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Evolving

technology
plays a huge
role in how
the media
center aids
learners
The more
students
learn, the
more they
want to know
Technology
plays an
important
role in
learning
Students
work
together to
promote
learning
Changes and
improvements
in technology
impact
instruction
and the
learning
environment
Takes into
consideration
limits on
human
memory
Maintaining a
college and
career section
will allow me
to support my
students'
developmental
and
motivational
needs.
Selected
response and
other forms of
assessment can
help me
determine
what my
students
already know
and what they
need to know
moreof
ShannaPavlak'smodel of effective
instructionforhighschoolstudents
at my high school library media
center.
Characteristics of
My Students
Schema
One
Piaget's Cognitive
Development
Stage
Developmental
and Social
Factors
Trends
Erikson's
Psychosocial
Development
Stage
Social Influences on
Learning
Incremental
Trends
Stationary Trends
Formal Operations
Identity vs.
Identity Confusion
These are changes that have continually taken
place overhistory that affect education. One of
the biggest changes is technology. Because it's
always changing andimproving, it's important
foreducators to keep"uptodate" on the latest
trends andproducts available andhowtouse
them. As a media specialist, Iwill needtokeep
upwith changing technologies. Iwill alsoneed
tostay apprisedof what's popularin fiction
andwhat information is newin academic
fields toensure my non-fiction collection is
accurate andrelevant.
These are trends that stay the same
overtime anddon't change much.
They deal with the human brain
andits capabilities. One key
example of this trendis the
limitations on human memory.
As a media specialist, Iwill be
responsible forteaching my
students howtolocate materials in
the library, howtocorrectly cite
research andhowtodetermine
which sources touse forresearch.
This is the last stage inPiaget'scognitive
development stages. Students whohave
achievedthis stage are able tothink
critically andabstractly. Students in this
stage alsoare able tothinkhypothetically.
They are able tothinkmore like adults
than everbefore. That means they must
be challengedmore in theirclasses in
ordertostay interestedin the material
being taught.
The teen years are all about self-discovery. During
this period, teens must figure out whothey are and
what kindof people they want tobe andbecome.
During this psychosocial stage, many teens feel
unsure andinsecure about whothey are. Erikson
says students whosuccessfully navigate this stage
come through with a strong sense of self. Those who
don't may come away with lowerself-esteem.
Social interactions are a big part of
being a teenager. Finding ways to
encourage students toworktogetheron
assignments can be beneficial totheir
learning, as well as a goodway toboost
theircommunication skills.
Iplan tokeepupwith incremental trends by
communicating with teachers about curriculum
changes andchanges in theirfields. Iwill dothis
through face-to-face conversations with themandalso
surveys. Iplan tocommunicate with students about
what materials they believe the library shouldinclude. I
will alsodothis through face-to-face conversations with
students. Iwill alsoprovide students with a suggestion
box, both in the library andonline sothey can
contribute theirideas. Iwill alsomonitorlistservs,
magazines, newspapers andothermedia outlets for
information on changing technology andtrends.
Toease the burden on my students' memories, Iwill
provide themwith helpful informational aids that they
can use torefresh theirmemories when in the media. I
will print out bookmarks with the Dewey Decimal
Systemandbookmarks with citation rules, as well as
helpful hints fordetermining the trustworthiness of
websites. Iwill alsohang posters with this type of
information in my media centerandIwill place
handouts with more details on these topics on my
website.
When Iama media specialist, Iplan toset upa
bookclubandencourage students tojoin to
readanddiscuss books. In addition toreading
anddiscussing theiropinions on books, the
students will alsoworktogethertowrite reviews
of the books themread. The students will
publish theirreviews on a wiki that's tiedtothe
media center's website. All students andfaculty
in the school wouldbe able toviewthe reviews.
Toaddress this stage, Iwill make sure my media
centerhas access tojournal andresearch databases so
students will have access tosources that will be useful
in research projects. Iwill alsoinclude books in my
collection toencourage critical thinking, such as books
on mathematical andscientific problems. Iwill also
encourage students fromeach grade level tosubmit
writings, such as essays, poetry, andshort stories tobe
publishedin a bookthat will be placedin the media
center. The bookwouldbe completely designed,
written andeditedby participating students.
Toaddress this stage, Iplan toinclude several books
andhelpful links towebsitesin my collection. Iwill
include books on issues that affect teens, including
self-image andpeerpressure. Iwill alsoinclude books
on different careerpaths they can followandcolleges
they can attend. Iplan tohave a section of my media
centerdedicatedtocareers andcolleges. Ialsoplan to
gatherlinks towebsitescentering aroundthese topics
andprovide themtostudents via my website. Iwill
include links tocareeraptitude tests in the list tohelp
students figure out what they may want todo.
Schema
Two
Knowledge
Constructionand
Promoting Transfer
Prior
Knowledge
Misconceptions
Knowledge Begets
Knowledge
Promoting Changes
in Knowledge and
Beliefs
Priorknowledge is basically everything students
already knoworhave learnedbefore reaching y
ourclassroomor, in my case, media center. It
encompasses all the things they've learnedin
school andout of school. There are three forms
of priorknowledge- declarative, procedural and
conditional. Priorknowledge shapes students
andcan sometimes prevent themfromaccepting
newinformation. As a media specialist, it will be
important forme to figure out what my students'
already knowabout the library andhowit's
used.
Tofigure out what my students know, Iwill askthemdirectly when they come
tomy media centeras freshman. Iwill have every English teacherbring their
students tothe media centerfora special information literacy training day for
freshmen. During the class period, Iwill administera pre-test with questions
relatedtoDewey Decimal Classification andhowtolocate research materials
in the media center. Iwill alsogauge students' priorknowledge on different
types of sources andwhat qualities reliable sources have. Iwill use the pre-test
results toguide my instruction forthe students throughout the rest of their
high school careers. Iwill focus on the areas they needthe most helpin. Iwill
alsodiscuss with students howthey thinkthe library can benefit themin their
academic andrecreational endeavors andeducate themon otherpossibilities
they might not have considered.
Misconceptions are incorrect ideas orbeliefs
students have about something factual. They
can sometimes be hardtocorrect, but not
impossible. Iwoulduse the vast resources
available tostudents in the media centerto
helpthemclearupconfusion or
misconceptions about specific topics. I
wouldalsoencourage themtoseekout
materials with perspectives that differfrom
theirown.
As a media specialist, Iwill be in a great position tohelpstudents
clearuptheirmisconceptions andtohelpthemreshape their
previous notions. This is one area where Ithinkcollaborating with
science andhistory teachers will really be beneficial. Iwill
collaborate with these teachers todetermine some commonly held
misconceptions they run across with theirstudents. Then, we will
worktogethertodevise a research project that will require students
tolocate andresearch multiple credible source materials on the
subject. Forinstance, Imight teamwith a science teachertocreate a
research project in which students dispel common misconceptions,
such as "tornadoes don't hit big cities,""dinosaurs andhumans lived
at the same time"or"the Earth's distance fromthe sun determines
what season it is."
KWL is a technique that helps
students andteachers determine
what the students already know
(K), what they want toknow(W),
andwhat they've learned(L).
Students first share theircurrent
knowledge, then write down the
questions they hope tohave
answered. Once theirstudy is
over, they discuss what they've
learned. KWL
As a media specialist, Ithinkthe KWL technique couldbe really useful
when it's time forme toteach research andcitation skills tostudents. I
will use it to findout what the students already knowthrough a group
discussion. Then the students will explore the various things they want
toknow, such as howtodetermine if a website is credible orwhat
options are available forsourcing. Once we've gone through the lesson,
insteadof a discussion, the students will teach what they've learnedto
others, perhaps underclassmen orstudents at a local middle school.
Alternatively, Imight have themworktogethertodesign training
materials tohandout tounderclassmen ortomiddle school students.
Tofollowthese guidelines, Iplan toencourage my students tovisit the media center
forhelpanswering any questions they may have about theirlessons. Iwill make sure
toinclude plenty of materials on the very topics coveredin the curriculum. Iwill also
speakwith teachers andstudents tofindout what ideas the students needthe most
helpwith andmake sure tokeepa running list of print andnon-print sources they
can looktoforhelp. Ialsoplan toteach students howtocorrectly identify credible
sources of information anddistinguish themfromless credible sources orfrom
opinion. Iwill have themcompare examples frommultiple formats, including print
media, electronic media andbroadcast media.
Students' priorknowledge can sometimes prevent
themfromaccepting differing information as being
true. Sometimes, when students doubt the
information they are being taught, they ignore it.
Tocombat this, the text lists several things
teachers can dotochange students' pre-existing
notions andmisconceptions. There are two
guidelines forchanging students' knowledge and/
orbeliefs that Ithinkwill be useful formy role as a
media specialist. The first is the guideline that calls
on educators tostress the fact that teachers are just
one source of information. This means students
shouldbe encouragedtoseekanswers and
information through otheravenues andshouldnot
be underthe impression that theirteachers' words
are the only truth. The secondguideline Ithinkwill
be important in my role is the one that calls for
educators tomodel ways tojudge the credibility or
positionalalityof sources.
Strategic Learning
and Problem-
Solving Skills
Schema
Three Problem
Classification
General
Strategies
Planfulness
Linguistic
Linguistic problems are those that
use words toconvey their
meaning andrequire the answerer
toprovide an answerusing words.
Because most questions students
face in school are linguistic in
nature, it's very important that
students are able tounderstand
these types of questions
High school students in particularwill deal with a lot of linguistic
questions throughout theirhigh school careers. They'll have SATS,
ACTS, graduation tests, college entrance essay questions and, of
course, the problems they have tosolve in theirvarious classes every
day. Exposure toa variety of questions that fall underthis
classification will helpthemwhen it comes time totake these tests.
Toprepare students forthese types of questions Iplan tokeepa lot
of example texts on hand. Iwill keepSAT andACT practice guides
in the library. Iwill alsokeeptexts on howtowrite goodcollege
essays. Ialsoplan topost links on the media centerwebsite to
practice tests online.
Availabilityof
Non-Human
Educational
Resources
Collaborative
Problem Solving
Social-Contextual
Forces that Affect
Strategic
Thinking
One factorthat can affect
students' strategic thinking
abilities is the availability of
nonhuman educational resources.
This means technology, such as
computers, as well as simple
things like books. The more
quality materials Ihave, the more
successful my students will be in
theireducational strategic
ventures.
Iplan toinclude many different types of resources in my media
centerthat can helpstudents with theirstrategic thinking. In
addition tobooks, such as dictionaries andencyclopedias, Iwill
include computers equippedwith educational software. Iwouldlike
toinclude programs on the computers that will be especially helpful
forscience andmath students working on experiments, such as
SketchUp. Iwill alsoinclude maps, art workandgraphical
representations. Ialsoplan toinclude several databases on the
computerthat will allowstudents toaccess scientific studies and
academic journals.
Comprehending
and Recalling
Text
Comprehending andRecalling Text
This includes strategies such as summarizing,
elaborating andidentifying important main ideas. It
is very important forstudents tomasterthis strategy
tobe successful readers. The more youread, the
betteryouget at it, soIwouldpush my students to
readas much as possible, whetherit's books, news
articles orwebpage articles. High school students
have todoa lot of academically-relatedreading. They
needtounderstandandrememberhundreds and
hundreds of pages of material. As a media specialist,
Iwill want tohelpstudents be successful readers.
One strategy Iwould use tohelpstudents understandand remembermaterial is
torequire themtowrite a news story on the text they are trying tolearn.
Students will dothe same kinds of things Idoin my jobas a broadcast new
writer. They will lookat pages of story information andcondense it down into
just a fewsentences that are easy foranyone tounderstand. Iwill alsorequire
the students towrite the stories in a way others will findinteresting. Ithink
employing this practice with my students couldhelpthemunderstandandretain
difficult orcomplex information. Forexample, Imight teamupwith a history
teacherandhave students research the conflict between Israelis and
Palestinians. Then, Iwouldhave themwrite nomore than five orsix sentences
describing what the root of the conflict is.
This is a characteristic of goodstrategic
thinking. It basically means putting thought
intohowa problemshouldbe solvedinstead
of just jumping right in with noplan of attack.
Students whodon't exercise planfulnesstend
tofocus on less important aspects of the
problems they're confronting andfrequently
use ineffective strategies. Tocombat this, I
wouldstress tostudents the importance of
slowing down anddemonstrate howtaking
time toreadtext carefully can helpthem
understandit more fully.
Planfulnesswill be especially helpful tohigh school students
because of the requirement they often face towrite detailed
research papers. Tohelpmy students with this, Iwill teach
themhowuseful planning aheadfora research papercan be. I
will explain tothemthe importance of narrowing down a topic
andthen selecting quality sources appropriate totheirtopic. I
will then discuss with themhowthey can breakthe paperup
intomanageable sections. Iwill showthemhowtomake a
roadmapforthe paper. This should helpmake the papermore
organizedandmake it a little less intimidating at the same time.
This is a type of problem-solving where students work
together, ratherthan independently tosolve a problem. It
is closely relatedtoworkmany students will likely have to
doin theircareers. As a media specialist, Iwill lookfor
opportunities touse this methodwhen working with
classes. Iwill alsodiscuss the benefits of social learning
andproblemsolving with teachers Iamworking with.
There has been a recent shift in education towards
finding ways topromote collaboration between students
in the classroom.
As a media specialist, one way Iplan tohelppromote
collaborative problemsolving is through scavengerhunts. I
will teamupwith a teacheranddesign a scavengerhunt that
will require students tobreakupintogroups andscourthe
library forclues. They will be gradedon howwell they work
togetheranduse theircollective knowledge toattackthe
problems they must answer.
As student cognition
develops and maturity
increases, knowledge
should increase.
Students should be able
to appreciate multiple
viewpoints
Prior knowledge
may include
misconceptions
based on naive,
but persistent
ideas
Motivationand
Affective Factors
Schema
Four
Goal Orientation
Maslow's
Hierarchy
Growth Needs
Self-Perception
Future-Time
Perspective
Intrinsic Interest
Value
Goal orientation describes the consistent goals students
set forthemselves in the learning environment. Mastery
goals represent a student's desire tolearn toacquire
knowledge. Performance goals represent a student's
desire todowell on tasks anddobetterthan others. In
education, mastery goals are believedtobe more central
toactual learning. In terms of the media center, Iwill
want toencourage my students toreadforfun and
enjoyment, not because they want tomake a goodgrade
on a test oravoidlooking silly in class.
Maslow'shierarchy looks at the needs humans must overcome
in ordertoreach theiroptimal potential andbecome theirbest
selves. This stage ofMaslow'shierarchy comes aftera student's
basic deficiency needs are met, such as physiological well-being
andlove andbelonging. The stage signifies a student's desire to
gain knowledge andunderstanding about the world. Tohelp
students reach this, Iwouldwant tomake sure that my media
centeris a place students considersafe andcomfortable. That
means not keeping it toocoldor warm. Iwill want tomake it
inviting with comfy furniture andinteresting books. Iwill want
tomake sure students see the library as a fun place they can go
togain newknowledge andaccess materials fortheirclass and
recreational needs.
Intrinsic interest value is the personal
pleasure a student gets fromcompleting a
taskhe orshe is interestedin. Research
shows this kindof motivation tends tobe
more successful in the long run than extrinsic
motivation. However, extrinsic motivation
has shown some success, at least on the
library side of things, in helping some lower
achieving students get motivated.
This is essentially howpeople perceive
themselves. It's very important in
education because howstudents see
themselves andtheircapabilities affects
howthey learn andtheirmotivation to
doso. Iplan togive my students
authentic encouragement andrelevant
feedbackin ordertohelpthemshape
positive self-perceptions.
This is a type of self-perception that
focuses on what a student wants forhis or
herfuture. People with this perspective are
focusedon the future andwhat lies ahead
of them. As an educatorin high school, I
will encourage students tothink
realistically about the future andoffer
advice when asked.
Mastery and
Performance
Goals
The media centerwill be useful tostudents with both of these goal
orientations. Tohelpstudents with mastery goals succeed, Iplan tokeepa
large non-fiction collection available andupdatedsothese students may fill
theirthirst forknowledge. Iwouldalsouse the media centertohost experts
in fields that interest students at the library andperhaps host a rotating
museumcollection. Forperformance goals students, Iplan tomaintain a
collection of materials aimedat showing students howtostudy fortests more
efficiently. Imight alsoinvite local university students tocome tothe school
todemonstrate tothese students some strategies they may use toperform
betteron tests oron college applications.
Toaidstudents in theirquest forknowing andunderstanding of the
world, Iwouldwant toinclude in my collection several resources for
themtoaccess that wouldtell themabout current events, such as
newspapers andmagazines. Iwouldwant togive themaccess tosources
that are objective andunbiased, sothat they may formtheirown
opinions about the issues facing the worldtoday. Forexample, Imight
want toinclude Time magazine andthe Washington Post in my
collection.
Knowing and
Understanding
Reading is an essential skill that students needin ordertosucceedin the real world. As a media
specialist, Iwill work tohelpall of my students become life-long readers. In orderto dothat, I
must findways tohelpthemsee reading as a fun thing andnot a chore. Imust get them
intrinsically motivatedtoread. Iplan todothat by creating a bookclub, hosting authorvisits, and
frequently surveying students on what books orreading materials they wouldlike tosee in the
library. One specific activity Iwouldlike todowith students toget themintrinsically motivatedin
reading is toshowthemthey don't have todepend on movies tobe entertainedby stories. Iwill
lookaheadtowhat movies basedon books are coming out. Then, Iwill challenge students toread
the bookbefore the movie comes out. Then, Iwill challenge students tosee the movie andcome
backandtell me about the similarities andthe differences. Iwill alsoencourage themtogoon the
website anddiscuss amongst themselves the key similarities anddifferences they noticed, andI
will askthemtodecide which version they preferredandwhy. Ithinkthis couldparticularly
useful with movies basedon bookseries because if students enjoy the first book, many will want
toreadahead, even without seeing the next movie immediately after.
As an educator, Iwill want toknowhowmy students perceive themselves soIcan
determine howtobest serve them. Iwill dothat by teaming upwith the counselors to
conduct surveys about howthe students see themselves andwhat they thinktheir
academic strengths andweaknesses are. Since my students arehigh-schoolers, Iwill
want touse the survey results tohelpguide my selection of materials in the media
center. If Isee we have a lot of students whoaren't interestedin postsecondary
education, Imight want tobeef upour collection toinclude materials on jobs and
careerpaths that don't require a traditional four-yeardegree. Imight alsoinvestigate
why these students don't want togotocollege. If it's because they fearthey aren't
smart enough, ordon't have high enough grades, Iwouldwant toresearch colleges
andgive students examples many different types of college requirements, since not all
colleges require the same criteria of applicants.
Agreat deal of my students will have this perspective because they are high-
schoolersapproaching adulthood. They will needtobe thinking about what
comes next. In ordertohelpthem, Iplan tokeepa careerandcollege section in
my media center. Iwill keepbooks on colleges andtrade schools all overthe
country andworld. Iwill alsokeepmaterials on apprenticeships, internships, and
vocational careers. Iwouldalsolike tohost special careerluncheons forstudents
andinvite members of the community tocome in totalktostudents about their
careers andhowthey got there. This wouldgive students a chance tomeet people
whoare actually doing the jobs they are interestedin, as well as give them
chances tonetwork.
Students
with mastery
goals tend to
be focused
on the future
Technology and the
Educational
Process
Schema
Five
Discussion
Asynchronous
CMC
Cooperative
Teaching
Computer-Based
Technologies/
Instruction
Computer-
Mediated
Communication
Erosionof
Authority
This is a type of sharedlearning where
students are encouragedtotalkabout
something in a class setting. The hope or
goal of this kindof sharedlearning is for
sharedunderstanding tobe achieved. In
ordertomake best use of this method,
any discussions Iimplementedwould
have stipulatedstandards of conduct,
such as requirements that student listen
toeach otherandshowrespect fortheir
peers' contributions andideas.
One goal Iwill have as a media specialist is toget students
interestedin reading. Ithinkdiscussion is a goodway todothat. I
wouldholdbooktalks in the media centerforstudents toattend. At
these talks, they woulddiscuss books they are reading orhave read
andtalkabout why they likedthemordidn't like them. Ithinkthese
discussions wouldbe a goodway forstudents tosee why andhow
others enjoy reading andit couldhelpreluctant readers tosee the
value in recreational reading. The discussions wouldbe completely
student-ledandstudent-centered.
AsynchronousCMCwill be very important tome as a media
specialist because it will helpme keepstudents, teachers, and
parents informedabout what is going on in the media center. I
plan tomaintain a website that will feature newadditions to
the collections, information about media centerpolicies,
reviews on books andotherresources, links tovaluable
websitesandmuch more.
As a media specialist, it will be important forme tocollaborate with
teachers in my school todevelopunits that centeraroundthe library.
High school is an important time toreinforce information literacy skills to
make sure students are preparedforcollege or whateverotheroptions
they plan topursue when school is over. Iwill workwith teachers toplan
research units that will allowstudents toexercise those skills. A
hypothetical unit wouldrequire the teachertohelpstudents determine
what topics orinformation they wouldbe looking intoandhowthe
information shouldbe presented. My role wouldbe tohelpstudents
locate source materials andcite those materials.
An exchange of information using technology
that is not in real-time. This refers tothings
such as communications onwebsites. This
kindof communication is widely usedby
students already in theirfree time soit's
important forme as an educatortotake
advantage of that knowledge anduse
asynchronous communication tocommunicate
with my students andtheirparents andtokeep
theminformed.
Cooperative teaching is a formof shared-teaching where two
ormore teachers worktogethertoplan an instructional unit
tobe presentedin a particularlearning environment. There is
a big focus right nowin education on media specialists
collaborating orworking with classroomteachers to
coordinate lessons in the media center. Both cooperative
teaching andco-teaching are ways Ican achieve this in my
school. These forms of sharedteaching will be beneficial tomy
students because sharedteaching experiences will allowthem
tosee howthe media centerconnects orplays a role in their
workin theircore andelective courses.
This is the various technology that can be
usedin a classroomorinstructional setting.
Computer-basedtechnology andinstruction
can enhance ateacher's lesson if used
effectively. When deciding whetherto
incorporate technology intoa lesson in the
media center, Iwill want toconsidermany
things such as howthe technology will
improve the lesson andhowmuch training
will be neededtouse the technology.
This is an effect of one of the educational issues
computer-basedtechnologies raise in
classrooms. It falls underthe Virtual Reality/
Virtual Learning category. It is what happens
when students are exposedtoa variety of source
material, with some of it being questionable.
The result is students become skeptical or
apathetic about all of the information they
encounter.
The media centeris generally a hubfortechnology. Media specialists typically store,
handle, andmaintain many technologies circulatedthrough the school orusedby
teachers andstudents. These technologies include computers, laptops, tablets,
projectors, televisions, DVD players, smartboards, digital cameras, printers,
laminators, copiers, e-readers, andmany, many otherthings. As a media specialist, I
will not only have tokeepupwith these technologies, but Iwill alsohave toknowhow
touse themall andbe able to teach students andteachers howtoproperly use them
andtake care of them. Iwill alsowant tomake sure Iamencouraging teachers to
incorporate these technologies intotheirlessons in meaningful ways that will
promote student learning. Iplan toresearch various ways the technologies can be
usedeffectively in classrooms as well as askteachers howthey are using the
technologies. Then, Iwill compile a list of strategies andideas andput it on the
website soteachers can access it when they needinspiration.
Tocombat this, Iwill needtodeliverstudents instruction on howto
determine whethera source is reliable orauthoritative. Iwill needto
showthemhowtodistinguish important information fromtrivial
information. Todothis, Iplan tocreate guides that include certain
criteria student shouldconsiderwhen determining whethera source is
credible, such as the publication date andthe author's credentials. Iwould
showthemexamples of credible sources andexplain tothemwhy they are
consideredcredible. Then, Imight have themtake part in a scavenger
hunt that reinforces the information I've taught. Iwill have themsearch
forexamples of credible resources, as well as resource that aren't reliable,
andresources that are in between.
Effective
Assessment of
Students' Learning
Selected
Response
Standardized
Tests
Formative
Assessment
Portfolio
Schema
Six
Selectedresponse is an assessment methodthat
requires a student toanswerquestions where
several answerpossibilities are provided.
Multiple choice, matching questions, andtrue/
false questions are examples of this format. The
formis often seen in testing situations because
it is consideredtobe an objective formof
assessment that's easy toscore andeasieron
students in terms of what they have to
remember. While Idon't plan toconduct many
formal tests with my media centerstudents,
there are some areas where this type of testing
will be useful tome.
Standardizedtests tendtobe high-stakes assessments
that are typically conductedundera strict set of rules.
These tests tendtogauge a student's declarative
knowledge. They are often conductedwith specific time
constraints andare usually done underthe watchful eye
of an administrator. These assessments are summative
evaluations andtendtobe multiple choice.
This is one way teachers determine whetherstudents are
learning. Formative assessment is an ongoing activity in
the classroomor, in my case, the media centertogauge
students' understanding. It can include things such as
simple observation, students surveys, orinterviews. It is
not something that is done at the endof a lesson orunit,
but is an assessment formeducators can doon a
continual basis.
Portfolios are collections of student workthat helpthe
student andteachers see what they've learnedin a
specific field. Portfolios can include a student's best work
orthey may include workthat shows the student's
growth in a particulararea overtime. Portfolios are
time-consuming, ongoing projects that allowstudent to
have some say in theirassessment since they choose the
pieces that will goin theirportfolios. Ithinkportfolios
couldbe useful in the media centerforgauging
information literacy skills.
As a media specialist, Iplan touse formative assessment more than othertypes of
assessment since high school media specialists don'tusually give tests. Iplan touse this
methodafterteaching a research unit tostudents. Once Igothrough the material, Iwill
observe howstudents conduct research andpay attention towhat websitesthey goto
forinformation andwhat books they select. Iwill alsoobserve howthey are using the
databases available tothem. In anotherscenario, Iwoulduse surveys orquestionnaires
todetermine what aspects of the media centerprogramandcollection students believe
serve thembest andwhat areas students thinkneedimprovement. This will helpgarner
data on my program that will be useful in determining where resources shouldbe
allocated. It will alsobe useful forjustifying budgetary needs. Iplan toalsouse my
online cataloging systemtocollect data on howstudents are using the library andwhat
books they are most frequently checking out. This will helpsee where the weaknesses
andstrengths in my collection are.
While Idon't plan toconduct any standardizedtests as part of my media
centercurriculum, these types of assessments will be crucial tomy students
in othertheirotherclasses. Sophomores will be taking the PSAT, while
juniors andseniors will be taking theirSATS, ACTSandgraduation tests. To
helpstudents be better preparedforthe numerous tests they must take, I
plan tostockmy library with several practice books forthe tests. Ialsoplan
toprovide links through the website tovarious places students may take
practice tests. Iwill alsoinclude links that have advice andhelpful tips for
test-takers. Iwouldalso like toteamupwith math andliterature teachers to
holdan SAT prepclubin the media centeryear-roundtohelpstudents who
are trying toget ready forthe test.
As a media specialist, Iplan toteamupwith teachers in various domains to
require students tosubmit a portfoliothat they workon throughout theirhigh
school careers. The portfolios wouldbe submittedas a seniorproject of sorts that
features student workfromall of the core subjects, as well as electives. Formy
part, I wouldrequire students tosubmit research projects fromeach year soI
couldgauge howtheirinformation literacy andresearch skills evolvedthrough
theirfoury ears in school. The portfoliowouldbe a great way forme tosee how
students are putting the skills Itaught themintopractice. The portfolios can also
showme what areas Ineedtospendmore instructional time on.
There is one test Idoplan togive my high school students when they enter
theirfreshman year. Iplan tohave themtake the Tool forReal-time
Assessment of Information Literacy Skills (TRAILS) test. It's a multiple
choice test that looks at a student's information literacy skills. Testing
students in theirfreshman yearwill allowme tosee what theirknowledge of
information literacy is andwhat they still needtolearn. Ican fine tune my
lessons andinstructional aids toinclude more information in areas where
tests results showstudents needmore help. Iplan toalsoadministerthe test
in students' senioryeartosee howmuch they learnedandif theirskills are
where they needtobe. The results will helpme determine what areas Ineed
tospendmore time on andwhetherany part of the collection needs tobe
beefeduptobetterserve the students.