 2007 and 2008, elementary
schools Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP) scores
were significantly higher in the schools with a full time librarian
than the schools without. With a full time librarian, there were more
students who received a proficient score and less students who
scored unsatisfactory. These results helped close the achievement
More students earned proficient or advanced reading scores and
fewer students earned unsatisfactory scores where there was a
full-time endorsed librarian. Elementary schools with librarians
averaged 68 to 72 percent of students scoring proficient or
advanced and 9 to 11 percent scoring unsatisfactory. Schools
without librarians averaged 64 to 68 percent scoring proficient or
advanced and 12 to 13 percent unsatisfactory (Francis, B., Lance,
K., Lietzau, Z., 2010).


A study in Wisconsin found a positive correlation between the
library media programs operating expenditures per student
and student performance on the test. (Ester, 2006)

A study in North Carolina found students scores on
standardized language arts and reading tests tended to be
higher in schools that had libraries:

That spent more money per 100 students on books
and other print materials, including newspapers and

That spent more money per 100 students on electronic
databases, internet access.
(Burgin & Bracy, 2003)

Money Talks
Studies in the years of 2007 and 2008 showed that librarian
expenses cost schools about $4,200. This works out to be just
$10.53 per students. Schools with media programs that are
funded more score better on standardized tests. The studies
showed that 68 to 72 percent of students at schools with higher
library funds scored proficient on the CSAP. The studies also
showed that 9 to 10 percent of students at schools with higher
library funds scored unsatisfactory on the CSAP. On the other
hand, schools with lower library funds scored 62 to 67 percent
of the students scored proficient while 12 to 14 percent of
student scored unsatisfactory.

Francis, B., Lance, K., Lietzau, Z. (2010). School Librarians Continue to Help Students Achieve Standards: The Third
Colorado Study. Library Research Service. Retrieved from

The more librarians the
higher the test scores!
Multiple full time librarians result in higher reading achievement scores.
Schools that have more library staff have lower percentages of
unsatisfactory reading scores.
For elementary schools with at least one full-time endorsed
librarian or one and a half FTE library staff, the percentage of
third, fourth, and fifth grade students scoring proficient or
advanced in reading was consistently higher than for schools
with lower staffing levels a 4 to 5 percent absolute difference
and a 6 to 8 percent proportional difference (Lance, K., 2010).
In the years 2000-2009, studies similar to this one have also generated
similar outcomes. These studies were completed in the states of Alaska,
California, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon,
Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wisconsin. Many of these studies also present
evidence that the relationships between staffing and test performance
cannot be explained away by other school or community conditions
(Lance, K., 2010).
How do librarians self assess to
ensure positive achievement?
At schools where principals see worth in their librarians, they conduct self-assessments like
the following:
Flexibly scheduled access to the library,
Collaboration between the school librarian and classroom teachers in the
design and delivery of instruction,
Provision of in-service professional development opportunities to teachers by
the librarian,
Appointment of the librarian to key school committees,
Regular meetings between librarian and principal, and
Addressing the instructional role of the librarian during teacher hiring interviews.
Lance, K. (2010). Increased library staff links to higher csap scores. Library Research Service. Retrieved from

Yall come back now!
Students who visit the library frequently
have shown to score better on
standardized tests. In the Colorado study,
67 to 72 percent of the students scored
proficient on the CSAP when they visited
the library more often. In schools with less
student traffic in the library, 12 to 14
percent of the student scored

Tying it all together
The findings from these studies support the tenets of Information Power: Building partnerships for
learning. (1998) The book is published by the American Library Association and details guidelines
for building a successful school library media program. The book says a successful student-
centered library program is based on three central ideas: collaboration, leadership, and
technology. (pg. 4)
The book notes that access to information in all formats, at all levels, and to all members of the
learning community is crucial to learning. (pg. 65)
Information Power: Building partnerships for learning (1998) also lists several principles key to
program administration in school library media centers. Principle three states that an effective
school library program requires adequate professional and support staffing thats based on
individual school needs. Principle four states that effective school library programs require ongoing
administrative support. Principles six and seven state successful programs require ongoing
assessment for improvement and sufficient funding. (pg. 100)

What were doing well
Our school has employed at least one full-time, certified media
Our school library is flexibly scheduled, allowing students to visit the
media center when they want or need to. Teachers and classes are
able to utilize the library at their point of need, rather than through set
scheduled class times.
Our media center has invested in technology, including e-readers, e-
books, netbooks, and online databases.
*Based on observation at the New Manchester High School media center program in Douglas County, GA.
How we can improve
Our media center could benefit from extended hours before and after
An increase in funding would allow our media center to purchase more
fiction and non-fiction books, e-books, and other materials.
Our media center program would also benefit from a greater emphasis
on teacher collaboration with the media specialist.
The media program might also benefit from more professional
development opportunities for the media specialist and staff.
*Based on observation at the New Manchester High School media center program in Douglas County, GA.

American Association of School Librarians & Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
(1998). Information power: Building partnerships for learning. Chicago, IL: American Library

Baughman, J. (2000, October 26). School libraries and MCAS scores . Retrieved from

Baxter, S. J. & Smalley, A. W. (2003). Check it out! The results of the school library media program census, final
report. Retrieved from http://metronet.lib.mn.us/survey/final_report.pdf

Burgin, R. & Bracy, P. B. (2003). An essential connection: How quality school library media programs improve
student achievement in North Carolina. Retrieved from

Francis, B., Lance, K., Lietzau, Z. (2010). School librarians continue to help students achieve standards: The third
Colorado study. Library Research Service. Retrieved from

Lance, K. (2010). Increased library staff links to higher CSAP scores. Library Research Service. Retrieved from

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Standard X: Leadership, Advocacy and Community
Partnerships. NPBTS Library Media Standards, p. 43.

Quantitative Resources, LLC (2003). Show me connection: How school library media center services affect
student achievement. Retrieved from Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary
Education website: http://dese.mo.gov/divimprove/lmc/documents/plainenglish.pdf

Smith, Ester G. (2006). Student learning through Wisconsin school library media centers: Library media
specialist survey report. Retrieved from Department of Public Instruction website: