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I.D.O.

English,
Your ideal intelligent direction on-line,
Presents:

40 simples passos para um curso


total básico em inglês.
“40 easy steps for a total basic
English course”.

Basic 01
Webpage:

Agradecimentos:

Agradeço a Deus por alavancar minha vida e me inspirar no desenvolvimento deste livro. A meu pai
Lúcio, minha mãe Regina e ao Vicente por tanto carinho força e amor, as minhas queridas irmãs Cris e Tiza e
aos cunhados Fernando e Dim que tanto torcem por mim e que eu os amo tanto, aos meus superamados
afilhados Ca-ca, Flô, Gui-gui e Fê-fê, à Sandra Abadia, a minha fantástica família, aos meus “primos-irmãos”,
aos meus queridos padrinhos, aos meus amigos e a todos que vieram a contribuir direta ou indiretamente para
a realização desta obra, principalmente meus preciosos alunos.

p. 1
Prefácio ao leitor:

Este livro abrangente e descomplicado fornece de forma envolvente e leve os passos necessários a um
revolucionário entendimento do conhecimento básico da língua inglesa.
Elaborada de forma autodidata, a gramática foi desenvolvida a partir da vivência prática em
desmistificar e simplificar as principais dúvidas e dificuldades mais comuns dentro da sala de aula,
proporcionando aos alunos e leitores uma agradável sensação de compreender e aprender o que antes parecia
difícil e complicado.
Para abrilhantar esta obra, foi extraído do consagrado “Picture dictionary” – Oxford toda a parte visual
das figuras e desenhos, garantindo vocabulário vasto e prático. Os exercícios foram extraídos em sua grande
maioria do mundialmente renomado “Grammar in use”, qualidade garantida. Os textos foram cuidadosamente
selecionados para proporcionar além de conhecimento lingüístico, desenvolvimento humano e pessoal, um
convite à reflexão e, em contrapartida algumas piadas e musicas também fazem parte deste livro, na maioria
extraídos da “Internet”.
Temos no “workbook”, vários exercícios extras, também do “Grammar in use”, e logo após estes
exercícios, temos um guia de “compositions” e “writings” destinados ao desenvolvimento da escrita, completando
assim, as ferramentas necessárias para a aprendizagem e assimilação de um inglês claro e profundo.
Como utilizar o seu livro ?
Este livro está dividido em 22 lições. Cada lição (com exceção da primeira) está subdividida em
vocabulário (visual ou tabela), gramática, exercícios e texto (podendo estes ser: textos, piadas ou músicas),
sempre nesta ordem. Após a lição 22 você encontra uma folha cartolina que separa o seu “workbook” ou livro de
exercícios, em ordem crescente, separados por lição. Ao final destes exercícios você encontra um guia de
redações bem como folhas pautadas para a realização dos mesmos. Para facilitar este entendimento, na
margem superior de qualquer folha do livro há a respectiva indicação de onde você se encontra no
livro.
Está feito o convite para uma jornada séria e ao mesmo tempo simples na constatação que de o Inglês
pode e deve ser abordado visando primordialmente qualidade e fácil assimilação. A todos que aqui adentrarem,
sejam muito bem vindos!

Lúcio Alberto Cordeiro Borges, o autor.

p. 2
Índice

Lesson 1 Introduction and Portuguese English differences 4


Lesson 2 Numbers and the Alphabet 12
Lesson 3 Personal Pronouns and Verb “To Be” 22
Lesson 4 Demonstrative Pronouns and Articles 27
Lesson 5 Plural and the preposition “From” 31
Lesson 6 Prepositions In, On, At 38
Lesson 7 The verbs: “To has, have” / “To has, have got” 46
Lesson 8 There is/are, One(s) - pronouns, Would Like 52
Lesson 9 Family tree, Genetive Case, Possesives 55
Lesson 10 Interrogative Pronouns / Relative clauses 64
Lesson 11 Time and simple Present 68
Lesson 12 Simple Present Continuous 76
Lesson 13 Simple Past and Simple Past Continuous 82
Lesson 14 Future Tenses and Augmentatives / diminutives 88
Lesson 15 Verb “To make/do” and Verb “To Be” Like 95
Lesson 16 Modal Verbs 1 100
Lesson 17 Modal Verbs 2 107
Lesson 18 Frequency Adverbs 113
Lesson 19 Prepositions and Conjunctions 117
Lesson 20 Object pronouns and Reflexive Pronouns 126
Lesson 21 All the Pronouns and directions 132
Lesson 22 The verb “To get” and Adverbs 136
Review 140
Workbook 142
Writings and Compositions 179
List of the regular and Irregular Verbs 191
Referências Bibliográficas 198

p. 3
Introdução

Imagine um idioma que você pensa: Sou malmente compreendido, ou: hoje o tempo está ventoso.
Imaginem um idioma que certas palavras você tenha que pronunciá-las “soprando”, outras, “enrolando” a
língua. Um idioma que tenha um verbo que sirva para quase tudo, e que falte uma palavra tão importante
quanto “saudade”. Um idioma que ao invés de você dizer: “canetas vermelhas”, você diz: “vermelha canetas”,
um idioma que o substantivo “pia” (sink) é também o verbo “afundar / submergir”, o nome próprio “Sue” é
também o verbo “processar”.
Pois é, este idioma é mesmo o inglês! Agora você deve estar pensando: Que confusão! Não se
desanime. O intuito deste livro é justamente o contrário: mudar radicalmente o preconceito ou antipatia que
eventualmente vocês leitores vêem encarando esta língua, talvez pelas diferenças mencionadas, talvez por
uma abordagem anterior não muito didática ou descomplicada, ou talvez por nunca terem estudado
anteriormente. O importante é acreditar que um novo modo de encarar e superar estas possíveis barreiras é
possível, e para isto que esta obra foi cuidadosamente elaborada.
Muitos autores e escolas de idiomas defendem a idéia de que o inglês não pode ser traduzido no
momento da aprendizagem do aluno. Concordo com o fato de que devemos aprender a “pensar” em inglês
evitando a tradução quando já sabemos o significado de certas palavras ou expressões, “burlando” nossa
capacidade mental de elaborar e acelerar o processo de internalização de uma nova língua. Porém, quando
ainda não tivemos um primeiro contato com o inglês, logicamente não há representação concreta ou abstrata
alguma estabelecida. Portanto esta simbologia “cerebral” necessita neste primeiro momento de uma “âncora”
que é nossa primeira língua, a língua “mãe”, o português. Pessoalmente não considero condenável a tradução
para iniciantes, daí o motivo deste livro facilitar tanto a sua vida também neste aspecto!
Nesta primeira lição, teremos uma visão geral e um tanto quanto “superficial”, porém necessária, do
inglês como um todo (principais diferenças: lingüísticas, fonéticas e estruturais; verbos; formações de frases e
de palavras; cognatos e falsos cognatos). Com estas noções básicas, vocês leitores poderão alicerçar se para
que a partir da segunda lição, serem estimulados ao máximo a “caminharem com as próprias pernas, mas de
mãos dadas com este livro”, percebendo a essência do conteúdo de cada página desta obra. Em outras
palavras, a primeira lição fornecerá o “combustível” motivacional que ajudará vocês leitores trilharem com
segurança e em linha reta o caminho para o sucesso. Vale a pena ressaltar que no momento oportuno
estudaremos com detalhes cada citação a seguir, portanto volto a repetir para que vocês leitores não se
preocupem, caso alguma destas abordagens pareçam pouco aprofundadas.
Entreguem-se à magia do inglês, encarem este desafio não apenas como uma exigência dos novos
tempos da globalização. O inglês fará vocês sentirem integrados com o mundo, estimulará o intelecto, a auto-
estima, além de valorizar seus perfís profissionais, então, mãos a obra!

p. 4
Lesson 1

Principais diferenças entre


o português e o inglês:

Podemos enumerar algumas diferenças que ocorrem com o inglês e não o mesmo com o nosso
português:
. 1 – Tente pensar que o inglês funciona de forma dinâmica e prática. As palavras podem assumir diferentes
significados de acordo com sua utilização e posição na frase. É como se sua tradução original pudesse se
“desmembrar” em diferentes contextos. Por isso é sabido que um bom tradutor de inglês precisa acima de
tudo lidar com cada palavra “captando” a essência das idéias das mesmas de acordo com o contexto global
da frase, e não meramente como uma tradução literal ou “ao-pé-da-letra”.
Ex: O adjetivo “hard”, significa: duro(a), difícil.
_ “this chair is hard”: Esta cadeira é dura.
_ “it’s hard to give up”: É difícil desistir.
_ “I want to learn english so hard”: Eu quero muitíssimo aprender inglês.
Percebam que no último exemplo a tradução de “hard” teve que ser “pensada” e “desvelada”, e que
se fosse simplesmente como: duro(a) ou difícil, não seria uma tradução adequada.

. 2 – No inglês, as frases tendem a serem curtas. Evitem fazer frases muito extensas, podemos nos perder, e,
além disso, elas não são muito usadas.

. 3 – A repetição do sujeito no inglês não é um erro de sintaxe ou um “crime” grave.


Ex: “He´s rich, but he doesn’t need a maid. He Said that he is ok”: Ele é rico, mas eeellleee não precisa de empregada.
Ele disse que eeellleee está bem. No português podemos “evitar” a repetição do “ele”.

. 4 – No inglês não temos acento gráfico de qualquer natureza. Ex: Eloqüência: “Eloquence”. Inválido: “Invalid”,
competição: “competition”, etc.

. 5 – O sujeito é obrigatório em frases afirmativas. Temos que explicitá-los com um dos pronomes pessoais do
caso reto (“personal pronouns”) ou com o próprio sujeito. Estudaremos, na lição 3, este tópico com mais
detalhes (página 21).
Ex: Está frio: “It’s cold”
Estou feliz: “I’m happy” Estamos felizes: “We’re happy”
Encontraram a carteira: “They’ve found the wallet”

. 6 – Os adjetivos antecedem os substantivos e possuem forma somente no SINGULAR.


Ex: Carros velozes: Carros – substantivo; Velozes – adjetivos: Portanto: “Fast cars”
Facas (“knives”) afiadas (“sharp”): “Sharp knives” Gatos (“cats”) pretos (“black”): “black cats”

. 7 – A mesma palavra comumente assumem mais de uma tradução (bem mais de que no português).
Ex: Ela é muito linda: “She’s pretty pretty” / “she’s pretty beautiful”

. 8 – Em muitos casos, a formação de uma palavra se dá a partir do “casamento” de duas outras. Esta junção
de palavras ou idéias algumas vezes faz sentido ou até mesmo é interessante ou engraçada, porém outras
vezes não apresenta nenhuma lógica. Ex:
. ferradura – em inglês: “Horseshoe” (“horse” – cavalo, “shoe” – sapato), portanto: ferradura vem da idéia de
“sapato do cavalo”. Exemplo este que “faz sentido”
. analgésico – em inglês: “painkiller” (“pain” – dor, “killer” – matador / assassino), portanto vem da idéia de
que é o que “acaba com a dor”, também faz sentido.
. Borboleta – em inglês: “butterfly” (“butter” – manteiga, “fly” – voar), portanto manteiga que vôa não faz
sentido.

p. 5
Lesson 1

. 9 – Em inglês temos um grande número de cognatos “cognates” (palavras com a mesma grafia / escrita e o
mesmo significado em mais de um idioma, como o esporte “ping-pong” ou tênis de mesa, que foi inventado
na China e tem o mesmo nome e tradução em quase todas as línguas). Temos os “famosos” cognatos:
“banana”, “chocolate”, “taxi”, “radio”, onde apenas a pronúncia é diferente. Temos também muitas de nossas
palavras com terminação “al” como sendo cognatas do inglês (total /total, final/ final, animal/ animal, plural
/plural, ...). Portanto os cognatos não são os “vilões” da história, muito pelo contrário, o problema são os
falsos cognatos “false cognates”, estes sim podem te induzir a um erro ou a um equívoco de tradução ou
aplicação se não houver uma devida preparação e uma certa memorização dos mesmos. Somos “seduzidos” a
traduzir “parents” como sendo “parentes”, quando na verdade significa: “pais” (pai e mãe) em português. Com
podemos ver esta categoria é “perigosa”! Ex: “to complain”: Verbo reclamar, queixar, lamentar. Contemplar: “to
comtemplate” Na página 11 temos uma tabela com alguns destes “false cognates”, apenas os mais usuais.
No “basic 2” estudaremos uma extensa lista.

. 10 – Muitas pessoas estranham o fato de que após estudarem o inglês por um longo período se deparam
com a total estranheza de não entenderem nada quando chegam em um país de língua inglesa. Devemos
considerar os sotaques (“accents”), pois temos quatro diferentes tipos: o americano, o britânico, o australiano,
e o canadense, as gírias (“slangs”), as expressões idiomáticas (“idiomatic expressions”) como: “não subestime
ninguém, você pode quebrar a cara”, além da rapidez e fluência que os “nativos” logicamente comunicam
suas línguas de origem. Pensando nisto, em um segundo momento, o aluno deve também se preparar para
estes contra-tempos. Este livro representa uma excelente preparação como alicerce estrutural deste desafio.

. 11 – Finalmente enumeramos nesta lista as principais diferenças em relação a verbos (e também suas
conjugações), formação de frases e palavras bem com as diferenças de fonética. Vamos agora,
separadamente, verificar estas diferenças (noções básicas):

. 11 . 1 – Verbos (“verbs”):

. 11 . 1 . 1 :
. Podem estar no infinitivo (“infinitive”), precedidos de “to”, no português equivalente aos nossos
verbos terminados em “r” (sonhar, ousar, viver, gostar , ...):
Ex: “To love” – amar, “to be” – ser / estar, “to dance” – dançar.
. Podem estar conjugados de acordo com o tempo verbal e o sujeito (consultar os pronomes pessoais
na página 22); ressaltando que felizmente esta conjugação é bem mais simplificada que a nossa, estudaremos
ao longo das lições.
Ex: “She loves” (ela ama), “I was” (eu era / eu estava), “we’ll dance” (nós dançaremos)
Temos respectivamente os tempos verbais: Presente, passado e futuro e os sujeitos ela, eu e nós. Para o: “I,
you, we, you, they” (tradução: Eu, você, nós, vocês, eles / elas, respectivamente) no presente simples a
conjugação é feita de forma bastante simples*:
Ex: “to drink” (beber): “I drink” (eu bebo), “you drink” (você bebe / vocês bebem), “we drink” (nós bebemos),
“they drink” (eles / elas bebem).
* Os verbos auxiliares são diferentes. Veremos qual a diferença logo mais nos tópicos 11.1.3. e 11.2.
. Podem estar no imperativo “imperative”, que indica uma ordem ou pedido. Os verbos no imperativo
têm a mesma forma do infinitivo sem o “to”.
Ex: Eu amo dançar: Temos: “Dançar” – verbo no infinitivo e “amo” - verbo conjugado.
No inglês temos: “I love to dance”: “love” – conjugado e “to dance” – infinitivo.
Portanto se estou pedindo ou ordenando: Dance! : “Dance!” – imperativo, ame: “love”...
“to study”(estudar): “study a lot!” – estude muito! ;
“to be”(ser / estar): “be happy!” – seja feliz ! ;
“to sing” (cantar): “sing well !” – cante bem! .

p. 6
Lesson 1

. 11 . 1 . 2 :
Os verbos podem ser regulares ou irregulares (“regular or irregular”). Para entender esta diferença
vamos primeiramente explicar quais são as “famosas” três colunas de verbos existentes no final de quase todo
livro de inglês (inclusive este!). A primeira coluna indica o presente simples ou o infinitivo (se tiver o “to”), a
coluna do meio representa o passado simples e a terceira coluna é o passado particípio (“past participle”). O
passado particípio é o “ido” e o “ado” do português (Ex: vendido, bebido, estudado, andado, dormido, etc). Ex:
Tenho andado distraído...

Os verbos regulares têm na segunda e a terceira coluna terminação em “ed”, já os irregulares, como o
nome já diz, são irregulares, e justamente por este motivo, a lista deve ser memorizada.
Ex:. Presente Passado Passado particípio
to play played played Regular (bricar, tocar, jogar)
to stop stopped stopped Regular (parar)
to run ran run Irregular (corer)
to sing sang sung Irregular (cantar)

. 11 . 1 . 3 :
Finalmente podemos dividir os verbos em duas grandes “categorias”. Temos os verbos auxiliares
(“auxiliary verbs”), e os verbos comuns ou “normais”(“ordinary verbs”). Vamos enumerar aqui, quais são os
verbos auxiliares (apenas no presente simples), e no tópico 11.2 entenderemos sua definição e a aplicação
destes verbos auxiliares nas frases. Todos os verbos que não forem mencionados a seguir são pertencentes à
categoria dos verbos “normais”. Os verbos auxiliares são:
. Verbo “to be” (ser / estar)
. Verbo “there is / there are” (haver)
. Verbo “to has / have got” (ter, possuir)
. Verbos modais “modal verbs” (can, could, would, may,…) – ver págs: 101, 102, 107, 108
Os verbos auxiliaries comportam-se diferentemente dos outros verbos no inglês em relação à
conjugação e principalmente em relação a frases negativas e interrogativas.

. 11 . 2 – Formação de frases (“sentence formation”):


No inglês, as frases na afirmativa não apresentam grandes diferenças, exceto o fato de que o sujeito
precisa ser mencionado (tópico 5 acima). Para uma oração ser caracterizada como tal, além do sujeito, o
verbo principal (“main verb”), ou verbo de ação (“acting verb”), também precisa ser descrito. O objeto da frase
(o “nosso” predicado) bem como o complemento, são opcionais. Ex:
. Eu trabalho: “I work” : Temos apenas o sujeito e o verbo principal.
. Eu trabalho com o Pedro: “I work with Pedro”: Agora também um objeto (Pedro).
. Trabalho com o Pedro nos EUA: “I work with Pedro in USA”: Incorporamos ainda o complemento de lugar
(“place complement”).
No português negamos o exemplo acima: “Eu não trabalho”, apenas acrescentando o não (“not”).
Infelizmente no inglês é um pouco diferente, eu não posso simplesmente: “I not work”. E agora é que
começamos a entender o porque que primeiramente tocamos no assunto dos “auxiliary verbs”. Pois é, o “ not
” não pode ser usado desacompanhado de um dos verbos auxiliares ou desacompanhado de um dos
auxiliares.
Mas, espera ai! Nós ainda não falamos de auxiliares e sim verbos auxiliares! Não, ainda não, mas
vamos falar agora. Na frase “eu não trabalho” temos que dizer: “I do not work” ou “I don’t work” (lembra do: “I
don’t speak english” – “eu não falo inglês”). Os verbos auxiliares têm este nome porque eles são ao mesmo
tempo verbos e auxiliares, é lógico! Basta analisarmos a definição de seu próprio nome. Portanto para se
fazer uma frase na negativa, quando não tivermos algum dos verbos auxiliares, temos que “pedir auxílio para
o auxiliar”, e quais são estes auxiliares?
Simple present Do ( I, you, we, they ) / Does ( he, she, it )
Simple past Did ( I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they )
Simple future Will ( I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they)

p. 7
Lesson 1

Espera ai, então qual seria a tradução dos auxiliares? NENHUMA ! Eles apenas “auxiliam” as frases que
não têm os verbos auxiliares, sem tradução ou significado algum. Ex:
. “I play soccer” (eu jogo futebol) – não tenho verbo auxiliar, tenho que usar o “do”:
“I do not play soccer” ou “I don’t play soccer” (eu não jogo futebol).
. “I am a soccer player” (eu sou um jogador de futebol) – tenho o verbo auxiliar “to be” (sou), então não preciso
de usar nenhum auxiliar, basta colocar o “not” depois do “am” :
“I am not a soccer player” ou “I’m not a soccer player” (eu não sou um jogador …)
Já que agora estamos entendendo melhor estas diferenças, vamos aproveitar e esclarecer que as
frases na interrogativa, o “raciocínio” é o mesmo. A única diferença, é que invertemos a posição do sujeito
com os auxiliares ou com os verbos auxiliares (logicamente sem o “not”, pois agora estamos perguntando, e
não negando). Portanto em frases interrogativas precisamos, antes do sujeito, de um auxiliar ou de um
verbo auxiliar. Exs:
. “Do you play soccer ?” (você joga futebol ?) – o “do” não possui tradução alguma!
. “Are you a soccer player ?” (você é um jogador de futebol ?)
. “Do you work ?” (você trabalha ?) – o “do” não possui tradução alguma!
. “Are you a worker ?” (você é um trabalhador ?).

Resumindo:
Os verbos no inglês:
. Podem estar: No infinitivo (“to” + verbo), conjugados (de acordo c/ tempo verbal e o sujeito) ou imperativo (infinitivo s/ o
“to”).
. Podem ser: Regulares (2° e 3° colunas, com terminação “ed”) ou irregulares (formas irregulares na 2° e 3° colunas)
. São divididos em 2 categorias: Verbos auxiliares (são verbos e auxiliares ao mesmo tempo), e os verbos comuns (todos os
demais verbos exceto os listados no item 11.1.3, que são justamente os verbos auxiliares). Em outras palavras, no inglês temos os
verbos (ou verbos comuns), os auxiliares, e os verbos auxiliares.
P/ a formação de frases na negativa ou na interrogativa, temos que antes “discernir” se os verbos são auxiliares ou
não. Se tivermos um dos verbos auxiliares na frase, basta acrescentarmos o “not” para negar, e inverter a posição do verbo auxiliar
com o sujeito para fazermos uma pergunta. Se não tivermos o verbo auxiliar, usamos o auxiliar (conforme tabela 11.2 na pág 7)
antes do “not” (frases na negativa) ou, antes do sujeito (frases na interrogativa). O complemento, bem como o objeto da frase, são
opcionais. Veja esquema abaixo:
“Main Verb” (verbo principal) = MV, Object = OB, Complement = CM, ( ) Representa opcionalidade, or = ou.
Affirmative: Subject + main verb + (OB) + (CM).
Negative: Subject + auxiliary or auxiliary verb + Not + MV + (OB) + (CM).
Interrogative: Auxiliary or auxiliary verb + Subject + MV + (OB) + (CM) + ?

. 11 . 3 - Formação de palavras (“words formation”) :

Vamos neste momento fazer uma breve e pobre revisão morfológica apenas para rever alguns
conceitos básicos que iremos aplicar logo em seguida. Na frase:
“O garçom trabalha intensamente com seu uniforme branco” Temos: “o”:artigo definido, “garçom”: substantivo
(“noun”), “trabalha”: verbo (“verb”), “intensamente”: advérbio (“adverb”), “com”: preposição, “seu”: pronome
possessivo, “uniforme” substantivo e “branco” adjetivo (“adjective”). O que nos interessa neste momento é
saber que o advérbio relaciona com o verbo (no ex: ele trabalha como? Resp: intensamente), O substantivo
representa a “classe”, o próprio nome, e o adjetivo dá uma qualidade ou uma característica para este
substantivo (no ex: uniforme branco: como é o uniforme? Resp: branco). Iremos repetitivamente usar as 4
palavras destacadas acima.
Estamos neste tópico, voltados para as “dicas” de algumas sílabas em inglês, que acrescentadas no
final de algumas palavras, formarão outros significados, outras traduções (Ex: “person” – pessoa / indivíduo,
“personal” – pessoal / individual: acréscimo da terminação: “AL”. Reparem que ocorreu uma alteração
morfológica, mas a tradução original ou “raiz” é fonte de “inspiração” para pensarmos em suas derivações, e
raciocinar a partir disto, como sendo uma “matriz” para futuras utilizações cabíveis. Último detalhe antes de
começarmos este tópico propriamente dito: As palavras terminadas em Consoante + Vogal + Consoante
(CVC), dobramos a última correspondente letra, e, as palavras que acabam com: “e”, este “e” desaparece.

p. 8
Lesson 1

Principais Terminações
Sufixos, “suffixes” ou prefixos “prefixes” que modificam a
morfologia da palavra:
Para que serve /formar o que? “Examples” (exemplos)

“Y” 1. Formam “adjectives” 1. “luck”: sorte (“noun”), “lucky”: sortudo(a)(“adjective”), “sun”: sol (“noun”), “sunny”
(ensolarado)(“adjective”), “fog”: neblina, “foggy”: neblinado (“adjective”). As
condições do tempo derivam do “y”.
2. Criam“baby-talks”– linguagem infantil 2. “mom”: mamãe, “mommy” :mamãezinha, “Bob” – “Bobby”
“ER” 1. Referir ao “dono” do acontecimento 1. “to sin”:pecar, “sinner”: pecador, “read: ler, “reader”: leitor. “sharpen”: afiar (“verb”),
“sharpener”: apontador (indica que “afia”) “to teach”: ensinar (“verb”), “teacher”:
professor/a (quem ensina)
2. Usado em comparativo 2. “old”: velho, “older”: mais velho, “new”: novo, “newer”: + novo
“ISH” Indica que algo “tende” a “red”: vermelho, “reddish”: avermelhado, “brownish”: amarronzado
“good”: bom, “goodish”: relativamente bom, considerável. “self” (auto): “self-
help”(auto ajuda): “selfish”(egoista; pois tende p/ si)
“AL” Mesma função do português “education”: educação, “educational”: educacional, “globe”: globo
“global”: global, “nature”/”natural”, “memory”/”memorial”,etc
“ING” 1. Formam gerundio (verb + ING) 1. “I am writing now”: eu estou escrevendo agora. (verbo - gerundio)
“he’s swimming now”: ele está nadando agora (“gerund”)
2. Formam substantivos (“nouns”) 2. “writing is important”: escrita é importante. (escrita – “noun”)
“swimming is great”: natação é ótimo (“noun”)
“TION” Equivale a nossa terminação “ção” ação: “action”, relação: “relation”, exploração: “exploration”, “motivation”,
“communication”, “inovation”, “interpretation”, “exclamation”, “composition”,
“memorization”, “reaction”, etc
“SION” / Equivale ao nosso “são”, “ssão” ou “xão” aversão: “aversion”, confusão: “confusion”, comissão: “comission” missão: “mission”,
“SSION” (se a palavra tem 1 “s”: “sion” e se tiver 2 extensão: “extension”, paixão: “passion”, confissão: “confession”, compaixão:
“s” ou “xão” equivale ao: “ssion” ) “compassion”
“ED” 1. Verbos regulares (ver 11.1.2) 1. “I have relaxed a lot” (eu tenho relaxado muito) – verbo 3ª. Col.
“I relaxed yesterday” (eu relaxei ontem) – verbo 2ª. Col.
2. Formam adjetivos “adjectives” 2. “I am relaxed” (eu estou relaxado) – adjetivo. A 3ª. Col pode também funcionar
como adj, até mesmo a partir dos “irregular verbs” “I’m drunk” (estou bêbado), “it’s
broken” (está quebrado).
“UN” / “IM” Indica opostos “opposites” “happy” (feliz):“unhappy” (infeliz),“healthy” (saudável): “unhealthy”
“MIS”/ (doentio), “polite” (educado): “im/unpolite” (sem educação), “pure” (puro): “impure”
“DIS” (impuro), “mortal” (mortal): “immortal” (imortal),” agree”, “disagree’ (descordar)
“understand” (entender): “misunderstand” (entender mal), “treat”
(tratar):“mistreat”(destratar), ”trust” (confiar):“mistrust” (desconfiar)
“RE” Indica repetições “repetitions”. “start” (começar/ iniciar): “restart” (recomeçar/ reiniciar), “make” (fazer/ elaborar/
É também o nosso “re” produzir): “remake” (refazer/ reelaborar/ reproduzir), “turn” (tornar): “return”
(retornar), “read” (ler): “reread” (reler)
“NESS” Forma “nouns”. “good”(bom)(“adjective): “goodness” (bondade)(“noun”), “rich” (rico/a)(“adj”):
Seu oposto é o “lessness” “richness” (riqueza)(“noun”), “cheerfulness” (alegria) (“noun”), seu oposto:
(ver associação com item abaixo) “”cheerlessness” (tristeza, melancolia))(“noun”).
“LESS” Forma “adjectives”. “home” (casa/lar)(“noun”): “homeless” (sem casa/ andarilho/ de rua) (“adjective”),
Idéia de “sem”, de “falta” (lembra do: “more or less” “hope” (esperar)(“verb”): “hopeless” (desespernçoso/a) (“adjective”), “shame”
– mais ou menos ? ) (vergonha): “shameless” (sem vergonha)
“FUL” Forma “adjectives”. “hopeless” (desesperançoso): “hopeful” (esperançoso/a)(“adjective”), “use”
Idéia de “com”, de “muito”. É o oposto do “less” (usar)(“verb”) “useful” (útil – cheio de uso)(“adj”) “useless” (inútil – sem uso)(“adj”)
“useness /uselessness” ( o uso/ o desuso)
“LY” Forma “adverbs”. “fast” (rápido)(“adjective”): “fastly” (rapidamente)(“adverb”), “sad”
Corresponde com o nosso “mente” (triste)(“adj”):“sadly”(tristemente)(“adverb”),“careful” (cuidadoso/a)
“carefully”(cudadosamente)(“adverb”), “real/really”, “bad/ badly”,...
“ABLE” Forma “adverbs”. “predict”(prever) algo capaz de ser previsto é: previsível “predictable” (“adverb”).
Corresponde com nosso “ível” ou “ável” “accept” (aceitar): “acceptable” (aceitável)(“adverb”) “forget” (esquecer): “forgetable”
(vem da idéia do “to able to” – capaz de). (esquecível) (“adverb”) “unforgetable” (inesquecível) (“adverb”). “drinkable” (bebível –
Obs: Temos mais “liberdade” de uso que o verbo beber), “eatable” (comestível – verbo comer: “to eat”)
português.
“OVER” Indica “excesso”, exagero, grande. “overpopulation” (superpopulação), “overseas” (transoceânico) “overweight”
(pode estar tambem separada da palavra) (sobrepeso – weight = peso), “overdose” ( super dose) , “overwork” (trabalho
excessivo), “over again” (tudo de novo..), etc
“UNDER” Indica “sub”, em condição de inferioridade ou: “underpopulated” (subpovoado), “under control” (sob controle), ”underdo” (mal feito),
“sob” (pode estar também separada da palavra) “under pressure” (sob pressão), “underage” (menor de idade), “underproduction”
(subprodução)
“TY” Terminação que equivale ao nosso “dade”. “city” (cidade), “faculty” (faculdade), “facility”, “fraternity”, “utility”, “community”,
“university”, “nationality”, “equality”, etc

p. 9
Lesson 1

. 11 . 4 – Diferenças da fonética (“phonetic differences”):

Além do desafio de colocar no papel técnicas primárias de pronúncia sem o auxílio de um suporte de
áudio, temos também de superar a barreira das duas principais diferenças de pronúncia, o inglês americano e
o inglês britânico, representando os dois “extremos” na distância destes mundos das diferenças de sotaque
(ressaltando que sotaque é um modo diferenciado de usar a pronúncia, e que, além da nacionalidade temos
que considerar a regionalidade, fato este sendo esquecido devido a simplicidade desta abordagem). As
principais “vilãs” são as pronúncias das letras “ a ”, “ r ” e letra “ t ”.
. Letra “a”: O americano pronuncia: “e”, e o britânico: “a” (algumas). Ex: Can, ask, last, apple, past,
actually, etc. Tradução: verbo modal “poder”, perguntar/pedir, ultimo(a), maçã, passado, na verdade.
. Letra “r”: O britânico quase não pronuncia esta letra no final das palavras, já o americano “adora”
pronunciá-la. Ex: Four, teacher, actor, runner, winner, inventer, etc. Tradução: quatro, professor(a), ator,
corredor(a), ganhador(a), inventor(a).
. Letra “t”: O americano soletra com o som de “r” (algumas). Já o britânico normalmente. Ex: Peter,
water, better, matter, theater, thirty, pretty, etc. Tradução: Peter, água, melhor, assunto/importância,
teatro, trinta, muito/lindo(a).

Vamos de uma forma simplificada tentar representar outras diferenças fonéticas:


Letra Como pronunciar ( imitar o som abaixo ) Exemplo
“R” (100%)* Um “ caipira ” falando: Esse ar tá quente sô! Ferrari, terrorism, remote, rare, radio, rate,...
“TH” Como se estivesse “ soprando ” With, method, brother, mother, father, both, ...
“H” Como se fosse o “ r ” do português Hamburger, home, house, hat, alcohol, hall,…
“AL” Como uma grande surpresa: Ohhhhhhhh!!!!!! All, wall, always, call, talk, walk, political, …
“AW” Pequena surpresa: Oh! Cuidado o buraco! Law, draw, saw, raw, yawn, awesome, awful, …
“ER” Som para “dentro”, lembra do “ paper ” Verb, person, emergency, teacher, per, interpreter,.
“TION”/“SSION” Tente imitar o som : “ SHAN ” Action, emotion, revolution, instruction, lotion,..
“OU” Som de “ a ” ou de “ au ” House, mouth, couple, double, thousand, doubt,..
“LE” Som de “ ou ”, lembra do “ table ” Vegetable, predictable, angle, example, male,...
“U” Som de “you” ou de “ ã ” University, utensil, abuse, music, up, public, drug,
“EE” Som de “ i ” Green, agree, feel, keep, knee, cheek, feet, see,..
“OO”, “W” Som de “ u ” Book, look, cool, spoon, boot, foot, fool, water, wait, we…
“PH” Som de “ f ” Pharmacy, telephone, philosopher, graphic, ..
“Y” / “I” Som de “ ai ” ou de “ i ” Boy, my, toy, by, in, I, diet, intelligent, mind, ...
“ED” No final da palavra, pronuncia-se somente o “d” Happened, called, answered, opened, listened, ..
“SH” Som de “ x ” Shampoo, fish, ship, shopping, show, sheep, she,..
“CH” Tente imitar o som: “ tch...” Children, cheese, chocolate, chip, chicken, cheap,.
“CIAL” Som silimar a “shiol” Inicial, social, prejudicial, special,…
* Única “regra” sem exceção.

A tradução da primeira a última coluna, esquerda para direita, considerando as principais significações
são: Ferrari, terrorismo, remoto, raro, radio, gama/amplitude, com, método, irmão, mãe, pai, ambos(as),
hambúrguer, casa/lar, casa/moradia, chapéu/boné, álcool, hall, todo(a), muro/parede, sempre,
ligar/chamar/ligação, falar, caminhar, político, lei, desenhar, passado de “ver”, cru, bocejar, incrível, horrível,
verbo, pessoa/indivívuo, emergência, professor(a), por, interprete, ação, emoção, revolução, instrução, loção,
casa, boca, casal, duplo, mil, dúvida, legumes/verdura, previsível, ângulo, preferível, masculino/macho,
universidade, utensílio, abuso, musica, para cima, público(a), droga/ remédio, verde, concordar, sentir,
manter/guardar, joelho, bochecha, pés, ver, livro, meu(s)/minha(s), achar/encontrar, inteligente, mente, verbos
no passado e no past particípio : acontecer, ligar/chamar, atender/responder, abrir, escutar/ouvir, xampu, peixe,
navio, compras, mostra, ovelha, ela, crianças, queijo, chocolate, chip, galinha/frango, barato.

Encerrada lição 1 “atípica”. A partir da lição 2 iniciamos a “rotina” seqüencial: vocabulário, gramática,
exercícios e texto. Após lição 22 temos o “workbook” e as “writings / compositions”, sempre com a respectiva
indicação na margem superior de cada página. Importante que você aluno dedique seu tempo em casa
estudando e fazendo sua parte (também os exercícios e as redações), para que este método possa
verdadeiramente mostrar-se eficaz em sua plenitude. Vamos lá!

p. 10
Lesson 1

Cognates and false cognates:

Some “false cognates” and the corresponding correction according our tendency to the
misunderstanding.
(alguns falsos cognatos e a correspondente correção de acordo com nossa tendência ao
cometimento do engano)

1.“push” (empurrar), “pull” (puxar). 2. “college” (faculdade = “faculty”), “school” (colégio). 3. “to
introduce” (apresentar) , “to insert” (introduzir). 4. “to complain”(reclamar), “to comtemplate” (contemplar). 5.
“to pretend” (fingir / enganar / mentir), “to intend” (pretender). 6. “parents” (pais = pai + mãe), ”relatives”
(parentes). 7. “ordinary” (comum), “extraordinary” (extraordinário). 8. “to compliment” (elogiar), “to greet”
(cumprimentar). 9. “actually” (de fato / na verdade), “recently” (recentemente), “lately” (atualmente),
“nowadays” (nos dias de hoje). 10. “fortunately” (felizmente), “unfortunately” (infelizmente). 11. “release”
(libertação / soltura / relaxamento / alívio = “relieve” / lançamento), “realise” (perceber / constatar / conceber
/ realizar / efetuar / concretizar / resultar). 12. “prejudice” (discriminação / preconceito / predisposição /
Inclinação / prejudicar), “prejudicial” (prejudicial), “prejudge” (prejulgar), “to damage” (prejudicar /
estragar) 13. “to approach” (aproximar / acesso / chegar / abordar / vir / introduzir / conduzir a / seduzir /
tentar aproximar)

Nosso vocabulário inicial (“Our first / inicial vocabulary”):

Let’s learn how to... Vocabulary Traslation


(vamos aprender como...) (vocabulário) (tradução)
Hi / hello ! Oi / olá !
“Greet someone” Good morning ! Bom dia!
(cumprimenta alguem) Good afternoon ! Boa tarde!
Good evening ! Boa noite ! (de “tardezinha”)
How are you ? Como você está ?
“Begin a conversation” How are things ? Como é que vão as coisas ?
(inicia-se uma conversa) What’s up ? (unformal) E ai !?! (bem informal)
How’s you going ? (unformal) Como é que você vai ? (informal)
Fine ! Fine thanks ! Bem ! Bem obrigado !
“ End the conversation” Bye / Good bye ! Tchau !
(encerrar / finalizar a conversa) Good night ! Boa noite !
See you ! See you soon ! Até logo !
dialogue: _Hi, my name is Lucio. Oi, meu nome é Lúcio.
“Introduce yourself” _Hi, my name is Cristina. Oi, meu nome é Cristina.
(apresentar se) _ Nice to meet you Cristina ! Prazer em conhecê-la Cristina !
_ Glad to meet you too Lucio ! Prazer em conhecê-lo também Lucio !
“Introduce your friend” _ Cristina, this is Fernando ! Cristina, este é o Fernando !
(apresentar um amigo) _ How do you do Fernando ! (formal) Prazer em conhecê-lo Fernando !
_ How do you do Cristina! (formal) Prazer em conhecê-la Cristina !
“Compliment your friend” _ I’m fine Fernando, I’m O.K. Eu estou bem Fernando, estou bem.
(elogiar seu amigo) _Cristina, you’re so beautiful ! Cristina, você é tão bonita !
“ Thank your friend” (agradecer) _ Thank you. You’re very kind ! Obrigada. Você é muito gentil.
“Ask for a date” _ Cristina, do you want to date Cristina, você quer namorar comigo ?
(pedir para namorar) with me ?
“apologize” (desculpar-se) _ Excuse me WHAT ! I’m sorry NOOOO! Com licença O QUE ! Desculpa não !
I want to marry you! Eu quero é casar com você !

p. 11
Lesson 2

Alguns verbos (“verbs”) e alguns substantivos (“nouns”):


Verbs ( to ) Translation Verbs ( to ) Trasnlation Nouns Translation Nouns Translation
read ler help ajudar teacher professor(a) eraser borracha
say dizer, falar discuss discutir student estudante workbook livro de exrcício
stand up levantar draw desenhar class aula notebook caderno
repeat repetir dictate ditar room sala textbook livro texto
spell soletrar talk conversar classroom sala de aula school escola
copy copiar listen escutar chair cadeira homework tarefa
share compartilhar open abrir desk escrivaninha sharpener apontador
ask perguntar, pedir close fechar Pen caneta ruler régua
answer responder,atender write escrever pencil lápis clock relógio
sit down sentar walk caminhar mural mural bookcase estante
study estudar practice praticar glass / cup copo board quadro
make sure confirmar be sure ter certeza de score nota / pontos bulletim boletim
rest descansar teach ensinar avarage média dictionary dicionário
arrange arranjar/organizar understand compreender doubt dúvida question pergunta
forget esquecer memorize memorizar favor favor exam prova

Grammar: The Alphabet

A pronúncia correta do alfabeto inglês segue o “nosso som” representado entre barras a direita da
respectiva letra (o mais aproximado possível):
A / EI /
B / BI / Bee* ( abelha )
C / CI /
D / DI / ( “imitar” o sotaque do nordeste brasileiro: _ Gosto di painho i di mãinha, i di tu! )
E/I/
F / EF / ( lembra do F.B.I. dos Estados Unidos )
G / GDI /
H / EIDI / Age* ( idade )
I / AI / I / Eye* ( eu / olho ) (lembra da frase: “ I lo
love you ”)
J / DIEI / ( lembra do D.J. da discoteca ! )
K / KEI / ( lembra do O.K. – fala-se: “ou kei” )
L / EL /
M / EM /
N / EN /
O / OU /
P / PI / Pee* (xixi)
Q / QUIU /
R / AR / Are* ( “verb to be” cojugado )
S / ES /
T / TI / Tea* ( chá ) ( imitar novamente o “nordeste”: _ “Ti amo, vici! Ti adimiro! ” )
U / IU / You* ( você / vocês )
V / VI /
W / DÃBLIU / ( lembra dos “sites” da Internet: “WWW.naovouesquecerodabliu.com.br” )
X / EX / ( lembra do filme “X-man” )
Y / UAI / Why* ( porque ? ) ( lembra do “mineiro” falando: “uai sô!? Uai é uai uai ! ” )
Z / ZI / ZED /
* Palavras que têm a mesma pronúncia da respectiva letra

Como soletrar uma palavra? “How to spell a word ?”: Como no português, soletramos uma letra de
cada vez, porém, quando tivermos duas quaisquer letras iguais seguidas, usamos o “double” (ao “pé-da-letra”
significa duplo). Ex: DOOR: D, double O, R., feet, affirmative, dress, etc. Para evitar erro podemos usar o “as”.

p. 12
Lesson 2

Ex: My name is Bob, B as Black, O as Omelet and B as Ball. Neste caso, o “as” equivale ao nosso “de”. Ex: Meu
nome é Bel, B de bola, E de elefante e L de Lua. Em algumas ligações telefônicas (bancos, seguros de saúde,
etc), faz-se necessário o uso do “as”.

1. Exercise: Spell the words

a) Teacher g) Boss l) Lord


b) Student h) Mass m) Madam
c) Boot i) Computer n) Maiden
d) Chair j) Attention o) Lady / ladies
e) Gentleman / gentlemen k) Your full name :
f) Mr (1) / Mrs (2) / Miss (3) / Sr (4) first name:
1. p/ homens 3. p/ senhoritas solteiras surname:
2. p/ senhoras casadas 4. senhor (es) last name / family name:
nick name:

Grammar: Números (“numbers”)

. Os números em inglês, como no português, podem ser divididos em cardinais (“cardinals”) ou


ordinais (“ordinals”). Os cardinais são: ... -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,... e os ordinais são: primeiro, segundo,
terceiro, quarto, quinto, sexto, etc.
. Em inglês, usa-se o zero (“zero” – pronuncia-se: “zirou”) para referir-se aos decimais, ou quando
estamos soletrando um número qualquer (telefone, endereço, conta de banco, etc) , para datas, usa-se mais o
“oh” pronuncia-se “ou” que também pode ser usado para soletração de telefone, endereço, etc. Veremos
como lidamos com as datas logo mais abaixo.
. Teremos nas páginas 14 e 15 duas tabelas dos cardinais e dos ordinais, respectivamente, uma em
cada página. O que faremos aqui é “poupar” vocês leitores de memorizar toda a informação contida nestas
tabelas, porém os cardinais de 1 a 12 e os ordinais do 1° ao 3° terá que ser “decorado”. A partir disto, basta
que vocês sigam o raciocínio que apresentaremos agora:
. Vamos considerar que do doze em diante vamos aprender a lidar com os números a partir de suas
derivações, e para isto, temos que saber quais são suas novas “raízes” (“roots”) acrecidas de suas terminações.
Felizmente, a maioria dos números de 1 a 10, têm a mesma raiz (números 6, 7, 8 ) o número 4 tem uma
ressalva no 40 e no quadragésimo, e o n. 9 uma ressalva no nono (ver página 15). As principais mudanças são
as novas raizes dos números 3 e do 5:

3 three Nova raiz “New root”: thir


5 five Nova raiz “New root”: fif

Juntamente com estas “novas raízes”, temos que acrescentar as terminações de acordo com a
necessidade, e quais são as terminações:

Exemplo / example
terminação
teen Números 13 ao 19 Three ( 3 ) ; Thrirteen ( 13 )
ty Números: 20,30,40,50,60,70,80,90 Five (5); Fifty (50); Thirty (30)
th Números ordinais Six (6); Sixth (sexto)
Vigésimo, trigésimo, quadragésimo, Seven ( 7 ); Seventy ( 70 );
ty + th = tieth
qüinquagésimo,etc Seventieth (septuagésimo)

p. 13
Lesson 2

. Temos que memorizar também o número 20 – “twenty”. Se precisarmos por exemplo de formar o
vinte e dois, usaremos o hífem: “Twenty-two”, trinta e três: “Thirty-three”, qüinquagésimo quinto: “Fifty-fifth”,
noventa e nove: “ninety-nine”, vigésimo sexto: “twenty-sixth” e assim por diante.
. Finalmente, memorizamos: “Hundred”, “Thousand”, “million”, “billion”, “trilliom”. Portanto temos:
100: “a/one hundred”, 600: “six hundred”, 777: “seven hundred and seventy-seven”, 7,007,700,017,070 (a virgula
no inglês é o “nosso” ponto): “seven trillion, seven billion, seven hundred million and seventeen thousand and
seventy”.
. Os decimais no inglês são descritos como se fossem “soletrados”, e usados separados por pontos e
não por vírgula. Ex: 0.35 trinta e cinco décimos: “zero point three five”. 5.85: “five point eight five”
. Como podemos perceber há uma cofusão em relação ao ponto e em relação à virgula entre o inglês
e o português, portanto preste atenção:

1,000 a / one thousand


0.001 zero point zero zero one
10,000 ten thousand
0.10 zero point ten / zero point one

. Os ordinais são usados também para as datas do dia e para as algumas expressões matemáticas
(página 17). Outro detalhe é que dizemos: Décimo primeiro, décimo segundo e decimo terceiro. Nesta
relação só teremos a mesma “coinscidência” no inglês e no português a partir do vigésimo primeiro (“twenty-
first”). O trigésimo terceiro por exemplo é o: “Thirty-third”, qüinquagésimo segundo: “fifty-second”. O décimo
segundo é o “twelfth” e não o “ten-second”.

Agora já estamos preparados para iniciar o estudo dos “cardinals” e dos “ordinals” com mais
tranqüilidade. Para título de fixação alguns itens acima serão mencionados novamente, e em seguida iremos
trabalhar alguns exemplos em forma de exercícios resolvidos.

Grammar: Números Cardinais (“Cardinal numbers”)

1 one 23 twenty-three
2 two 25 twenty-five
3 three 30 thirty
4 four 40 forty
5 five 50 fifty
6 six 60 sixty
7 seven 70 seventy
8 eight 80 eighty
9 nine 90 ninety
10 ten 100 a/one hundred
11 eleven 101 a/one hundred and one
12 twelve 130 a/one hundred and thirty
13 thirteen 200 two hundred
14 fourteen 300 three hundred
15 fifteen 333 three hundred and thirty three
16 sixteen 800 eight hundred
17 seventeen 1000 a/one thousand
18 eighteen 10,000 ten thousand
19 nineteen 100,000 a/ one hundred thousand
20 twenty 1,000,000 a/one million
21 twenty-one 1,000,000,000 a/one billion
22 twenty-two 1,000,000,000,000 a/one trillion

p. 14
Lesson 2

Note: . 13 ao 19; terminação: teen – sublinhado - (jovem – “representa a idade do jovem”)


. 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 e 90 terminação “ty” – sublinhado

No inglês, o número 200 ao 900 equivale ao: “dois cem”, “três cem”, “quatro cem”, etc...
Ex: “two hundred”(200), “three hundred”(300), “four hundred”(400), ... , “nine hundred”(900).
Descrevemos os números e colocamos o “and” (e) exatamente da mesma maneira como fazemos no
português (considerando a ressalva acima, e não esquecendo do: mil, milhão, bilhão,..).
Ex: 3,356,751: “three million, three hundred and fifty-six thousand, seven hundred and fifty-one”.
Temos uma forma diferenciada para lidar com datas (anos - years) em inglês. Devemos contar dois
algarismos da direita para a esquerda, fazer uma divisão (simbólica), e descrever estas “partes” da mesma
forma da tabela acima mostrada. Quando tivermos nas ultimas duas casas decimais, dois “zeros” seguidos,
colocamos: “hundred” (equivale à casa da centena, daí o nome!)
Ex: 1999 19/99 - nineteen, ninety-nine;
1822 18/22 - eighteen, twenty-two;
1555 15/55 - fifteen, fifty- five;
1222 12/22 - twelve, twenty-two;
1500 15/00 - fifteen hundred;
1000 10/00 - ten hundred;
800 8/00 - eight hundred;
555 5/55 - five, fifty-five;
50 /50 - fifty.

A partir do ano de 2000, podemos descrever os anos também como fazemos no português:
Ex: 2000 20/00 - twenty hundred or two thousand
2001 20/01 - twenty, oh/zero one or two thousand and one / two thousand one
2002 20/02 - twenty, oh/zero two or two thousand and two / two thousand two
2003 20/03 - twenty, oh/zero three or two thousand and three / two thousand three
2004 20/04 - twenty, oh/zero four or two thousand and four/ two thousand four …

Grammar: Números Ordinais (“Ordinal numbers”)

1 st first 20 th twentieth
2 nd second 21 st twenty-first
3 rd third 22 nd twenty-second
4 th fourth 25 th twenty-fifth
5 th fifth 30 th thirtieth
6 th sixth 40 th fortieth
7 th seventh 50 th fiftieth
8 th eighth 60 th sixtieth
9 th ninth 70 th seventieth
10 th tenth 80 th eightieth
11 th eleventh 90 th ninetieth
12 th twelfth 100 th hundredth
13 th thirteenth 101 st hundred and first
14 th fourteenth 130 th hundred and thirtieth
15 th fifteenth 200 th two hundredth
16 th sixteenth 1,000 th thousandth
17 th seventeenth 10,000 th ten thousandth
18 th eighteenth 100,000 th hundred thousandth
19 th nineteenth 1,000,000 th millionth

p. 15
Lesson 2

A representação, abreviação ou forma contraida dos “ordinals” é feita a partir das duas ultimas letras
do respectivo ordinal escrito por extenso (na tabela acima sublinhados), lembrando que a pronúncia do “th” é
o “sopro”. No inglês, usamos os “ordinals” para descrever os dias do mês e também para as frações. Ex: 1/9 –
um nono = a/one ninth, 7th march, 7 march or march 7th : 7 de março. Outro detalhe é que a semelhança
com os “ordinals” no inglês se dá apenas após o vigésimo primeiro (twenty first), o décimo primeiro é o
“eleventh” e décimo segundo “twelfth”.

* Pay attention!!!
A raiz dos números de 1 a 10 geralmente pode ajudar a formarmos as demais derivações (os números
6, 7, 8 têm a mesma raiz). Porém preste atenção nos exemplos 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6 abaixo, detalhes estes que
podem confundir. Reparem que a “nova raiz” do 3 é o “ thir ” e do 5 é o “ fif ”. Último detalhe: Nos
“ordinals” o “y” dos “cardinals” vira “ie” Ex: 40 th : forty -fortieth.

Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6

6 - six 5 - five 4 - four 3 – three 9 - nine 2 - two


16 - sixteen 15 - fifteen 14 - fourteen 13 - thrirteen 19 - nineteen 12 - twelve
60 - sixty 50 - fifty 40 – forty * 30 - thirty 90 - ninety 20 - twenty
6 th - sixth 5 th - fifth 4 th - fourth 3 rd - third 9 th – ninth * 2 nd - second
16 th - sixteenth 15 th - fifteenth 14 th - fourteenth 13 th - thirteenth 19 th - nineteenth 12 th – twelfth *
60 th - sixtieth 50 th - fiftieth 40 th – fortieth * 30 th - thirtieth 90 th - ninetieth 20 th - twentieth
* TAKE CARE !!! CUIDADO !!!

Mathmatics / maths and money: (“see the table and the corresponding traslation” – veja a tabela + traduções)

Traslation
Fractions Frações Maths expressions Money (¢, $)

½ - a half meio / um meio + plus a cent / penny um centavo


¼ - a quarter um quarto - minus 5 cents / nickel 5 centavos
1 um terço x times / multiplied by 10 cents / dime 10 centavos
/3 - a/one third
*
1 um oitavo ÷ divided by 25 cents / a 25 centavos
/8 - an/one eighth
quarter
3 três quintos = equals / is a dollar (bill) 1 dolar
/5 - three fifths
1 um décimo % per cent $ 10 dollars 10 dolares
/10 - a/one tenth
2
1 ½ - one and a half um e meio 3 three squared a 10 dollar bill uma nota de 10
dolares
3 2/8 - three and two três inteiros e dois 63 six cubed ten “ bucks” ** 10 “pau”
eighths oitavos
2 6/10 - two and six tenths dois inteiros e seis 410 four to the tenth ¢ 0.10 – ten cents 10 centavos
décimos power
* verb to multiply ** VERY USED !

p. 16
Lesson 2

1 - Escreva os números por extenso:


a) 133 .......................................................................................................................................................................................
b) 444 .......................................................................................................................................................................................
c) 999 .......................................................................................................................................................................................
d) 1230.....................................................................................................................................................................................
e) 1001.....................................................................................................................................................................................
f) 153,343................................................................................................................................................................................
g) 8,523,567.............................................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................
h) 6,787,656,333 .....................................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................
e) 333,506,409,589,001..........................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................

2 - Escreva os números como se fossem anos:


a) 1222.....................................................................................................................................................................................
b) 400 .......................................................................................................................................................................................
c) 1200.....................................................................................................................................................................................
d) 800 .......................................................................................................................................................................................
e) 1989.....................................................................................................................................................................................
f) 2003.....................................................................................................................................................................................
g) 1500.....................................................................................................................................................................................
h) 1800.....................................................................................................................................................................................
i) 2004.....................................................................................................................................................................................

3 - Complete a tabela abaixo, considerando que cada linha segue o mesmo raciocínio:
7 8
17 18
70 80
700 800
7 th 8 th
17 th 18 th
70 th 80 th
700 th 800 th

4 - Escreva as datas usando os “ordinals”: (consultar página 38 para verificar os meses do ano)
a) 12 de novembro..................................................................................................................................................
b) 9 de março de 2005...........................................................................................................................................
c) 13 de fevereiro ...................................................................................................................................................
d) 11 de outubro ....................................................................................................................................................
e) 21 de maio..........................................................................................................................................................

5 - Escreva por extenso: (para decimais usa-se o “point” ou o “dot”, lembrando que a vírgula é o “nosso”
ponto)
a) ½ x ¼ = 1/8 .......................................................................................................................................................
b) 1.75 – 0.25 = 1.5 ................................................................................................................................................
c) 1,000 ÷ 0.1 = 10,000..........................................................................................................................................
d) $ 50 + ¢ 25 = $ 50.25 ........................................................................................................................................
e) 23 – 32 – 15 = -2 ..................................................................................................................................................
f) I.D.O. is 110 % ................................................................................................................................................

p. 17
Lesson 3

Vocabulary: Professions / Occupations

1. accountant 7. auto mechanic 13. carpenter


2. actor / actress 8. baker 14. cashier
3. administrative assistant 9. bricklayer 15. commercial fisher
4. architect 10. businessman / businesswoman 16. computer programmer
5. artist 11. butcher
6. assembler 12. caregiver/baby-sitter

p. 18
Lesson 3

Vocabulary: Professions / Occupations


fdgfdgf

17. cook / cooker 23. engineer 29. graphic artist


18. delivery person 24. firefighter / fireman 30. hairdresser
19. dental assistant 25. florist 31. home attendant
20. dentist 26. gardener 32. homemaker / housewife
21. dockworker 27. garment worker
22. doctor 28. gas station attendant

p. 19
Lesson 3

Vocabulary: Professions / Occupations

33. housekeeper / maid 39. model 45. postal worker / postman


34. interpreter / translator 40. mover 46. printer
35. janitor / custodian 41. musician 47. recepcionist
36. lawyer 42. nurse 48. repair person
37. machine operator 43. painter
38. messenger/courier 44. police officer

p. 20
Lesson 3

Vocabulary: Professions / Occupations

49. reporter 55. stock clerk 61. truck driver


50. salesclerk / salesperson 56. store owner 62. veterinarian / vet
51. sanitation worker 57. student 63. welder
52. secretary 58. teacher / instructor 64. writer / author
53. waiter / waitress 59. telemarketer
54. serviceman/servicewoman 60. travel agent

p. 21
Lesson 3

Grammar: Personal Pronouns:

I ...................................................................................................................... (eu)
YOU .............................................................................................................. (você)
HE.................................................................................................................. (ele)
SHE ............................................................................................................... (ela)
IT.................................................................................................................... (“coisa” ou animal no SINGULAR)
WE ................................................................................................................ (nós)
YOU .............................................................................................................. (vocês)
THEY............................................................................................................. (eles, elas, “coisas” ou animais no PLURAL)

Os pronomes pessoais da lista acima representam os pronomes pessoais do caso reto do português
(eu, tu, ele, nós, vós, eles), e em inglês eles só podem ser usados como SUJEITO da oração, quando na frase,
os pronomes fizerem papel de objeto, temos que usar os pronomes do caso oblíquo (me, mim, comigo, te, ti,
contigo, etc), e no inglês equivalem aos pronomes objeto, que estudaremos mais adiante: Me, you, him, her,
it, us, you, them = para o objeto/predicado da oração. Ex: Eu moro com ela: Temos; “eu”, sujeito (I), e
“ela” objeto, portanto “ela” não é “she” e sim “her” (“ela” = “objeto” e não “ela” = sujeito); Portanto temos: “ I
live with her” (e não: “I live with she ”).

Verb “TO BE” (Ser / Estar) - Conjugação no presente simples + “Personal Pronouns”
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I am / I’m I am not / I’m not * Am I ?**

You are / You’re You are not / You’re not / you Are you ?
aren’t *

He is / He’s He is not / He’s not / Is He ?


He isn’t *

She is / She’s She is not / She’s not Is She ?


She isn’t *

It is / It’s It is not / It’s not Is It ?


It isn’t *

We are / We’re We are not / We’re not Are We ?**


We aren’t *

You are / You’re You are not / You’re not Are you ?
You aren’t *

They are / They’re They are not / They’re not Are They ?
They aren’t *

* Mais usado
** Atenção: dificilmente perguntamos para nós mesmos
Ex: “I am”: Eu sou ou eu estou. / “ We are”: Nós somos ou nós estamos. / “he’s”: ele é ou ele está.
“you aren’t”: você não é, você não está, vocês não são ou vocês não estão. (“you” pode ser tanto singular
quanto plural, depende do contexto).

p. 22
Lesson 3

Reparem que quando dizemos por exemplo: “She isn’t” já estamos referindo ao verbo “to be”
CONJUGADO – ela não é, ou ela não está; “Are They...?” – Eles / elas São... ? ou Eles / elas estão...? “I’m not...”
– eu não sou ou eu não estou, ... e assim por diante.
Quando na frase necessitamos da informação: SER ou ESTAR propriamente dita (que está no
infinitivo), usa-se o próprio verbo “to be” no infinitivo, e para isso, sempre que precisarmos de colocá-lo no
infinitivo, ou qualquer outro verbo, basta colocarmos o “TO” antes do verbo. (ex: Verbo “querer” = “to want”)

Ex: Eu sou o Pedro – Verbo conjugado – I’m Pedro


Eu quero SER o Pedro – Verbo TO BE no infinitivo – I want TO BE Pedro.
Eu estou com ela: I´m with her. / Eu quero ESTAR com ela: I want TO BE with her.
(conjugado) (infinitivo)

Lembrem-se que de no inglês, o sujeito tem que ser representado explicitamente na oração por
algum dos “personal pronouns” em frases afirmativas. Se no português o sujeito for oculto ou indeterminado
e estiver no singular, usa-se o “it”, se estiver no plural, usa-se o “they”. (ex. n.1). Se o sujeito não aparecer na
frase, mas estiver implícito pela conjugação do verbo, usa-se o respectivo “personal pronoun” de acordo com
esta conjugação, perguntando: “quem?” (ex. n.2)

Ex: . 1- Está frio. “It’s cold”. / É legal. “It’s Nice”. /


Encontraram a garota ontem. “They found the girl yesterday”.
. 2- Sou um psicólogo. “I’m a psychologist”. / Gosto de chocolate. “I like chocolate”.
Não estamos cansados. “We’re not tired”. / Estamos entendendo. “We’re understanding”.

3.1 - Passe as frases abaixo para o inglês, substituindo as informações grifadas por um dos “personal
pronouns”:

a) Você é legal................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Vocês são legais. ......................................................................................................................................................................................
c) Elas não são professoras. .....................................................................................................................................................................
d) Elas querem ser professoras. ..............................................................................................................................................................
e) O gato é preto. .........................................................................................................................................................................................
f) Os gatos são pretos. ...............................................................................................................................................................................
g) A situação é difícil. .................................................................................................................................................................................
h) As situações são difíceis. .......................................................................................................................................................................
i) Marcos e eu estamos atrasados. ........................................................................................................................................................
j) Somos felizes. ...........................................................................................................................................................................................
k) Queremos ser felizes.............................................................................................................................................................................
l) Quero ser feliz...........................................................................................................................................................................................
m) Não estou com pressa...........................................................................................................................................................................
n) Não estamos com pressa. ....................................................................................................................................................................
o) Eles estão com pressa............................................................................................................................................................................

p. 23
Lesson 3

3.2 - Put the sentences into negative and interrogative:

a) They are musicians..................................................................................................................................................................................


b) Sue is a dentist .........................................................................................................................................................................................
c) John is a manager ...................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Paul is a pilot .............................................................................................................................................................................................
e) Susan and Mary are maid ....................................................................................................................................................................
f) Elizabeth is a flight attendant.............................................................................................................................................................
g) Carol and Paul are farmer ....................................................................................................................................................................
h) Brazilians are nice people.....................................................................................................................................................................
i) They are Brazilian.....................................................................................................................................................................................
j) Jessica is a housekeeper .......................................................................................................................................................................
k) Doctor Gregory is married with Tina ...............................................................................................................................................
l) Mr. and Mrs. Brown are physicist......................................................................................................................................................
m) Margan and I are student ....................................................................................................................................................................
n) Cats, dogs and birds are pet ...............................................................................................................................................................
o) Cats, dogs and birds are nice pets ...................................................................................................................................................

3.3 - What are their jobs? Choose from the list and finish the sentences.

dentist electrician nurse photographer private detective shop assistant taxi driver

1 She’s a dentist. . 5 .
2 He’s .. 6 .
3 She .. 7 .
4 . 8 And you? I’m…………………………..

3.4 - Write short answers (Yes, I am. / No, he isn’t. etc.).

1 Are you married? No, I’m not. . 4 Are your hands cold? .
2 Are you thirsty? . 5 Is it dark now? .
3 Is it cold today? . 6 Are you a teacher?................................

p. 24
Lesson 3

Text: First day university class

Dialogue 1 - Susan and Barbara are Introducing each other

_ Hi, Excuse me, may I introduce myself, my name is Barbara, and you, what’s your name?
_ Hi, my name is Susan, but call me “su”, Nice to meet you Barbara!
_ Glad to meet you too. Where are you from?
_ I`m from Rio de Janeiro, and you ?
_ I`m from Belo Horizonte. By the way, why are you here?! You are from RIO! It`s so beautiful there!!! Beaches,
handsome guys…
_ Yes, it is beautiful, but violent. And you, Why “Law course”?
_ Because It`s my dream.
_ Great! We have five years staying together here from now!
_ Yes, you`re right. That`s nice!
_ Oh, 8:00 o`clock, time to start this class. Our first class!!!
_ That`s interesting!

Dialogue 2 – break time

_ Susan, look at this beautiful place!


_ Yes, It`s a very nice university, big, green, and a lot of cool people around!
_ Yes. Oh, I really hope to find a boyfriend here!
_ Oh Barbara! I`m talking about nice people, not just boys for dating!
_ Yeah, you`re right, sorry!
_ Let`s eat something ?
_ Sure, I`m hungry too! let`s.

Dialogue 3 – Saying good bye

_ Barbara, what`s your phone number?


_ Take note: It`s 801 – 2564
_ Great! I give you a call later.
_ Please, do that. And your? what`s your home telephone number and your
cell phone number?
_ It`s 805 – 3308 and 9995 – 3199.
_ Let`s go to a bar tonight?
_ My God!!! Today is Monday ! no way!
_ Ok, so, I meet you tomorrow. Bye Susan…
_ Bye-bye Barbara ! Have a good night, and see you tomorrow!
_ See you !
_ See you !

p. 25
Lesson 4

Vocabulary: Adjectives

1. little hand / 13. heavy box


small hand
14. light box
2. big hand

3. fast driver 15. neat closet

4. slow driver 16. messy closet

5. hard chair 17. good dog

6. soft chair 18. bad dog

7. thick book / 19. expensive ring


fat book
20. cheap ring
8. thin book

9. full glass 21. beautiful view

10. empty 22. ugly view


glass

11. noisy / 23. easy problem


loud
children 24. difficult problem
hard problem
12. quiet
children

p. 26
Lesson 4

Grammar: Demonstrative Pronouns

This – Este, esta, esse, essa; These – Estes, estas, esses, essas;

That – Aquele, aquela; Those – Aqueles, aquelas.

Como podemos observar, usaremos this e these para descrever algo (substantivo) que está perto, e,
that e those referindo a algo (substantivo) que está longe.
This and that – singular
These and those – plural

Ex: . Este caderno é azul (o caderno está perto / singular); This notebook is blue*.
. Aquele dicionário é verde (o dicionário está distante / singular); That dictionary is Green*.
. Estes livros são brancos (os livros estão perto / plural); These books are white*.
. Aquelas canetas são amarelas (as canetas estão longe / plural); Those pens are yellow*.

* Neste caso, as cores são adjetivos, e adjetivos no inglês não vão p/ o plural.

This (is) These (are) Near


(perto)

That (is) Those (are) Far


(longe)

Singular Plural ---

Note: That significa também :


. 1 - “que” (relative pronoun).
Ex: Eu acho que aquela garota é a Susan. I think that* that** girl is Susan
* - relative pronoun ** - demonstrative pronoun
. 2 - Usado em expressões exclamativas ( ! )
Ex: É interessante / Que interessante ! – That’s interesting !
É uma pena / Que pena ! – That’s a pity ! / What a pity !

Grammar: Articles

A* / An** – um, uma ( Indefinite ) - ALWAYS singular;


The – o, a, os, as ( Definite ) – Singular or plural.

* - usado antes de “consonant sound” (Ex: house, hotel, desk, door, university, utensil, brush, etc).
** - usado antes de “vowel sound” (Ex: ambulance, emerald, hour, umbrella, umpire, empire, etc).

Ex: Sou um professor: I am a teacher. / Sou o professor de historia: I’m the history teacher.
Hoje está um dia quente: Today is a hot day.

p. 27
Lesson 4

O professor de geografia é um homem extraordinário: The geography teacher is an extraordinary man.


Não sou uma pessoa qualquer: I´m not an ordinary person.
Important:

1. No Inglês, omite-se o artigo definido “the”, quando um substantivo é usado de forma genérica,
antes de um nome próprio (mas não antes do nome da família), ou antes de pronomes possessivos. Em
outras palavras, estamos proibidos de usarmos “the” antes de possessivos, nomes próprios (ressalva página
144) ou generalizações.
Ex: . Brazilians are good soccer players. (Os brasileiros são bons jogadores de futebol)
. Lucio is the I.D.O teacher ( O Lucio é o professor do I.D.O )
. Lucio is a teacher ( O Lucio é um professor )
. The “Borges” are here ( As pessoas da família Borges estão aqui )
. Lucio’s car is grey ( O carro do Lucio é cinza )

2. No Inglês, usa-se o artigo indefinido “a / an” para referir a um substantivo indefinido no


SINGULAR apenas, mais adiante estudaremos o “some” significando também “uns / umas”.
Ex: I need a pen ( eu preciso de uma caneta )
I need some pens ( eu presiso de umas canetas / eu preciso de algumas canetas )
I need a pens ( eu preciso de uma canetas ) – TERRIBLE!!!! WRONG!!!

A Teacher (singular / indefinite / consonant sound); um professor ou uma professora


The Maths teacher (singular / definite); o/a professor(a) de matemática
----- Teachers (plural / indefinite); general idea
The Maths teachers (plural / definite); os professores de mat. ou as professoras de mat.

A Book (singular / indefinite / consonant sound) ; um livro


The History book (singular / definite); o livro de história
----- Books (plural / indefinite); general idea
----- Laura’s books* ( plural / definite); os livros da Laura*
* Evitar o uso dos artigos antes de nomes próprios

An Umbrella (singular / indefinite / vowel sound); um guarda-chuva.


----- My umbrella* (singular / definite / vowel sound); o meu guarda-chuva*.
----- Umbrellas (plural / indefinite); general idea
The Black umbrellas (plural / definite); os guarda-chuvas pretos.
* Evitar o uso de artigos antes de pronomes possessivos

A University (singular / indefinite / consonant sound *) ; uma universidade


The University of Uberaba city is big (singular / definite); a universidade da cidade de Uberaba é grande
----- Uberaba University (singular / definite ); a Universidade de Uberaba
----- Universities are expensive (general idea); Universidades são caras
The Private universities are expensive ( plural / definite ) As universidades particulares são caras

* Lê-se: YOUniversity

A House (singular / indefinite / consonant sound); uma casa.


----- Tina’s house ( singular / definite / consonant sound); a casa da Tina.
----- Houses (plural / indefinite);.general idea
----- Tina’s houses (plual / definite); as casas da Tina.
An Hour (singular / indefinite / vowel sound*); uma hora
The Odd hours (plural / definite); as horas impares.

* Lê-se: Our (the “H” sound is not pronounced)

p. 28
Lesson 4

4.1 - Write a or an.

1 an old book 4 .airport 7 university


2 window 5 .new airport 8 hour
3 horse 6 organisation 9 economic problem

4.2 - What are these things? Choose from the list.


bird fruit mountain river musical instrument
flower game planet tool vegetable

1 A duck is a bird . 6 Jupiter is .


2 A carrot is . 7 A pear is .
3 Tennis is . 8 The Amazon is .
4 A hammer is . 9 A rose is .
5 Everest is . 10 A trumpet is .

4.3 - Make sentences. Choose from Box A and Box B. Use a/an where necessary.

A I want to ask you Barbara works in B old house Artist


Tom never wears Ann wants to learn party question
I can’t ride Jim lives in bookshop foreign language
My brother is This evening I’m going to Hat bicycle
1 I want to ask you a question. .
2 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.4 - Put in a/an or the.


1 We enjoyed our holiday. The hotel was very nice.
2 ‘Can I ask you a question?’ ‘Of course. What do you want to ask?’
3 You look very tired. You need holiday.
4 ‘Where’s Tom?’ ‘He’s in bathroom.
5 Jane is interesting person. You must meet her.
6 A: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to city centre?
B: Yes, go straight on and then take next turning left.
7 A: Shall we go out for meal this evening?
B: Yes, that’s good idea.
8 It’s nice morning. Let’s go for walk.
9 Amanda is student. When she finishes her studies, she wants to be journalist.
She lives with two friends in flat near college where she is studying.
flat is small but she likes it.
10 Peter and Mary have got two children, boy and girl. boy is seven years old and
girl is three. Peter works in factory. Mary hasn’t got .job at the moment.

p. 29
Lesson 4

4.5 - Complete the sentences. Use this/that/these/those + these words.

TEXT

(by Amadeu Marques)

Y mother has a different opinion about creation.


S s he says that we do not really create anything. And
she tells me, “Use your imagination and create a
monster.”
My answer is, “The monster has the head of a lion,
the body of a camel, the legs of an elephant, the wings
of a chicken, and the tail of a monkey.”
And my mother says, “There is no creation in your
monster. It is only a different arrangement of parts of
several animals. That´s all people can do. Only God
creates. Man simply rearranges.”

p. 30
Lesson 5

Vocabulary: Countries / nationalities

Country / Continent Nationality


Africa African
Asia Asian
America American
Brazil Brazilian
Britain British
Canada Canadian
China Chinese
Colombia Colombian
Cuba Cuban
Czech Republic Czech
Egypt Egyptian
England English
Europe Europian
Finland Finn
France French
Germany German
Greece Greek
India Indian
Indonesia Indonesian
Italy Italian
Jamaica Jamaican
Japan Japanese
Malaysia Maleysian
Mexico Mexican
Portugal Portuguese
Russia Russian
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian
Spain Spanish

Grammar: Plural

O plural no inglês aplica-se aos substantivos e aos verbos (indicando conjugação), porém, neste
momento, vamos apenas focar-nos nos plurais aplicados aos substantivos (“nouns”), lembrando que os
adjetivos não vão para o plural. Estudaremos três casos “excepcionais” do plural, quaisquer substantivos que
não estiverem enquadrados nestes três casos, acrescentarmos o “S” no final da palavra, sem maiores
complicações.
1- Substantivos terminados em: “s”, “ss”, “sh”, “ch”, “o*”, “x” e “z”, acrescenta-se “ES” ao invés de
apenas “S”.
Ex: - tomato- tomatoes (tomates) box – boxes (caixas) echo – ecchoes (eco)
bus – buses (onibus) topaz – topazes (topazes) brush – brushes (escovas)
boss – bosses (chefes/patrões) photo – photos* (fotos) negro – negroes (negros)
witch – witches (bruxas) piano- pianos* (pianos) studio – studios* (studios)
potato – potatoes (batatas) * palavras de origem estrangeira, não
acrescentamos “es”.

2 – Substantivos terminados em “consonant” + “Y” : tira-se o “Y” e colocamos “IES”


Ex: - boy – boys (rapazes): vogal +”y” = “ys” city – cities (cidades): consoante +”y”Lesson
= “ies” 5
toy – toys (brinquedos): vogal + “y” = “ys” country – countries (países): consoante + “y” = “ies”
3 – Substantivos irregulares / “Irregular Nouns” * :
p. 31
(*São aqueles substantivos dos quais o singular e o plural não seguem o “padrão” citado nos itens 1 e 2,
Singular Plural Singular Plural

Man (homem) Men (homens) Goose (ganso) Geese (gansos)

Woman (mulher) Women (mulheres) Foot (pé) Feet (pés)

Child (criança, filho/a) Children (crianças, Tooth (dente) Teeth (dentes)


filhos/as)
Person (pessoa / People (pessoas / povo) Trout (truta) Trout (trutas)
indivíduo)
Wife (esposa) Wives (esposas) Deer (veado) Deer (veados)

Leaf (folha) Leaves (folhas) Aircraft (aeronave) Aircraft (aeronaves)

Life (vida) Lives (vidas) Shrimp (camarão) Shrimp (camarões)

Knife (faca) Knives (facas) Fish (peixe) Fish (peixes)

Self (auto) Selves (plural p/ pronomes Sheep (ovelha) Sheep (ovelhas)


reflexivos)
Thief (ladrão) Thieves (ladrões) Good (bom – adjetivo) Goods (bens, mercadorias)

Shelf (prateleira) Shelves (prateleiras) New (novo – adjetivo) News (notícia, noticias)

Half (metade) Halves (metades) Die (dado de jogar) Dice (dados de jogar)

Wolf (lobo) Wolves (lobos) Ox (boi) Oxen (bois)

Dwarf (anão) Dwarfs / Dwarves (anões) Louse (piolho) Lice (piolhos)

Roof (tellhado) Roofs / Rooves (tellhados) Mouse (camundongo) Mice (camundongos)

Preste atenção: “Pay attention”:


Algumas palavras no inglês adimitem apenas sua forma no plural: Glasses, socks, pants, trousers,
scissors, jeans, shorts, pyjamas (top and bottom), tights, binoculars, bermudas, tennis shoes, sneakers,
shoes, gloves, etc.
E algumas palavras no inglês admitem sua forma apenas no singular: Information, equipment,
advice, money, jewelry, air, snow, music, evidence, homework, furniture, housework, weather, clothing,
knowledge, luggage/ baggage. Temos também, as particularidades abaixo:
Palavras que Quais são estas palavras Tradução, Exemplos
têm sua ? respectivamente “Examples”
forma... “Which are these “Traslation,
words” respectively”
Forma no Means, series, species, Meio(s), série(s), tv news – notícia de tv
plural, news. espécie(s), notícia(s). Means of transport – meio de transporte
significando T.V. series – série de tv/ séries de tv.
singular ou Means of transportations – meios de
plural transportes
Forma no Police, government, Polícia, governo, corpo The firm is o.k / the firm are o.k
singular, staff, team, family, de assistente/ pessoal, The police is here/ the police are here
significando audience, committee, time, família, público, The team is good / the team are good
singular ou company, firm, cattle. comitê, companhia, The staff is fine / the staff are fine
plural firma, gado.
Forma no Athletics, gymnastics, Jogos desportivos/ Gymnastics is a difficult sport.
plural *, maths or força e destreza física, The gymnastics modalities are hard. (As
significando mathematics, physics, ginástica, matemática, modalidades da ginástica são difíceis; O plural
geralmente electronics, economics, física, eletrônica, “are” refer-se as modalidades, e não à
singular politics, acoustics, economia (ciência), ginástica).
genetics poítica, acústica,
genética
* São “ciências” com terminações “ ics ”

p. 32
Lesson 5

As expressões que indicam soma de dinheiro, distância e período de tempo, são consideradas no
singular, como se fossem o “it”. Ex: “Thirty thousand dollars is good money”. “Ten years is a decade”. “A
thousand meters is a kilometer”

Grammar: Prepositions From / To

From: Idéia de origem, procedência.


To: Idéia de destino, final (podendo significar: “a”, “para”, “até”)
Ex: I work from 8:00 a.m to 6:00 p.m (trabalho das 8 da manhâ às 6 da tarde)
The plane goes from S.P to N.Y (o avião vai de S.P a N.Y)
I live far away from here. (Moro longe daqui)
Where are you from? (De onde você é? / Qual a sua origem?)
From this moment... ( a partir deste momento)

Nationality:

Na pergunta: Where are you from ? (de onde você é?) I’m from Brazil, I’m brazilian!
Temos na resposta: Sou do Brasil (país de origem), sou brasileiro (nacionalidade).
Ex: she´s from Japan. She’s Japanese
They’re from Mexico. They’re Mexican.

5.1 - Follow the model:

Ana/ Brazil – Where is she from? She’s from Brazil. She’s Brazilian.
a) Peter / Portugal........................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Susan and Maggy / Japan ..................................................................................................................................................................
c) I / Cuba ........................................................................................................................................................................................................
d) We / Jamaica .............................................................................................................................................................................................
e) Brian / Germany .......................................................................................................................................................................................
f) Sue / England............................................................................................................................................................................................
g) Karl and Paul / Greece...........................................................................................................................................................................

Ana / Brazil – Is Ana Brazilian? Yes, she is / no, she isn’t

h) Paula / Russia ............................................................................................................................................................................................


i) Greame / Italy ...........................................................................................................................................................................................
j) Flavio / Mexico .........................................................................................................................................................................................
k) Flor / Colombia.........................................................................................................................................................................................
l) Chaen / China ...........................................................................................................................................................................................
m) Camila / Finland .......................................................................................................................................................................................
n) Cleopatra / Egypt.....................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 33
Lesson 5

5.2 - Write the plural.

Flower…………………………. Umbrella…………………….. Family…………………………


Boat……………………………. Address……………………… Foot……………………………
Woman………………………… Knife………………………… Holiday………………………..
City…………………………….. Sandwich……………………. Potato………………………….
Mask…………………………… Heart………………………… Candy………………………….
Daddy………………………….. Mouth……...………………... Eyelash…………………………
Lipstick………………………… Toothbrush………………….. Dental floss ……………………
Policeman……………………… Guitar……………………….. Video…………………………...
Hot dog………………………… Policewoman………………... Delivery Person………………..
Sidewalk………………………. Bakery………………………. Library………………………….
Glass…………………………… Tornado…………………….. Ferry……………………………

5.3 - Put the sentences into the plural:

a) I am here. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) She is a thief. .............................................................................................................................................................................................
c) It’s a nice pet. ............................................................................................................................................................................................
d) He isn’t a boy anymore. ........................................................................................................................................................................
e) That is a sheep and this is a mouse. ................................................................................................................................................
f) Am I a good person or a bad man? .................................................................................................................................................
g) That child is a Brazilian..........................................................................................................................................................................
h) This leaf is on the box............................................................................................................................................................................
i) That aircraft is transporting an ox.....................................................................................................................................................
j) This shrimp is friend of that trout .....................................................................................................................................................
k) I have a furniture here and a clothing there.................................................................................................................................
l) This wolf ate a half of that dwarf’s pizza yesterday ...................................................................................................................

5.4 - Correct the sentences, if possible give other options:

a) The auxiliarys verbs are importants...................................................................................................................................................


b) The human being species are naturally good...............................................................................................................................
c) Goods are for example jewelrys, clothings, money, etc. ...........................................................................................................
d) My cattle is great. They are a winner team!...................................................................................................................................
e) The government committee is studying two new informations............................................................................................
f) Three days are enough time to study for an exam......................................................................................................................
g) In some countrys in Asia you can have 2 wifes. ...........................................................................................................................
h) The Brazilian soccer teams are the best!.........................................................................................................................................
i) The genetics are proving scientific evidences. ...............................................................................................................................
j) Five hundred kilometers are the distance from SP to RJ. ..........................................................................................................
k) The womem like more musics than mens. .....................................................................................................................................
l) Police is used to protect the populations. .......................................................................................................................................
m) Means of transportations is important for the world. ..............................................................................................................
n) Ten dollars are not enough to buy a good t-shirts. ...................................................................................................................
o) The physics are not an easy subject. ................................................................................................................................................
p) I need a scissor to cut this paper. ......................................................................................................................................................

p. 34
Lesson 5

TEXT
(by Amadeu Marques)

am happy. My work gives me happiness. I have


a tape recorder and I use it very much. To record
radio programs or for my own recordings. I want to be
a writer and I practice a lot. I love music too. I spend
hours listening to all kinds of music: classical, pop, jazz,
rock, reggae, etc.
My parents are not rich, but we have all the
modern comforts here. Except for a television. My
parents don´t want a television. They say there are
not many good programs on TV. It´s all right with me.
A television is a good thing because of the images it
shows. It´s good for people who can see. I can´t. I am
blind

Text Comprehension

(You can answer in Portuguese if you want, but preferable into English!):

1. Do think his parents really don’t want a television? In your opinion, Wyh do they say there are not
good programs on TV?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Which kind of music do you appreciate most?


________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Item three nouns you can realise on the text and put them into the plural.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

p. 35
Lesson 6

Vocabulary: Let´s Celebrate. Let´s Party!

1. New Year´s Day 8. fireworks 15. Thanksgiving


2. parade 9. flag 16. feast / party
3. confetti 10. Halloween 17. turkey
4. Valentine´s Day 11. jack-o- lantern 18. Christmas
5. card 12. mask 19. ornament
6. heart 13. costume 20. Christmas tree
7. Independence Day / 4th of July 14. candy

p. 36
Lesson 6

Vocabulary: Celebration Verbs

Please
come to
the party.

A. plan a party E. hide I. sing “Happy Birthday”


B. invite the guests F. answer the door J. make a wish
C. decorate the house G. shout ”surprise” K. blow out the candles
D. wrap a gift H. light the candles L. open the presents

p. 37
Lesson 6

Grammar: Preposition IN, ON, AT

Os usos destas preposições devem ser contextualizados de acordo com os três casos que veremos a
seguir, ou de acordo com algum caso que veremos nas páginas 38 e 39.

1 - Quando as preposições indicarem uma posição no espaço, uma descrição física temos:
On – sobre, em cima de.
In– dentro (no, na, nos, nas)
At – no, na, nos, nas (quando alguém / alguma coisa for impossível estar dentro ou
em cima) On

At In (Este desenho representa o esquema deste raciocínio)

Ex:
. “The dictionary is on the desk” (o dicionário está sobre a escrivaninha).
. “The pen is in the pencil case” (a caneta está dentro / no estojo).
. “She’s at the door” (impossível ela estar dento da porta ou em cima da porta) (ela está na porta).
. “I´m at the window” (mesma ressalva acima) (eu estou na janela).

2 – Quando as preposições estiverem relacionadas com o tempo Temos:


On – Para descrever “Um único dia”
In – Para descrever “Mais de um dia”

. Dias da semana / “Days of the week” ( um único dia ) – on


On Sunday (domingo)
On Monday (segunda)
On Tuesday (terça)
On Wednesday (quarta) Ex: “I don’t work on Sunday” (eu não trabalho no domingo).
On Thursday (quinta) “He has an exam on Wednesday” (ele tem uma prova na quarta).
On Friday (sexta)
On Saturday (sábado)

. Datas do dia / “Day dates” ( um único dia ) – on


Ex: “Brazil’s Independence Day is celebrated on September 7th”. (a independência do Brasil é celebrada no dia 7
de setembro)
“We are on Monday, March 15th, 2004”. (“nós estamos” na segunda, dia 15 de março de 2004)

. Meses do ano / “Months of the year” ( “mais do que um dia” ) – in


In January (janeiro)
In February (fevereiro)
In March (março)
In April (abril)
In May (maio)
In June (junho) Ex: “I’ll start to study English in July”. (eu começarei a estudar inglês em julho)
In July (julho)
In August (agosto)
In September (setembro)
In October (outubro)
In November (novembro)
In December (dezembro)

p. 38
Lesson 6

. As estações do ano / “The seasons” (mais que um dia)


In the summer (verão)
In the spring (primavera)
In the winter (inverno)
In the fall / autumn (outono)
Ex: The leaves fall in the autumn / The leaves fall in the fall (as folhas caem no outono)

. Os anos / “ The years” (mais que um dia)


In 1994
In 1822 Ex: Sara was born in 1976. (Sara nasceu em 1976)
In 2004…

3 – Em relação à especificidade das coisas temos:

On – Tudo que for geral At – Tudo que for específico

Ex: . Moro na rua São Sebastião (geral – não citei o número da rua) ;
“I live on São Sebastião Street”.
. Moro na rua São Sebastião 114 (específico – citei o número da rua) ;
“I live at 114 São Sebastião Street”.
. As mulheres ficam sensíveis no momento da gravidez (geral);
“The women get sensitive on the pregnancy moment”.
. Ela decidiu parar naquele momento (específico);
“She decided to stop at that moment”.
. Os pipoqueiros trabalham nas esquinas (geral);
“Popcorn stand sellers work on the corners”.
. Susan trabalha na esquina da rua Peru com a rua Sergipe (específico);
“Susan works at the corner of Peru and Sergipe streets”.
. Principalmente nas horas difíceis (geral), como por exemplo no momento de minha entrevista de
emprego (específico), pedimos a Deus que nos ajude nestas ocasiões (geral); “Mainly on difficult times, as at
the moment of my job interview for instance, we ask God to help us on these occasions”

. Datas comemorativas: (específico – como estas datas têm dia certo no calendário, elas são específicas por
si só.)
At Christmas (natal) ( é uma data específica, december 25th, portanto: at )
On Christmas day (dia do natal) ( agora, neste caso, refer-se a um único dia, portanto: on )
At Easter (páscoa)
At Halloween (dia das bruxas) * Pay attention: estudaremos este detalhe
In the Halloween morning* (dia das bruxas de manhã) logo já no final desta lição.
At Thanksgiving (dia de ação de gaças)
On Valentines day (dia dos namorados) Ex: I’ll travel at Easter. (eu viajarei na páscoa)
On the fools day (dia dos “bobos”, é o nosso dia da mentira) People get gifts at Christmas
At Holly week (semana santa) (as pessoas se dão presentes no natal)

. Horas / “Time” : (específico – quando referimos a qualquer horário, já estamos nos reportando especificamente.)
At noon / At midday
At midnight Ex: “The Movie starts at 10:00 o’clock on the dot”.
At seven o’clock (o filme começa às 10 horas em ponto)
At 9:00 o’clock
At 8:13 a.m...

p. 39
Lesson 6

Temos sempre que distinguir quando usar os raciocínios número 1, 2 ou 3, porém, algumas situações
não se estabelecem um raciocínio “pronto” ou “direto” apresentados acima. O vocabulário abaixo a seguir
necessita ou deve ser “especialmente compreendido” ou memorizado com sua respectiva adequada
preposição, ressaltando que em alguns casos perceberemos uma ligação a um dos 3 contextos citados acima,
já outros casos infelizmente não há esta ligação, restando-nos a memorização propriamente dita, portanto,
preste bastante atenção no que vem a seguir:

Preste atenção ! / “ Pay attention! ” :

. In the morning, (de manhã, pela manhã, na manhã)


. In the afternoon, (de tarde, pela tarde, na tarde) Ex: “ I wake up in the morning and I sleep AT night.”
. In the evening, (período que vai das 6 da tarde às 9,10 da noite) (eu acordo de/pela manhã e durmo à noite)
. AT night. (de noite, a noite, pela noite)

. At home (em casa) / In the house (em casa). Ex: “She’s at her home and I’m in my house”. (ela está na casa dela e eu na
minha).
. On the road (na estrada, na rodovia). Ex: “I’m on the road again!” (estou na estrada novamente / de novo!).
. On the way (à caminho, no caminho). Ex: “My tire got flat on the way of my home”. (meu pneu furou a caminho de
minha casa).
. On the dot (em ponto). Ex: “The play starts at seven on the dot” (a peça de teatro começa as sete em ponto).
. In the world (do/no mundo) Ex: “There are five continents in the world” (há cinco continentes no mundo).
. In the universe (do/no universo). Ex:“Stars are uncountable in the universe” (as estrelas são incontáveis no universo).
. On the street (na rua – enfoque na superfície rua). Ex: “I see Sue on the street every day”. (eu vejo a Sue todo dia na
rua)
. In + any colour (“in” + qualquer cor = de ....) Ex: “Those men are in black” (aqueles homens estão de preto).
. In the end (finalmente = “finally”). Ex: “Fortunately, in the end everything was fine”. (felizmente, finalmente tudo estava
bem).
. At the end (no final ). Ex: “She lives at the end of the street”. (ela mora no final da rua).
. On the top (no topo, no cume). Ex: “The notebook is on the top shelf”. (o caderno está na última prateleira de cima /
no topo).
. On the middle (no meio). Ex: “His bed is located on the middle of the bedroom”. (a cama dele está localizada no meio
do quarto).
. On the bottom (em baixo). Ex: “The pen is on the bottom drawer”. (a caneta está na última gaveta/ “em baixo” de
todas).
. On the page (na página). Ex: “Please, open your book on the page 30” (por favor, abra seu livro na página 30)
. On time (na hora, não atrasado). Ex: “Be on time, don’t be late” (Esteja na hora, não esteja atrasado).
. In time (bem na hora, a tempo de). Ex: “I got here just in time”. (eu cheguei aqui bem na hora = quase atrasado).
. On nothing (para nada / em vão). Ex: “They spent two hours on nothing”. (eles/elas gastaram duas horas em vão).

Palavras do tipo abaixo exigem certas preposições por indicarem uma posição física pré-estabelecida:
. “Shelf” (prateleira): exige: “on” Ex: “The boxes are on the shelf” (as caixas estão sobre a prateleira)
. “Drawer” (gaveta): exige: “in”. Ex: “the socks are in the drawer” (as meias estão dentro/na gaveta)
. “Case” (porta.....): exige: “in”: “pencilcase”(estojo/ porta lápis), “cd-case” (porta cd), “bookcase” (porta livros/
estante de livros).
Ex: “Put the book in the bookcase” (coloque o livro na estante). / “There’s a cd in the cd-case” (há um cd
no porta cd).
. Superficies em geral (muro/parede, chão, página) “Surfaces in general (wall, floor/ground, page, etc)” exige:
“on”.
Ex: “There are four cockroaches in the room, one on the floor, two on the wall and another on the ceiling”
(há quatro baratas na sala, uma no chão, duas na parede e outra no teto)

p. 40
Lesson 6

Direcões / “Directions”:
In the south (ao sul, no sul, do sul) In the north (ao norte, no norte, do norte)
In the west (a/ no oeste) – In the southwest (sudoeste) In the west – In the northwest (a/no noroeste)
In the east (a/noleste) – In the southeast (sudeste) In the east – In the northeast (a/no nordeste)
In the countryside (em/no interior) In the seaside (em/no litoral)
Ex: “I have four cousins living in the U.S.A.: One in the south, one in the northeast, a country in the
countryside and another lucky one in the seaside” (tenho 4 primos morando nos E.U.A. Um no sul, um no
nordeste, um “caipira” no interior, e um outro sortudo no litoral).

Já em outras situações, o uso das preposições é aplicado de acordo com o enfoque ou a necessidade de uso a
um determinado tipo de situação, podendo ser utilizado não apenas uma única preposição. O enfoque é o determinante.
Ex: “I’m in the bus (emphasize the physical position – ênfase na posição física)” – Enfoque que eu estou “dentro” do ônibus.
“I’m on the bus (emphasize the dinamic time – ênfase em um tempo dinâmico)” – Enfoque que estou no ônibus prestes
a descer.
“I’m at the bus (don’t emphasize anything – sem enfoque)” – Não há enfoque algum, estou no ônibus.
“I’m a doctor, I work at the hospital” (sou um médico, trabalho em um hospital) – Não enfoquei a posição
“dentro”;“In”, porque supostamente estou todos os dias no hospital, portanto, logicamente, não há necessidade de
ressaltar que estou “dentro” do hospital. Agora, imaginem se eu não fosse um médico, e quase nunca fosse a um hospital:
“I had to do an emergency surgery in the hospital” (Eu tive que fazer uma cirurgia de emergência no hospital). – enfoquei
a posição “in” (dentro) porque não são todos os dias que tenho que me submeter a uma cirurgia de emergência.
Se eu por exemplo trabalhasse no zoológico: “I work at the zoo” – não preciso enfoque “in”. Se sou um turista, e estou no
zoológico: “I’m a turist, and I’m in the zoo” - agora, o enfoque “in” não é dispensável, mesmo assim, não é obrigatório a
priorização de enfoque algum. Se quero subentender que estou de “passagem”, com um tempo bem curto, “na correria”
pela estação de trem posso dizer: “I’m on the train station”, se quero subentender que estou lá dentro da estação: “I’m
in the train station”, e se não quiser subentender nada: “I’m at the train station”, ressaltando que neste caso, o
“in/on/at” são corretamente utilizados, e que apenas a ênfase ou o enfoque é prioritariamente modificada.

6.1 - “Put in: In / on / at”.

a) _______ September (setembro) b) _______ 1998


c) _______ 10:00 p.m (10 horas da noite) d) _______ the universe (universo)
e) _______ Santos Drumont Avenue (avenida Santos Drumond) f) _______ 307 Santos Drumont Avenue
g) _______ the east (leste) h) _______ Thursday (quinta-feira)
i) _______ the winter (inverno) j) _______ Sunday morning (domingo de manhã)
k) _______ Halloween (dia das bruxas) l) _______ Halloween night (dia das bruxas à noite)
m) _______ Thursday afernoon (quinta-feira a tarde) n) _______ the middle (no meio)
o) _______ November 27th (27 de novembro) p) _______ Home (casa / lar)
q) _______ the house (casa) r) _______ the autumn (outono)
s) _______ Monday evening (segunda a “tardezinha”) t) _______ Easter (páscoa)
u) _______ Easter day (dia da páscoa) v) _______ 1500 Brazil was discovered (Brasil foi descoberto)
w) _______ Noon / midday (meio dia) x) _______ the summer (verão)
y) _______ Wednesday night (quarta-feira à noite) z) _______ the north (norte)

6.2 - Coloque: “In”, siga o modelo. “Put in: IN, follow the model”
Model: It’s 11:00 o’clock now, the bus comes at 11:10. The bus comes in ten minutes. (“in” = dentro de = em)
a) Today is Monday and I’ll travel on Friday. ......................................................................................................................................
b) This month is May and my birthday is in November.................................................................................................................
c) It’s noon now and I have an appointment at 8.............................................................................................................................
d) Today is August 16th and I have an exam on August 25th. ......................................................................................................

p. 41
Lesson 6

6.3 - Complete the sentences using on + one of the following:

business strike a tour the whole television


fire holiday a diet the phone purpose

1 Look! That car is on fire ! Somebody call the fire brigade.


2 It’s difficult to contact Sarah because she’s not .
3 Workers at the factory have gone for better pay and conditions.
4 Soon after we arrived, we were taken of the city.
5 A: I’m going next week.
B: Are you? Where are you going? Somewhere nice?
6 I feel lazy this evening. Is there anything worth watching ?
7 I’m sorry. It was an accident. I didn’t do it .
8 George has put on a lot of weight recently. I think he should go .
9 Jane’s job involves a lot of travelling. She often has to go away .
10 A: How did your exams go?
B: Well, there were some difficult questions but they were OK.

6.4 - Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use in/at/on + the words in brackets (…).

1 Where is he? In the kitchen. . 7 Where are they standing? .


2 Where are the shoes? . 8 Where is she swimming? .
3 Where is the pen? . 9 Where is he standing? .
4 Where is the clock? . 10 Where is the spider? .
5 Where is the bus? . 11 Where is he sitting? .
6 Where are the horses? . 12 Where is she sitting? .

p. 42
Lesson 6

6.5 - Put in in/at/on.

1 Helen is studying law at . university.


2 There was a big table the middle of the room.
3 What is the longest river the world?
4 Were there many people the concert last night?
5 Will you be home tomorrow afternoon?
6 Who is that man this photograph? Do you know him?
7 Where are your children? Are they school?
8 George is coming by train. I’m going to meet him the station.
9 Charlie is hospital. He’s going to have an operation tomorrow.
10 How many pages are there this book?
11 ‘Are you hungry after your journey?’ ‘No, I had a meal the train.’
12 I’m sorry I’m late. My car broke down the way here.
13 ‘Is Tom here?’ ‘No, he’s his brother’s.
14 Don ‘t believe everything you see the newspaper!
15 I walked to work but I came home the bus.

6.6 - Complete the sentences using in + one of the following:

block letters cash my opinion the shade cold weather love pencil

1 He likes to keep warm, so he doesn’t go out much .


2 Diane never uses a pen. She always writes .
3 They fell with each other almost immediately and were married in a few
weeks.
4 Please write your address clearly, preferably .
5 I don’t like the sun. I prefer to sit .
6 Ann thought the restaurant was OK, but it wasn’t very good.
7 I hardly ever use a credit card or cheques. I prefer to pay for things .

JOKE
(by Internet)

A college professor asked his class a question: If Philadelphia is 100 miles from New York and Chicago
is 1000 miles from Philadelphia and Los Angeles is 2000 miles from Chicago, how old am I?
One student in the back of the class raised his hand and when called upon said: "Professor, you’re 44 years’
old"
The Professor said: "you're absolutely correct, but tell me how did you arrive at the answer so
quickly?" The student said: "You see professor I have a brother, he's 22 and he's half nuts."

p. 43
Lesson 7

Vocabulary: Roupas e Vestuário


“Clothes and Clothing”

Vamos neste capítulo, aprender como descrevemos as roupas que estamos vestindo. Associando com
o capítulo anterior, vamos agora utilizar o conhecimento acerca dos adjetivos focado neste contexto de
vocabulário. Já sabemos que temos que usar os ajtetivos na frente dos substantivos. Temos aqui agora quatro
tabelas. As três primeiras são de adjetivos e a ultima tabela, a de substantivos (página 42). Para facilitar a sua
vida estas tabelas já estão na ordem correta de aplicação para a descrição de uma roupa. Antes de
começarmos vamos lembrar que geralmente usamos o tempo verbal presente simples contínuo (“simple
present continuo”), e que para o verbo vestir / usar temos:

. To wear . To dress . To use (não muito indicado)

Ex: She is wearing a light blue full blouse, black pants, silver high heel shoes, a dark gray ring ang a stamped
purse

Shades (“tons”) Translation (tradução)


Light Claro
Da
Dark Escuro
Br
Bright / vivid Brilhante
Op
Opaque Opaco
Re
Reddish, greenish, etc Avermelhado, esverdeado, etc
Light / heavy Leve / pesado

Color / colour (cor) Traslation


Black Preto
White Branco
Green Verde
Blue Azul
Gray / grey Cinza
Purple Roxo
Pink Rosa
Red Vermelho
Yellow Amarelo
Orange Laranja
Brown Marrom
Bege Bege
Silver Prata / prateado
Golden Dourado
Lilac Lilás
Caramel Caramelo
Castanho (p/ olhos e
Brown
cabelos)

Types/sort/Kind of stamps (tipos de


Translation (tradução)
estampas)
Polka dotted Bolado, de bolinha
Full / plain / solid Liso (apenas uma cor)
Stamped / patterned / printed Estampado
Striped Listrado
Checked / check Xadrez
Floral Florido
Coloured / colored Colorido(a)

p. 44
Lesson 6

Male only (apenas masculino) or Translation Male or female Translation


Female only (apenas feminino) (masculino ou feminino) =
(most cases! – na maioria dos (unisex)
casos)
dress vestido jeans * jeans
suit / formal clothes * terno coat / overcoat / jacket casaco / jaqueta
shirt camisa sweatshirt / sweatpants * moleton (blusa/calça)
blouse blusa pants / trousers * calça
briefs / underpants * cueca shorts * short
bra sutiã t-shirt camiseta
panties * calcinha uniform uniforme
high heel shoes * salto alto (sapato) pyjamas / pajamas * pijama
purse / handbag / bag bolsa socks / sport socks meias tipo “esporte”
(grossas)
ring anel shoes / sandals / boots * sapato/ sandália/ bota
earrings * brinco tennis shoes / sneakers * tênis
necklace colar hat / cap chapéu / boné - boina
bracelet pulseira gloves * luvas
tie gravata (wrist)watch relógio (pulso)
(mini) skirt (mini) saia wallet carteira ($$)
bow tie gravata borboleta kerchief lenço
pantyhose / tights * meia calça pocket bolso
blazer blazer bermudas * bermudas
belt cinto slippers * Chinelo
athletic shirt camiseta “regata” sleeve (long/short) manga (longa/curta)
overalls * macacão ve s t colete
bikini biquini gown bata / jaleco
swimsuit maiô robe / dressing gown ropão
swimming trunks * calção de banho / “sunga” ankle socks * meias “cano baixo”
briefcase pasta tipo “executivo” tracksuit moleton de ginástica
nightgown camisola (top or bottom) parte de cima ou de baixo
* palavras que admitem sua forma apenas no plural ! Tomar cuidado e prestar atenção ! Pay attention and take care!
O ultimo detalhe que devemos tomar cuidado aqui é o uso adequado do artigo indefinido “a/an”
necessariamente permitido apenas antes do SINGULAR ! Lembrar o quanto seria ruim por exemplo a frase: Ela
está usando um sapatos pretos. Portanto: “She is wearing a black shoes”.
Ex: Traduzindo a descrição: Ele está vestindo uma camisa listrada cinza e preta, calça social preta lisa, cinto
preto, sapatos pretos brilhantes e relógio prateado. Ela, vestido longo azul escuro, sandálias de salto alto
prata, colar prata e um anel de brilhante. “He’s wearing a grey and black striped shirt, black full formal pants, a
black belt, bright black shoes and a silver wirst watch. She’s wearing, a long dark blue dress, silver high heel
sandals, a silver necklace and a diamond ring”

Corrija as frases se necessário. “Correct the sentences if necessary”


a) Sue is wearing a blue pant, a black blouse, an old earring and two big silver necklace.........................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Peter dresses a beautiful pair of trousers, socks coloured, a light blue and dark gray checked shirt and black
shoes. ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
c) The twins are dressing the same: A beautiful long skirts, thin white tights, tight blouses and slippers very funny. ..
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
d) I don’t like formal and expensive fancy clothings. They are usually fashionable, but I prefer to wear cheap clothes!
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
e) I think that man is very poor. He’s always wearing the same t-shirt old with many holes and very dirty and
stinking!..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
f) Juliana Silva is very stylish. She’s a fashion designer and her clothes are always the trend of the present Lesson fashion! 7 ..
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Grammar: To has / have – to has / have got p. 45


O verbo “To has / have” significa ter, possuir. Temos a seguinte conjugação no presente simples:
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I have = I’ve* I don´t have Do I have?


You have = you’ve* You don´t have = you do not have Do you have?
He has = he’s* He doesn´t have = he does not have Does he have?
She has = she’s* She doesn’t have = she does not have Does she have?
It has = it’s* It doesn’t have = it does not have Does it have?
We have = we’ve* We don’t have = we do not have Do we have?
You have = you’ve* You don’t have = you do not have Do you have?
They have = they’ve* They don’t have = they do not have Do they have?

* Abreviação não indicada


Tudo estaria certo, se não houvesse um problema em relação a seguinte “coincidência” de abreviação
com o verbo “To be”:
Affirmative: verb “To be” Affirmative: verb “To have”

I am = I’m I have = I’ve


You are = you’re You have = you’ve
He is = he’s He has = he’s
She is = she’s She has = she’s
It is = it’s It has = it’s
You are = you’re You have = you’ve
We are = we’re We have = we’ve
They are = they’re They have = they’ve

Portanto haveria uma confusão por exemplo ao traduzir:


she’s a baby. (ela é um bebê? ou ela tem um bebê?)

Ai é que entra o has / have got, justamente para desfazer esta confusão. Então, toda vez que
quisermos ou for preciso enfatizar uma posse, usa-se o has/have got (este got não está relacionado com o
“to get – got – gotten”). O “got” então, seria uma partícula indicadora de posse que usamos para “desfazer”
esta confusão citada quando abreviamos o “has/have”. Por isso que que temos esta observação na primeira
tabela desta página. Portanto é contra indicado a abreviação do “has/have” sem o uso da partícula
“got”. É importante ressaltar que quando usamos o “got” após o has/ have, estamos trasformando o verbo
“to has / have” de um verbo comum, para um verbo “especial”, ou verbo auxiliar “To has/ have got”,
modificando assim seu uso na “negative and interrogative”, não modificando sua tradução.
Ex: . I have a house = I have got a house
(eu tenho uma casa) (eu tenho uma casa) – MESMA TRADUÇÂO

Vamos lembrar aqui uma importante diferença entre o português e o inglês. As frases negativas do
inglês precisam de not, mas antes dele temos que ter ou um “auxiliary verb” (to be, modal verbs, there
is/are, has/have got), ou um “auxiliary” (“do” para: “I, you, we, they” e “does” para: “he, she, it”). Já as frases na
interrogativa estes “auxiliary verbs” ou “auxiliaries” vão para frente do sujeito e o not não é usado. Outro
detalhe: toda vez que usamos os auxiliares “do” / “does”, o verbo principal volta para o infinitivo sem o “to”.

p. 46
Lesson 7

A tradução é a mesma, porém o uso do to has / have, e o uso do to has / have got na “negative and
interrogative”, variam conforme a tabela:

Affirmative Negative Interrogarive

To has/have I have I don’t have Do I have?


(ordinary verb) You have You don´t have Do you have?
He has He doesn’t have Does he have?
She has She doesn’t have Does she have?
It has It doesn’t have Does it have?
You have You don’t have Do you have?
We have We don´t have Do we have?
They have They don’t have Do they have?
(abreviação não indicada)

To I have got = I´ve got* I haven’t got Have I got?


has/have got You have got = you’ve got* You haven´t got Have you got?
(auxiliary He has got = he´s got* He hasn’t got Has he got?
verb) She has got = she´s got* She hasn’t got Has she got?
It has got = it’s got* It hasn´t got Has it got?
You have got = you’ve got* You haven’t got Have you got?
We have got = we’ve got* We haven’t got Have we got?
They have got = they’ve got* They haven’t got Have they got?

*As abreviações com o “got” são corretas e possíveis


Ex: Eu não tenho um carro: I don´t have a car = I haven’t got a car, mas tome cuidado!!!

I haven´t a car / I don´t have got a car : WRONG ! / Terrible!!!!


I haven’t got a car / I don’t have a car : RIGHT / Excellent!!!

É bom saber que o verbo “to has / have” não significa apenas ter. Refere-se também a tudo relativo à
comida, e nestes casos a tradução ao “pé-da-letra” não é muito indicada:
. “breakfast” – café da manha (“noun”) – “to has/have a breakfast” – tomar o café da manha (“verb”)
. “lunch” – almoço (“noun”) – “to has/have a lunch” – almoçar (“verb”)
. “snack” – lanche (“noun”) – “to has/have a snack” – lanchar (“verb”)
. “dinner” – janta (“noun”) – “to has/have a dinner” – jantar (“verb”)
Ex:. “When he`s very busy, he doesn`t have a lunch (verb), he just eats a snack (noun)”.
(quando ele está muito ocupado, ele não almoça, Ele apenas come um lanche).
. “I want to have a sandwich for a snack” (eu quero comer um sanduíche – “to have = to eat”)
. “She wants to have a chocolate” (ela quer um chocolate / ela quer comer um chocolate)
. “He is having dinner now” (ele está jantando agora)
É bom saber que algumas outras expressões também usamos o “to has/have” sem a tradução “ter”:
. “shower” – chuveiro / banho (“noun”) – “to has / have a shower” – tomar banho (“verb”) = “to take a shower”
. “bath” – banho / banheira (“noun”) – “to has / have a bath” – tomar banho (“verb”) = “to take a bath”
. “a good/nice time” – um momento agradável – “to has / have a good/nice time” (desfrutar de um momento
agradável)
Ex: “She has a good time when she has a shower (verb), using her shower (noun)”(ela “curte” tomar banho usando o seu
chuveiro)
Em contrapartida algumas expressões no português que usamos o “ter” (“to has/have”), no inglês não usamos:
. Para indicar idade: “I’m 28” (eu tenho 28 anos de idade, e não: Eu sou 28 anos)
. Para indicar certeza: “I’m sure” (eu tenho certeza / eu estou certo), e não: “I have sure”
Pay attention: A expressão: “Com certeza” no inglês é: “for sure” e não “with sure” (“with” = com)
Ex: “She’s sure he’s 20” (ela tem certeza que ele tem 20 anos de idade / ela está certa de que ele tem 20 anos).
“He’s 20 for sure” (com certeza ele tem 20 anos).

p. 47
Lesson 7

7.1 - Write the short form (we’ve got / he hasn’t got etc.).

1 We have got we’ve got. 3 They have got . 5 It has got .


2 He has got . 4 She has not got . 6 I have not got ……………

7.2 - Follow the example:


1 (you / an umbrella?) Have you got an umbrella? .
2 (you / a passport?) .
3 (your father / a car?) .
4 (Carol / many friends?) .
5 (you / any brothers or sisters?) .
6 (how much money / we?) .
7 (what / kind of car / Julia?) .

7.3 - Take a look at, or think about your wardrobe carefully and describe here bellow, what you have got, and
you really appreciate (with details) - 2 items, and what you haven’t got yet - 2 items.
I have: …………………………………………………………………………………………….…..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

TEXT (by Amadeu Marques)

Ome people seem to have everything, but they are


Not happy. They spend years and years looking for
Happiness. They never find it. Well, I think that’s crazy. I
Don’t understand why they try to find happiness. It’s not
a missing object. When you lose an object, a pencil for
example, you try to find it. But happiness is not a pencil.
Now watch a really happy man: He’s busy doing
Something and enjoying it. He is making a table, writing
A song, teaching a lesson, planting corn. He is living life.
He’s doing his work, and he is doing it well. That’s my
Idea of happiness.

p. 48
Lesson 8

Vocabulary: The House

BATHROOM

BEDROOM BEDROOM

KITCHEN
LIVING
ROOM

DINING
ROOM

1. floor plan 7. garage door 13. steps 19. gutter


2. backyard 8. screen door 14. front walk 20. roof
3. fence / enclosed 9. porch light 15. front yard 21. chimney
4. mailbox 10. doorbell 16. deck 22. TV antenna
5. driveway 11. front door 17. window
6. garage 12. storm door 18. shutter

p. 49
Lesson 8

Vocabulary: The Kitchen

1. cabinet 8. shelf 15. toaster oven 22. counter / booth


2. paper towels 9. refrigerator / fridge 16. pot / pan 23. drawer
3. dish drainer 10. freezer 17. teakettle 24. frying pan
4. dishwasher 11. coffeemaker 18. stove 25. electric mixer
5. garbage disposal 12. blender / liquidizer 19. burner 26. food processor
6. sink 13. microwave oven 20. oven 27. cutting board
7. toaster 14. electric can opener 21. broiler

p. 50
Lesson 8

Vocabulary: The Living Room

1. bookcase 8. mantel / frame 15. floor lamp 22. magazine holder


2. basket 9. fireplace 16. curtain 23. coffee table *
3. track lighting 10. fire 17. window 24. armchair
4. lightbulb 11. fire screen 18. plant 25. love seat
5. ceiling 12. logs 19. sofa / couch 26. TV (television)
6. wall 13. wall unit 20. throw pillow / cushion 27. carpet (rug = tapete)
7. painting 14. stereo system 21. end table * não é mesa de café

p. 51
Lesson 8

Grammar: There is / There are:

There is : Verbo “haver” no singular


There are : Verbo “haver” no plural.

Note: Verb “to exist” – verbo existir.

Importante também a saber, é que no momento de uma descrição por exemplo, podemos usar o
“there is/are” apenas uma vez, respeitando a concordância verbal. Continuando esta descrição, depois de
respeitar a primeira concordância, posso depois, usar os outros substantivos da descrição tanto no singular
quanto no plural. Em outras palavras, esta concordância citada refere-se apenas ao primeiro substantivo logo
após ao “there is” ou logo após ao “there are”, e descrevendo em sequência os outros substantivos, preciso
apenas separá-los por vírgula, e colocar o “and” = “e” antes do último substantivo da descrição, sem
preocupar com a concordância.
Ex: “There is a cat under the desk”. (há um gato em baixo da escrivaninha).
“There are two cats under the desk”. (há dois gatos em baixo da escrivaninha).
“There is a table, four chairs and 100 books in the room”. (há uma mesa, 4 cadeiras e 100 livros na sala)
“There are four chairs, a table and 100 books in the room”. (há 4 cadeiras, uma mesa e 100 livros na
sala).

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


There is not…/
There is….
There’s not.. / Is there…?
There’s…
There isn’t…/ There is no…
There are… There are not…/
Are there…?
There’re… There aren’t…/ There are no…
Ex:
“Is there a green car out there? No, there isn’t. There are 2 busses”
Além do “There is / there are” – verbo haver, temos também outra tradução: “There” significando
“lá” (ou “over there”, significando “alí, lá”), contrário de: “Here” – aqui.
Ex: Na frase, “misturando” o verbo “haver”, com o complemento de lugar “lá”:
Há uma garota aqui e um garoto lá: “There is (verb there is) a girl here and there’s (verb there is) a boy
there (place complement: “Lá”)

Grammar: One / Ones – pronoun:

“One” pode funcionar tanto como um numeral quanto como um pronome. Lembre-se que ainda
temos “a/an” como sendo artigo indefinido “um/uma”.
Ex: . Gosto de carros, principalmente os (carros) esportivos.
. I like cars, mainly the sport ones. (ones substituindo cars)
. Há uma bandeira americana na lua, mas não há nenhuma bandeira brasileira.
. There´s (an/one) American flag on the moon, but there isn’t any Brazilian one.
. Amo chocolate, menos os dietéticos.
. I love chocolate, except the diet ones. (ones substituindo chocolates dietéticos)
. Tenho dois livros de história; historia do Brasil e história geral.
. I have two history books; a Brazil one and general one.
. Não seja um garoto levado, seja bonzinho: Don´t be a mischievous boy, be a good one.

p. 52
Lesson 8

Grammar: Would like

Would like significa gostaria. Na verdade would é um “modal verb” que estudaremos logo mais. O
would transforma qualquer verbo que o segue em final “ria” (futuro do pretérito), mas neste momento vamos
considerar apenas o “would like” (gostaria).
Ex: Eu gostaria de te perguntar uma coisa...I would like to ask you something.
Podemos abreviar o would: I would like = I’d like
She would like = She’d like
Would like é muito usado para: offering, request and invitations (ofertas, pedidos, convites).
_ I´d like to meet Maria, let´s go there ?! eu gostaria de encontrar com a Maria, vamos lá?!
_ Would you like some coffee? Você gostaria de tomar um cafezinho?
_ She wouldn’t like to fail her exam. Ela não gostaria de ser reprovada em sua prova.
Então temos:
Affirmative: Subject + would/’d + like + …
Interrogative: Would + subject + like + …?
Negative: Subject + would not/ wouldn´t + like + …

In a store / shop:
_ I’d like to see (some)* t-shirts. Blue ones, extra large size, please.
_ I´d like to see a shirt. A reddish one, small size, please.
_ I’d like to see (some)* trousers. Black ones, meddium size please.
* some = algum(s)(as) / uns, umas

8.1 - Kenham is a small town. Look at the information in the box and write sentences about Kenham with
There is/are or There isn’t/aren’t.

1 a castle? No 1 There isn’t a castle. .


2 any restaurants? Yes (a lot) 2 There are a lot of restaurants. .
3 a hospital? Yes 3 .
4 a swimming pool? No 4 .
5 any cinemas? Yes (two) 5 .
6 a university? No 6 .
7 any big hotels? No 7 .

8.2 - Complete the sentences. Use a/an ...one. Use the words in the list.

better big clean different new old

1 This cup is dirty. Can I have a clean one ?


2 I’m going to sell my car and buy ..................................................................................................................................................
3 That’s not a very good photograph but this is.........................................................................................................................
4 I want today’s newspaper. This is..................................................................................................................................................
5 This box is too small. I need............................................................................................................................................................
6 Why do we always go to the same restaurant? Let’s go to.................................................................................................

p. 53
Lesson 8

8.4 - What do you say to Sue in these situations? Use Would you like (to)…?

8.4 - A asks B some questions. Use the information in the box to write B’s answers. Use one (not ‘a/an ...’) in
the answers.

B doesn’t need a car B has just had a cup of coffee


There’s a chemist in Mill Road B is going to buy a bicycle
B hasn’t got a pen B hasn’t got an umbrella

1 A: Can you lend me a pen? B: I’m sorry, I haven’t got one. .


2 A: Would you like to have a car? B: No, I don’t .
3 A: Have you got a bicycle? B: No, but .
4 A: Can you lend me an umbrella? B: I’m sorry but .
5 A: Would you like a cup of coffee? B: No, thank you .
6 A: Is there a chemist near here? B: Yes, .

JOKE (by Internet)

Little Johnny's new baby brother was crying and screaming up a storm. He asked his mom, "Where'd
baby brother come from?". His mother replied, "Heaven, Johnny. He came from heaven."After listening to his
baby brother's wailing for another few seconds Johnny shot back, "WOW! I can
see why they threw him out"

p. 54
Lesson 9

The Family
Vocabulary: The Family Tree
Tree

Tom Lee´s Family 1. grandparents

Min Lu

2. grandmother 3. grandfather
4. parents

Rose Chang Helen Daniel

Tom 5. mother 6. father 10. aunt 11. uncle

Lily Alex Emily

8. sister 9. brother 12. cousin

7. (Min and Lu´s)


grandson
Ana Garcia´s
Berta
Family

Ana
13. mother-in-law 14. father-in-law

Marta Carlos Tito


20. (Tito´s) wife

15. sister-in-law 16. brother-in-law 19. husband

Alice Eddie Sara Felix

17. niece 18. nephew 19. daughter 20. son

p. 55
Lesson 9

Vocabulary: The Family Tree

Lisa Smith´s Family


23. married
24. divorced

Carol Dan

Lisa

25. single mother 26. single father


27. remarried

Rick Carol Dan Sue

Rick Carol Dan Sue


Lisa

28. stepfather 31. stepmother

David Mary Kim Bill

29. half brother 30. half sister 32. step sister 33. step brother

p. 56
Lesson 9

Vocabulary: Family members

Podemos “didaticamente” dividir os membros da família em quatro grandes grupos:


. 1 – Grand : ótimo, fantástico, grandioso, etc
. 2 – Law : Lei
. 3 – God : Deus
. 4 – Step : Passo (noun), Degrau (noun) / pisar - to step (verb) / sobressalente (pneu de step)
A partir destes grupos, vamos associá-los as seguintes idéias (estas idéias são apenas para facilitar a
memorização, é uma “brincadeira séria”):
. 1 – A parte “grand” (fantástica) da família é o grupo dos avós, netos (geralmente os avos “mimam”, eles
fazem todas as vontades, são “tudo de bom”)
. 2 – A parte “law” da família são aqueles que você “adquire” através da lei. São as sogras, sogros, genro, nora,
cunhado, cunhada (você necessita de um cartório - lei - , mas não necessariamente precisa de uma igreja).
. 3 – A parte “God” da família são os padrinhos, madrinhas, afilhodo(a). Para Deus, seu padrinho é seu
segundo pai, e o único lugar que você pode batizar é na igreja.
. 4 – A parte “step” da família são os padrastos, madrastas, enteado(a), irmão/ irmã de criação (Sem ofença! É
apenas uma brincadeira!)

Relatives Translation Relatives Translation


Father Pai Father-in-law Sogro
Mother Mãe Mother-in-law Sogra
Son Filho Brother-in-law Cunhado
Daughter Filha Sister-in-law Cunhada
Brother Irmão Son-in-law Genro
Sister Irmã Daughter-in-law Nora
Uncle Tio Godfather Padrinho
Aunt Tia Godmother Madrinha
Cousin Primo / prima Godson Afilhado
Niece Sobrinha Goddaughter Afilhada
Nephew Sobrinho Stepfather Padrasto
Second cousin Primo(a) 2a. grau Stepmother Madrasta
Grandfather Avô Stepson Enteado
Grandmother Avó Stepdaughter Enteada
Grandson Neto Stepbrother Irmão de criação
Granddaughter Neta Stepsister Irmã de criação
Great grandson Bisneto Parents* Pais (pai e mãe)
Great grandmother bisavó Grandparents Avós (4)
Great great grandson Tataraneto Relatives Parentes* / família
Mom Mamãe Mommy Mamãezinha
Dad Papai Daddy Papaizinho
Grandpa Vovô Grandma Vovó
Grandchild Neto ou neta Grandchildren Netos ou netas
Guy “cara” Gal “moça”

* cuidado!!! (false cognate)

p. 57
Lesson 9

Grammar: Genitive case:

É o caso genitivo. No caso genitivo temos o apostrofo + “s” (‘s) , indicando posse.
Ex: Bob’s car – o carro do Bob
Susan’s dress – o vestido da Susan
Sue and Paul´s teacher – o professor da Sue e do Paul.
Temos, no entanto algumas ressalvas:
1 – Palavras que acabam em “S”, é opcional colocar no final delas o apostrofo + “s”(‘s), ou apenas o
apostrofo ( ‘ ) :
Ex: The boss’s report - o relatório do chefe
The bosses’ s reports - os relatórios dos chefes. Também é possível:
The boss’ report
The bosses’ report.
2 - É importante ressaltar a diferença:
Ex: Maria, John and Richard’s house is on the beach. Temos: A casa deles é na praia
(A Maria, o John e o Richard possuem a mesma casa na praia, como sócios)
Maria’s, John’s and Richard’s houses are on the beach. Temos: As casas deles são na praia. (Eles possuem
casas diferentes na praia, três casas diferentes, cada um a sua).
3 – Podemos ter também uma “escada” de possessivos (ler ressalva página 153):
Ex: Peter’s car____________________________________________ O carro do Peter
Peter’s car door_________________________________ A porta do carro do Peter
Peter’s car door keyhole_____________________A fechadura da porta do carro do Peter.
Peter’s car door keyhole damage.________ O estrago da fechadura da porta do carro
do Peter.
Note: Para tradução, facilita pensarmos “de traz para frente”. Outro detalhe: dois substantivos seguidos, onde o primeiro
não representa “alguém”, o genitivo não é apropriado. Ex: Temos os substantivos: chefe, relatório, carro e fechadura. O único
deles que precisou de “genitive” foi: Chefe: The boss’ report

Possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns:


Personal Possessive Possessive
Translation
pronuons adjectives pronouns
I my mine meu(s), minha(s)
You your yours teu, tua, seu, sua, do senhor, da senhora
He his his dele
She her hers dela
It its its dele, dela, (neutro – coisa/animal)
We our ours nosso(s), nossa(s)
You your yours vossos (as), seus, suas, dos senhores, das senhoras
They Their theirs deles, delas, deles - neutro (plural of it)
Before the After the
Noun Noun

Como podemos perceber, a utilização dos “possessive pronouns” ou dos “possessive adjectives” na
frase, depende exclusivamente da posição do substantivo (noun position).
Ex:
This is my car / This car is mine.
(noun) (noun)
Those are her books / Those books are hers.
(noun) (noun)
That is our teacher/ that teacher is ours/ Those are our teachers / Those teachers are ours
(noun) (noun) (noun) (noun)

p. 58
Lesson 9

Grammar: Interrogative pronoun “Whose”

O pronome interrogativo “Whose” significa: De quem?


Ex:
Whose car is this? (suponhamos que o carro pertença à Susan), podemos responder:
. This is her car / this is hers / this is Susan’s car / this is Susan’s .*
. It is her car / it’s hers / it is Susan’s car / it’s Susan’s.**
* O carro foi substituido pelo pronome demostrativo “This”
** O carro foi substituído pelo pronome pessoal “It”

Whose cars are these? (suponhamos que os carros pertençam à Susan – frase no plural)
. These are her cars / these are hers / these are Susan’s cars / these are Susan’s. *
. They’re her cars / they’re hers / they’re Susan’s cars / They’re Susan’s. **
* Os carros foram substituido pelo pronome demosntrativo “These”
** Os carros foram substituídos pelo pronome pessoal “They”.

Whose car is this? (suponhamos agora que o carro pertença a ELES)


. This is their car / this is theirs. *
. It is their car / It’s theirs. **
* O carro foi substituido por: “This”
** O carro foi substituído por: “It”

Whose cars are these? (suponhamos que os carros pertençam a ELES – frase no plural)
. These are their cars / these are theirs. *
. They are their cars / They’re theirs. **
* Os carros foram substituido por “These”.
** Os carros foram substituídos por “They”.

Grammar: Genitive case + Possessive adjectives

Vamos agora misturar os dois temas acima:

Ex: O amigo do pai dela.


Temos: O amigo do pai (genitive case), dela (possessive adjective)
A solução deste “enigma” é fácil. Temos apenas que iniciar a frase com o “possessive”, e depois
raciocinar “de traz para frente” como indicado no genitivo.
. Primeiro: “Dela”
. Depois: “Amigo do pai”
Portanto temos: O amigo do pai dela.
Her father’s friend

Depois desta primeira etapa, o complemento da frase (object) é feito da mesma forma:
O amigo do pai dela é vizinho do cunhado dele.
Her father’s friend is his brother-in-law’s neighbor

p. 59
Lesson 9

Additional Vocabulary:
Marital Status Traslation Other related Traslation
(estado civil) vocabulary
(outros vocabulários
relacionados)
Single Solteiro(a) Husband Marido
Married Casado(a) Wife Esposa
Divorced Divorciado(a) Bride Noiva (de igreja)
Widow Viúva Engaged Noivo(a)
Widowed Viúvo Retired Aposentado(a)
--- --- Paramour Amásio
--- --- Lover / mistress Amante
--- --- affair “caso” / “rolo”
--- --- Concubine Concubina

9.1 - Finish these sentences.

1 I’m going to wash my hands. . 4 He’s going to wash .


2 She’s going to wash . 5 They’re going to wash .
3 We’re going to wash . 6 Are you going to wash ?

9.2 - Put in my/our/your/his/her/their/its.


1 Do you like your job?
2 I know Mr Watson but I don 't know wife.
3 Mr and Mrs Baker live in London. son lives in Australia.
4 We’re going to have a party. We’re going to invite all friends.
5 Ann is going out with friends this evening.
6 I like tennis. It’s favourite sport.
7 ‘Is that car?’ ‘No, I haven’t got a car.
8 I want to phone Ann. Do you know phone number?
9 Do you think most people are happy in jobs?
10 I'm going to wash hair before I go out.
11 This is a beautiful tree. leaves are a beautiful colour.
12 John has a brother and a sister. brother is 25 and sister is 21.

9.3 - Choose the right word.


1 It’s their/theirs problem, not our/ours. their and ours are right
2 This is a nice camera. Is it your/yours?
3 That's not my/mine umbrella. My/Mine is black.
4 Whose books are these? Your/Yours or my/mine?
5 Catherine is going out with her/hers friends this evening.
6 My/Mine room is bigger than her/hers.
7 They´ve got two children but I don´t know their/theirs names.
8 Can we use your washing machine? Our/Ours is broken.

p. 60
Lesson 9

9.4 - Look at the family tree. Write sentences about the people in the family.

9.5 - Finish the sentences with mine/yours etc.

1 It's your money. It's yours . 5 It’s their house. It’s .


2 It's my bag. It's . 6 They’re your books. They're .
3 It's our car. It's . 7 They’re my glasses. They're .
4 They’re her shoes. They’re . 8 It’s his coat. It's .

JOKE

(by Internet)

Going To Jamaica

A blonde gets on an airplane and sits down in the first class section. The stewardess tells her she must
move to economy because she doesn't have a first class ticket.
The blonde replies, "I'm blonde, I'm smart, I have a good job and I'm staying in first class until we reach
Jamaica."

The stewardess gets the head stewardess who asks the woman to leave and she says, "I'm blonde, I'm
smart, I have a good job and I'm staying in first class until we reach Jamaica."

The stewardesses don't know what to do because they have to get the rest of the passengers seated to take
off, so they get the co-pilot.

The co-pilot goes up to the blonde and whispers in her ear. She immediately gets up and goes to her seat
in the economy section. The head stewardess asks the co-pilot what he said to get her to move.

The co-pilot replies, "I told her the front half of the airplane wasn't going to Jamaica".

p. 61
Lesson 10

Vocabulary: The Body:

The Body

1. head 7. foot 13. chest

2. neck 8. hand 14. breast

3. abdomen 9. arm 15. elbow

4. waist 10. shoulder 16. thigh

5. hip 11. back 17. knee

6. leg 12. buttocks 18. calf

The Face 23. jaw 27. eye 32. eyebrow


19. hair 24. gums 28. ear 33. eyelid
20. forehead 25. teeth 29. cheek 34. eyelashes
21. nose 26. tongue 30. lip
22. mouth 31. chin

p. 62
Lesson 10

Inside the body 40. gallbladder 46. pancreas The skeleton

35. brain 41. stomach 47. bladder 52. skull

36. throat 42. intestines 48. muscle 53. rib cage

37. lung 43. artery 49. bone 54. spinal column

38. heart 44. vein 50. nerve 55. pelvis

39. liver 45. kidney 51. skin

The Hand The Foot The Senses

56. thumbs 60. wrist 64. toenail D. taste

57. fingers 61. ankle A. see E. touch

58. fingernail 62. heel B. hear

59. palm 63. toe C. smell

p. 63
Lesson 10

Grammar: Interrogative pronouns

Os pronomes interrogativos no inglês, como já falamos, sempre iniciam perguntas, e têm a tradução
abaixo descrita. O único detalhe que pode nos confundir, é o uso do “which” e o uso do “what”, que como
podemos ver, têm a mesma tradução, mas suas aplicações de uso prático nas perguntas variam de acordo
com um contexto de “generalidade” ou um contexto de “opção, restrinção”. Vamos entender melhor estes
“contextos”, tanto para o “what” quanto para o “which” no segundo parágrafo.
When – quando ? Where – onde ?
Which – qual ?/ o que ? (com opção / “with option”) What – qual ? / o que ? (geral / “general”)
Who – quem ?

Em relação ao “what” e ao “which”, como podemos observar eles possuem o mesmo significado,
porem aplicações diferentes. Quando se tem na pergunta, uma opção implícita, prefira usar o “which”.
Quando se tem uma opção explicita, somos obrigados a usar o “which”. Quando temos uma pergunta
referente a algo geral, usa-se o “what”. Observe os exemplos abaixo, contextualizando os casos de opções
implícitas e explícitas:
Ex: Qual é o quarto que vou dormir hoje? (opção implícita – apenas um quarto dentre alguns da
casa); “Which is the bedroom that I’ll sleep tonight?”. Pode-se entretanto também o uso do “what”, mas não
como a melhor escolha, preferencialmente devemos usar o “which”. Qual é o quarto que eu vou dormir hoje,
o da direita ou aquele da esquerda? (opção explícita); “Which’s the bedroom that I’ll sleep tonight, the
right one or the left one?”. Neste caso, não podemos usar o “what” pois a opção “apareceu” na pergunta,
explicitamente. Não tenho escolha, apenas o “which” pode ser usado.
. Qual o nome você prefere, Bob ou João? “ Which name do you prefer, Bob or John? ” (neste caso
somos obrigados ao uso do “which” pois temos um caso de opção explícita “explicit option”, não podendo o
uso do “what”).
Exs:
“ When is the movie? ” (quando é o filme?)
“ Where is the movie? ” (onde/aonde é o fime?)
“ What is that movie? ” (qual é o filme?) (idéia de generalização / “general idea”)
“ Which kind of movie is that? ” (que tipo de filme é aquele) (idéia de opção / “option Idea”)
“ Which is the movie; E.T or GHOST? ” (qual é o filme; E.T ou Ghost?)
“ What is the movie; E.T or GHOST? ” - WRONG QUESTION
“ Who is he? ” (quem é ele)

Grammar: Relative Clauses

O pronome relativo “Que” / “ Relative Clauses ”:


Já estudamos os “interrogative pronouns”, e já sabemos também que como pronomes interrogativos,
tínhamos apenas perguntas (“interrogative sentences”). Vamos agora, neste momento, entender como eles todos
também podem funcionar morfologicamente como pronomes relativos “que”, em frases afirmativas. Podemos
associar suas traduções anteriores com o que vamos estudar agora, mas de forma “adaptada” a novos contextos (a
tradução literal não é adequada). Se perguntamos por exemplo: Onde você mora: “Where do you live?” , o “Where”
neste caso é um pronome interrogativo “onde?”. Podemos também por exemplo dizer: O lugar (que / onde /
aonde) você mora é bonito:
aonde) o: “the place where you live is beautiful ”. Percebam que neste segundo exemplo estamos
usando o “where” em uma afirmação, portanto trata-se de um dos “relative clauses” que estudaremos neste
momento. Falamos que a tradução agora é “adaptada” e não literal porque a melhor tradução do “where” no
segundo exemplo é “que”, e não “onde ou aonde”, ressaltando que a tradução “onde ou aonde” não chega a ser
errada, ela é apenas menos indicada. Vamos então listar estes pronomes relativos:
. Who – “Que / quem” – Relacionado a pessoas.

p. 64
Lesson 10

Ex: “The man who is my classmate is very messy”. (o homem que é meu colega de sala de aula é muito
bagunceiro)
. That / Which – “Que / o que / qual / ao qual” – Relacionado a “coisas”.
Ex: “The clock ( that / which) is broken is by stone”. (o relógio que está quebrado é de pedra)
. Whose – “Que / de quem” – Relacionado a posse (pessoas).
Ex: “The car whose I borrowed is big”. (o carro que eu peguei emprestado é grande)
. Where – “Que / onde / aonde” – Relacionado a lugar.
Ex: “The street where she studies is dark”. (a rua que ela estuda é escura)
. When – “Que / quando” – Relacionado ao tempo.
Ex: “The Summer when they spent together was unforgetable”. (o verão que eles passaram juntos foi
inesquecível).
. How – “Que / como” – Relacionado à maneira, ao modo.
Ex: “The way how she loves him is so beautiful!”. (o jeito que ela o ama é tão bonito!)
. Whom – Usa-se “Who” relacionado com o sujeito da oração e “whom” Relacionado com o objeto da
oração.
Ex: “The boy whom she wants to see is on the beach”. (o garoto que ela quer ver está na praia) (she: subject;
The boy: object).
Temos também estes 3 “relative clauses” abaixo, sempre referindo ao objeto da oração (segindo o modelo do
“whom”):
“to whom” (para quem);
Ex: “The institute girl to whom he helps is now well”. (a garota do instituto para quem ele ajuda está bem
agora) (the girl: object, he: subject)
“from whom” (de quem);
Ex: “The girl from whom we are talking about is pretty”. (a garota de quem estamos falando é linda) (the girl:
object, we: subject)
“with whom” (com quem);
Ex: “The person whom he is talking on the phone with is Susan”. (a pessoa com quem ele está falando ao
telefone é a Susan)
(the person: object, he: subject)

10.1 - Put the sentences into English:

a) Qual carro voce prefere? ......................................................................................................................................................................


b) Qual carro esportivo voce prefere?..................................................................................................................................................
c) Quem é o seu pai? .................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Quem é o seu pai, aquele homen ali ou aquele outro de azul?...........................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................
e) Onde você mora? ....................................................................................................................................................................................
f) De onde você é? .....................................................................................................................................................................................
g) Quando você para de trabalhar?.......................................................................................................................................................
h) Quem é o seu melhor amigo?............................................................................................................................................................
i) Qual é o seu sobrenome? ....................................................................................................................................................................
j) Qual sobrenome você acha engraçado?........................................................................................................................................
k) Onde seu melhor amigo mora?.........................................................................................................................................................

p. 65
Lesson 10

10.2 - Answer the questions (But please… All of those following situations are fictitious !!! OK?!):

a) Where do you live? .................................................................................................................................................................................


b) When do you wake up? ........................................................................................................................................................................
c) What do you do?.....................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Which color do you prefer, black or white?..................................................................................................................................
e) Who is your father’s brother?.............................................................................................................................................................
f) Who is your mother’s sister?...............................................................................................................................................................
g) What are your favorite clothes?.........................................................................................................................................................
h) Who is your uncle’s son?......................................................................................................................................................................
i) Who is your husband/wife’s brother? .............................................................................................................................................
j) When do you usually have dinner?..................................................................................................................................................
k) Where is your favorite city?.................................................................................................................................................................
l) Who is your closest cousin? ................................................................................................................................................................
m) Who does the housework in your place (subject question)?.................................................................................................

10.5 - In this exercise you have to explain what some words mean. Choose the right meaning from the box
and then write a sentence with who. Use a dictionary if necessary.

steals from a shop buys something from a shop


he/she designs buildings He/she pays rent to live in a house or flat
doesn’t believe in God breaks into a house to steal things
is not brave no longer works and get money from the state

1 (an architect) An architect is someone who designs bulldings. .


2 (a burglar) A burglar is someone ......................................................................................................................................................
3 (a customer)...............................................................................................................................................................................................
4 (a shoplifter) ..............................................................................................................................................................................................
5 ( a coward)..................................................................................................................................................................................................
6 (an atheist)..................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 (a pensioner)..............................................................................................................................................................................................
8 ( a tenant) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................

10.6 - “Complete the gaps with the relative clause ”where” and a complement you want”.

1 (a cinema) A cinema is a place where we can see movies.


2 (a disco)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3 (a holiday town)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4 (a church)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
5 (a lake)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6 (a public library)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7 (a gym)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

p. 66
Lesson 10

TEXT
(by Amadeu Marques)

He month is april. Spring is here again. I can feel it


In the air. Everybody in the house is happy, especially
Tomorrow. Tomorrow is my special friend, my dog. His
Name is tomorrow because we call him, but he never
Comes…I don’t have any brothers or sisters, but I have
My special friend. He goes to school with me and we
Are always together.
We live on a small farm in Vermont. That’s in the
United States. There are no movies or discos here. We
Live a simple life, very different from life in a big city.
Not many people come to the farm, but I like it here. I
Don’t have many friends, but I have tomorrow.

Text Comprehension.

(Again, answer preferable in english if you think It’s possible!)

1. When you hear about “tomorrow”, what`s your first thought or idea come out your mind?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Which of the simple life pleasures do you most identify with and why.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Do you like pets, which ones?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

p. 67
Lesson 11

Vocabulary: The Time

A.M.

P.M.
1. second 2. minute 3. hour

4. 1:00 5. 1:05 6. 1:10 7. 1:15


one o’clock one-oh-five one-ten one-fifteen
five after one ten after one a quarter after one

8. 1:20 9. 1:25 10. 1:30 11. 1:35


one-twenty one twenty-five one-thirty one thirty-five
twenty after one twenty-five after one half past one twenty five to two

12. 1:40 13. 1:45 14. 1:50 15. 1:55


one-forty one forty-five one-fifty one fifty-five
twenty to two a quarter to two ten to two five to two

p. 68
Lesson 11

Vocabulary: What time is it?

Vamos primeiramente, ressaltar algumas grandes diferenças entre o inglês e o português em relação
a horas:

. 1 – No Inglês, prefira usar a nomeclatura: a.m (antes de meio dia) / p.m (pós meio dia) – não
convém por exemplo o “nosso” 20:00 hs., devemos usar neste caso 8:00 p.m.
. 2 – No Inglês, para responder é obrigatório o uso do: It’s... , e para horas exatas, usa-se o
“ o’clock”. Ex: São oito horas da noite: It’s eight o’clock at night , or, It’s 8:00 p.m
. 3 – Usa-se muito HALF (significa “metade”), para referir a 30 min (metade de uma hora),
e, QUARTER (significa “um quarto”), referindo a 15 min (um quarto de uma hora).
. 4 – Por exemplo: 10:10 – podemos dizer esta hora de forma informal: It’s ten ten (como
nós aqui falamos), são dez e dez ou de forma formal: It’s ten past / after ten (São dez passado das dez),
o primeiro modo é mais usado. A preposição “To” (significa “para”) é também bastante usada :
10:50 - It’s ten to eleven
. 5 – Cuidado com a confusão:
12:00 p.m – midday / noon
12:00 a.m - midnight
. 6 – Dizemos por exemplo:
Cheguei em casa às 4 da manha / da madrugada: I got home 4 in the morning / 4 at dawn
Cheguei em casa às 4 da tarde: I got home 4 in the afternoon
Cheguei em casa às 6:30 da tarde: I got home at six thirty in the evening / at night

Unformal way / Formal way / hardly used way


day-by-day way

8:00 hs It’s eight o’clock / on the dot It’s eight o’clock / on the clock / on the dot
8:05 hs It’s eight five It’s five past / after eight

8:10 hs It’s eight ten It’s ten past / after eight

8:15 hs It’s eight fifteen It’s fifteen past / after eight


It’s eight and a quarter It’s a quarter past / after eight

8:20 hs It’s eight twenty It’s twenty past / after eight

8:30 hs It’s eight thirty It’s thirty past / after eight


It’s eight and a half It’s a half past / after eight

8:40 hs It’s eight forty It’s forty past /after eight


It’s twenty to nine

8:45 hs It’s eight forty-five It’s forty-five past / after eight


It´s fifteen to nine
It’s a quarter to nine

8:50 hs It’s eight fifty It’s fifty past eight


It’s ten to nine

9:00 hs It’s nine o’clock / on the dot It’s nine o’clock / on the clock / on the dot

p. 69
Lesson 11

Grammar: Simple present

Este tempo verbal é usado para expressar uma afirmação, um fato, uma rotina. Como o nome já diz é
o presente simples. O verbo “to be” (ser ou estar) pode ou não estar presente na oração, sempre que a
mensagem da frase precisar ou não da informação do “ser / estar” . Ex:
. Eu sou um estudante. (Temos a informação “ sou” – “verb to be” conjugado)- I’m a student.
. Eu estudo à noite. (Não temos a informação do “verb to be” – ser/estar) – I study at night.
. Estou feliz. (Temos a informação “ estou” – “verb to be” conjugado) – I’m happy.
. Eu fico feliz quando como chocolate. (Não temos o “to be” na frase) – I get happy when
I eat chocolate.
Ocorre neste tempo verbal uma situação única se tratando de tempos verbais em inglês. Neste tempo
verbal somos OBRIGADOS a CONJUGAR o verbo quando tivermos:

Simple present + affirmative tense + third person (He, she, it)

Conjugamos colocando o verbo no plural. (mesma regra do plural dos substantivos aplica-se aos
verbos).
Obs: o plural nos verbos é apenas para indicar conjugação e não se traduz como plural propriamente dito.
Ex: Ela bebe leite todos os dias. She drinks milk every day. ( ela bebe leite todos os dias, e não ela bebes
leite…). Ex:

To study To go To play

I study I go I play
You study You go You play
He studies* He goes** He plays
She studies* She goes** She plays
It studies* It goes** It plays
We study we go we play
You study You go You play
They study They go They play

Mesma regra do plural para os substantivos é aplicada aos verbos.


* consonant + “Y” : IES (without “Y”)
** words ended: “o”, “s”, “ss”, “x”, “z”, “sh”, “ch” : ES (added)
ex: he watches…, she fixes…, it goes…, he cries…, she tries…, etc.

Estamos até agora, referindo apenas as frases na “affirmative”, vamos estudar como se aplica à regra
para o “negative” e para o “interrogative”, ressaltando novamente a grande diferença entre o português e o
inglês.
Já estudamos o verb to be, então se tivermos uma frase no simple present com verb to be temos:
Ex: She is a student; she isn’t a student; Is she a student?
We’re Brazilian; we’re not Brazilian; Are you Brazilian?
They are here. They aren’t here. Are they here?

Entretanto se a frase no simple present não tiver o “verb to be”, temos que usar o auxiliar “do” ou
“does” sempre que quisermos fazer uma frase no interrogative ou negative (exceto “subject questions”)
pedindo auxílio para o auxiliar. Vamos relembrar mais uma vez o que é isto.

p. 70
Lesson 11

Em inglês, se não tivermos os “auxiliary verbs” na oração (“to be”, “modal verbs”, “there is/are”,
“has/have got”, etc), temos sempre que usar os auxiliares para negar ou perguntar (e os auxiliares do presente
são o “do” para “I, you, we, they”, e o “does” paro o “he, she, it”). Não podemos apenas perguntar ou negar
como no português:

Você trabalha? You work ? – WRONG!!! Temos que perguntar: Do you work?
Ela não trabalha. She not work – WRONG !!! Temos que negar: She DOES not work; ou
she doesn’t work.

Então, temos que usar os auxiliares Do ou Does para frases na negativa ou interrogativa (object
question), respeitando a seguinte tabela:

Interrogative Negative
(object question)
I Do I...?* I do not = I don’t
You Do you...? You do not = you don’t
He Does he...? He does not = he doesn’t
She Does she...? She does not = she doesn’t
It Does it...? It does not = it doesn’t
We Do we...?* We do not = we don’t
You Do you...? You do not = you don’t
They Do they...? They do not = they don’t

* Melhor: Do you…?

Já sabemos que somos obrigados a conjugar o verbo quando temos frases afirmativas no presente
simples conjugadas na terceira pessoa. Se tivermos “do/does + not” ou “Do/does + ... + ? ” logicamente não
estamos fazendo frases afirmativas, portanto, o verbo não é conjugado. Em outras palavras, se usarmos os
auxiliares “do / does” o verbo “volta” para o infinitivo sem o “to”.
Ex: To cry (chorar) – He cries a lot. / He doesn’t cry a lot. / Does he cry a lot ?
To do (fazer) – She does math. / she doesn’t do math. / Does she do math ?

Portanto temos:

Ex: Ela estuda na Uniube__________________She studies at Uniube.


Ela não estuda na Uniube.______________She doesn’t study at Uniube.
Ela estuda na Uniube? ________________Does she study at Uniube?
Ela é uma estudante da Uniube._________She is a Uniube student. (auxiliary verb)
Ela não é uma estudante da Uniube.______She isn’t a Uniube student. (auxiliary verb)
Ela é uma estudante da Uniube?_________Is she a Uniube student? (auxiliary verb)

Vamos lembrar que no inglês o sujeito tem que ser explícito na oração:

Ex: Sou Uberabense. _____________________I´m from Uberaba.


Moro em Uberaba.____________________I live in Uberaba.
Não gosto de laranja.__________________I don’t like orange
Ela não está perto da laranjeira__________She isn’t near the orange tree.
Amar é preciso (infinitivo)._____________To love is needed/necessary.
É legal ______________________________It’s Nice.
São 2:00 hs __________________________It’s 2 o’clock.
Está calor ___________________________It’s hot.

p. 71
Lesson 11

11.1 - What time is it ? (Use: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening or at night)
a) 6:00 p.m.......................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) 7:00 a.m........................................................................................................................................................................................................
c) 6:30 a.m .......................................................................................................................................................................................................
d) 12:00 p.m ....................................................................................................................................................................................................
e) 5:15 p.m.......................................................................................................................................................................................................
f) 5:45 a.m .......................................................................................................................................................................................................
g) 12:00 a.m.....................................................................................................................................................................................................
h) 6:05 p.m.......................................................................................................................................................................................................
i) 5:50 a.m .......................................................................................................................................................................................................
j) 8: 55 p.m .....................................................................................................................................................................................................
k) 11:00 p.m ....................................................................................................................................................................................................
l) 7:30 a.m .......................................................................................................................................................................................................

11.2 - Complete the sentences. Use these verbs:

boil close cost cost like like meet open speak teach wash

1 Margaret speaks four languages.


2 In Britain the banks usually at 9.30 in the morning.
3 The City Museum at 5 o'clock in the evening.
4 Tina is a teacher. She mathematics to young children.
5 My job is very interesting. I a lot of people.
6 Peter his hair twice a week.
7 Food is expensive. It a lot of money.
8 Shoes are expensive. They a lot of money.
9 Water at 100 degrees Celsius.
10 Julia and I are good friends. I her and she me.

11.3 - Study the information and write sentences with like.

11.4 - Take a look on the pages 62 and 63 and orally and written describe 3 people you know of your day-by-
day life with details. As much vocabulary you remember, better. Use those words. ...........................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 72
Lesson 11

11.5 - Write questions. Use the words in brackets (...) + do/does. Put the words in the right order.

1 (where / live / your parents?) Where do your parents live? .


2 (You / early / always / get up?) Do you always get up early? .
3 (how often / TV / you / watch?) .
4 (you / want / what / for dinner?) .
5 (like / you / football?) .
6 (your brother / like / football?) .
7 (what / you / do / in the evenings?) .
8 (your sister / work / where?) .
9 (to the cinema / often / you / go?) .
10 (what / mean / this word?) .
11 (often / snow / it / here?) .
12 (go / usually / to bed / what time / you?) .
13 (how much / to phone New York / it / cost?) .
14 (you / for breakfast / have / usually / what?) .

11.6 - Put in am/is/are or do/don’t/does/doesn’t.

1 Excuse me, do you speak English?


2 ‘Where’s Ann?’ ‘I know’.
3 What’s funny? Why you laughing?
4 ‘What your sister do?’ She’s a dentist.’
5 It raining. I want to go out in the rain.
6 ‘Where you come from?’ ‘Canada.’
7 How much it cost to phone Canada?
8 George is a good tennis player but he play very often.

TEXT (by Internet)

Buying a good horse

There was a king who was willing to pay a thousand pieces of gold for a horse that could run a thousand
mile without stopping. For three years he tried in vain* to find such a steed.
Then someone offered :
_ Let me look for a horse for Your Majesty.
The king agreed to this.
After three months this man came back, having spent five hundred pieces of gold on a horse's skull.
The king was most enraged.
_ I want a live horse he roared. What use is a dead horse to me ? Why spend five hundred pieces of gold on
nothing ?
But the man replied if you will spend five hundred pieces of gold on a dead horse, won't you give much
more for a live one? When people hear of this, they will know you are really willing to pay for a good horse,
and will quickly send you their best.
Sure enough, in less than a year the king succeeded in buying three excellent horses.

* in vain If you do something in vain, you are critical of their extreme pride in their own beauty,
intelligence, or other good qualities.

p. 73
Lesson 12

Vocabulary: Day-By-Day Verbs

A. wake up F. make lunch K. work


B. get up G. take the children to school L. go to the market
C. take/have a bath/shower H. take the bus to school M. leave work
D. get dressed I. drive to work / go to work
E. eat breakfast J. be in school

p. 74
Lesson 12

Vocabulary: Routine / Life Verbs

N. clean the house R. have dinner V. read the paper


O. pick up the children S. watch TV W. exercise
P. cook dinner T. do homework X. go to the bed
Q. come home / get home U. relax Y. go/get to sleep

p. 75
Lesson 12

Simple present continous or


Simple present progressive:
Este tempo verbal descreve algo que está acontecendo no momento da descrição.
Vamos associar o nome contínuo (“continuous”) – progressivo (“progressive”) com continuando,
progredindo. Como podemos notar, trata-se de nosso Gerúndio. Lembra da canção: “caminhando e
cantando e seguindo a canção, somos todos iguais braços dados ou não...”, estes três verbos em negrito estão
no gerúndio. Imagine agora você dizendo: Ela correndo na rua, ele lendo um livro; obviamente notamos a
grande falta do: ela está correndo na rua, ele está lendo um livro. O que estamos querendo dizer é que não se
constroem gerúndios sem o verbo ser ou estar (no exemplo: está), e, a mesma associação é válida para o
inglês. Como já sabemos, o verbo ser ou estar no inglês é o “To be”. Em outras palvras: o gerundio
(continuous ou progressive) exige o verb to be. Como estamos falando em presente (simple present
continuous), o verbo “to be” tem que estar no presente (“am/is/are” – já conjugado).
Agora que já foi provado que o uso do verbo “To be” é obrigatório para o gerúndio, basta apenas
aprender como se coloca o verbo no gerúndio. É simples, coloca-se o “ ING ” depois do verbo (no infinitivo
sem o “to”). Portanto temos:
- Ela canta bem.___________________verbo “cantar” conjugado___ “She sings well”.
- Ela gosta de cantar._______________verbo “cantar” no infinitivo__ “She likes to sing”.
- Ela está cantando neste momento.____verbo “cantar” no gerúndio__ “She is singing at this moment”.
Em regra geral coloca-se o “Ing” depois do verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”, com exceção destes três
casos que veremos abaixo. As traduções dos verbos abaixo, entre parênteses, são referentes aos verbos
no infinitivo.
1 - Verbos que terminam em consoante, vogal, consoante e também em sílaba tônica coiscidentes nesta
última sílaba, dobramos a última letra do verbo. Detalhe: as letras “y” e “w” no inglês são consideras
“semivogais” e não consoantes, portanto não dobramos os verbos que terminam com estas duas
“semivogais”.
C.V.C. (Consonant – Vowel – Consonant) + stressed syllable (sílaba tônica) = the last verb letter
doubled:
Ex: “To run – running” (correr) “To shop – shopping” (comprar) “To draw –drawing” (desenhar)
To get – getting” (tornar,obter,chegar,ficar,comprar) “To swim – swimming” (nadar) “To say – saying”
(dizer,falar)
“To stop – stopping” (parar) “To listen – listening* ” (escutar) NÃO DOBRAMOS O “W” E O “Y”!
* lis = sílaba tônica.
2 - Verbos que terminam em “E”, este “e” desaparece:
Ex: “To take – taking” (tomar,pegar) “To give – giving” (dar)
“To write – writing” (escrever) “To love – loving” (amar)
* Quando tivermos verbos que acabam em “EE”, nada acontece:
Ex: “To see – seeing” (ver)
To agree – agreeing” (concordar)

3 - Three exceptions:
“To lie – lying” (mentir,deitar)
“To die – dying” (morrer)
“To travel – traveling (consider 1 syllable) / or travelling” (viajar) (exceção porque não obedece ao item n.
Se o verbo não se encaixar em nenhum dos três casos acima, basta apenas acrescentarmos o “ING” no
final do verbo.
Ex: “To go – going” (ir) “To do – doing” (fazer)
“To eat – eating” (comer) “To read – reading” (ler)
“To study – studying” (estudar) “To play – playing” (jogar,brincar,tocar)
“To cry – crying” (chorar)

p. 76
Lesson 12

Vamos agora resumir o que foi estudado, analisando a formação da estrutura deste tempo verbal em uma frase:

Formation: Subject + Verb to be + main verb + ING + complement

Ex: “I’m driving a car while he is looking at the people”. (eu estou dirijindo um carro enquanto ele está olhando
para as pessoas).
“ She is not here, she is walking down the street”. (ela não está aqui, ela está descendo caminhando na rua)
“At this moment, they are going to the club”. (neste momento, eles estão indo ao clube)
Lembramos que quando temos o verbo “to be”, por ele ser um verbo auxiliar (fazer papel de verbo e
de auxiliar ao mesmo tempo), não precisamos de mais nada para colocar a frase na afirmativa ou negativa
(estamos falando que não precisamos dos auxiliares “do / does”). Portanto neste tempo verbal – O Presente
contínuo/progressivo nunca teremos a presença do “do” ou do “does”.
Ex: “She is writing on the board now. - Affirmative” (ela está escrevendo no quadro agora – afirmativo)
“Is she writing on the board now ? - Interrogative”(ela está escrevendo no quadro agora? –
interrogativo)
“She is not / isn’t writing on the board now. – Negative” (ela não está escrevendo no quadro agora –
negativo)
Outro detalhe importante a respeito deste tempo verbal é a importância de mencionar um
complemento que indique que algo está acontecendo no momento da descrição. Os principais
complementos são:
. now (agora)
. right now (agora mesmo)
. at / on (this / that / the) moment (neste / naquele / no momento)
. at / on (this / that / the) time (nesta / naquela / na hora)
. while (enquanto)
Finalmente vale a pena ressaltar que este tempo verbal deve ser preferencialmente
relacionados com verbos que expressem ações (acting verbs). Os verbos que expressam sentimentos,
emoções (coisas abstratas ou não concretas) devem ser evitados (não chegam a ser errados). Ex:
. Ao invés de: “I’m wanting to have an ice-cream”; prefira: “I want to have an ice-cream”.
. Ao invés de: “I`m thinking to do math”; prefira: “I think to do math”.
. Ao invés de: “I`m loving her”; prefira: “I love her”.
Excessão: O verbo “to sit” (sentar):
Prefira: “I’m sitting here” (Eu estou sentado aqui, e não “Eu estou sentando aqui”).
Ao invés de: “I’m sat here” (Eu estou sentado aqui).

12.1 - Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or the present simple (I do).
1 Excuse me. Do you speak (you/speak) English?
2 ‘Where’s Tom?’ ‘ He’s having (he/have) a shower.’
3 I don’t watch (I/not/watch) television very often.
4 Listen! Somebody (sing).
5 Sandra is tired. (she/want) to go home now.
6 How often (you/read) a newspaper?
7 ‘Excuse me but (you/sit) in my place.’ ‘Oh, I'm sorry.’
8 I’m sorry, (I/not/understand). Can you speak more slowly?
9 It’s late. . (I/ go ) home now. (you/come) with me?
10 What time (your father / finish) work in the evenings?
11 You can turn off the radio. (I/ not/listen) to it.
12 ‘Where’s Paul?’ ‘In the kitchen. (he/ cook) something.’

p. 77
Lesson 12

13 Martin (not/usually/drive) to work.


He . (usually /walk).
14 Sue (not/like) coffee. (she/prefer) tea.

12.2 - What's happening at the moment? Write true sentences.


1 (I / wash / my hair) I’m not washing my hair. .
2 (it / snow) It’s snowing. OR it isn’t snowing. .
3 (I / sit / on a chair) .............................................................................................................................................................
4 (I / eat) ....................................................................................................................................................................................
5 (it / rain) .................................................................................................................................................................................
6 (I / learn / English) .............................................................................................................................................................
7 (I / listen / to music)..........................................................................................................................................................
8 (the sun / shine)..................................................................................................................................................................
9 (I / wear / shoes).................................................................................................................................................................
10 (I / read / a newspaper)....................................................................................................................................................

12.3 - Look at the pictures and write the questions.

12.4 - Write questions from these words. Use is or are and put the words in order.
1 (working / Paul/ today?) Is Paul working today? .
2 (what / doing / the children?) What are the children doing? .
3 (you / listening / to me?) .
4 (where / going / your friends?) .
5 (your parents / television / watching?) .
6 (what / cooking / Ann?) .
7 (why / you / looking / at me?) .
8 (coming / the bus?) .

12.5 - Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong.
1 Water boils at 100 degrees celsius. RIGHT .
2 The water boils. Can you turn it off? WRONG: is boiling .
3 Look! That man tries to open the door of your car. .
4 Can you hear those people? What do they talk about? .
5 The moon goes round the earth. .
6 I must go now. It gets late. .
7 I usually go to work by car. .
8 ‘Hurry up! It’s time to leave.’ ‘OK, I come.’ .
9 I hear you've got a new job. How do you get on? .

p. 78
Lesson 12

12.6 - Answer the questions about the pictures.

1 Does he take photographs? Yes, he does. . Is he taking a photograph? No, he isn’t. .


What is he doing? He’s having a bath. .
2 Is she driving a bus? Does she drive a bus? .
What is she doing? .
3 Does he clean windows? . Is he cleaning a window? .
What is he doing? .
4 Are they teaching? . Do they teach? .
What do they do? .

TEXT
(by Amadeu Marques)

Oh, to be in England, now that winter is not here…I love this place. Especially in summer.
There’s music in the air and color everywhere. Hmm, good. Not bad for a young poet…
I live in Bournemouth, a holliday town in the south coast of England. It’s a
very nice town, but every Friday when I have no Classes (I teach English in a language school in
Bournemouth), I get my old bike and go for a ride in the countryside. I usually go to the old
forest. For me, that’s England at it’s best. It’s not near, but I’m a good cyclist. And I need the
exercise. I always bring a good book, or some tests to correct. And my camera. There are wonderful
views In the forest. And it’s wonderful to explore it by bicycle.

p. 79
Lesson 13

Personal Hygiene

A. Take a shower B. Bath / take a bath C. Use deodorant D. Put on sunscreen

1. shower cap 4. deodorant 7. body lotion

2. soap 5. perfume / cologne 8. moisturizer

3. bath powder / talcum powder 6. sunscreen

E. Wash... hair F. Rinse... hair G. Comb… hair H. Dry… hair I. Brush… hair

9. shampoo 12. hair spray 15. curling iron 18. barrette (tiara)
10. conditioner 13. comb 16. blow drier / hair drier 19. bobby pins
11. hair gel 14. brush 17. hair clip

p. 80
J. Brush...teeth K. Floss... teeth L. Gargle M. Shave

20. toothbrush 23. mouthwash 26. razor blade

21. toothpaste 24. eletric shaver 27. shaving cream

22. dental floss 25. razor 28. after shave

N. Cut... nails O. Polish.... nails P. Put on… make up

29. nail clipper 33. eyebrow pencil 37. lipstick

30. emery board 34. eye shadow 38. mascara

31. nail polish 35. eye liner 39. face powder

32. nail polish remover 36. blush / rouge 40. foundation

p. 81
Lesson 13

Grammar: Simple past tense

É usado para descrever uma situação ou fato que aconteceu em um passado DEFINIDO (algum fato
passado que começou e acabou completamente). Por se tratar sempre de um passado definido, é
importantíssimo colocarmos uma expressão de tempo - Quando??? que ocorreu o fato ou situação descrita.
As “time expressions” mais comuns são:

. yesterday
. last + ........... .......... pode ser: moment, second, minute, time,
..............+ ago hour, day, week, weekend,
......... + before month, year, decade, century, etc…

Uma frase no “simple past tense” pode ou não ter o “verb to be” no passado, se tiver, obedece a
tabela:
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
form form form
I was... I was not = I wasn’t… Was I …?
You were… You were not = You weren’t… Were you …?
He was… He was not = He wasn’t … Was He…?
She was… She was not = She wasn’t… Was she…?
It was… It was not = It wasn’t… Was It…?
We were… We were not = We weren’t… Were We…?
You were… You were not = you weren’t… Were You…?
They were… They were not = They weren’t… Were They…?
Ex:
. Ela era uma criança a dez anos atrás. – She was a child ten years ago.
. Eu estava doente no mês passado. - I was sick last month.
. Aonde você estava ontem? - Where were you yesterday?
. Nós não estávamos aqui anteontem. - We weren’t here the day before yesterday.
. Havia várias pessoas na festa ontem – There were a lot of people in the party yesterday.
. Não havia ninguém na festa ontem – There wasn’t anyone in the party yesterday.
. Havia alguém na festa ontem? Was there anyone in the party yesterday?

Já as frases que não tiverem o “verb to be” no passado, terão, na affirmativa, o passado expresso
pelos próprios verbos, podendo estes serem “regulares or irregulares”. Os verbos regulares são aqueles que
possuem terminação “ED”, tanto para o passado simples quanto para o passado particípio. Os verbos
Irregulares, possuem forma variável no passado simples e no passado particípio.

REGULAR VERBS

Infinitive Simple past Past participle Translation


To call called called Ligar, chamar
To happen happened happened acontecer
To open opened opened abrir
To stop stopped * stopped * parar
To shop shopped * shopped * comprar
To play played played brincar, jogar, tocar
To cry cried ** cried ** chorar
To pray prayed prayed rezar
To study studied ** studied ** estudar

p. 82
Lesson 13

* - dobrou a última consoante (C.V.C)


** - o verbo que terminar em: consoante + “Y” = Tira o “Y” e coloca “IED”
. play – played – vogal + “Y” – nada acontece
. cry – cried - consoante + “Y” – tira o “Y” e coloca o “IED”
. study - studied

IRREGULAR VERBS

Infinitive Simple past Past participle Translation


To go went gone ir
To be was/were been ser, estar
To cut cut cut cortar
To read read read ler
To sing sang sung cantar
To drink drank drunk beber
To bring brought brought trazer
To hold held held segurar

Considerando que uma frase no “simple past” não tenha um dos “auxiliary verbs” – pág 7 – (neste
caso no tempo passado), principalmente o “to be” no passado “was” ou o “were”, por ser mais usado, temos
que usar o auxiliar “did” antes do sujeito para perguntar, e o “did not / didn’t” para negar. O verbo (regular
ou irregular) em frases interrogativas e negativas fica no infinitivo sem o “to”.
Frases no simple past
sem o “was” ou sem o Interrogative Negative
“were”
Did + subject + .... + ?
Subject + did not / didn’t +…
(verb into infinitive without
(verb into infinitive without to)
to)
Ex:
Simple past into Simple past into Simple past into
Affirmative sentences Negative sentences Interrogative sentences

She studied yesterday She didn’t study yesterday Did she study yesterday ?

He cried yesterday He didn’t cry yesterday Did he cry yesterday ?


They cried yesterday They didn’t cry yesterday Did they cry yesterday ?
They flew yesterday They didn’t fly yesterday. Did they fly yesterday ?

We played piano yesterday We didn’t play piano yest. Did we play piano yest.?
She was sad yesterday She wasn’t sad yesterday Was she sad yesterday ?
They were here yesterday. They weren’t here yester. Were they here yesterday?

I was at the club yesterday I wasn’t at the club yest. Were you at the club yest.?

Atenção: Cuidado para não confundir as regras aplicadas aos verbos nos seguintes tempos verbais: Ex: verb
to study
He studies at uniube Simple present

He is studying now Simple present continuous

He studied yesterday Simple past

p. 83
Lesson 13

Grammar: Simple past contunous

Usado para descrever o que estava acontecendo em um passado definido. Podemos seguir o mesmo
raciocínio do “present continuous” (verb “to be” obrigatório) por se tratar também de um tempo verbal
“continuous” ou “progressive” , porém, o “verb to be” agora ao invés de estar no presente, está no passado.

Formation: Subject + was / were + main verb + ing + (complement)


As expressões “When” (quando) e “while” (enquanto) são muito usadas para garantir o sentido da
frase.
Ex: While she was sleeping, her kids were playing. What were you doing when I was outside?
He wasn’t reading a book, he was whatching T.V. Were you sleeping earlier ? You seem like that !

13.1 - Sarah did a lot of things yesterday morning. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1 At 9.45 She was washing her car. . 4 At 12.50 .


2 At 11.45 she . 5 At 8.15 .
3 At 9 o’clock . 6 At 10.30 .

13.2 - Helen is traveling in Europe. Complete the sentences


with she was, she’s or she’ll be.
1 Yesterday she was in Paris.
2 Tomorrow in Amsterdam.
3 Last week in Barcelona.
4 Next week in London.
5 At the moment in Brussels.
6 Three days ago . . in Munich.
7 At the end of her trip very tired.

13.3 - Make sentences beginning with when. Choose from the boxes.

p. 84
Lesson 13

13.4 - Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple.

1 A: What were you doing (you/do) when the phone rang . (ring)?
B: I was watching (watch) television.
2 A: Was Jane busy when you went to see her?
B: Yes, she (study).
3 A: What time (the post / arrive) this morning?
B: It (come) while I (have) breakfast.
4 A: Was Margaret at work today?
B: No, she (not/ go) to work. She was ill.
5 A: How fast (you/drive) when the police
(stop) you?
B: I don't know exactly but I (not/drive) very fast.
6 A: (your team / win) the football match yesterday?
B: No, the weather was very bad, so we (not/play).
7 A: How (you/break) the window?
B: We (play) football. I .
(kick) the ball and it (hit) the window.

13.5 - What were you doing at the following times? Write one sentence as in the examples. The past
continuous is not always necessary (see the second example).

1 (at 8 o’clock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends .
2 (at 5 o’clock last Saturday) I was on a train on my way to London. .
3 (at 10.15 yesterday morning)..............................................................................................................................................................
4 (at 4.30 this morning).............................................................................................................................................................................
5 (at 7.45 yesterday evening)..................................................................................................................................................................
6 (half an hour ago)....................................................................................................................................................................................

TEXT

(by Internet)

The Ant and the Grasshopper

In a field one summer's day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart's content.
An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest.
"Why not come and chat with me," said the Grasshopper, "instead of toiling and moiling in that way?"
"I am helping to lay up food for the winter," said the Ant, "and recommend you to do the same."
"Why bother about winter?" said the Grasshopper; "We have got plenty of food at present." But the Ant
went on its way and continued its toil.
When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger - while it saw the
ants distributing every day corn and grain from the stores they had collected in the summer. Then the
Grasshopper knew: It is best to prepare for days of need.

p. 85
Lesson 14

Vocabulary: Neighborhood

1. the city / an urban area 2. the suburbs 3. small town 4. the country / a rural area

5. apartment building 6. house 7. townhouse

8. mobile home 9. college dormitory 10. shelter

11. nursing home 12. ranch 13. farm

p. 86
Lesson 14

Vocabulary: Music

A. play an instrument B. sing a song 1. orchestra 2. rock band

3. flute 8. violin 13. trumpet / horn 18. drums


4. clarinet 9. cello 14. tuba 19. tambourine
5. oboe 10. bass 15. French horn 20. electric keyboard
6. bassoon 11. guitar 16. piano 21. accordion
7. saxophone 12. trombone 17. xylophone 22. organ

p. 87
Lesson 14

Grammar: Simple Future

No inglês temos dois tipos de “simple future”:


I will travel.______________________ Eu viajarei. (will)
I am going to travel.________________Eu viajarei. (going to)
Então qual diferença???.....Vejamos:

. 1- Simple future / Immediate future “will”;

Como o nome já diz, é o futuro imediato. Expressa uma idéia de decisão recém tomada (como se
alguém fosse “pego de surpresa”), um plano, fato ou acontecimento referente ao futuro não bem planejado. O
“will” funciona como sendo seu próprio auxiliar, portanto, usa-se ele mesmo para negar e perguntar.

Formation: Subject + Will + Main verb + Complement.

. 2 - Planned future “Going To”;

É o futuro planejado. Ao contrário do “will”, este futuro é usado quando houver uma “maior certeza”
que algo acontecerá no futuro. Lembrando do “present continuous” quando referimos ao gerúndio, foi
mostrado a indispensável presença do “verb to be” quando se tem “ING”, por isso que no “Future going to”
temos que usar sempre o “Verb to be”. Usa-se o próprio “verb to be” para utilizar uma frase na negativa ou
interrogativa.
Importante: “going to” não deve ser traduzido de forma literal. Ex:
. She’s going to go to Susan’s house – Ela irá à casa da Susan. Não: ela está indo ir a casa da Susan.
. He is going to travel next month – Ele viajará no próximo mês. Não: Ele está indo viajar…

Formation: Subject + Verb to be + Going to + Main verb + Complement

Ex: You have a well planned project to travel next summer:


_ I´m going to travel next summer
_ I’m not going to travel next summer
_ Are you going to travel next summer ?

Para uma frase ser caracterizada “planned future”, após o “going to” é necessário um verbo
principal !!!

Ex: I will go to the club. (eu irei ao clube – acabei de decidir, ou não planejei – “will”)
I’m going to go to the club. (eu irei ao clube – planejei – futuro “going to”)
I´m going to the club. (eu estou indo ao clube – está acontecendo o fato – “present
continuous” Aqui sim a tradução é ao “pé da letra”)
Ex: Imagine esta situação:
The doorbell is ringing…
_ I will get it ! or:
_ I will not get it = I won’t* get it ! I´m busy now. or:
_ Will you get it, please?
* Won’t = will + not

p. 88
Lesson 14

Grammar: Augmentatives / diminuitives

Aumentativos “Augmentatives”:
No inglês usamos o adjetivo “big” (grande) ou “great” (ótimo/grande/magnígico) para formular o
aumentativo. Ex: “Big car” – carrão / grande carro.
“Great China wall” – muralha da China.
“Big house” – casão / grande casa = “mansion” = “fancy house”
(pode ser também penitenciária!!!).

Diminutivos “Diminutives”:
Usamos o “little” para formular o diminutivo :
Ex: “Little John” – Joãozinho / pequeno John.
“Little car” – carrinho / pequeno carro.
“Little girl” – garotinha / pequena garota.
Em alguns casos, podemos usar também a terminação “y” para denotar idéia de diminutivo (sentido de
“carinho” ou afeição). Ver página 9.
Ex: “Father” – pai ; “Dad” – papai; “Daddy” – papizinho.
“Pup” – filhote de cachorro; “Puppy” – filhotinho de cachorro.
“Teddy bear” – urso de pelúcia / ursinho de pelúcia.
Além destas idéias de “big/great” para aumentativos, e “little” para diminutivos, temos também, outras
palavras formadas a partir destas três citadas que podem ser facilmente associadas com o que acababos de
aprender. O exercício abaixo apresenta algumas destas traduções, extraídas do “Michaelis – Moderno dicionário
inglês”.
Coloque na terceira coluna, os números da primeira coluna que correspondem a tradução da segunda.

1) Great age 1. convencido, vaidoso. 2. ressaca (=hangover) 2.ressaca (= “hangover”)


2) Big-hearted Sequoia
3) The great majority Nada de importante, nada de mais
4) Big deal Pessoa indiscreta, faladeira
5) No great A grande maioria
6) Big toe / great toe 1. irmão mais velho. 2.chefão, “padrinho”. 3. líder de governo autoritário
7) Big fish / big gun / big shot Pouco a pouco
8) In great favour Generoso, bondoso
9) To look big Muito / aumentar, ditatar, ampliar
10) Great-uncle / great aunt Pessoa importante (inglês americano coloquial)
11) Big tree 1. pessoa de ossos grandes. 2. desajeitado.
12) Big head Grande importância
13) Little finger Pequenez, insignificância
14) Bigness / greatness Circulo máximo
15) Big mouth Dedão do pé
16) Great attraction Dedo mínimo, mindinho
17) To talk big 1. Explosão cósmica. 2. prazer, divertimento, estímilo (gíria americana)
18) Big brother O sino da torre do Parlamento em Londres
19) Little people Idade avançada
20) Big Apple Ter aspécto arrogante ou perigoso
21) Little or nothing Tio-avô / tia-avó
22) Great circle Atração principal
23) Big-boned New York
24) Great love Ursa Maior (Astronomia)
25) Big Ben Contar vantagem, exagerar.
26) Great Bear Grandesa, importância
27) Little by little Fadas, duendes, pequenos seres imaginários
28) Greatly / greaten Quase nada
29) Big bang Em boas graças
30) Littleness Grande amor
“Put on the third column, the first column munbers those correspond with the translation of the second one”.

p. 89
Lesson 14

14.1 - Look at the pictures. Where were these people at 3 o’clock yesterday afternoon?

1 George was in bed. . 4 .


2 Carol and Jack . 5 .
3 Sue . 6 And you? I .

14.2 - Complete the sentences. Use I’ll (I will) + one of these verbs:

14.3 - What are you going to do today or tomorrow? Write three sentences.
1 I’m .
2 .
3 .

14.4 - Write sentences about the past (yesterday / last week etc.).

1 Jim always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car. .


2 Rachel often loses her keys. She last week.
3 Kate meets her friends every evening. She yesterday evening.
4 I usually buy two newspapers every day. Yesterday I .
5 We usually go to the cinema on Sundays. Last Sunday we .
6 I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I .
7 Tom always has a shower in the morning. This morning he .
8 Our friends come to see us every Friday. They last Friday.

14.5 - Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use the past continuous.
1 Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner .
2 The doorbell rang while I .
3 We saw an accident while we .
4 Mary fell asleep while she .
5 The television was on but nobody .

p. 90
Lesson 14

14.6 - Put one of these verbs in each sentence:

buy catch drink fall sell spend teach throw win cost write

1 Mozart wrote . more than 600 pieces of music.


2 ‘How did you learn to drive?’ ‘My father me.’
3 We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we it.
4 I was very thirsty. I the water very quickly.
5 Paul and I played tennis yesterday. He’s much better than me, so he . easily.
6 Don down the stairs this morning and his leg broke.
7 Jim the ball to Sue, who it.
8 Ann a lot of money yesterday. She a dress which
£100.

14.7 - Put the verbs into the correct form, past continuous or past simple.

I saw . (see) Sue in town I (meet) Tom and Ann I (cycle) home
yesterday but she …….……..me at the airport a few weeks ago. yesterday when suddenly a man
(not/see). She……………. They ………..…..(go) to (step) out
(look) the other way. Berlin and I .(go) to into the road in front of me.
Madrid. We… . (have) a I (go) quite fast
chat while but luckily I……………………..…
we (wait) for (manage) to stop in time
our flights. and………………………(not/ hit) him.

14.8 - What are these people saying?

p. 91
Lesson 14

14.9 - Take a look on the pages 86 and 87 and pretend that you were describing a fictional dream using those
places and music instruments. As much details, better.

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

SONG (by Internet)

Help – The Beatles

Help, I need somebody


Help, Not just anybody
Help, You know, I need someone. Help!

When I was younger so much younger than today


I never needed anybody’s help in any way
But now these days are gone, I’m not so self-assured
Now I find I’ve changed my mind and opened up the doors

Help me if you can, I’m feeling down


And I do appreciate your bein’ ‘round
Help me get my feet back on the ground
Won’t you please, please help me?

And now my life has changed in oh, so many ways


My independence seems to vanish in the haze
But every now and then I feel so insecure
I know that I just need you like I never done before

Help me if you can, I’m feeling down


And I do appreciate your bein’ ‘round
Help me get my feet back on the ground
Won’t you please, please help me?

When I was younger so much younger than today


I never needed anybody’s help in any way
But now these days are gone, I’m not so self-assured
Now I find I’ve changed my mind and opened up the doors

Help me if you can, I’m feeling down


And I do appreciate your bein’ ‘round
Help me get my feet back on the ground
Won’t you please, please help me?
Help me, help me, ooh

p. 92
Lesson 15

Vocabulary: Living Life! Age and Physical description

1. children 4. 6-year-old boy 7. 13-year-old boy 10. woman


2. baby 5. 10-year-old girl 8. 19-year old girl 11. man
3. toddler 6. teenagers 9. adults 12. senior citizen

13. young 17. average height 21. average weight 25. physically challenged
14. middle-aged 18. short 22. thin / slim 26. sight impaired / blind
15. elderly 19. pregnant 23. attractive 27. hearing impaired / deaf
16. tall 20. heavyset 24. cute

p. 93
Lesson 15

Vocabulary: The Hair Salon / describing hair

1. short hair 8. bangs 15. black hair (preto,moreno) 22. comb


2. shoulder-length hair 9. straight hair 16. blond hair (loiro) A. cut hair
3. long hair 10. wavy hair 17. brown hair (castanho) B. perm hair
4. part 11. curly hair 18. brush C. set hair
5. mustache 12. bald 19. scissors D. color hair / dye hair
6. beard 13. gray hair 20. blow dryer
7. sideburns 14. red hair 21. rollers

p. 94
Lesson 15

Grammar: Verbs: “To do and to make” / verb “to be like”

Esta lição é destinada para tratarmos de duas possibilidades de confusões em potencial.


A primeira é o uso dos verbos “to make” ( fazer ) e o verbo “to do” ( fazer ). Algumas regras facilitam
o aprendizado de como empregar estes dois verbos, porém, algumas expressões idiomáticas devem ser
memorizadas, pois as regras não se enquadram nas observações que iremos ver abaixo.

To do :
. 1 – Desenvolver uma atividade, ocupar-se com alguma coisa, também usado com substantivos referentes a
trabalho, profissão, ocupação:
Do – the work, the homework, the housework, the job, a lesson, an exercise, an assignment, an activity,
business, the dishes, the laundry.
Ex: She has nothing to do.
Yesterday, I did all my homework.
What does he do? He’s a psychologist / he’s doing math / he’s an engineer
What do you do? / what’s your occupation? / What’s your job? / what’s your profession?.
What does Susan do? She’s a student
What are you doing? I am making coffee.
. 2 – Ações expressas pelo gerúndio:
Do – The cleaning, the cooking, the shopping, the washing, the ironing, the typing,
the reading, the writing, etc.
. 3 – Outros:
Do a favor, do the best ( fazer o melhor), do one’s best (fazer todo o possível).

To make :
. 1 – Fazer com sentido de produzir (combinando partes), fabricar, construir, costurar, arrumar.
Make – Coffee, tea, a salad, a cake, a phone call, sandwiches, cars, bicycles, chairs, tables, houses,
bridges, a dress, a blouse, a shirt, a sweater, the beds, make up your room, the living room.
. 2 – Fazer no sentido de prometer, cometer, sugerir, planos e viagens.
Make – A mistake, an error, a comment, a speech, a suggestion, a promise, a remark, a plan, an
arrangement, an appointment, a decision, a tour, a trip, a journey.
. 3 – fazer (com alguém ou alguma coisa) no sentido de forçar, causar, deixar (tornar).
Ex: I made him sign the contract
You make me feel…
He makes her angry / sad / happy / furious / mad
. 4 – Outros:
Make – Sure, certain, fun, friends, money, a note, a list, a copy, an effort, a (phone) call, the most of…

Outra situação conflitiva que iremos abordar, é o verbo “ to be like”, usado para “physical description”,
e o verbo “to like” – gostar.
Devido ao fato do verbo “to be” significar “ser ou estar”, quando perguntamos : How are you?
Poderíamos traduzir : Como você está? ou, Como você é? , gerando assim uma grande confusão. Portanto,
foi convencionado que; How are you? Significa: Como você está?, e não Como você é?; How is he? Como ele
está, e, assim por diante. Mas então, como perguntar por exmplo: Como ele é?
What + Verb “to be” + Subject + …... + like ? - Physical description:

Temos:
. O verbo gostar: I like her - Eu gosto dela
. A conjunção “como”: She’s sleeping like a baby. - Ela está dormindo como um bebê.

p. 95
Lesson 15

Portanto: “I like my mother, like I like my father”, temos: verbo, conjunção e verbo. E é justamente esta
conjunção (“como”) é que usaremos para perguntar, por exemplo: Como ele é?, juntamente com o “verb to be”
( como ele é ? ), + What (neste contexto não é válida a tradução: “qual ?” ou “o que ?” )

What does he like? – Do que ele gosta - Ele gosta de que? - “like – verb”
What did he like about the movie? – De que ele gostou do filme?
What is he like ? – Como ele é ?
What was he like ? - Come ele era?

Portanto se usarmos:
What + is/are , was/were + subject + …. + Like?

Estamos tratando a respeito de uma descrição, seja ela concreta ou abstrata. Aproveitando a
oportunidade de que precisaremos de usar muitos diferentes adjetivos para descrever alguém ou algo, vamos
estudar qual a seqüência mais indicada que devemos posicionar os adjetivos.
Sabemos que os adjetivos no inglês precedem os substantivos, na exata ordem de acordo com a
classificação:
O BACOM

Opinion: Nice, cool, boring, exciting, dangerous, harmless, beautiful, ugly, etc..
Bigness: Tall, short, big, small, huge, enormous, giant, high, thin, thick, …
Age: Young, new born, baby, teenager, middle aged, adult, old, elderly, new,…
Color: Blue, pink, white, reddish, black, purple, silver, golden, gray,…
Origin: Brazilian, China, Chinese, countryside, seaside, sea, English, American,…
Material: Plastic, china, velvet, wood, lycra, cotton, iron, steel, brick, paper,leather, feather, fabric, cloth,...

Ex: _What’s your nephew like?


_ He’s so cute! He’s handsome, short and quite young. He got a green Paraguay plastic
little car, that’s why he’s pretty happy!

15.1 - Describe:
a) Your mother and father (parents).....................................................................................................................................................
b) Your best friend........................................................................................................................................................................................
c) Your memorable classmate.................................................................................................................................................................
d) Your favorite singer. ...............................................................................................................................................................................
e) An unforgettable memory. ..................................................................................................................................................................

15.2 - Put the mixed words in the right order:


a) cousin / I / second hand / car / little / give / am / a / nice / to / going to / my
______________________________________________________________________________
b) a / she / receive / fresh / roses / hates / red / beautiful / without / to / card
______________________________________________________________________________
c) has / a / big / blue / plastic / she / got / new / American / doll
______________________________________________________________________________
d) is / cool / small / to / Maria / about / win / an / old / silver / ashtray / iron
______________________________________________________________________________
e) the / on / old / Monica / an / ugly / lost / got / floor / pocketknife
______________________________________________________________________________
f) black / likes / insects / with / giant / He / to / harmless / play / old / jungle
______________________________________________________________________________

p. 96
Lesson 15

15.3 - Ask questions with What was/were ...like?

1 Your friend has just come back from holiday. Ask about the weather.
What was the weather like? .
2 Your friend has just come back from the cinema. Ask about the film.
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3 Your friend has just finished an English course. Ask about the lessons.
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4 Your friend has just come back from holiday. Ask about the hotel.
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

15.4 - Put in make/making/made or do/doing/did/done.


1 ‘Shall I open the window?’ ‘No, thanks, that’s OK!. I’ll do it.’
2 What did you at the weekend? Did you go away?
3 Do you know how to bread?
4 Paper is from wood.
5 Richard didn’t help me. He sat in on armchair and nothing.
6 ‘What do you ?’ ‘I’m a doctor.’
7 I asked you to clean the bathroom. Have you it?
8 ‘What do they in that factory?’ ‘Shoes.’
9 I’m some coffee. Would you like some?
10 Why are you angry with me? I didn’t anything wrong.
11 ‘What are you tomorrow afternoon?’ ‘I’m working.’

15.5 - Put in if or when.


1 If I’m late this evening, don’t wait for me.
2 I’m going to do some shopping now. I come back, we can have lunch.
3 I’m thinking of going to see Tim. I go, will you come with me?
4 you don’t want to go out tonight, we can stay at home.
5 Do you mind I close the window?
6 John is still at school. he leaves school, he wants to go to university.
7 Shall we have a picnic tomorrow the weather is good?
8 We’re going to Madrid next week. We haven’t got anywhere to stay -we hope to find a hotel we
arrive. I don’t know what we’ll do we don’t find anywhere.

15.6 - Right or wrong? Correct the mistakes.

1 A thief is a person which steals things … a person who steals … .


2 An aeroplane is a machine that flies. OK .
3 A coffee maker is a machine who makes coffee. .
4 Have you seen the money that was on the table? .
5 I don’t like people which never stop talking. .
6 I know somebody that can help you. .
7 I know somebody who works in that shop. .
8 Correct the sentences who are wrong. .

p. 97
Lesson 15

15.7 - Choose from the boxes and write sentences: A ...is a person who…. Use a dictionary if necessary.

a thief a dentist doesn't tell the truth is ill in hospital


a butcher a fool looks after your teeth Steals things
a musician a genius is very intelligent is very stupid
a patient a liar plays a musical instrument sells meat

1 A thief is a person who steals things. .


2 A butcher is a person.............................................................................................................................................................................
3 A musician..................................................................................................................................................................................................
4 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

TEXT
(by Amadeu Marques)

...Listen, aunt Samantha. There’s a


summer fair at my school next saturday
to get money for the poor children.
Everybody is going to help. Father is
going to be there, selling old books
and records. And I am going to be
there with my gang. We’re going to
sell good things to eat. So, auntie…
Can you make one of those delicious
Cakes for us to sell at the fair? A
Strawberry pie, auntie ? With lots of
Cream? Please!
All right, Bobby. Tomorrow is friday
and I have no classes. I’m spending the
afternoon in the old forest. I’m sure I
can find some nice strawberries there.
I promise you a special strawberries pie
for Saturday morning. But I’m not going
to be home next Saturday. I have
some important things to do downtown.
You can come and pick it up yourself.
You know where the key is. And
Bobby…Don’t eat the pie, ok?!!!

Text Comprehension

1. About “fairs”, describe if you you’ve heard about or participated. Which ones do
you think are the most interesting and why.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Do you know others examples of how to get money for charities, which ones?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

p. 98
Lesson 16

Vocabulary: The Mall / The Shopping Center

1. music store 5. toy store 9. travel agency


2. jewely store 6. pet store 10. shoe store
3. candy store 7. card store 11. fountain
4. bookstore 8. optician 12. florist

p. 99
Lesson 16

13. department store 17. maternity shop 21. escalator

14. food court 18. eletronics store 22. information booth

15. video store 19. directory

16. hair salon 20. ice cream stand (store = shop)

p. 100
Lesson 16

Grammar: Modal Verbs

São verbos auxiliares. Possuem função de verbo e de auxiliar ao mesmo tempo, por este motivo
dispensam os auxiliares “DO, DOES, DID” , e precisam de outros verbos para formarem uma locução verbal.
Os “modal verbs”: Can, Could, Would, May são traduzidos conforme veremos a seguir, mas, em se tratando
de “Request / Offering / Invitation” (pedido, requisição / oferta / convite, respectivamente) referem-se ao
grau de formalidade, e não a tradução propriamente dita. Dependendo do “grau” de formalidade que você
queira ou precisa expressar-se, a tradução neste caso não é literal ou “ao-pé-da-letra”. Em outras palavras
temos que dicernir quando estamos tratando de uma situação “normal” (“ordinary”), ou quando estamos
pedindo, oferecendo ou convidando. Utilizar os “modals” conforme a tabela:

Can Could Would May


Regular / É o verbo “poder” É o verbo “poder” Transforma o verbo Probabilidade
Ordinary no presente no passado que o segue em final (incerteza) /
situation “RIA” permissão
Unformal Formal Formal Very formal
Request /
offering / Can I get in ? Could I get in ? Would I get in ? May I get in ?
invitation Can I help you? Could I help you? Would I help you? May I help you?

Estes modais não variam a forma escrita conforme a conjugação com os diferentes “personal
pronouns”:( I can..., he can..., they can..., I could..., she could..., we could..., you would..., he would…, etc), e o
verbo que vem seguindo estes modais devem estar no infinitivo sem o “to” .
Ex: “She drives wel” - “ She can drive well”.

Can “PODER” no PRESENTE


Quando dizemos: “she can drive” – “ela pode dirigir” – Esta tradução “ao pé da letra” não é completa,
pois restringe apenas a uma idéia de permissão “ela pode dirigir” ou “é permitido que ela dirija”, deixando de
considerar o sentido de habilidade, capacidade, destreza: “ela dá conta de dirigir”. Em outras palavras, o
“CAN”, dependendo do contexto, pode significar habilidade, permissão, possibilidade, pedido, oferta,
convite, sempre em frases no tempo presente simples.

Could “PODER” no PASSADO


Dependendo do contexto, também pode significar habilidade, permissão,...., É qualquer conjugação
do “poder” no passado. Ex: “she could” (ela podia, ela poderia), “they could” (eles / elas podiam, eles / elas
poderiam), “I could” (eu podia, eu poderia), etc.

Will be able to “PODER” no FUTURO


Na verdade não temos uma forma própria para o “can no futuro”. Adaptando o verbo “to able to” –
(capaz de), temos com o “will”, a forma de expressarmos o “poder” no futuro.
“I couldn’t speak English in the past, now, I can reasonably talk, and I know that I will be able to be
an English speaker pretty soon”

“poder” no passado “poder” no presente “poder” no futuro


COULD CAN WILL BE ABLE TO

p. 101
Lesson 16

Exs: As três primeiras linhas: Presente, as três seguintes: Passado, e as três ultimas: Futuro. Vamos
aqui associar as idéias de frases com e sem os modais, na afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa,
respectivamente.

Without the modals (sem os modais) With the modals (com os modais)
She drives well. (ela dirige bem) She can drive well. (ela da conta de dirigir bem)
She doesn’t drive well. (ela não dirige bem) She can’t drive well. (ela não da conta de dirigir bem)
Does she drive well ? (ela dirige bem?) Can she drive well? (ela da conta de dirigir bem?)
She drove well last race. (ela dirigiu bem na última She could drive well last race. (ela conseguiu dirigir
corrida) bem na ultima corrida)
She didn’t drive well last race. (ela não dirigiu bem She couldn’t drive well last race. (ela não pôde dirigir
na última corrida) bem na ultima corrida)
Did she drive well last race? (ela dirigiu bem na Could she drive well last race? (ela conseguiu dirigir
ultima corrida?) bem na ultima corrida?)
She will drive well. (ela dirigirá bem) She will be able to drive well. (ela será capaz de
dirigir bem)
She won’t drive well. (ela não dirigirá bem) She won’t be able to drive well. (ela não sera capaz
de dirigir bem)
Will she drive well ? (ela dirigirá bem?) Will she be able to drive well ? (ela sera capaz de
dirigir bem?)

Would
Transforma o verbo que o segue em um verbo de final “RIA”
Ex: I will eat… - Eu comerei... I would eat... - Eu comeria….
She will wear… - Ela vestirá… She would wear… - ela vestiria…
They will love… - Eles / elas amarão… They would love… - eles / elas amariam..
FUTURO DO PRESENTE FUTURO DO PRETÈRITO
A construção mais famosa do Would é o: Would Like (Gostaria)
Ex: In a dialogue:
_ Would you like a coffee?
_ No, I wouldn’t. I’d like some water, please.

May / Might

1 - Usado para expressar algo incerto (probabilidade) :


Ex: . It may rain tomorrow - talvez chova amanha - É provável que chova amanha
I may go there - Talvez eu vá lá - Há a chance que eu vá lá.
2 - Ou é usado para uma mensagem de permissão formal:
Eveybody may have a interval now - Todos podem ter um intervalo agora.
May I start now ? - posso começar ?
Note: No discurso indireto, o Might é passado de May
My father Said I might use his car - Meu pai me disse que eu podia usar seu carro
The teacher Said we might hand the report back on Monday - O professor falou que
nós podíamos devolver os relatórios na segunda.

16.1 - Complete these sentences. Use can or can’t + one of these verbs:

come find hear see speak


1 I'm sorry but we can’t come to your party next Saturday.

p. 102
Lesson 16

2 I like this hotel room. You the mountains from the window.
3 You are speaking very quietly. I you.
4 Have you seen my bag? I it.
5 Catherine got the job because she five languages.

16.2 - Ask Steve if he can do these things:

Can you do these things? Write sentences about yourself. Use I can or I can’t.

7 I . 9 . 11 .
8 . 10 . 12 .

16.3 - Complete the sentences using can or (be) able to. Use can if possible; otherwise use (be) able to.

1 George has travelled a lot. He can speak four languages.


2 I haven’t been able to sleep very well recently.
3 Sandra drive but she hasn’t got a car.
4 I can’t understand Martin. I’ve never understand him.
5 I used to stand on my head but I can’t do it now.
6 I can’t see you on Friday but I meet you on Saturday morning.
7 Ask Catherine about your problem. She might help you.

16.4 - Complete the sentences with can / can’t / could / couldn’t + one of these verbs:

come eat hear run sleep wait

1 I’m afraid I can’t come to your party next week.


2 When Tim was 16, he was a fast runner. He 100 metres in 11 seconds.
3 ‘Are you in a hurry?’ ‘No, I’ve got plenty of time. I .’
4 I was feeling sick yesterday. I anything.
5 Can you speak up a bit? I you very well.
6 ‘You look tired.’ ‘Yes, I last night.’

16.5 - Read the situations and write questions beginning Do you think. ...

1 You want to borrow your friend's camera. What do you say to him?
Do you think I could borrow your camera? .
2 You are at a friend's house and you want to use her phone. What do you say?
.

p. 103
Lesson 16

3 You’ve written a letter in English. Before you send it, you want an English friend to check it. What do you ask
him? .
4 You want to leave work early because you have some things to do. What do you ask your
boss? .
5 The woman in the next room is playing music. It’s very loud. You want to turn it down.
What do you say to her? .
6 You are phoning the owner of a flat which was advertised in a newspaper. You are in the flat and you want
to come and see it today. What do you say to the owner?
.

16.6 - What do you say in these situations? Use can or could. Use the words in brackets (…).

TEXT (by Internet)

Engineer and the Frog

A boy was crossing a road one day when a frog called out to him and said, "If you kiss me, I'll turn into a
beautiful princess." He bent over, picked up the frog and put it in his pocket.
The frog spoke up again and said, "If you kiss me and turn me back into a beautiful princess, I will stay with
you for one week." The boy took the frog out of his pocket, smiled at it and returned it to his pocket.
The frog then cried out, "If you kiss me and turn me back into a princess, I'll stay with you and do ANYTHING
you want." Again the boy took the frog out, smiled at it and put it back into his pocket.
Finally, the frog asked, "What is the matter? I've told you I'm a beautiful princess, that I'll stay with you and do
anything you want. Why won't you kiss me?"
The boy said, "Look, I'm an engineer. I don't have time for a girlfriend. But a talking frog is way cool."

p. 104
Lesson 17

Vocabulary: Kind / Sorts / Types of Crimes

1. vandalism 4. illegal drugs 7. assault


2. gang violence 5. mugging 8. murder
3. drunk driving 6. burglary 9. gun

p. 105
Lesson 17

Vocabulary: How to avoind being a victim of violence


and crime

A. Walk with a friend E. Lock your doors


B. Stay on well-lit streets F. Don’t open your door to strangers
C. Hold your purse close to your body G. Don’t drink and drive
D. Protect your wallet H. Report crimes to the police

p. 106
Lesson 17

Grammar: Modal verbs (02):

Vamos agora continuar a estudar os outros principais “Modal verbs”:


Should / Ought to / shall:

O “should” (americano) e o “ought to” (britânico) significam a idéia correspondente a: “Dever”, sempre
no passado (sentido de sugestão, aconselhamento e não no sentido de dívida propriamente dita. “To owe” –
seria o sentido de dever dinheiro, favor, etc).
Muito usado para “Conselhos” = “ADVICES”.
Importante: A forma do “ should ” no presente é o “ shall ”.
Ex: “She should change her manner” (Ela devia / deveria mudar o seu jeito) - Affirmative
“Should you study more?” (Você devia / deveria estudar mais?)
“Should I stay or should I go ?” (Eu devia / deveria ficar ou eu devia/ deveria ir ?) - Interrogative
“She ought to go with a friend” (Ela devia / deveria ir com uma amiga). (ought to usado apenas na
afirmativa)
“They shouldn’t hit their younger brothers” (Eles/elas não deviam / deveriam bater em seus irmãos mais
novos) - Negative
“Shall we still wait for Tom or shall we go? He’s too late!” (Devemos ainda esperar o Tom ou podemos ir?
Ele está atrasado demais!)

Used to:
Refere-se a hábitos ou costumes do passado.
Atenção: - “To use” - verbo “usar”
- “To use to” – verbo “acostumar a”
Ex: “I used to use cap when I was a child” (Eu acostumava a usar boné quando eu era uma criança).
“I used to be very sad before taking anti-depressive pills”. (Eu acostumava ser infeliz antes de tomar pirulas
anti-depressivas)
“Did you use to have insomnia before to take sleeping pills?” (Você acostumava a ter insônia antes de tomar
remédio de dormir?)
“She didn’t use to greet her classmates”. (ela não acostumava a cumprimentar os seus colegas de aula)

Would rather / had better :


Refere-se a preferências. Equivalente à idéia do “preferir” = “To prefer” ou do “gostaria” = “would
like”. Em outras palavras, podemos usar o “to prefer” (informal ou comum), o “would rather” ou o “had better =
“seria melhor” (sendo que estes dois últimos citados são mais formais)
Ex: “Please stop the car! I’d rather walk”. (Por favor pare o carro! Eu prefiro caminhar/ir andando)
“Would she rather reading than watch T.V. ?” (Ela prefere/ gosta mais de ler do que assistir T.V.?)
“We’d rather not pay for that”. (Seria melhor que não paguemos por isso)
“Had he better take an aspirin”. (É melhor que ele tome uma aspirina? / Seria melhor que ele tomasse uma
aspirina?)
“I’d better take a taxi than a bus”. (Eu prefiro tomar um taxi do que um ônibus / Eu preferiria tomar um
táxi do que um ônibus)

Has,have to / must:
Devemos primeiramente saber diferenciar o “ter” – idéia de posse - e o “ter” – idéia de obrigação.
Ex: Eu tenho uma casa - idéia de posse - “I have / have got a house”.
Eu tenho que estudar - idéia de obrigação obrigação - “I have to study”.
Eu tenho que ter mais dinheiro - idéia de obrigação e de posse, respectivamente. - “I have to have more
money”.

p. 107
Lesson 17

Já aprendemos o “to has/have” e o “to has have got” com ideia de posse, e agora se tratando de
obrigação ou dever a ser cumprido, estamos tratando de / ou falando sobre o “modal verb has/ have to”,
indicando agora não mais posse, e sim um dever ou obrigação!
Portanto o modal “has / have to” refere-se a uma obrigação, um dever. Já o modal “must” refere-se à
mesma obrigação e dever, porém ainda mais forte, mais sério.
Ex: “She has to do her homework”. (Ela tem que fazer o seu dever de casa)
“She must follow the law”. (Ela tem que seguir a lei)
“I have to work for a living”. (Eu tenho que trabalhar para viver)
“I must breathe for a living”. (Eu tenho que respirar para viver)

O “must” pode também significar uma idéia de conclusão lógica “logical conclusion”, algo óbvio.
Exs:. Ele fala 10 idiomas, ele tem que ser esperto! “He speaks 10 languages, he must be smart!”(must = ideia
de conclusão lógica)
. Ela tem 12 filhos, ela tem que ser uma pessoa paciente! “She’s got 10 kids, she must be a patient person!”
. Ela é cega e não da conta de ver absolutamente nada. Deve ser uma situação desafiadora. “She’s blind, she
(can’t / can not / cannot) see absolutely anything. It must be a challenging situation!”

Vamos pensar agora o que significaria a negativa do “has/have to” e do “must”. Imagine alguém
falando assim para você: “Eu não tenho que escutar certas coisas que meu patrão me fala!” (“I don’t have to
listen certain things my boss tells me!”). Percebam na frase do exemplo temos o “has/have to” com o sentido
ou ideia de “falta de necessidade” ou “falta de precisão”.
Portanto, na negativa, o “doesn’t have to” ( para o “he,she,it”) e o “don’t have to” (para o
“I,you,we,they”) referem-se a uma falta de necessidade = “No need, no necessity”. Neste caso podemos
também usar o “needn’t” (para: “I,you,he,she,it,we,you,they”), conservando o mesmo sentido à frase. No
passado temos: Past: did/didn’t have to.

Ex: Ela é rica, ela não (tem/ precisa) de trabalhar – “She’s rich, she doesn’t have to work”.
Eu não tenho que agüentar tais coisas! – “I don’t have to handle such things!”.
Nós não tínhamos que trabalhar no domingo – “We didn’t have to work on Sunday”.
Ele não precisa estudar, já sabe tudo – “He needn’t to study, he already knows everything”.

Já o must na negativa = “mustn’t” refere-se a uma proibição severa – “PROHIBITION”

Ex: “You mustn’t smoke here”. (Você não pode fumar aqui / você está proibido de fumar aqui)
“She mustn’t miss a class anymore”. (Ela não pode mais faltar às aulas / em hipótese alguma ela pode
faltar à aula)
“I mustn’t eat sugar, I have diabetes”. (Eu não posso comer açucar / estou proibido de comer açucar, eu
tenho diabetes)
“ I shouldn’t eat fat food, I’m overweight”. (Eu não deveria comer comidas gordurosas, estou sobrepeso)
“ We mustn’t kill anyone”. (Não podemos matar ninguém / estamos proibidos de matar alguém)

Had to :
É o passado do “has/have to” é também o passado do “must”.
Ex: “I had to quit my tennis course to help my monthly budget”. (Tive que largar meu curso de tenis para ajudar
no orçamento mensal)
“She said that she had to choose another boyfriend”. (Ela disse que ela teve que escolher um outro
namorado)

Important:
Os “modal verbs” que têm o “to” (“has/have/had to”, “used to”, “ought to”, “will be able to”, apesar de
serem “auxiliary verbs”, não dispensam os auxiliares “do/does/did/will” no caso de uma oração negativa e/ou
interrogativa.

p. 108
Lesson 17

Ex: “He didn’t use to use underpants before”. (Antes ele não acostumava a usar cueca)
“Does she have to have more money?”. (Ela tem que ter mais dinheiro?)
“Don’t you really have to do this, right?”. (Você realmente não tem que fazer isso, certo?)
“Did she ought to go with a friend?”. (Ela deveria ir com uma amiga?)
“He knows he won’t be able to exercise that much again!”. (Ele sabe que ele não será capaz de exercitar
daquele tanto de novo!)

17.1 - Write about the people in the pictures. Use He/She shouldn’t ...so…

1 She shouldn’t watch TV so much. . 3 hard.


2 He . 4 .

17.2 - Put in must / had to / mustn’t / needn’t.


1 You needn’t go. You can stay here if you want.
2 It’s fantastic film. You must see it.
3 We’ve got enough food, so we go shopping.
4 We didn’t have any food yesterday, so we go shopping.
5 I want to know what happened. You tell me.
6 You tell Sue what happened. I don’t want her to know.
7 I ………………………… hurry or I’ll be late.
8 ‘Why were you so late?’ ‘I wait half an hour for a bus.’
9 We decide now. We can decide later.

17.3 - Complete the questions. Some are present and some are past.

17.4 - Write sentences with don't/doesn't/didn't have to. ...


1 Why are you going out? You don’t have to go out. .
2 Why is Ann waiting? She .
3 Why did you get up early? You .
4 Why is Paul working so hard? He .
5 Why do you want to leave now? We .

p. 109
Lesson 17

17.5 - For each situation write a sentence with should or shouldn’t + one of the following:
go away for a few days go to bed so late look for another job
put some pictures on the walls take a photograph use her car so much
1 (Liz needs a change.) She should go away for a few days. .
2 (My salary is very low.) You .
3 (Jack always has difficulty getting up.) He .
4 (What a beautiful view!) You .
5 (Sue drives everywhere. She never walks.) She .
6 Ill’s room isn't very interesting.) .

17.6 - Complete these sentences with use(d) to... + a suitable verb.


1 Dennis gave up smoking two years ago. He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.
2 Liz a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car.
3 We lived in Manchester a few years ago. We in Nottingham.
4 I rarely eat ice cream now but I it when I was a child.
5 Jim my best friend but we aren't friends any longer.
6 It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work since the new road was opened. It
more than an hour .
7 There a hotel opposite the station but it closed a long time ago
8 When you lived in London, to the theatre very often?

17.7 - Write sentences with don't/doesn't/didn't have to. ...


1 Why are you going out? You don’t have to go out. .
2 Why is Ann waiting? She .
3 Why did you get up early? You .
4 Why is Paul working so hard? He .
5 Why do you want to leave now? We .

SONG (by Internet)


Imagine song
Imagine there's no heaven. It's easy if you try.
No hell below us. Above us only sky.
Imagine all the people living for today.
Imagine there's no countries, it isn't hard to do.
Nothing to kill and die for, and no religion too.
Imagine all the people living life in peace.
A-ha you may say I'm a dreamer.
But I'm not the only one.
I hope some day you'll join us.
And the world will be as one.
Imagine no possessions, I wonder if you can.
No need for greed or hunger, a brotherhood of man.
Imagine all the people sharing all the world.

p. 110
Lesson 18

Let’s Eat
Some
Snacks! Vocabulary: Let´s Eat Some Snack´s Fast food
Fast food!

1. hamburger 8. green salad 15. doughnut 22. sugar substitute


2. french fries 9. taco 16. salad bar 23. ketchup
3. cheeseburger 10. nachos 17. lettuce 24. mustard
4. soda 11. frozen yogurt 18. salad dressing 25. mayonnaise
5. ice tea 12. milk shake 19. booth 26. relish
6. hot dog 13. counter 20. straw A. eat
7. pizza 14. muffin 21. sugar B. drink

p. 111
Lesson 18

1. scrambled eggs 8. grilled cheese 15. pasta 22. coffee


sandwich
2. sausage 9. chef’s salad 16. garlic bread 23. decaf coffee

3. toast 10. soup of the day 17. fried fish 24. tea

4. waffles 11. mashed potatoes 18. rice pilaf

5. syrup 12. roast chicken 19. cake

6. pancakes 13. steak 20. pudding

7. bacon 14. backed potato 21. pie

p. 112
Lesson 18

Grammar: Frequency adverbs

Muito usado principalmente no “simple present tense” para descrever a freqüência de uma atividade,
ou “PERSONAL LIFE HABITS”.

Frequency TTranslation Percentage Sentence position


Adverb
Always Sempre 100% * After the subject
Often / frequently Freqüentemente 85% * After the subject
Generally Geralmente 80% * After the subject
Regularly Regularmente 80% * After the subject
Usually Usualmente 75% * After the subject
Sometimes Às vezes 50% * Before the subject or at the
end of the sentence
Occasionally Ocasionalmente 40% * Before the subject or at the
end of the sentence
Rarely / seldom Raramente 30% * After the subject
Hardly ever Dificilmente 20% * After the subject
Almost never Quase nunca 10% * After the subject
Once a while De vez em quando 10% * Before the subject or at the
end of the sentence
Never Nunca 0% * After the subject

* valores “didaticamente” estipulados

Importante: “sometimes, occasionally, once a while” tem posicionamento diferente em relação ao


sujeito (sublinhados acima na tabela):
Ex: I always…, I often…, I usually…, sometimes I…, occasionally I…, I rarely…
I generally go to school by car, occasionally I go by bus.
Sometimes she drinks juice, sometimes she drinks soft drink.
They regularly take good marks at school, they fail exams only once a while.

Outros indicadores de freqüência como os “frequency adverbs”:

. Each other.............. Second, minute, hour, day


. Every...................... week, weekend, month, season,
. Once a..................... ……….. pode ser: year, decade, century,
. Twice a ………..… time, moment, opportunity,
. Three times……….. occasion, etc…
. Four times……..….

How often….…? Qual a frequência ……?

Ex: How often do you go to the club? I go to the club once a while.
How often do you study English in a week? I study English every day

p. 113
Lesson 18

18.1 - Describe the frequency that you do these activities:


a) To go to the club ........................................................................................................................................................................................
b) To watch T.V. ................................................................................................................................................................................................
c) To call a friend ............................................................................................................................................................................................
d) To make a cake............................................................................................................................................................................................
e) To study English ..........................................................................................................................................................................................
f) To attend classes..........................................................................................................................................................................................
g) To gossip on the phone...........................................................................................................................................................................
h) To call your relatives..................................................................................................................................................................................
i) To watch a movie.........................................................................................................................................................................................
j) To go to the cinema....................................................................................................................................................................................
k) To enroll a nice course..............................................................................................................................................................................

18.2 - Supply the underlined information with the appropriate frequency adverb:
a) Susan wakes up early every day. ..........................................................................................................................................................
b) Carol doesn`t eat vegetables. ................................................................................................................................................................
c) They wash their cars once a month.....................................................................................................................................................
d) Betty went to the beach two times last year. ..................................................................................................................................
e) Little Catherine hates washing the dishes; she does it only when necessary. ...................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
f) Fred avoids the most to go to the bank.............................................................................................................................................
g) Susan drinks whisky. Susan drinks wine. ...........................................................................................................................................
h) They play soccer once a week. ..............................................................................................................................................................
i) Norman takes a bath every day. ............................................................................................................................................................
j) Felipe doesn`t cook. ....................................................................................................................................................................................
k) They don`t get late to work. ...................................................................................................................................................................
l) Jorge goes to the theater three times a year. ..................................................................................................................................
m) I need to take a pill every eight hours. .............................................................................................................................................

18.3 - Put the mixed words in the right order:


a) alcohol / occasionally / Susan / drinks
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) phone / sometimes / Bob and Sue / talk / the / on
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
c) other / gifts / and / Loren / each / give / Tom / never / to
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Phill / takes / day / in / bath / always / a / a
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
e) goes / George / the / to / once / gym / while / a
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
f) last / ever / Catherine / hardly / studied / term
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
g) theater / often / does / go / the / ? / she / to
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
h) early / I / on / morning / up / never / wake / Sundays
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
i) last / a / didn’t / she / buy / skirt / season
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 114
Lesson 18

18.4 - Write short answers (Yes, he does. / No, I don’t. etc.).

1 Do you watch TV a lot? No, I don’t. OR yes, I do. .


2 Do you live in a big city? .
3 Do you often ride a bicycle? : .
4 Does it rain a lot where you live? .
5 Do you play the piano? .

18.5 - Look at Paul’s answers to the questions and write sentences with often / never etc.

18.6 - How often do you….

a) Make a list of your projects………………………………………………………………………...


b) Compliment some people…………………………………………………………………………..
c) Call a friend you’ve lost touch……………………………………………………………………...
d) Give away your old clothes for someone who needs…………………………………………….…
e) Organize your wardrobe…………………………………………………………………………...
f) Say: I love you to your dear relative………………………………………………………………..

TEXT (by Internet)

The Fox who profited from the Tiger's might

While hunting for prey, the tiger caught a fox.

You can't eat me ! said the fox. The Emperor of Heaven appointed me king of the beasts. If you eat me you'll
be disobeying his orders. If you don't believe me, follow me.You will soon see whether the other animals run
away at the sight of me or not.

Agreeing to this, the tiger accompanied him ; and all the beasts saw them they dashed away. Not realizing
that they were afraid of him, the tiger thought they were afraid of the fox.

dashed If you dash somewhere, you run or go there quickly and suddenly.

p. 115
Lesson 19

Vocabulary: Weather Condition

1. hot

2. warm
] Degrees Degrees
Fahrenheit 3. cool Celsius

4. cold

5. freezing

6. sunny / clear 7. cloudy 8. raining 9. snowing

10. windy 13. icy 16. thunderstorm 19. hail

11. foggy 14. smoggy 17. lightning 20. snowstorm

12. humid 15. heat wave 18. hailstorm 21. dust storm

p. 116
Lesson 19

Grammar: Conjunções e preposições


Conjunctions and Prepositions

As principais preposições (“PREPOSITIONS”) no inglês são:

. About - a respeito de (sobre), acerca de, mais ou menos-


. Above - acima, acima de -
. Across - através de, do outro lado de -
. After - depois de -
. Against - contra -
. Along - ao longo de, junto com -
. Among - entre (vários) -
. Around / round - ao redor de, por volta de (cerca de) -
. As...as - tão...quanto...(comparative sentences) -
. At - em, no, na (à, às)
. Before - antes de, diante de, perante -
. Behind - atrás de -
. Below - abaixo de -
. Beside - ao lado de -
. Besides - além de -
. Between - entre (dois) -
. Beyond - além de, para lá de -
. By - por (autoria), de (meio de trasporte), perto de (lugar), feito de (material)
. Despite / In spite of - a despeito de, apesar de -
. Down - para baixo -
. During - durante -
. For - para (intensão), por (duração), por ($$$) -
. From - de (procedência, origem) -
. In - em, no, na, dentro de
. In front of - na frente, na frente de -
. Inside - dentro de, para dentro (de), lado de dentro -
. Into - para dentro de, na -
. Like - como -
. Near - perto de, próximo a -
. Next - próximo
. Of - de, a respeito de -
. Off - fora de, para fora de, -
. On - em, no , na, em cima de, a respeito de -
. Opposite - em frente à (posição, apenas quando virado “cara a cara”) -
. Or - ou -
. Out - fora, para fora de -
. Outside - fora de, do lado de fora de -
. Over - sobre, por cima de, mais que, durante -
. Since - desde -
. Than - do que (comparative sentences) -
. Through - através de, por intermédio de -
. Throughout - através de (sentido abrangente), espalhado, por todo (a), durante todo (a) -
. Till / until - até (no sentido de tempo) -
. To - para (direção, movimento), ao, à, aos, às -
. Toward(s) - em direção a, para com -
. Under - sob, embaixo de, menos de -

p. 117
Lesson 19

. Up - para cima, em direção a -


. Upon - sobre, em cima de (geralmente = on) -
. With - com -
. Within - dentro de (relacionado ao tempo) -
. Without - sem -

As principais Conjunções (“CONJUNCTIONS”) são:

. And - e -
. After - depois que -
. Afterward(s) - depois -
. Anyway / anyhow - de qualquer modo -
. Although / Even though - embora, muito embora -
. Also - também -
. As - como -
. As = Because (porque); . As = As the same time as (ao passo que / ao mesmo tempo que) -
. As a result - como resultado, em consequência -
. As if / as though - como se -
. As well - também / bem como -
. As soon as - logo (que) -
. Because - porque -
. Because of - por causa (de) -
. Besides - além (de) -
. But - mas -
. Consequently - por conseguinte -
. Despite / In spite of - apesar de -
. Due to - devido a -
. Even - mesmo (que), até mesmo (que) -
. Except / except for - exceto, com exceção de -
. Hence – daí, por isso -
. However - porém, entretanto, contudo, todavia, ainda assim -
. If / Whether - se -
. In addition - além de… -
. Indeed – na verdade -
. In fact / as a matter of fact – de fato, na verdade -
. In case - em caso de -
. In order to - para que -
. In the meantime - enquanto isso -
. Later (on) – mais tarde -
. Meanwhile - enquanto isso -
. Neither....nor - nem....nem -
. Nevertheless / nonetheless - não obstante -
. On the contrary - pelo contrário
. On the other hand - por outro lado -
. Otherwise - caso contrário -
. Provided / as long as - contanto que -
. So - , então, assim, portanto, por isso -
. So that / In order that - a fim de que, para que -
. Since - desde então -
. Still - ainda -
. That - que -
. That´s why - por isso -
. Therefore - portanto -

p. 118
Lesson 19

. Though - embora, entretanto / adv: de qualquer forma, mesmo assim -


. Then - então -
. Thus - assim sendo, assim -
. Unless - a não ser que -
. Until – até, até que -
. Whereas / while - ao passo (que), enquanto -
. Whenever / Wherever - sempre que / onde quer que -
. While - enquanto -
. Yet - no entanto, todavia -

Puxa, que tanto de nomes para memorizar! Pois é, e ainda temos que saber discernir uma preposição
de uma conjunção. Preposições são palavras que ligam e estabelece uma relação de lugar, posição,
movimento, tempo, modo, etc, entre dois termos de uma mesma oração. Conjunções ligam diferentes
orações ou termos de uma oração (apenas ligam sem estabelecerem relação de lugar, posição, etc.). Já
sabemos que uma oração para ser considerada como tal, necessita apenas do sujeito e do verbo principal. Ex:
. O filme começa às 7 horas. “The movie starts at 7 o’clock” – Estabeleceu uma relação de tempo entre dois
termos da oração: sujeito e objeto, portanto temos uma preposição “às” – “at”.
. O filme começa as 7 mas ele não sabe se vai. “the movie starts at 7 but he doesn’t know if he goes”– O “mas”,
estabelece uma ligação entre as duas orações (“o filme começa às 7” e “ele não sabe se vai”), temos portanto
uma conjunção com idéia de “contraste”.
As preposições podem ser classificadas como preposições:
. De Lugar e posição:(at, in, on, off, across, around, about, between, among, above, below, under, over, inside,
outside, beside, by, near, against, behind, after, in front of, beyond, along, far from, next to, close to,
throughout, as far as).
. De Direção e Movimento: (in/into, to, toward(s), out of, from, by, about/around, across, over, up, down, at).
. De Tempo: (at, in, on, by, within, before, after, for, during, since, till, until, through/throughout,
around/about, from..to /till)
. De Modo, Instrumento, Agente e Meios de Trasporte: (in, with, by, like, on, over).
. De Medida e Quantidade: (of, by, into, in)
Agora você deve estar pensando: Como uma mesma preposição pode estar enquadrada em
mais de uma mesma categoria? A resposta é simples. Depende do contexto, ela pode desempenhar diferentes
funções. Vejamos o “in” por exemplo, ele está em todas as categorias. Podemos “raciocinar” com o mesmo
critério p/ todos as palavras citadas.
“The pencils are in the pencilcase” (Os lápis estão no/dentro do estojo) – Preposição de lugar / posição (1°
categoria).
“She dived in the river” (Ela mergulhou no/dentro do rio) – preposição de movimento (2° categoria).
“Lucio was Born in 1976” (Lucio nasceu em 1976) – preposição de tempo (3° categoria).
“The students must write the exam in ink” (Os alunos têm que escrever a prova à caneta) – preposição de
instrumento (4° categoria).
“They only sell their products in large amounts” (eles apenas vendem seus produtos em grandes quantidades)
- prep. de medida (5° categoria).
Já as conjunções podem ser coordenativas ou subordinativas. As frases coordenativas se
complementam, e as subordinativas, necessitam uma das outras para completar a idéia.
As coordenativas são: As coordenativas correlativas são:
. De Adição: (and)
Either ... or ou ... ou
. De Contraste, oposição: (but) Neither ... nor nem … nem
. De Alternativa, escolha: (or “ou”, nor “nem”) Not only ... but also não só … mas também
. De Razão, causa: (for) Both ... and tanto … quanto / como
. De resultado, conseqüência: (so)

p. 119
Lesson 19

Temos também alguns advérbios que podem fazer papel de conjunção, têm “força de conjuntiva”.
São os chamados “advérbios conjuntivos”/ “conjunctive adverbs”. Eles podem aparecer também no
começo da frase. Podem ser:
. De Adição: (futhermore, moreover, besides, also, likewise) = Idéia de “além disso, além do mais”
. De Contraste: (however, nevertheless, yet, still) = Idéia de “no entanto, contudo, todavia, entretanto, ainda
assim”
(otherwise) = Idéia de “senão, caso contrário”
. De Realce, reforço: (indeed = na verdade, anyway/anyhow = de qualquer modo)
. De Causa e Resultado: (therefore, thus, consequently, hence)
. De Tempo: (afterward(s), then, later (on), meanwhile)
“Conjunctive adverbs” compostos: (in fact, as a matter of fact, on the contrary, on the other hand, as a result,
in the meantime).
As conjunções subordinativas são:
. De Causa, razão: (because, since, as)
. De Comparação: (than, as)
. De Condição: (if, unless, whether)
. De Modo: (as = como, as if/as though)
. De Resultado, conseqüência: (so ... that, such ... that)
. De contraste, oposição: (while/whereas = enquanto que, ao passo que, (al)though = embora)
. De finalidade, propósito: (so that/in order that = a fim de para que)
. De tempo: (when, before, after, since, while, until, as soon as, whenever)
. De lugar: (where, wherever)

19.1 - Write sentences about the picture. Use the words in brackets (…).

19.2 - Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences with a preposition:

p. 120
Lesson 19

1 I cut the paper with a pair of scissors. 6 She’s listening to some music . Mozart.
2 She usually goes to work . car. 7 The plane is flying . 600 miles an hour.
3 Who is the woman . short hair? 8 They’re . holiday.
4 They are talking . the weather. 9 Do you know the man . sunglasses?
5 The car is . fire. 10 He's reading a book grammar
Vera P. Bull.
19.3 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with a preposition:

1 She’s looking at her watch. 4 Paul is talking Jane.


2 He’s listening the radio. 5 They’re looking a picture.
3 They’re waiting a taxi. 6 Sue is looking Tom.

19.4 - Use the words in brackets to make a sentence with though at the end.
1 The house isn’t very nice. (like / garden) I like the garden though. .
2 It’s quite warm. (a bit windy) .
3 We didn't like the food. (ate) .
4 Liz is very nice. (don’t like / husband) I .

19.5 - Complete the sentences with although / in spite of / because / because of.
1 Although it rained a lot , we enjoyed our holiday.
2 a all our careful plans, a lot of things went wrong.
b we had planned everything carefully, a lot of things went wrong.
3 a I went home early I was feeling unwell.
b I went to work the next day I was still feeling unwell.
4 a She only accepted the job the salary, which was very high.
b She accepted the job the salary, which was rather low.
5 a I managed to get to sleep there was a lot of noise.
b I couldn't get to sleep the noise.
Use your own ideas to complete the following sentences:
6 a He passed the exam although .
b He passed the exam because .
7 a I didn't eat anything although .
b I didn't eat anything in spite of .

19.6 - Put in in case or if.


1 Ann might phone this evening. I don’t want to go out in case she phones.
2 You should tell the police if your bicycle is stolen.
3 I hope you’ll come to London sometime. you come, you can stay with us.
4 This letter is for Susan. Can you give it to her you see her?
5 Write your name and address on your bag you lose it.
6 Go to the lost property office you lose your bag.
7 The burglar alarm will ring somebody tries to break into the house.
8 I’ve just painted the door. I’ll put a WET PAINT notice next to it . somebody
doesn’t realise it’s just been painted.
p. 121
Lesson 19

19.7 - What does as mean in these sentences?


because at the same
time as
1 As they live near us, we see them quite often. 9 . 9 .
2 Jill slipped as she was getting off the bus. . .
3 As I was tired, I went to bed early. . .
4 Unfortunately, as I was parking the car, I hit the car behind. . .
5 As we climbed the hill, we got more and more tired. . .
6 We decided to go out to eat as we had no food at home. . .
7 As we don't use the car very often, we've decided to sell it. . .

Lesson 19
TEXT(by Internet)
10 Essential Health Tips:

"He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything." -Arabian Proverb

1. Move More
Make it a daily challenge to find ways to move your body. Climb stairs if given a choice between that and
escalators or elevators. Walk your dog; chase your kids; toss balls with friends, mow the lawn. Anything that
moves your limbs is not only a fitness tool, it's a stress buster. Think 'move' in small increments of time. It
doesn't have to be an hour in the gym or a 45-minute aerobic dance class or tai chi or kickboxing. But that's
great when you're up to it. Meanwhile, move more. Thought for the day: Cha, Cha, Cha…. Then do it!
2. Cut Fat
Avoid the obvious such as fried foods, burgers and other fatty meats (i.e. pork, bacon, ham, salami, ribs and
sausage). Dairy products such as cheese, cottage cheese, milk and cream should be eaten in low fat versions.
Nuts and sandwich meats, mayonnaise, margarine, butter and sauces should be eaten in limited amounts.
Most are available in lower fat versions such as substitute butter, fat free cheeses and mayonnaise. Thought
for the day: Lean, mean, fat-burning machine…. Then be one!
3. Quit Smoking
The jury is definitely in on this verdict. Ever since 1960 when the Surgeon General announced that smoking
was harmful to your health, Americans have been reducing their use of tobacco products that kill. Just
recently, we've seen a surge in smoking in adolescents and teens. Could it be the Hollywood influence? It
seems the stars in every movie of late smoke cigarettes. Beware. Warn your children of the false romance or
'tough guy' stance of Hollywood smokers. Thought for the day: Give up just one cigarette…. the next one.
4. Reduce Stress
Easier said than done, stress busters come in many forms. Some techniques recommended by experts are to
think positive thoughts. Spend 30 minutes a day doing something you like. (i.e.,Soak in a hot tub; walk on the
beach or in a park; read a good book; visit a friend; play with your dog; listen to soothing music; watch a
funny movie. Get a massage, a facial or a haircut. Meditate. Count to ten before losing your temper or getting
aggravated. Avoid difficult people when possible. Thought for the day: When seeing red, think pink
clouds….then float on them.
5. Protect Yourself from Pollution
If you can't live in a smog-free environment, at least avoid smoke-filled rooms, high traffic areas, breathing in
highway fumes and exercising near busy thoroughfares. Exercise outside when the smog rating is low. Exercise
indoors in air conditioning when air quality is good. Plant lots of shrubbery in your yard. It's a good pollution
and dirt from the street deterrent. Thought for the day: 'Smoke gets in your eyes'…and your mouth, and your
nose and your lungs as do pollutants….hum the tune daily.
6. Wear Your Seat Belt
Statistics show that seat belts add to longevity and help alleviate potential injuries in car crashes. Thought for

p. 122
the day: Buckle down and buckle up.
7. Floss Your Teeth
Recent studies make a direct connection between longevity and teeth flossing. Nobody knows exactly why.
Perhaps it's because people who floss tend to be more health conscious than people who don't? Thought for
the day: Floss and be your body's boss.
8. Avoid Excessive Drinking
While recent studies show a glass of wine or one drink a day (two for men) can help protect against heart
disease, more than that can cause other health problems such as liver and kidney disease and cancer. Thought
for the day: A jug of wine should last a long time.
9. Keep a Positive Mental Outlook
There's a definitive connection between living well and healthfully and having a cheerful outlook on life.
Thought for the day: You can't be unhappy when you're smiling or singing.
10. Choose Your Parents Well
The link between genetics and health is a powerful one. But just because one or both of your parents died
young in ill health doesn't mean you cannot counteract the genetic pool handed you. Thought for the day:
Follow these basic tips for healthy living and you can better control your own destiny.

Text comprehension

1. Try first to reflect carefully about the text itself and you. Count how many of the ten tips do you really
practice. Take note here why you don’t do the ones you didn’t mention.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Do you have plans to modify some of your life style in order to help your wellness and health? How
come and When?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Try to think some more “tips” we can do to conquest a better and better life (even do our “part” or
our “half”!) .
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Now you’ll count your “life habit score”. You’ll put right beside each text item, a number:
. zero: if you definitely don’t release such description health tip
. one: if you moderately practice such health tip description, and
. two: if you plenty do what the health tip is talking about!
Then, you’ll sum everything and get the final result and discuss with your teacher!

p. 123
Lesson 20

Vocabulary: Street Places

1. laundromat 7. pedestrian 13. drive-thru window


2. drugstore / pharmacy 8. crosswalk / zebra 14. fast food restaurant
3. convenience store 9. street 15. bus
4. photo shop 10. curb A. cross the street
5. parking space 11. newsstand B. wait for the light
6. traffic light 12. mailbox / postbox C. drive a car

p. 124
Lesson 20

Vocabulary: Outdoor World! / Na Intersection

16. bus stop 22. copy center / print shop 28. fire hydrant
17. corner 23. streetlight 29. sign
18. parking meter 24. dry cleaners 30. street vendor
19. motorcycle 25. nail salon 31. ice cream stand
20. donut shop 26. sidewalk D. park the car
21. public telephone 27. garbage truck E. ride a bike

p. 125
Lesson 20

Grammar: Object pronouns

Os pronomes oblíquos em inglês funcionam como o objeto da oração (direto ou indireto). Eles
possuem a mesma tradução dos “personal pronouns”. Como já vimos, os pronomes pessoais só assumem
papéis de sujeito, enquanto os pronomes oblíquos só assumem papéis de objeto da oração. E quando temos
o objeto da oração? Sempre depois de um verbo ou depois de uma preposição, portanto:

Depois de um verbo ou uma preposição usamos os OBJECT PRONOUNS

Personal Object
pronouns pronouns
I Me
You You
He Him
She Her
It It
We Us
You You
They Them

Ex: She called him yesterday - se fosse o contrário: He called her yesterday (ele a chamou ontem /ele
(ela o chamou – ela ligou p/ ele) ligou p/ ela ontem)
She - subject He - subject
He - object (after the verb “to call” = him) She - object (her)

She said that she is ok. ( that = conjunction)(Ela disse que ela está bem)
She loves music but he doesn’t. (but = conjunction)(Ela ama música mas ele não)
She wants to be with him. (with = preposition)(ela que estar com ele)
She gets fat if she eats too much. (if = conjunction)(Ela engorda se comer muito)
She will see him tomorrow. (see = verb)(Ela o verá amanhã)
She is beside him. (beside = preposition)(Ela está ao lado dele)
She loves her books, she bought all of them. (Ela ama seus livros, ela comprou todos eles)
She got home, then she phoned him, yesterday.(then = conjunction, phoned = verb)(Ela chegou em casa e
depois ligou para ele, ontem)
She met her* classmates yesterday, but she didn’t greet them**. (Ela seus colegas de aula ontem, mas não
os cumprimentou)
* Possessive pronoun ** Related to “her friends”
Importante: Como podemos observar, é muito importante diferenciarmos preposições e conjunções
(estudar bem as listas do capítulo passado), para sabermos se usamos a coluna dos “personal pronouns” –
depois de conjunções ou dos “object pronouns” – depois das preposições.

A dialogue In the restaurant:


_Woud you like coffee or tea?
_ None of them. I’d like water, please.
_ Sparking one?
_ No, thanks. I don’t like it. I prefer a regular one better.
_ Sure, just a moment, please.

p. 126
Lesson 20

Grammar: Reflexive pronouns / Emphatic pronouns

Os pronomes reflexivos em inglês obedecem à tabela seguinte:

Lembremos o que seria “self”: Personal pronouns Reflexive pronouns


Self = auto I Myself
Self control = auto-controle You Yourself
Self estime = auto estima He Himself
Self confidence = confiança She Herself
própria It Itself
Self service = auto serviço We Ourselves
You Yourselves
They Themselves

Os “reflexive pronouns” possuem Três principais funções “functions”:

1 - Função enfática (Emphatic function):


John himself did all the work at his Office yesterday. (O Jonh, ele mesmo, fez todo o trabalho no seu escritório,
ontem)
Susan herself cooked the dinner. (A Susan, ela mesma fez o jantar, ontem)

2 - Função reflexiva (reflexive function):


Susan programmed herself for her speech. (Susan se programou para seu descurso)
Susan and John love to talk about each other*. (A Susan e o Jonh amam falar uns dos outros)

3 - Significar sozinho, sem nenhuma ajuda ( = ALONE - sozinho ):

Preposition “BY” + Reflexive pronoun = ALONE

Ex:
John did all the work at his Office by himself. (O Jonh fez todo o trabalho no seu escritório sozinho)
Susan cooked the dinner by herself. (A Susan fez o jantar sozinha)

Each other * (um ao outro): “reciprocity relation” (Relação de reciprocidade -“2”-pessoas ou coisas):
Ex: I love her and she loves me as well, so, we love each other (Eu a amo e ela me ama, então, nós nos
amamos)
Susan knows John and John knows Susan too, obviously, they know each other
(A Susan conhece o John e o John também conhece a Susan, obviamente eles se conhecem)

Own (proprio): Verb, adjective or noun (verbo, advetivo ou substantivo). Ex:


Ele possui uma clínica. Ele tem sua própria clínica. Ele é o dono da clínica.
He owns a clinic. (verb) He has his own clinic.(adjective) He is the owner of the clinic. (noun)
Possessive + own = emphasize the possessive (possessivo + “own” = emfatizador da posse)
On + possessive + own = sozinho
Ex: I like that house but I prefer my own. (Gosto daquela casa mas prefiro a minha)
I appreciate to travel on my own. (Gosto de viajar independentemente)

p. 127
Lesson 20

20.1: Complete the sentences with the reflexive pronouns


a) When we look at us at the mirror, we see ___________________ reflected.
b) She was ___________________ at the meeting. No one was there!
c) Jofre ____________________ did the cooking. No one helped him!
d) Jofre prefers to have a trip __________________ . He thinks he can take more freedom like that.
e) Alexandre is a great singer. Sometimes he makes songs _________________ and practice _______________ .
f) Renata loves to be lonely. She prefers to travel everywhere __________________ .
g) Fernanda saw __________________ through a shop window when she was passing by there, in London.
h) Victor loves Renata so much. So does she. They _________________ .
i) People love to give _____________ gifts on christmas day. Last one, Me and Cris gave _________________ .

20.2 - Finish the sentences with him/her/them.


1 I don’t know those girls. Do you know them ?
2 I don’t know that man. Do you know ?
3 I don’t know those people. Do you know ?
4 I don’t know David’s wife. Do you know ?
5 I don’t know Mr Stevens. Do you know ?
6 I don’t know Sarah’s parents. Do you know ?
7 I don’t know the woman with the black coat. Do you know ?

20.3 - Complete the sentences. Use I/me/you/she/her etc.


1 I want to see her but she doesn’t want to see me ..

2 They want to see me but .don’t want to see .


3 She wants to see him but doesn’t want to see .
4 We want to see them but don’t want to see .
5 He wants to see us but don't want to see .
6 They want to see her but doesn’t want to see .
7 I want to see them but don’t want to see .
8 You want to see her but doesn’t want to see .

20.4 - Finish the sentences with myself/yourself etc.


1 He looked at himself in the mirror.
2 I’m not angry with you. I’m angry with .
3 Margaret had a nice time in London. She enjoyed .
4 My friends had a nice time in London. They enjoyed .
5 I picked up a very hot plate and burnt .
6 He never thinks about other people. He only thinks about .
7 I want to know more about you. Tell me about . (one person)
8 Goodbye! Have a nice holiday and look after ! (two people)

20.5 - Write sentences with by myself I by yourself etc.


1 I went on holiday alone. I went on holiday by myself. .
2 When I saw him, he was alone. When I saw him, he .
3 Don't go out alone. Don’t .
4 I went to the cinema alone. I .
5 My sister lives alone. My sister .
6 Many people live alone. Many people .

p. 128
Lesson 20

20.6 - Complete these sentences. Use myself/yourself etc. only where necessary. Use one of these verbs (I):

concentrate defend dry feel meet relax shave

1 Martin decided to grow a beard because he was fed up with shaving. .


2 I wasn’t very well yesterday but I much better today.
3 She climbed out of the swimming pool and with a towel.
4 I tried to study but I just couldn’t .
5 If somebody attacks you, you need to be able to .
6 I’m going out with Chris this evening. We’re at the station at 7.30.
7 You’re always rushing around. Why don’t you sit down and ?

20.7 - Complete the sentences using my own / your own etc. Choose one of these verbs:

bake cut make write

1 Brian never goes to the hairdresser. He usually cuts his own hair. .
2 Mary doesn’t often buy clothes. She usually .
3 Paul is a singer. He sings songs written by other people but he also .
..
4 We don’t often buy bread from a bakery. We .

TEXT(by Internet)

The Tortoise and the Hare

The Hare was once boasting of his speed before the other animals.
_"I have never yet been beaten," said he,
_"when I put forth my full speed. I challenge any one here to race with me."
The Tortoise said quietly,
_"I accept your challenge."
_"That is a good joke," said the Hare;
_"I could dance round you all the way."
_"Keep your boasting till you've won," answered the Tortoise.
_"Shall we race?"
So a course was fixed and a start was made. The Hare darted almost out of sight at once, but soon
stopped and, to show his contempt for the Tortoise, lay down to have a nap. The Tortoise plodded on and
plodded on, and when the Hare awoke from his nap, he saw the Tortoise just near the winning-post and could
not run up in time to save the race.
Then the Tortoise said: "Slow but steady progress wins the race."

p. 129
Lesson 21

Vocabulary: City Places

1. fire station 6. church / cathedral 11. movie theater


2. coffee shop 7. hospital 12. gas station
3. bank 8. park 13. furniture store
4. car dealership 9. synagogue 14. hardware store
5. hotel 10. theater / theatre 15. barber shop

p. 130
Lesson 21

16. bakery 21. health club 26. parking garage


17. city hall 22. motel 27. school
18. courthouse 23. mosque 28. library
19. police station 24. office building 29. post office
20. market 25. high-rise building / skycrapers

p. 131
Lesson 21

Grammar: All the pronouns

Personal / Object Reflexive Possessive Possessive


subject pronouns pronouns pronouns adjective pronouns
pronouns
I Me Myself My Mine
You * You * Yourself Your Yours
He Him Himself His His
She H er * Herself Her * Hers
It * It * Itself Its Its
We us Ourselves Our Ours
You * You * Yourselves Your Yours
They Them themselves Their Theirs
Cuidado com as “coincidências”:
Ex: “Last year, Susan gave a new car to her (possessive) mother. She loves her (object) a lot!”
(No ano passado, a Susan deu um carro novo para sua mãe. Ela a ama muito!)
Vamos recordar agora quando usamos as cinco tabelas acima. As traduções já foram
feitas. O importante aqui é saber utilizá-las corrretamente.
Os “personal” e os “object pronouns” diferem-se em sua aplicabilidade sintática; os
primeiros, funcionam como sujeito da oração (sempre ou no começo da frase, ou depois de uma vírgula,
ponto e vírgula, dois pontos, ou depois de uma conjunção), e o segundo grupo, objeto / predicado da oração
(sempre ou depois de um verbo ou depois de uma preposição).
A terceira coluna, os “reflexives” são usados como reflexivos ou como enfáticos ou
significando “sozinho” (precedido de “by”). Lembrar sempre que os “reflexives” devem ser correlacionados
com o respectivo “personal” (3° com a 1° coluna).
Finalmente as duas últimas colunas são os “possessives”. A quarta coluna é usada quando
tivermos um substantivo depois dela (lembrar que no inglês temos a ordem: adjetivo + substantivo), por isso
esta coluna é chamada “possesive adjective pronoun”, pois antecede um substantivo (adjetivo), indicando
posse (possessivo) e é um pronome. Já a quinta e última coluna é usada bem no final da frase, ou quando
este pronome for o próprio substituto e indicador da posse. Ex: Se na pergunta tenho: De quem é este lápis?
Na resposta: Meu. A mensagem já está completa! Não preciso responder: Meu llláááp piiisss. pois sei que se reponder
p
meu, estou referindo a “meu lápis”. Portanto “meu”, além de indicar posse, está substituindo “lápis”
(pronome).
Extra Vocabulary: Directions

Algumas palavras relacionadas com as direções:


Translation Translation
Turn right... Vire a direita Avenue Avenida
Turn left.... Vire a esquerda Road Estrada (pista simples)
Go ahead... Vá em frente Hi-way / high-way Estrada (pista dupla)
Go straight ahead... Vá direto em frente Corner Esquina
Keep going... Mantenha indo Traffic light Sinal de transito
Go along... Vá ao longo Traffic sign Placa de transito
Go down Desça To run the red light “furar” o sinal vermelho
Go up Suba Intersection “trevo” / cruzamento
Stop Pare Round / around / circle Rotatória
Block Quarteirão Traffic jam Engarrafamento
Street Rua Keep back Mantenha distância
Hill Morro, colina, subida Way Caminho, percurso
Building Prédio, construção, edifício Until / then Até / então, daí

p. 132
Lesson 21

21.1 - Describe how you go from your house to your work.


21.2 - You have to go immediately to the drugstore. Describe the shortest way to get there.
21.3 - I`m in front of main center post office, and I need to reach the closest city hall. Create a dialogue and
find out the itinerary.

21.4 - Finish these sentences in the same way.

21.5 - Complete these sentences. Use myself/yourself etc. only where necessary. Use one of these verbs (I):
concentrate defend dry feel meet relax shave wash

1 Martin decided to grow a beard because he was fed up with shaving. .


2 I wasn’t very well yesterday but I much better today.
3 She climbed out of the swimming pool and with a towel.
4 I tried to study but I just couldn’t .
5 If somebody attacks you, you need to be able to .
6 I’m going out with Chris this evening. We’re at the station at 7.30.
7 You’re always rushing around. Why don’t you sit down and ?
8 There was no water, so we couldn’t .

TEXT(by Internet)

A gorilla walks into a bar and asks the bartender for a beer.
_"That will be $17.50 please" says the bartender thinking the gorilla was
stupid being an animal.
So the gorilla gives the bartender his money and starts to sip his beer.
_"You know we don't very many gorillas in here" mutters the bartender.
The gorilla replies,
_"At these prices i'm not surprised!"

p. 133
Lesson 22

Vocabulary: A Dining Room area

1. china cabinet 8. candlestick 15. pepper shaker 22. knife


2. set of dishes 9. vase 16. dining room chair 23. spoon
3. platter 10. tray 17. dining room table 24. plate
4. ceiling fan 11. teapot 18. tablecloth 25. bowl
5. light fixture 12. sugar bowl 19. napkin 26. glass
6. serving dish 13. creamer 20. place mat 27. coffee cup
7. candle 14. saltshaker 21. fork 28. mug

p. 134
Lesson 22

Vocabulary: A Bathroom

1. hamper 8. towel rack 15. toilet paper 22. sink


2. bathtub 9. tile 16. toliet brush 23. soap
3. rubber mat 10. showerhead 17. toilet 24. soap dish
4. drain 11. (mini)blinds 18. mirror 25. wastebasket
5. hot water 12. bath towel 19. medicine cabinet 26. scale
6. faucet 13. hand towel 20. toothbrush 27. bath mat
7. cold water 14. washcloth 21. toothbrush holder

p. 135
Lesson 22

Grammar: “Get”

O verbo “To get - got - got” no inglês é um verdadeiro “coringa”. Isto porque ele assume um
significado muito amplo, e não temos no português um verbo correspondente que realmente o traduza. Em
sentido geral podemos associar o “get” com a idéia (e não tradução) de “atingir, realizar, alcançar, chegar,
comprar, tornar, ficar” algo. Vamos agora entender as “maravilhas” do get:

Ex: . “A campainha está tocando...”: _ I’ll get it! (eu vou lá, e atendo a campainha)
. “A mãe pede um copo d’agua...”: _ I’ll get it! (o filho vai pegar água p/ a mãe)
. “O pai “rezando uma missa” para o filho...” _ I got it! (o filho, diz que entendeu o “recado”)
. “O professor diz que Bob precisa tirar 10 na prova...”: _ I can get it! (Bob diz que conseque tirar 10 na
prova)
. “A irmã pede que seu irmão compre pão...” _ I’ll get it! (o irmão vai buscar o pão)
. “ O vestibulando olhando a lista de aprovados...” _ I got it! I got it! I got it! (ele está gritando: _eu
consegui! _Eu consegui! Eu consegui!)

Os principais usos do get:


. 1 – Associar a um adjetivo para formar um verbo
Ex: It’s getting dark (Está escurecendo)
She got fat... (Ela engordou…)
We’re getting tired about the politicians. (Estamos ficando cansado dos politicos)
. 2 – Get, no sentido de “chegar” “to get = to arrive”:
Ex: When I got home, the T.V was turned on . (Quando eu chequei em casa, a tv estava ligada)
When did she get home last night? (Quando ela chegou em casa na noite passada?)
How I wish to get home! (Como eu quero chegar em casa)
. 3 – Get + in/out significando entrar ou sair: “ to get in = to enter / to get out = to exit ”
Ex: I saw you yesterday getting in/ into Susan’s car. (Eu te vi ontem entrando dentro do carro da Susan)
Get out here! (Sai daqui!)
Some universities courses are easy to get in but difficult to get out! (Alguns cursos de universidade são
fáceis de entrar e difíceis de sair)

. 4 – Get no sentido de achar: “to get = to find”


Ex: Where can I get these cool pants? (Onde é que eu consigo/posso achar estas calças tão legais?)
It’s not easy to get a job lately! (Não é fácil achar/encontrar/conseguir um emprego ultimamente)
She needs to get another boyfriend. (Ela precisa achar/encontrar um outro namorado)

Resumindo

Get + noun = achieve / conquest / receive / buy / find / arrive


Get + adjective = become
Get on / off = related with bus / train / plane
Get in / out = enter / exit

p. 136
Lesson 22

Grammar: Adverbs

Os advérbios alteram na maioria dos casos o verbo, podendo também modificar um adjetivo ou um
outro advérbio. No inglês, os advérbios geralmente são colocados como complemento no final da frase.
Temos os “populares” com terminação “ly”, “able” (reler tabela página 9), o “good/well”, os advérbios usados
para o comparativo e superlativo (estes, particularmente, estudaremos adiante, não neste capítulo, e sim no
capítulo dos comparativos e superlativos), os advérbios de frequência (ver página 109), etc.
Quanto à posição os advérbios podem estar no início da frase, logo após o sujeito, ou no final da
frase.
Quanto ao tipo, os advérbios podem ser:
. De Modo (Ex: Fast, badly, hard, slowly, well, just, etc)(depressa, mal, severamente, vagarosamente, bem,
exatamente, etc)
. De Lugar (Ex: Here, there, inside, outside, near, far, etc)(aqui, lá, dentro, fora, perto, longe, etc)
. De Tempo (Ex: Already, just, now, soon, still, yet, today, yesterday, etc)(já, há pouco, agora, logo, ainda,
ainda/já, hoje, ontem, etc)
. De Intensidade (Ex: Very, almost, too, rather, quite, fairly, etc)(muito, quase, demais/excessivamente,
bastante, bem, razoavelmente, etc)
. De Frequência (Ex: Always, often, never, seldom, etc)(sempre, freqüentemente, nunca, raramente, etc)
. De Afirmação (Ex: Yes, yeah)(sim)
. De Negação (Ex: Not, no)(não)
. Interrogativo (Ex: When? Where? Why? How?)(Quando? Onde? Por quê? Como?)
. Relativos (Ex: When, where, why, how)(Quando, onde, por que, como)

Vamos rever como se dá a formação de alguns importantes agentes morfológicos no inglês:


Fast – rápido / fastly – rapidamente.
Bad – ruim, mau / badly – (sem tradução, seria o nosso “maumente”)
Quick – rápido / quickly – rapidamente
To eat – verbo comer
Eatable – Comestível (A terminação “able” vem do verbo “to be abe to” = “ser capaz de”, portanto “o que
é capaz de ser comido é comestível !”
To care – verbo cuidar
Careful – adjetivo – cuidadoso(a)
Careless – adjetivo – descuidado(a)
Careness – substantivo – o cuidado
Carelessness – substantivo – o descaso/ descuido
Carefully – advérbio – cuidadosamente

Ex: She`s usually (adverb) pretty careful (adject). She checks her test carefully (adverb).
To hope – verbo esperar
Hopeful – adjetivo – esperançoso(a)
Hopeless – adjetivo – desesperançoso(a)
Hopeness – substantivo – esperança
Hopelessness – substantivo – desesperança
Hopefully – adverb – esperançosamente

Ex: I hope (verb) the planet earth get better (adverb). Hopefully I think it will be.
Temos: Good = bom / well = bem
Ex: She took a good medicine for cold. Now, she feels well / good.
She took a well prescribed medicine for cold.

p. 137
Lesson 22

22.1 - Complete these sentences. Use get(s) and choose from the box.
a taxi you letter some milk a doctor
your jacket a good salary a ticket the job
1 I wrote to you last week. Did you get my letter .?
2 Where did you ? It's very nice.
3 Quick! This man is ill. We must .
4 I don’t want to walk home. Let's .
5 I had an interview with the manager but I didn’t .
6 When you go out, can you ?
7 ‘Are you going to the concert? ‘Yes, if I can .’
8 Margaret has got a well-paid job. She .

22.2 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with one of these adverbs:

22.3 - Chose a verb (Box A) + an adverb (Box B) to complete the sentences.

1 I’m going to tell you something very important, so please listen carefully .
2 Ann! I need your help. !
3 They ,At the end of the day they’re always tired.
4 I’m tired this morning. I didn’t last night
5 You’re a much better tennis player than me. When we play, you always .
6 I ………………….before you answer the question.
7 I’ve met Alice a few times but I don’t her very .
8 Our teacher isn’t very good. Sometimes he doesn’t things very .

22.4 - Write sentences with hardly. Use one of the following verbs (in the correct form):
change hear know recognise say sleep speak
1 George and Hilda have only met once before. They hardly know .each other.
2 You’re speaking very quietly. I can you.
3 I'm very tired this morning. I last night.
4 We were so shocked when we heard the news, we could .
5 Kate was very quiet this evening. She a word.
6 You look the same now as you looked 15 years ago. You’ve .
7 I met Keith a few days ago. I hadn’t seen him for a long time and he looks very different now. I
…………………………..him.

p. 138
Lesson 22

22.5 - Complete each sentence using a word from the list. Sometimes you need the adjective (careful etc.)
and sometimes the adverb (carefully etc.).

careful(ly) complete(ly) continuous(ly) financial(ly) fluent(ly)


happy/happily nervous(ly) perfect(ly) tquick(ly) special(ly)

1 Our holiday was too short. The time passed very quickly. .
2 Tom doesn’t take risks when he’s driving. He’s always .
3 Sue works .She never seems to stop.
4 Alice and Stan are very married.
5 Monica’s English is very although she makes quite a lot of mistakes.
6 I cooked this meal for you, so I hope you like it.
7 Everything was very quiet. There was silence.
8 I tried on the shoes and they fitted me .
9 Do you usually feel before examinations?
10 I’d like to buy a car but it’s impossible for me at the moment.

22.6 - Choose two words (one from each box) to complete each sentence.
absolutely reasonably unusually cheap enormous planned
badly seriously unnecessarily changed ill quiet
completely slightly damaged long

1 I thought the restaurant would be expensive but it was reasonably cheap. .


2 George’s mother is in hospital.
3 What a big house! It’s .
4 It wasn’t a serious accident. The car was only .
5 The children are normally very lively but they’re today .
6 When I returned home after 20 years, everything had .
7 The film was .It could have been much shorter.
8 A lot went wrong during our holiday because it was .

JOKE (by Internet)

Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson go on a camping trip, set up their tent, and fall asleep. Some hours
later, Holmes wakes his faithful friend. "Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.
_" Watson replies, "I see millions of stars."
_"What does that tell you?"
Watson ponders for a minute.
_"Astronomically speaking, it tells me that there are millions of galaxies and potentially billions of planets".
Holmes is silent for a moment, then speaks.
_"Watson, your idiot, someone has stolen our tent!"

p. 139
REVIEW – Simple Verb tenses

Como criar, e “passar” uma frase da afirmativa para a interrogativa ou da afirmativa para a
negativa:

. O primeiro passo é identificar corretamente qual é tempo verbal da frase contextualizando, e para isto,
além do contexto em si (que é a grande “sacada”), prestar atenção nos complementos de tempo (last, next,
ago, now, before,...)
. Depois de fazer uma análise crítica se temos na frase um verbo auxiliar ou um verbo “normal”, bem como se
a frase está no presente, passado ou futuro. Se eu tiver um verbo “normal”, devo “pedir auxílio para o auxiliar”
escolhendo o respectivo auxiliar (apenas se quiser fazer uma frase na negativa ou na interrogativa), de acordo
com o auxiliar deste correspondente presente/passado/futuro (tabela 1). Se tivermos um verbo auxiliar,
estamos “auto-suficientes” e não precisamos dos auxiliares para fazer uma pergunta ou negação (tabela 2).

A tabela 1 só pode ser usada se não tivermos um dos verbos da tabela 2 na frase, na hora de negar
ou de perguntar!

Auxiliaries – tabela 1

Simple present Do ( I, you, we, they ) / Does ( he, she, it ) - no translation !


Simple past Did ( I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they ) - no translation !
Simple future Will ( I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they) - no translation !

Auxiliary verbs – tabela 2

Present Past Future Traslation


To be Am / is / are Was / were Will be Ser / estar
To has / have got Has / have got Had got Will have got Ter / possuir
There is / are There is / are There was / were There will be Haver
Modal Verbs Can / may … Could / would… Will be able to --------
Be going to Am / is/ are going Was/ were going to -------- Futuro planejado
to

Obs: TODOS os verbos que não foram citados nesta tabela 2, são considerados verbos “normais” (“ordinary
verbs”) e por isto precisam de um auxiliar correspondente de pass/pres/fut (tab.1) para perguntas e negações.

p. 140
REVIEW

O que descreve?
Os tempos verbais Principais
Relaciona com um... Exemplos Tradução - Traslation
simples características

Eu como muito?
Do I eat a lot? Ela come muito !
Frase com he/she/it e She eats a lot ! Não sou um
Hábito, rotina, fato,
na afirmativa, I’m not a student. estudante.
Presente afirmação (falsa ou
conjugamos o verbo, They work every day. Eles/ elas trabalham
verdadeira).
colocando-o no plural. He doesn’t work every todos os dias.
day. Ele não trabalha todos
os dias.
Eu estou correndo
I’m running now
agora
Obrigatoriedade do Is he lying to me
Ele está mentindo para
fato que está “verb to be” again?
mim de novo?
Presente contínuo acontecendo naquele (am/is/are), e o vebo She’s not taking a bath
Ela nãoestá tomando
exato momento. principal é seguido de now.
banho agora
“ing” (gerúndio). At this moment, we’re
Neste momento,
reading.
estamos lendo
Yesterday I went to the
club. Ontem eu fui ao clube.
Passado definido. Os verbos podem ser
We were at the club Estávamos no clube
Algo que começou e regulares (frases na
last day. ontem.
Passado acabou afirm. com terminação
Did he go to the club Ele foi ao cube ontem?
completamente em “ed”) ou irregulares
yesterday ? Ela não estava no
um passado definido. (lista)
She wasn’t at the park parque ontem
yesterday.
. Quando ela chegou
Algo que estava . When she arrived em casa, seu pai
acontecendo no home, her father was estava assistindo tv.
momento da Obrigatoriedade do watching tv. . Sue não estava
descrição. Geralmente “verb to be”, só que . Sue wasn’t doing fazendo nada de
Passado contínuo na mesma frase temos agora no passado anything special, especial, enquanto isto
também o passado (was/were), e verbo meanwhile her mom sua mãe estava
simples, garantindo o principal + “ing” was working hard. trabalhando duro.
sentido e idéia na . Were you paying . Você estava
frase. attention when I wave? prestando atenção
quando eu te assenei?
. Eu acho que irei ao
. I think I’ll go to the clube!
club! . Ela não participará do
Uma decisão recém “Will” é o seu próprio
. She won’t participate seminário na próxima
tomada, não muito auxiliar de futuro.
to the seminar next semana. Ela ainda não
Futuro “will” certa, ou “súbita” que Pode ser abreviado:
week. She’s still not está certa se ele é
expressa ou relaciona Won’t = will + not
sure if it’s good! bom!
a um futuro. She’ll = She will, etc
. Mom, will you answer . Mamãe, você
the phone? It’s ringing. atenderá o telefone?
Está tocando.

. Para ser futuro


. He’s going to go . Ele irá pescar com
planejado precisa ter
fishing tonight with his seus amigos hoje à
um outro verbo depois
friend! noite!
Representado por uma do “going to” (caso
. She was going to . Ela estaria viajando,
decisão prévia, fato ou contrário “vira”
travel but the trip was mas a viajem foi
acontecimento mais presente simples
Futuro “going to” canceled. cancelada.
“consistente” ou certo, contínuo).
. I’m not going to give . Eu não desistirei,
denotando idéia de . A tradução não é
up, definitely not! definitivamente não!
um futuro “planejado”. “ao-pé-da-letra”.
. Are you going to go . Você irá para o
. Obrigatoriedade do
to your father’s aniversário de seu pai,
“verb to be” (pres. ou
birthday, aren’t you? não irá?
passado)

p. 141
WORKBOOK

p. 142
Lesson 3

3.1 - Put in am, is or are.

1 The weather is nice today. 5 Look! There Carol.


2 I not tired. 6 My brother and I good tennis players.
3 This bag heavy. 7 Ann at home. Her children at school.
4 These bags heavy. 8 I .a taxi driver. My sister a nurse.

3.2 - Write full sentences. Use: is/isn’t/are/aren’t.

1 (your shoes very dirty) Your shoes are very dirty .


2 (my brother a teacher) My .
3 (this house not very big) .
4 (the shops not open today) .
5 (my keys in my bag) .
6 (Jenny 18 years old) .
7 (you not very tall) .

3.3 - Write sentences for the pictures. Use: afraid angry cold hot hungry thirsty

1 She’s thirsty . 3 He . 5 .
2 They . 4 …………………. 6 .

3.4 - Write true sentences, positive or negative. Use: am / am not / is / isn’t / are / aren’t.

1 (I / interested in politics) I’m interested (OR I’m not interested) in politics. .


2 (I / hungry) I .
3 (it / warm today) It .
4 (I / afraid of dogs) .
5 (my hands / cold) .
6 (Canada / a very big country) .
7 (diamonds / cheap ) .
8 (I / interested in football) .
9 (Rome / in Spain) .

3.5 - Make questions with these words. Use is or are.

1 (at home / your mother?) Is your mother at home? .


2 (your parents / well?) Are your parents well? .
3 (interesting / your job?) .
4 (the shops / open today?) .
5 (interested in sport / you?) .
6 (near here / the post office?) .
7 (at school / your children?) .
8 (why / you / late?) .

p. 143
Lesson 4

4.1 - Complete the sentences. Use a or the + one of these words:

airport cup door floor picture radio

4.2 - These are geography questions. Choose your answer from the box. Sometimes you need The.

1 Cairo . is the capital of Egypt. Alps


2 (The) Atlantic (Ocean) is between Africa and America. Amazon
3 . is a country in northern Europe. Andes
4 . is a river in South America. Asia
5 . is the largest continent in the world. Atlantic
6 . is the largest ocean. Bahamas
7 . is a river in Europe. Cairo
8 . is a country in East Africa. Kenya
9 . is between Canada and Mexico. Malta
10 . are mountains in South America. Pacific
11 . is the capital of Japan. Red sea
12 . are mountains in central Europe. Rhine
13 . is between Saudi Arabia and Africa. Sweden
14 . is an island in the Mediterranean. Tokio
15 . are a group of island near Florida. United States

p. 144
Lesson 4

4.3 - Write questions: Is this/that your… ? or Are these/those your…?

4.4 - Complete the sentences with this is or that’s or that.

1 A: I’m sorry I’m late 5 A: Jill plays the piano very well
B: That’s all right B: Really? I didn’t know .
2 A: I can’t come to the party tomorrow. 6 Mark meets Paul’s sister (Ann):
B: Oh, a pity. Why not? Paul: Mark, my sister, Ann.
3 (on the telephone) Mark: Hello, Ann.
Sue: Hello, Ann. Sue. 7 A: I’m sorry I was angry yesterday
Ann: Oh, hello, Sue. How are you? B: OK. Forget it!
4 A: You’re lazy 8 A: You’re a friend of John’s, aren’t you?
B: not true! B: Yes, right.

4.5 - Put in a/an or the.

1 This morning I bought . a newspaper and magazine. newspaper is in my bag but I don’t
know where I put magazine.
2 I saw accident this morning. car crashed into tree. driver of
car wasn’t hurt but car was badly damaged.
3 There are two cars parked outside: blue one and grey one. blue one belongs to my
neighbours; I don't know who is owner of grey one is.
4 My friends live in old house in small village. There is beautiful garden behind
house. I would like to have garden like that.

p. 145
Lesson 5

5.1 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1 There are a lot of sheep in the field 4 Jill has got two .
2 George is cleaning his .. 5 There are a lot of in the river.
3 There are three at the bus stop. 6 The are falling from the tree.

5.2 - Some of these sentences are right but most are wrong. Correct the sentences that are wrong.

1 I’m going to buy some flowers. Ok. .


2 I need a new jeans. I need a new pair of jeans. OR I need some new jeans. .
3 It's a lovely park with a lot of beautiful tree. .
4 There was a woman in the car with two mens. .
5 Sheep eat grass. .
6 David is married and has three childs. .
7 Most of my friend are student. .
8 He put on his pyjama and went to bed. .
9 We went fishing but we didn’t catch many fish. .
10 Do you know many persons in this town? .
11 I like your trouser. Where did you get it? .
12 The town centre is usually full of tourist. .
13 I don’t like mice. I’m afraid of them. .
14 This scissor isn’t very sharp. .

5.3 - Which is right?

1 I’m going to buy some new shoe/shoes. shoes is right


2 Martin has got brown eye/ eyes.
3 Paula has got short black hair/hairs.
4 The tourist guide gave us some information/informations about the town.
5 We’re going to buy some new chair/ chairs.
6 We’re going to buy some new furniture/furnitures.
7 It's difficult to get a work/job at the moment.
8 We had lovely weather / a lovely weather when we were on holiday.

p. 146
Lesson 6

6.1 - Write at/on/in.

1 Goodbye! See you on . Friday. 11 I often go away the weekend.


2 Where were you 28 February? 12 I’m starting my new job 3 July.
3 I got up 8 o’clock this morning.
13 We often go to the beach summer.
4 I like getting up early the morning. 14 George isn’t here the moment.
5 My sister got married May. 15 Julia’s birthday is January.
6 Diane and I first met 1979.
16 Do you work Saturdays?
7 Did you go out Tuesday? 17 The company started 1969.
8 Did you go out Tuesday evening?
18 I like to look at the stars night.
9 Do you often go out the evening? 19 I’ll send you the money .the end
10 Let’s meet 7:30 tomorrow evening? of the month.

6.2 - Look at Lisa's diary for next week and complete the sentences.

1 Lisa is going to the cinema in the Wednesday evening. .


2 She has to phone Chris .
3 She isn’t doing anything special .
4 She’s got a driving lesson .
5 She’s going to a party .
6 She’s meeting Sam .

6.3 - Put in in/at/on.

1 Don’t sit on . the grass. It’s wet.


2 What have you got your bag?
3 Look! There’s a man the roof. What's he doing?
4 There are a lot of fish this river.
5 Our house is number 45 -the number is the door.
6 ‘Is the cinema near here?’ ‘Yes, turn left the traffic light.’
7 I usually do my shopping the city centre.
8 My sister lives Brussels.
9 There's a small park the top of the hill.
10 I think I heard the doorbell. There’s somebody the door.
11 Munich is a large city the south of Germany.
12 There are a few shops the end of the street.
13 It’s difficult to carry a lot of things a bicycle.
14 I looked at the list of names. My name was the bottom of the list.
15 There is a mirror the wall the living room.

p. 147
Lesson 6

6.4 - Write at/on/in if necessary. Sometimes there is no preposition.


1 I'm leaving on Friday 7 What are you doing the weekend?
2 I'm leaving next Friday. (no preposition) 8 I phone Robert every Sunday.
3 I always feel tired the evening 9 Shall we play tennis next Sunday?
4 Will you be at home this evening? 10 I can’t go to the party Sunday.
5 We went to France . last summer. 11 I’m going out. I’ll be back an hour.
6 Laura was born 1975. 12 I don’t often go out night.

6.5 - Answer the questions about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.

1 What’s Sue doing? 6 What’s the man doing?


She’s standing in a queue. . He's looking .
2 Sue lives in this building. Where’s her 7 Ann is in this group of people. Where is
flat exactly? . she? .
3 Where is the woman standing? 8 Tom is at the cinema. Where is he sitting?
. .
4 Where is the man standing? 9 a Where’s the post office? ………………..
. b And the bank? .
5 Where's the dog? .. 10 Where does Kate work? .

6.6 - Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:

sea hospital bed the station the cinema


the plane school prison the airport the Sports Centre

1 My train arrives at 11.30. Can you meet me at the station? .


2 I didn’t feel very well when I woke up, so I stayed ..
3 I think I’d like to see a film. What’s on this week?
4 Some people are for crimes that they did not commit.
5 ‘What does your sister do? Has she got a job?’ ‘No, she’s still .
6 I play basketball on Friday evenings.
7 A friend of mine was injured in an accident a few days ago. She’s still……………………….
8 Our flight was delayed. We had to wait for four hours.
9 I enjoyed the flight but the food wasn’t very nice.
10 Bill works on ships. He is away most of the time.

p. 148
Lesson 7

7.1 - What has Tina got?


What have you got?
Look at the information
and write sentences
about Tina and
yourself.

1 (a camera) Tina has got a


camera. I’ve got (OR I haven’t got) a camera. .
2 (a bicycle) Tina .
3 (long hair) .
4 (brothers / sisters) .

7.2 - Put in have got (‘ve got), has got (‘s got), haven’t got or hasn’t got.
1 Sarah hasn’t got a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.
2 They like animals. They ‘ve got three dogs and two cats.
3 Charles isn't happy. He a lot of problems.
4 They don’t read much. They many books.
5 ‘What’s wrong?’ ‘I something in my eye’.
6 ‘Where’s my pen?’ ‘I don’t know. I it.’
7 Julia wants to go to the concert but she a ticket.

7.3 - Complete the sentences. Use have/has got or haven’t/hasn’t got + one of these:

a lot of friends four wheels six legs a headache a toothache a key


much time a garden

1 I'm not feeling very well. I ‘ve got a headache. .


2 It's a nice house but it hasn’t got a garden. .
3 Most cars .
4 Everybody likes Tom. He .
5 I’m going to the dentist this morning. I .
6 He can’t open the door. He .
7 An insect .
8 We must hurry. We .

7.4 - What are these people doing? Choose from the list:

a rest a cup of tea a bath breakfast dinner a nice time

1 They’re having breakfast. . 4 They .


2 She . 5 .
3 He . 6 .

p. 149
Lesson 8

8.1 - Put in there is / there isn’t / is there / there are / there aren’t / are there.

1 Kenham isn’t an old town. There aren’t any old buildings.


2 Look! a photograph of your brother in the newspaper!
3 ‘Excuse me, a bank near here?’ ‘Yes, at the end of the street.’
4 five people in my family: my parents, my two sisters and me.’
5 ‘How many students in the class?’ “Twenty.’
6 ‘Can we take a photograph?’ ‘No, a film in the camera.’
7 ‘ a bus from the city center to the airport?’ ‘Yes. Every 20 minutes.’
8 ‘ any problems?’ ‘No, everything is OK.’
9 nowhere to sit down. any chairs.

8.2 - What would you say in these situations?

1 John has come to see you in your flat. You offer him something to eat.
YOU: .
JOHN: No, thank you. I’m not hungry.
2 You need help to change the film in your camera. You ask Ann.
YOU: Ann, I don’t know how to change the film…………………………………………
3 You're on a train The woman next to you has finished reading her newspaper. Now you
want to have a look at it. You ask her.
YOU: Excuse me, .
WOMAN: Yes, of course. I’ve finished with it.
4 You’re on a bus. You have a seat but an elderly man is standing. You offer him your seat.
YOU: .
MAN: Oh, that’s very kind of you. Thank you very much.
5 You’re the passenger in a car. Your friend is driving very fast. You ask her to slow down.
YOU: You’re making me very nervous. .
DRIVER: Oh, I’m sorry. I didn’t realise I was going so fast.
6 You’ve finished your meal in a restaurant and now you want the bill. You ask the waiter:
YOU: .
WAITER: Right. I’ll get it for you now.
7 A friend of yours is interested in one of your books. You invite him to borrow it. FRIEND: This book looks
very interesting.
YOU: Yes, it's very good. .

8.3 - What do you say to Sue in these situations? Use Would you like to…?

1 You want to go to the cinema tonight. Perhaps Sue will go with you. (go)
You say: Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? .
2 You want to play tennis tomorrow. Perhaps Sue will play too. (play)
You say: .
3 You’ve got some holiday photographs. Sue hasn’t seen them yet. (see)
You say: .
4 You have an extra ticket for a concert next week. Perhaps Sue will go. (go )
You say: .
5 It’s raining and Sue is going out. She hasn’t got an umbrella but you have one. (borrow)
You say: .

p. 150
Lesson 8

8.4 - Use the information in the box to complete these conversations. Use one/ones.

the coat is black I took the photographs on the beach last week

the girl is tall with long hair the shoes are green

the hotel is opposite the station the pictures are on the wall

the house has got a red door the books are on the top shelf

the flowers are yellow the man has got a moustache and glasses

1 A: We stayed at a hotel. 6 A: Are those your books?


B: which one? . B: ?
A: The one opposite the station. . A: .

2 A: Those shoes are nice. 7 A: Do you know that girl?


B: ? B: ?
A: .. A: .

3 A: That’s a nice house. 8 A: Those flowers are beautiful


B: ? B: ?
A: with .. A: ..

4 A: I like that coat. 9 A: Who’s that man?


B: ? B: ?
A: . A: .

5 A: I like those pictures. 10 A: Have you seen my photographs?


B: ? B: .?
A: : A: .
.

8.5 – Now be creative and figure out a context (can be a dialogue or ordinary sentences) to use: Four times
the pronoun “one” and four times the pronoun “ones”.

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p. 151
Lesson 9

9.1 - Look at the family tree and complete the sentences with his/her/their.

9.2 - Look at the pictures. What are the people saying?

9.3 - Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use one word only.

p. 152
Lesson 9

Instructions for Ex. 9.4:

Toda vez que tivermos “of” em uma frase devemos analisá-la da seguinte maneira, conforme estes dois
casos:

1. First case / Primeiro caso: Se nesta frase houver Dois Substantivos seguidos (e se o primeiro
destes substantivos não representar um possuidor):

Não podemos usar “genitive case” e podemos usar “of” se desejarmos, invertendo a posição dos
substantivos.
Ex: Universidade de Uberaba (temos dois substantivos seguidos), portanto podemos usar :
. Uberaba University, or
. University of Uberaba
. Uberaba’s University – ERRADO – WRONG / TERRIBLE. (o genitivo foi usado errôneamente)
. The teacher’s student (o primeiro substantivo – teacher- , representa “alguém” ; usa-se o “genitive”)
. The garage doors / the doors of the garage (garagem não representa um “possuidor”; no “genitive”)

2. Second case / Segundo caso: Se nesta frase houver nome próprio ou pronome possessivo:

Neste caso somos obrigados a usar o “genitive case” e proibidos de usar “of”.
Ex:. O casaco do meu pai (temos “meu”, pronome possessivo, portanto não temos opção:)
My father’s coat (somos obrigados a usar o genitivo e proibido de usar: “the coat of my father”)
O livro do Lucio: temos um nome próprio “Lucio”, portanto temos que usar “Lucio’s book” genitivo, e
não podemos usar “of”: “the book of Lucio”.
O Fernando é cunhado do Lucio – Fernando is Lucio’s brother-in-law, e não:
Fernando is brother-in-law of Lucio - WRONG

9.4 - Are these sentences OK? Correct the sentences where necessary.

1 I stayed at the house of my sister. my sister’s house .


2 What is the name of this village? OK .
3 Do you like the colour of this coat? .
4 Do you know the phone number of Bill? .
5 The job of my brother is very interesting. .
6 Write your name on the top of the page. .
7 For me the morning is the best part of the day. .
8 The favourite colour of Paula is blue. .
9 When is the birthday of your mother? .
10 The house of my parents isn’t very big. .
11 The walls of this house are very thin. .
12 The car stopped at the end of the street. .
13 Are you going to the party of Silvia next week? .
14 The manager of the hotel is on holiday at the moment. ..

p. 153
Lesson 10

10.1 - Find the right answers for the questions.

10.2 - Write short answers (Yes, I am. / No, he isn’t. etc.).

1 Are you married? No, I’m not. . 4 Are your hands cold? .
2 Are you thirsty? . 5 Is it dark now? .
3 Is it cold today? . 6 Are you a teacher?................................

10.3 - Complete the questions. Use Which …?

10.4 - Put in what/which/who.

1 What .is that man’s name? 6 is your favourite sport?


2 Which way shall we go? Left or right? 7 is more expensive, meat or fish?
3 You can have tea or coffee. do 8 is older, Ann or George?
you prefer? 9 kind of camera have you got?
4‘ day is it today?' 'Friday.' 10 A: Mary has got three cameras.
5 This is a nice house. room is B: camera does she use most?
yours. 11 nationality are you?

10.5 - Complete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where.

1 What’s the name of the man whose car you borrowed?


2 A cemetery is a place people are buried.
3 A pacifist is a person believes that all wars are wrong.
4 An orphan is a child parents are dead.
5 The place we spent our holidays was really beautiful.
6 This school is only for children first language is not English.
7 I don’t know the name of the woman I spoke on the phone.

p. 154
Lesson 10

10.6 - Complete the sentences. Choose the most suitable ending from the box and the relative clause.

he invented the telephone it makes washing machines


she runs away from home it gives you the meaning of words
they are never on time it won the race
they were in my car it can support life
they were on the wall it cannot be explained

1 Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. .


2 The book is about a girl........................................................................................................................................................................
3 What was the name of the horse......................................................................................................................................................
4 The police have caught the men........................................................................................................................................................
5 Alexander Bell was the man .................................................................................................................................................................
6 What's happened to the pictures......................................................................................................................................................?
7 A mystery is something.........................................................................................................................................................................
8 A dictionary is a book ............................................................................................................................................................................
9 I don’t like people ...................................................................................................................................................................................
10 It seems that Earth is the only planet..............................................................................................................................................

Instructions for Ex. 10.7:


Quando o “relative clause” refere-se ao objeto e não ao sujeito, ele é opcional (para o who, which e
o that).

10.7 - Complete these sentences with a relative clause. Use the sentences in the box to make your relative
clauses.

we hired a car you're going to see a film I invited some people to the party
Ann is wearing a dress you had to do some work Tom recommended a hotel to us
you lost some keys we wanted to visit a museum

1 Have you found the keys you lost? .


2 I like the dress .
3 The museum was shut when we got there.
4 What’s the name of the film ?
5 Some of the people couldn’t come.
6 Have you finished the work ?
7 The car broke down after a few miles.
8 We stayed at a hotel .

10.8 - In some of these sentences you don’t need who or that. If you don't need these words, put them in
brackets like this: (who) (that).
1 The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (‘who’ is necessary in this sentence) ,
2 Have you found the keys (that)you lost. (in this sentence you don't need ‘that’)
3 The people who we met at the party were very friendly.
4 The people who work in the office are very friendly.
5 The people who I talked to were very friendly.
6 What have you done with the money that I gave you?
7 What happened to the money that was on the table? Did you take it?
8 It was an awful film. It was the worst film that I’ve ever seen.
9 It was an awful experience. It was the worst thing that has ever happened to me.

p. 155
Lesson 11

11.1 - Complete the sentences about the people in the pictures. Use these verbs:

eat go live sleep play plays

1 He plays the piano. 4 tennis.


2 They in a very big house. 5 to the cinema a lot.
3 a lot of fruit. 6 eight hours a night.

11.2 - Write the negative.

1 I play the piano very well. I don’t play the piano very well. .
2 Jane plays the piano very well. Jane .
3 They know my phone number. .
4 We work very hard. .
5 He has a bath every day. .
6 You do the same thing every day. .

11.3 - Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative.

1 Margaret speaks four languages - English, French, German and Spanish. (speak)
2 I don’t like my job. It’s very boring. (like)
3 ‘Where’s Martin?’ ‘I’m sorry. I .’ (know)
4 Sue is a very quiet person. She very much. (talk)
5 Jim a lot of tea. It’s his favourite drink. (drink)
6 It's not true! I it! (believe)
7 That's a very beautiful picture. I it very much. (like)
8 Mark is a vegetarian. He meat. (eat)

11.4 - Write questions with Do...? and Does...?

1 I like chocolate. And you? Do you like chocolate? .


2 I play tennis. And you? you .
3 Tom plays tennis. And Ann? Ann .
4 You live near here. And your friends? .
5 You speak English. And your brother? .
6 I do exercises every morning. And you? .
7 Sue often goes away. And Paul? .
8 I want to be famous. And you? .
9 You work hard. And Linda? .

p. 156
Lesson 11

11.5 - Write about the weather in the pictures (see page 116). Use It’s….

1 It’s raining. . 4 .
2 . 5 .
3 . 6 .

11.6 - Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes.

easy dangerous work in this office get up early


it’s difficult nice to visit different places go out alone
impossible interesting see you again make friends

1 If you go to bed late, it’s difficult to get up early in the morning.


2 Hello, Jill. How are you?
3 . There is too much noise.
4 Everybody is very nice at work. ..
5 I like travelling. ..
6 A lot of cities are not safe. at night.

11.7 – Take a look on the page 116 and pretend you’re a weather forecast announcer. Use expressions and
vocabulary from this page and use your imagination. Maybe you can be hired to work as a fiction
movie producer! Please, at least 3 or 4 lines. Come on, don’t be lazzy

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p. 157
Lesson 12

12.1 - What are these people doing? Use these verbs to complete the sentences:

eat have lie play sit wait

1 She’s eating an apple. 4 on the floor.


2 He for a bus. 5 breakfast.
3 They football. 6 on the table.

12.2 - Complete the sentences. Use one of these verbs:

build cook go have stand stay swim work

1 Please be quiet. I ‘m working. .


2 ‘Where’s John?’ ‘He’s in the kitchen. He ..”
3 ‘You .on my foot.’ ‘Oh, I’m sorry.’
4 Look! Somebody in the river.
5 We’re here on holiday. We at the Central Hotel.
6 ‘Where’s Ann?’ ‘She a shower.’
7 They a new theater in the city centre at the moment.
8 I now. Goodbye.

12.3 - Look at the picture. Write sentences about Jane. Use She’s –ing or She isn’t – ing.

12.4 - What were you doing at the following times? Write one sentence as in the examples. The past
continuous is not always necessary (see the second example).

1 (at 8 o’clock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends .
2 (at 5 o’clock last Saturday) I was on a train on my way to London. .
3 (at 10.15 yesterday morning) .
4 (at 4.30 this morning) .
5 (at 7.45 yesterday evening) .
6 (half an hour ago) .

p. 158
Lesson 12

12.5 - Look at the pictures and complete the questions. Use one of these:

cry eat go laugh look at read

12.5 - Write short answers (Yes, I am. / No, he isn’t. etc.)

1 Are you watching TV? No, I’m not. .


2 Are you wearing a watch? .
3 Are you eating something? .
4 Is it raining? .
5 Are you sitting on the floor? .
6 Are you feeling well? .

12.6 - Look at the pictures. Use the words in brackets to make sentences.

p. 159
Lesson 12

12.7 - Put the verb in the correct form, present continuous or present simple.

1 Let’s go out. It isn’t raining (not/rain) now.


2 Julia is very good at languages. She speaks (speak) four languages very well.
3 Hurry up! Everybody (wait) for you.
4 ‘ (you/listen) to the radio?’ ‘No, you can turn it off.’
5 ‘ (you/listen) to the radio every day?’ ‘No, just occasionally.’
6 The River Nile (flow) into the Mediterranean.
7 Look at the river. It (flow) very fast today -much faster than usual.
8 We usually (grow) vegetables in our garden but this year we
……………….………..(not/grow) any.
9 ‘How is your English?’ ‘Not bad. It (improve) slowly.’
10 Ron is in London at the moment. He (stay) at the Park Hotel. He
(always/stay) there when he’s in London.
11 Can we stop walking soon? I (start) to feel tired.
12 ‘Can you drive?’ ‘I (learn). My father (teach) me.’
13 Normally I (finish) work at 5.00, but this week I…………………
(work) until 6.00 to earn a bit more money.
14 My parents (live) in Bristol. They were born there and have never lived
anywhere else. Where (your parents/live)?
15 Sonia (look) for a place to live. She (stay) with her sister until
she finds somewhere.
16 ‘What (your father/do)?’ ‘He’s an architect but he…………………
(not/work) at the moment.’
17. I usually ( enjoy) parties but I
…………………………….(not/enjoy) this one very much.
18 The train is never late. It (always/leave) on time.
19 Jim is very untidy. He (always/leave) his things all over the place.

12.8 - Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple.

1 Are you hungry? Do you want something to eat? (you/want)


2 Jill is interested in politics but she . to a political party. (not/belong)
3 Don’t put the dictionary away. I it. (use)
4 Don’t put the dictionary away. I it. (need)
5 Who is that man? What ? (he/want)
6 Who is that man? Why at us? (he/look)
7 George says he’s 80 years old but nobody him. (believe)
8 She told me her name but I it now. (not/remember)
9 I of selling my car. (think) Would you be interested in buying it?
10 I you should sell your car. (think) You it very often. (not/use) .
11 I used to drink a lot of coffee but these days I tea. (prefer)
12 Air mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. (consist)

p. 160
Lesson 13

13.1 - Look at the pictures. Where were these people at 3 o’clock yesterday afternoon? And what were they
doing? Write two for each picture.

1 Ann was at home. She was watching TV.


2 Carol and Jack .They .
3 Tom .
4 .
5 .
6 And you? I .

13.2 - Complete the questions. Use was/were-ing. Use what/where/why if necessary.

13.3 - Look at the picture. You saw Joe in the street yesterday afternoon. What was he doing/ Write positive
or negative sentences.

1 (wear / a jacket) .
2 (carry / a bag) .
3 (go / to the dentist) .
4 (eat / an ice-cream) .
5 (carry / an umbrella) .
6 (go / home) .
7 (Wear / a hat) .
8 (ride / a bicycle) .

p. 161
Lesson 13

13.4 - Look at the pictures and put the verbs in the correct form, past continuous or past simple.

Carol broke (break) her arm last


week. It (happen)
when she (paint)
her room. She .
(fall) off the ladder.

The train (arrive )


at the station and Paula .
(get) off. Two friends of hers, John and
Jenny, (wait) to
meet her.

Yesterday Sue .
(walk) along the road when she
(meet) Jim.
He (go) to the
station to catch a train and he
(carry) a bag.
They (stop) to
talk for a few minutes.

13.5 - Put in during/while/for.

1 We didn’t speak while . we were eating.


2 We didn’t speak during . the meal.
3 George phoned you were out.
4 I stayed in Rome five days.
5 Sally wrote a lot of letters she was on holiday.
6 The students looked very bored the lesson.
7 I fell out of bed I was asleep.
8 Yesterday evening I watched TV three hours.
9 I don’t usually watch TV the day.
10 Do you ever watch TV you are having dinner?

13.6 - Complete the sentences. Choose from the box.

somebody broke into the house when they heard the news
before they crossed the road they didn’t believe me
they went to live in New Zealand while they were away

1 They looked both ways before they crossed the road. .


2 They were very surprised .
3 After they got married, .
4 The letter arrived ?
5 Where they were asleep, .
6 When I told them the news, .

p. 162
Lesson 14

14.1 - Put in am/is/are (present) or was/were (past).

1 Last year she was 22, so she is 23 now.


2 Today the weather nice, but yesterday it very cold.
3 I hungry. Can I have something to eat?
4 I feel fine this morning but I very tired last night.
5 Where you at 11 o’clock last Friday morning?
6 Don’t buy those shoes. They very expensive.
7 I like your new jacket. it expensive?
8 This time last year I in Paris.
9 ‘Where the children?’ ‘I don’t know. They in the garden ten minutes ago.’

14.2 - Write the questions. Use the words in brackets (…) in the correct order + was/were.

14.3 - Complete the sentences. Use one of these verbs in the past simple:

elean die enjoy finish happen open rain start stay want

1 I cleaned my teeth three times yesterday.


2 It was hot in the room, so I the window.
3 The concert at 7.30 and , at 10 o’clock.
4 When I was a child, I to be a doctor.
5 The accident last Sunday afternoon.
6 It’s a nice day today but yesterday it all day.
7 We our holiday last year. We at a very nice place.
8 Ann’s grandfather when he was 90 years old.

14.4 - Put in will (‘II) or won’t.

1 Don’t drink coffee before you go to bed. You won’t sleep.


2 ‘Are you ready yet?’ ‘Not yet. I be ready in five minutes.’
3 I’m going away for a few days. I’m leaving tonight, so I be at home tomorrow.
4 It rain, so you don't need to take an umbrella.
5 A: I don 't feel very well this evening.
B: Well, go to bed early and you feel better in the morning.
6 It’s Bill’s birthday next Monday. He be 25.
7 I’m sorry I was late this morning. It happen again.

p. 163
Lesson 14

14.5 - Read about Lisa's journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form.

Last Tuesday Lisa (1) flew from London to Madrid. She (2) up fly, get
at six o'clock in the morning and (3) a cup of coffee. At 6.30 have
she (4) home and (5) to the airport. When she leave, drive
(6) , she (7) the car and then (8) to the airport arrive, park, go
café where she (9) breakfast. Then she (10) through have, go
passport control and (11) for her flight. The plane (12) on wait, depart
time and (13) in Madrid two hours later. Finally she arrive
(14) a taxi from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid. take

14.6 - Write B's Questions. Use:


arrive cost go go to bed late happen have a nice time stay win

1. A: We went to New York last month. 5. A: We came home by taxi


B: Where did you stay? B: How much .?
A With some friends. A: Ten pounds.
2. A: I was late this morning. 6 A: I’m tired this morning.
B: What time ? B: ?
A: Half past nine. A: No, but I didn't sleep very well.
3 A: I played tennis this afternoon 7 A: We went to the beach yesterday.
B: ? B: ?
A: No, I lost. A: Yes, it was great.
4 A: I had a nice holiday. 8 A: The window is broken.
B: Good. Where ? B: How ?
A: To the mountains. A: I don 't know.

14.7 - Put the verbs into the correct form, past continuous or past simple.

1 Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive).


2 ‘What (you/do) this time yesterday?’ ‘I was asleep.’
3 ‘ (you/go) out last night?’ ‘No, I was too tired.’
4 ‘Was Carol at the party last night?’ ‘Yes, she (wear) a really nice dress.’
5 How fast (you/drive) when the accident (happen)?
6 John (take) a photograph of me while I
. (not/look).
7 We were in a very difficult position. We………………………… (not/know) what to do.
8 I haven’t seen Alan for ages. When I last (see) him, he
(try) to find a job in London.
9 I (walk) along the street when suddenly I . (hear) footsteps
behind me. Somebody (follow) me. I was frightened
and I (start) to run.
10 When I was young, I . (want) to be a bus driver.

p. 164
Lesson 14

14.8 - Look at the two pictures. Now the room is empty but what was in the room last week? Write sentences
with There was… or There were… + the words in the list.

an armchair a carpet some flowers a sofa


some books a clock three pictures a small table

1 There was a clock on the wall near the window.


2 on the floor.
3 on the wall near the door.
4 on the middle of the room.
5 on the table.
6 on the shelves.
7 in the corner near the door.
8 opposite the door.

14.9 - Item 2 thinks you like here in Brazil and two things you like but there aren`t. Than, item the same two
things, but about what you dislike here in Brazil.

I like in Brazil (things there are and there aren`t) I don`t like in Brazil (things there are and there aren`t)

p. 165
Lesson 15

15.1 - You want some information about another country. You ask somebody who has been there. Ask
questions with What is/are ...like?

1 (the roads) . 3 (the people) .


2 (the food) . 4 (the weather) .

15.2 - What are these people doing?

1 He’s making a cake. . 7 .


2 They . 8 .
3 He . 9 .
4 . 10 .
5 . 11 .
6 . 12 .

15.3 - Put in make or do in the correct form.

1 I hate doing housework, especially cleaning.


2 Why do you always the same mistake?
3 ‘Can you me a favour?’ ‘It depends what it is.’
4 ‘Have you your homework?’ ‘Not yet.’
5 I need to see the dentist but I haven’t an appointment.
6 I’m a course in photography at the moment. It's very good.
7 The last time I an exam was ten years ago.
8 When you’ve finished Exercise 1, you can Exercise 2.
9 There’s something wrong with the car. The engine is a strange noise.
10 It was a bad mistake. It was the worst mistake I’ve ever .
11 Let’s a list of all the things we have to today.

p. 166
Lesson 16

16.1 - Complete these sentences. Use can’t or couldn’t + one of these verbs:

eat decide find go go sleep

1 I was tired but I couldn’t sleep. .


2 I wasn't hungry yesterday. I my dinner.
3 Ann doesn't know what to do. She .
4 I wanted to speak to Martin yesterday but I him.
5 Jim to the concert next Saturday. He has to work.
6 Paula to the meeting last week. She was ill.

16.2 - Somebody is asking you about your plans. You have some ideas but you are not sure. Choose from
the list and write sentences with I might.

16.3 - You ask Bill questions about this plans. Sometimes he is sure but usually he is not sure.

Now write about Bill. Use might where necessary.

1 He’s playing tennis tomorrow afternoon. .


2 He might go out this evening. .
3 He .
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 .
8 .

p. 167
Lesson 16

16.4 - Read the situations and write questions beginning Can…or Could... .

1 You’re carrying a lot of things. You can’t open the door yourself. There’s a man standing near the door.
You say to him: Could you open the door, please? .
2 You phone Ann but somebody else answers. Ann isn’t there. You want to leave a message for her. You
say: .
3 You are a tourist. You want to go to the station but you don't know where it is. You ask at your hotel. You
say: .
4 You are in a clothes shop. You see some trousers you like and you want to try them on. You say to the
shop assistant: .
5 You have a car. You have to go to the same place as John, who hasn’t got a car. You want to give him a
lift. You say to John: .

16.5 - What would you say in these situations?

1 John has come to see you in your flat. You offer him something to eat.
YOU: .
JOHN: No, thank you. I’m not hungry.
2 You need help to change the film in your camera. You ask Ann.
YOU: Ann, I don’t know how to change the film.
3 You're on a train The woman next to you has finished reading her newspaper. Now you
want to have a look at it. You ask her.
YOU: Excuse me, .
WOMAN: Yes, of course. I’ve finished with it.
4 You’re on a bus. You have a seat but an elderly man is standing. You offer him your seat.
YOU: .
MAN: Oh, that’s very kind of you. Thank you very much.
5 You’re the passenger in a car. Your friend is driving very fast. You ask her to slow down.
YOU: You’re making me very nervous. .
DRIVER: Oh, I’m sorry. I didn’t realise I was going so fast.
6 You’ve finished your meal in a restaurant and now you want the bill. You ask the waiter:
YOU: .
WAITER: Right. I’ll get it for you now.
7 A friend of yours is interested in one of your books. You invite him to borrow it. FRIEND: This book looks
very interesting.
YOU: Yes, it's very good. .

16.6 – Complete the sentences using your own ideas:

1. I can’t believe……………………………………………………………………………………….
2. I couldn’t believe when……………………………………………………………………………..
3. If I win 1,000,000 dollars I might…………………………………………………………………..
4. In 2004 I couldn’t…………………………………………………………………………………...
but in 2005 on I …………………………………………………………………………………….
5. Something that I really can do is……………………………………………………………………
but unfortunately I can’t ……………………………………………………………………...

p. 168
Lesson 17

17.1 - Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences with used to ….

17.2 - Complete the sentences. Use mustn’t or needn’t + one of these verbs:

clean forget hurry lose wait write

1 The windows aren’t very dirty. You needn’t clean them.


2 We have a lot of time. We .
3 Keep these documents in a safe place. You them.
4 I’m not ready yet but you for me. You can go now and I’ll come later.
5 We to turn off the lights before we leave.
6 I the letter now. I can do it tomorrow.

17.3 - Which is correct? Sometimes must and have to are both correct.

1 It’s a great film. You must see / have to see it. both are correct
2 In many countries, men must do / have to do military service. have to do is correct
3 You can’t park your car here for nothing. You must pay / have to pay .
4 I didn’t have any money with me last night, so I must borrow / had to borrow some.
5 I eat too much chocolate. I really must stop / have to stop.
6 ‘Why is Paula going now?’ ‘She must meet / has to meet somebody.’
7 What’s wrong? You must tell / have to tell me. I want to help you.

17.4 - Complete the sentences with should (have) + the verb in brackets.

1 Margaret should pass the exam. She’s been studying very hard. (pass)
2 You missed a great party last night. You should have come (come)
3 We don’t see you enough. You and see us more often. (come)
4 I’m in a difficult position. What do you think I ? (do)
5 I’m sorry that I didn’t take your advice. I what you said. (do)
6 I’m playing tennis with Jill tomorrow. She - she’s much better than me. (win)
7 We lost the match but we . We were the better team. (win)
8 ‘Is John here yet?’ ‘Not yet, but he here soon.’ (be)
9 I posted the letter three days ago, so it by now. (arrive)

p. 169
Lesson 17

17.5 - Read the situations and write sentences with should/shouldn’t. Some of the sentences are past and
some are present.

1 I’m feeling sick. I ate too much. I shouldn’t have eaten so much. .
2 That man on the motorbike isn’t wearing a helmet. That’s dangerous.
He should be wearing a helmet. .
3 When we got to the restaurant, there were no free tables. We hadn’t reserved one.
We .
4 The notice says that the shop is open every day from 8.30. It is 9 o’clock now but the shop
isn’t open yet. .
5 The speed limit is 30 miles an hour, but Catherine is doing 50.
She .
6 I went to Paris. A friend of mine lives in Paris but I didn’t go to see him while I was there. When I saw him
later, he said: You .
7 I was driving behind another car. Suddenly, the driver in front stopped without warning and I drove into
the back of his car. It wasn’t my fault. .
8 I walked into a wall. I wasn’t looking where I was going.
.

17.6 - Compare what Carol said five years ago and what she says today:

.Now write sentences about how Carol has changed. Use used to / didn’t use to / never used to in the first
part of your sentence.
1 she used to travel a lot . but she doesn’t go away much these days. .
2 She used . but .
3 . but .
4 . but .
5 . but .
6 . but .
7 . but .
8 . but .
9 . but .
10 . but .

17.7 - Complete the sentence. Use there will be, there would be etc. Choose from:

will might would wouldn't should used to (be) going to

1 If people drove more carefully, There would be . fewer accidents.


2 ‘Have we got any eggs?’ ‘I’m not sure. some in the fridge.’
3 Look at the sky. a storm.
4 ‘Is there a school in the village?’ ‘Not now. one but it closed.’
5 People drive too fast on this road. I think a speed limit.
6 If people weren't aggressive, any wars.

p. 170
Lesson 18

18.1 - Write sentences from these words. Put the verb in the right form (arrive or arrives etc.).

1 (always / early / Sue / arrive) Sue always arrives early. .


2 (basketball / I / play / often) I .
3 (work / Margaret / hard / usually) .
4 (Jenny / always / nice clothes / wear) .
5 (dinner / we / have / always / at 7 .30) .
6 (television / Tim / watch / never) .
7 (like / chocolate / children / usually) .
8 (Julia / parties / enjoy / always) .

18.2 - Write sentences about yourself. Use always/never/often/sometimes/usually.

1 (watch television) I never watch television. / I usually watch television in the evening. (etc.)
2 (read in bed) I .
3 (get up before 7 o’clock) .
4 (go to work/ school by bus) .
5 (drink coffee) .

18.3 - Write about yourself. Use: I never ...or I often ... or I don’t ...very often.

1 (watch TV) I don’t watch TV very often. (OR I never… OR I often …) .


2 (go to the theatre) .
3 (ride a bicycle) .
4 (eat in restaurants) .
5 (travel by train) .

18.4 - Complete the questions. Use these verbs:

p. 171
Lesson 18

18.5 - Write these sentences with the words in brackets (…).

1 My brother speaks to me. (never) My brother never speaks to me. .


2 Susan is polite. (always) Susan .
3 I finish work at 5 o’clock. (usually) I .
4 Jill has started a new job. (Just) Jill .
5 I go to bed before midnight. (rarely) .
6 The bus isn’t late. (usually) .
7 I don’t eat fish. (often) .
8 I will forget what you said. (never) .
9 Have you lost your passport? (ever) .
10 Do you work in the same place? (still) .
11 They stay in the same hotel. (always) .
12 Diane doesn't work on Saturdays. (usually) .
13 Is Tina here? (already) .
14 What do you have for breakfast? (usually) .
15 I can remember his name. (never) .

Changing the Subject: Let´s do 2 easy but useful different exercises

18.6 - In these conversations, you are B. Read the information in brackets and then answer with I think so, I
hope not etc.

1 (You don't like rain.) A: Is it going to rain? B: (hope) I hope not. .


2 (You need more money quickly.)
A: Do you think you'll get a pay rise soon? B: (hope) .
3 (You think Diane will probably get the job that she applied for.)
A: I wonder if Diane will get the job. B: (expect) .
4 (You're not sure whether Jill is married -probably not.)
A: Is Jill married? B: (think) .
5 (You are the receptionist at a hotel. The hotel is full. )
A: Have you got a room for tonight? B: (afraid) .
6 (You're at a party. You have to leave early.)
A: Do you have to leave already? B: (afraid) .
7 (Ann normally works every day, Monday to Friday. Tomorrow is Wednesday.).
A: Is Ann working tomorrow? B: (suppose) .
8 (You are going to a party. You can't stand John.)
A: Do you think John will be at the party ? B: (hope) .
9 (You're not sure what time the concert is -probably 7.30.)
A: Is the concert at 7.30? B: (think) .

18.7 - Read the situations and write sentences with It’s time (somebody did something).

1 You think the children should be in bed. It's already 11 o’clock.


It’s time the children were in bed. .
2 You haven’t had a holiday for a very long time. You need one now.
It' s time I .
3 You’re waiting for Mary. She is late. Why isn’t she here yet?
It's time she .
4 You’re sitting on a train waiting for it to leave the station. It’s already five minutes late.
.
5 You enjoy having parties. You haven’t had one for a long time.
.

p. 172
Lesson 19

19.1 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

19.2 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use and/but/so/because.

p. 173
Lesson 19

19.3 - Complete the sentences with a preposition (to/for/about etc.) if necessary.

1 Thank you very much for your help.


2 This is not my umbrella. It belongs a friend of mine.
3 (on the phone) Can I speak Mr Davis, please?
4 (on the phone) Thank you phoning. Goodbye.
5 What happened Mary last night? Why didn't she come to the party?
6 We’re thinking going to Australia next year.
7 We asked the waiter coffee but he brought us tea.
8 ‘Do you like reading books?’ ‘It depends the book.’
9 John was talking but nobody was listening what he was saying.
10 We waited Karen until 2 o’clock but she didn't come.
11 ‘Are you writing a letter?’ ‘Yes, I’m writing Diane.’
12 Don’t forget to phone your mother this evening.
13 He’s alone all day. He never talks anybody.
14 ‘How much does it cost to stay at this hotel?’ ‘It depends the type of room.’
15 Catherine is thinking changing her job.

19.4 - Complete the sentences with a preposition (at/by/with etc.).


1 In tennis, you hit the ball a racket.
2 It’s cold today. Don’t go out a coat.
3 Hamlet, Othello and Macbeth are plays William Shakespeare.
4 Do you know anything computers?
5 My grandmother died the age of 98.
6 How long does it take from New York to Los Angeles plane?
7 I didn’t go to the football match, but I watched it television.
8 My house is the one the red door on the right.
9 These trains are very fast. They can travel very high speeds.
10 I don’t use my car very often. I prefer to go bike.
11 Can you give me some information hotels in this town?
12 I was arrested two policemen and taken to the police station.
13 The buses here are very good. They’re nearly always time.
14 What would you like to drink your meal?
15 We travelled from Paris to Moscow train.
16 One of the most famous paintings in the world is the Mona Lisa Da Vinci.

19.4 - Write sentences. Chooses from the boxes and use and/but/or.

p. 174
Lesson 20

20.1 - Write sentences beginning I like ..., I don’t like ...or Do you like ...?

l I don 't eat tomatoes. I don’t like them. .


2 George is a very nice man. I like .
3 This jacket isn't very nice. I don't .
4 This is my new car. Do ?
5 Mrs Clark is not very friendly. I .
6 These are my new shoes. ?

20.2 - Complete the sentences. Use I/me/he/him etc.

1 Who is that woman? Why are you looking at her ?


2 ‘Do you know that man?’ ‘Yes, I work with .’
3 Where are the tickets? I can’t find .
4 I can’t find my keys. Where are ?
5 We’re going out. You can come with .
6 Margaret likes music. plays the piano.
7 I don't like dogs. I'm afraid of .
8 I'm talking to you. Please listen to .
9 Where is Ann? I want to talk to .
10 My brother has a new job. Doesn’t like very much.

20.3 - Complete the sentences using my own / your own etc. + one of the following:

business ideas money private jet parliament room television

1 I don’t want to share a room. I want my own room. .


2 I don’t watch television with the rest of the family. I’ve got . in my room.
3 Sue doesn’t need to borrow from me. She’s got .
4 Julia is fed up with working for other people. She wants to start .
5 Henry is extremely rich. He’s got .
6 You can give him advice but he won’t listen. He’s got .
7 The Isle of Man is an island off the coast of Britain. It is not completely independent but it has
. ………………………………………………

20.4 - Complete the sentences. Use: each other or ourselves/yourselves/themselves or us/you/them.

1 Paul and I live near each other ..


2 Who are those people? Do you know them ?
3 You can help Tom and Tom can help you. So you and Tom can help .
4 There’s food in the kitchen. If you and Chris are hungry, you can help .
5 We didn’t go to Ann’s party. She didn’t invite .
6 When we go on holiday, we always enjoy .
7 Mary and Jane were at school together but they never see now.
8 Diane and I are very good friends. We've known for a long time.
9 ‘Did you see David and Diane at the party?’ ‘Yes, but I didn’t speak to .
10 'Many people talk to when they're alone.

p. 175
Lesson 20

20.5 - Write sentences using “each other”.

20.6 - Complete the sentences using on my own / by myself etc.

1 Did you go on holiday on your own? .


2 I’m glad I live with other people. I wouldn’t like to live on .
3 The box was too heavy for me to lift by .
4 ‘Who was Tom with when you saw him?’ ‘Nobody. He was by .’
5 Very young children should not go swimming by .
6 I don’t think she knows many people. When I see her, she is always by .
7 I don’t like strawberries with cream. I like them on .
8 Do you like working with other people or do you prefer working by ?
9 We had no help decorating the flat. We did it completely on .
10 I went out with Sally because she didn’t want to go out on .

20.7 - Complete the answers to the questions using myself/yourself/itself etc


.

20.8 - Put in myself/yourself/ourselves etc. or me/you/us etc.


1 Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed herself. .
2 It’s not my fault. You can't blame .
3 What I did was very wrong. I’m ashamed of . .
4 We’ve got a problem. I hope you can help .
5 ‘Can I take another biscuit?’ ‘Of course. Help !’
6 Take some money with in case you need it.
7 Don’t worry about Tom and me. We can look after .
8 I gave them a key to our house so that they could let in.
9 When they come to visit us, they always bring their dog with .

p. 176
Lesson 21

21.1 - Finish these sentences in the same way.

1 We invited her to stay with us at our house. .


2 He invited us to stay with house.
3 They invited me to stay with house.
4 I invited them .
5 She invited us .
6 Did you invite him ?

21.2 - Complete the sentences in the same way.

1 I gave him my address and he gave me his. .


2 I gave her address and she gave me .
3 He gave me address and I gave .
4 We gave them address and they gave .
5 She gave him address and .
6 You gave us address and .
7 They gave you address and .

21.3 - Put in him/her/yours etc.

1 Where's Ann? Have you seen her ?


2 Where are my keys? Where did I put ?
3 This letter is for Bill. Can you give it to ?
4 We wrote to John but he didn't answer …………………… letter.
5 ‘I can't find my pen. Can I use ?’ ‘Yes, of course.’
6 We’re going to the cinema. Why don’t you come with ?
7 Did your sister pass exams?
8 Some people talk about jobs all the time.
9 Last night I went out for a meal with a friend of .

21.4 - Traslate the sentences into English.

1 Ela não tem amor próprio porque ela ama mais ele do que ela. .......................................................................................
2 Pedirei para ele, se ele pode me emprestar o carro dele......................................................................................................
3 Pedirei a ela, se posso posso pegar emprestado seu carro..................................................................................................
4 Eles mesmos terão que arrumar a bagunça................................................................................................................................
5 Eles terão que arrumar a bagunça sozinhos...............................................................................................................................
6 Eles se amam, mesmo nos momentos de auto enfrentamento. ........................................................................................
7 Esta é a minha cameta e aquela é a sua.......................................................................................................................................
8 Ele mora com ela, na casa dela, com o cachorro dele. ...........................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................

21.5 - Fill the gaps with the suitable pronouns.

a) Last week, Susan ____________ got a conclusion about ___________ life; ___________ would change __________ job
and look for another one. _____________ was Boring, repetitive, and the salary; Low!
b) Maggy and Johnny love _____________ child Tommy. __________ is 5, and _________ is so cute! After the birth of
this baby, _________ lives consist only to take care of __________ , but __________ like __________ !
c) _________ hotter nowadays than before. Magazines are reporting this. _________ tell that weather is changing!

p. 177
Lesson 22

22.1 - Complete these sentences. Use getting + one of these words:

dark late cold ready married

1 Drink your coffee. It’s getting cold. .


2 Turn on the light. It’s .
3 ‘I’m next week.’ ‘Oh, really? Congratulations!’
4 ‘Where’s Sally?’ ‘She’s to go out.’
5 It’s . It’s time to go home.

22.2 - Use your own ideas to finish these sentences. Use to... .

1 I went to the Shop to buy a newspaper. .


2 I’m very busy. I haven’t got time .
3 I phoned Ann .
4 I’m going out .
5 I borrowed some money .

22.3 - Put in: got in / got out of / got on / got off.

1 Kate got in the car and drove away.


2 I the bus and walked to my house from the bus stop.
3 Ann the car, shut the door and went into a shop.
4 I made a stupid mistake. I the wrong train.

22.4 - Which is right?

1 Don’t eat so quick/ quickly . It’s not good for you. quickly is right
2 Why are you angry / angrily? I haven’t done anything.
3 Can you speak slow/slowly, please?
4 Come on, Dave! Why are you always so slow/slowly?
5 Bill is a very careful/ carefully driver.
6 Jane is studying hard/hardly for her examinations.
7 ‘Where’s Diane?’ ‘She was here but she left sudden/suddenly.’
8 Please be quiet/quietly. I’m studying.
9 Some companies pay their workers very bad/badly.
10 Those oranges look nice/nicely. Can I have one?

22.5 - Put in good or well.

1 Your English is very good .You speak English very well .


2 Jackie did very in her exams.
3 The party was very .I enjoyed it very much.
4 Martin has a difficult job but he does it .
5 How are your parents? Are they ?
6 Did you have a holiday? Was the weather ?

p. 178
Compositions

p. 179
Compositions / writings guide list - Basic 1

Recommendation: Please, try to do at least 20 lines ( all the following writings or compositions ).

. Lesson 8 : Cut pictures from a magazine and describe the clothes of 8 people. What are they wearing?

. Lesson 9 : Describe everything you can realize (all the objects) in your living room and your kitchen. As
many details you can describe, better.

. Lesson 10 : Create a fictional questionnaire for a job interview selection, and pretend that you`re a candidate
answering the question.

. Lesson 11 : describe your routine since you wake up, until you go to bed.
_ First: Your ordinary week days
_ Then: Your Sunday.

. Lesson 12 : Cut 10 pictures from a magazine, and describe what are the people doing.

. Lesson 13 : Try to think about your best unforgettable vacation. Describe what happened with details.

. Lesson 14 : In your opinion, what will the world in the future, considering the globalization and the present
happenings.

. lesson 15 : List 10 things you can do, and 10 things you can make, using a nice complement.

. Lesson 16 : describe the mood and the physical characteristics of 5 people you know. Can be your relatives
or you’re your friends.

. Lesson 17 : Imagine that you`re talking to a friend. Tell him/her:


_ 4 advices;
_ 4 things that he/she has to do or must do
_ 4 prohibitions
_ Compliment him/her telling things that describe his/her abilities.

. Lesson 18 : Describe your day-by-day habits, using the frequency adverbs. Do at least 18 sentences

. Lesson 19 : Look up the list of conjunctions and prepositions at the grammar, and try to arrange 10
sentences of each.

. Lesson 20 : Think about things that you:


_ Do yourself (10 sentences)
_ Do by yourself (10 sentences)

. Lesson 21 : Imagine that you`re in a car going somewhere. Describe the places and things you can see, and
the itinerary as well.

. Lesson 22: Create an interesting context for you use the “joker” verb “to get”. Do at least 18 sentences.

p. 180
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

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Writings and Compositions
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Writings and Compositions
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Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
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Writings and Compositions
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Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
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Writings and Compositions
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Writings and Compositions
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Writings and Compositions
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Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
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p. 190
LIST
OF THE REGULAR
AND
THE IRREGULAR
VERBS

p. 191
Lista de Verbos regulares*

*Extraido na integra: The Oxford Picture Dictionary List of Regular Verbs


Antes de começarmos esta lista, vamos lembrar que os verbos regulares possuem esta classificação, devido
ao fato de terem conjugação “regular” em seu passado simples e seu passado particípio com terminação “ed”
(segunda e terceira colunas). Porem, os verbos que já terminam em “e”, basta acrescentarmos o “d”, verbos que
terminam em consoante, vogal, consoante (CVC), temos que dobrar a ultima consoante e acrescentar o “ed”, e
verbos que terminam em consoante + “y”, temos que tirar o “y” e acrescentar “ied”.
Os verbos regulares abaixo estão marcados com os números 1, 2, 3, ou 4 de acordo com suas 4 diferentes
formas escritas que acabamos de mencionar. Iremos, portanto, seguir esta “legenda” desdes números (1 a 4), e
saberemos o que devemos fazer com cada verbo de acordo com cada caso, considerando o passado simples e o
passado particípio (2° e 3° coluna):
1. adicionar “ed” no final do verbo. Ex: ASK ; ASKED
2. adicionar “d” no final do verbo. Ex: LIVE; LIVED
3. dobrar a consoante final e acrescentar “ed” no final do verbo. Ex: STOP; STOPPED
4. tirar o “y” e acrescentar o “ied” no final do verbo. Ex: CRY; CRIED
Act (1) – agir Add (1) – addicionar, somar
Address (1) – endereçar Answer (1) – responder, atender
Apologize (2) – desculpar-se Appear (1) – aparecer, surgir
Applaud (1) - aplaudir Arrange (2) – arrangar, arrumar, configurar, dar certo
Arrest (1) – prender Arrive (2) – chegar
Ask (1) – perguntar, pedir Assenble (2) – ajuntar, agregar, acumular, reunir,
encontar-se, montar, armar (máquinas, etc) colocar em
ordem.
Assist (1) – assistir, consultar, dar suporte/ajuda Bake (2) – assar
Barbecue (2) – fazer churrasco Bathe (2) – banhar, tomar banho
Board (1) – embarcar, subir a bordo de, acostar, abordar Boil (1) – ferver, cozinhar
Borrow (1) – pegar emprestado Bounce (2) – quicar, balançar
Brainstorm (1) – ter um “apanhado” de ideias Breathe (2) – respirar
Broil (1) – grelhar, aquecer muito, torrar, brigar, lutar, Brush (1) – escovar
meter-se em confusão
Burn (1) – queimar Call (1) – ligar, chamar
Carry (4) – carregar Change (2) – mudar, trocar
Check (1) – checar, vistoriar, conferir Choke (2) – silenciar, abafar, asfixiar, sufocar, estrangular,
sufocar-se, ter falta de ar
Chop (3) – cortar, talhar, picar, cortar em pedaços Circle (2) – circular, fazer um círculo
pequenos, retalhar, sacudir, desbastar
Claim (1) – alegar, afirmar, clamar, sustentar Clap (3) – aplaudir, bater palmas
Clean (1) – limpar Clear (1) – aclamar, clarear, iluminar, retirar, limpar,
desobstruir, desimpedir,
Climb (1) – subir, escalar Close (2) – fechar
Collate (2) – examinar, verificar, conferir, pôr em ordem, Collect (1) – coletar
arranjar, intercalar
Color (1) – colorir Comb (1) – pentear
Commit (3) – cometer Compliment (1) – elogiar
Conserve (2) - conservar Convert (1) – converter
Cook (1) – cozinhar Copy (4) – copiar
Correct (1) – corrigir Cough (1) – tossir
Count (1) – contar ($) Cross (1) – cruzar, atravessar, passar
Cry (4) – chorar Dance (2) – dançar
Design (1) – design, desenhar Deposit (1) – depositar
Deliver (1) – entregar Dial (1) – discar
Dictate (2) – ditar Die (2) – morrer

p. 192
Discuss (1) – discutir Dive (2) – mergulhar
Dress (1) – vestir Dribble (2) – driblar
Drill (1) – furar, perfurar, brocar Drop (3) – pingar, gotejar, destilar, deixar cair alguma
coisa, pôr, colocar, desprender, diminuir, baixar, descer,
deixar, renunciar a, desistir de, deixar, pôr fim a, largar,
cair, adormecer, etc.
Drown (1) – afogar-se, imundar, alagar, trasbordar, Dry (4) – secar
submergir, embebedar-se, ensopar
Dust (1) – empueirar Dye (2) – tingir, pintar
Edit (1) – editar Eject (1) – ejetar
Empty (4) – esvaziar End (1) – finalizar, acabar, terminar
Enter (1) – entrar, adentrar Erase (2) – apagar
Examine (2) – examinar Exchange (2) – trocar, experenciar
Exercise (2) – exercitar Experience (2) – esperenciar, experimentar
Exterminate (2) – exterminar Fasten (1) – apertar
Fax (1) – passar o fax File (2) – arquivar, salvar, guardar, registrar
Fill (1) – encher, preencher Finish (1) – acabar, terminar
Fix (1) – concertar Floss (1) – passar o “fio dental” nos dentes
Fold (1) – dobrar (se), abraçar, enlaçar, cercar, juntar, Fry (4) – fritar
rodear
Gargle (2) – bochechar Graduate (2) – graduar (se), formar (se)
Grate (2) – ranger, ofender, irritar, raspar, ralar Grease (2) – engraxar, lubrificar, acelerar, facilitar
Greet (1) – cumprimentar Grill (1) – grelhar
Hail (1) – curar, cicatrizar Hammer (1) – martelar
Harvest (1) – colher, armazenar Help (1) – ajudar, socorrer
Hire (2) – contratar, empregar, alugar Hug (3) – abraçar
Immigrate (2) – imigrar Inquire (2) – inquirir, perguntar (por), informar-se,
indagar, investigar
Insert (1) – inserir, enfiar, colocar Introduce (2) – apresentar
Invite (2) – convidar Iron (1) – passar (roupas)
Jog (3) – correr (nossa corrida velocidade moderada) Join (1) – juntar, agregar, unir
Jump (1) – pular, saltar Kick (1) – chutar
Kiss (1) – beijar Knit (3) – tricotar, ligar, unir, entrelaçar, crescer junto,
fundir-se, franzir, cerzir
Land (1) – aterrizar Laugh (1) – rir, gargalhar
Learn (1) - aprender Lengthen (1) – encompridar, alongar, estender, prolongar,
continuar, esticar
Listen (1) – escutar, ouvir Live (2) – morar, viver
Load (1) – carregar Lock (1) – trancar
Look (1) – olhar Mail (1) – postar
Manufacture (2) – manufaturar Mark (1) – marcar, destacar
Match (1) – ligar, corresponder, corelacionar Measure (2) – medir, mensurar
Milk (1) – tirar leite Miss (1) – faltar, sentir falta de, perder
Mix (1) – misturar Mop (3) – esfregar, lavar
Move(2) – mexer, mudar, movimentar Mow (1) - ceifar
Need (1) – precisar, necesitar Nurse (2) – dar cuidados de enfermágem
Obey (1) – obedecer Observe (2) – observar
Open (1) – abrir Operate (2) – operar, operacionalizar
Order (1) – ordenar, pedir Overdose (2) – superdosar
Paint (1) – pintar Park (1) – estacionar
Pass (1) – passar, utrapassar Pause (2) – pausar
Peel (1) – descascar Perm (1) – fazer permanente
Pick (1) – pegar, buscar, apanhar Pitch (1) – montar, armar, acampar, fincar, cravar,
arremessar, lançar, atirar
Plan (3) – planejar Plant (1) plantar
Play (1) – brincar, tocar, jogar Point (1) – apontar
Polish (1) – polir, lustrar, dar brilho Pour (1) – despejar, jogar
Pretend (1) – fingir, enganar, mentir, desfarçar Print (1) – imprimir

p. 193
Protect (1) – proteger Pull (1) – puxar
Push (1) – empurrar Race (2) – diputar corrida
Raise (2) – subir, elevar, aumentar, crescer Rake (2) – limpar, ajuntar, remexer, procurar
Receive (2) – receber Record (1) – gravar, arquivar, recordar, bater um Record
Recycle (2) – reciclar Register (1) – registrar
Relax (1) – relaxar Remove (2) – remover
Rent (1) – alugar Repair (1) – concertar, arrumar/reparar/reformar
Repeat (1) – repetir Report (1) – reportar, contar, descrever, denunciar,
estudar
Request (1) – requerir, pedir, requisitar Return (1) – retornar, voltar
Rinse (2) – enxaguar Roast (1) – assar, torrar, tostar, esquentar excessivamente,
criticar, zombar, ridicularizar
Rock (1) – balançar, embalar, acalentar, agitar, tremer, Sauté (2) – fritar rapidamente com pouco óleo
sacudir
Save (2) – economizar, salvar, gravar Scrub (3) – esfregar, friccionar, lavar esfregando
Seat (1) – assentar, sentar, estabelecer, colocar, instituir Sentence (2) – sentenciar
Serve (2) – servir Share (2) – dividir, compartilhar, meiar
Shave (2) – barbear, raspar Ship (3) – embarcar, pôr/receber/ir a bordo, enviar,
mandar, carregar (com navio, trem ou viatura)
Shop (3) – comprar Shorten (1) – encurtar, cortar, diminuir
Shout (1) – gritar Sign (1) – assinar
Simmer (1) – ato de cozinhar lentamente, fervura lenta, Skate (2) - patinar
chiar
Ski (1) – esquiar Slice (2) – fatiar
Smell (1) – cheirar Sneeze (2) – espirrar
Sort (1) – separar, isolar, servir, adaptar-se, estar de Spell (1) – soletrar
acordo, arrumar, arranjar
Staple (2) – segurar com grampos Start (1) – começar, iniciar
Stay (1) – ficar, permanecer Steam (1) – vaporizar
Stir (3) – mexer (com a colher), mistur, arcircular, correr, Stir-fry (4) – fritar rapidamente no óleo bem quente
provocar (método chinês)
Stop (3) – parar Stow (1) – alojar, estivar, acondicionar, empacotar,
arrumar, guardar, acabar com, cessar
Strech (1) – alongar, esticar, estender, estirar, alargar Supervise (2) – supervisionar
Swallow (1) – engolir, tragar, absorver, reprimir, conter Tackle (2) – manejar, tentar resolver, lidar, atacar, agarrar,
atracar-se, engalfinhar-se, cometer falta, atacar
Talk (1) – falar, conversar Taste (2) – degustar, saborear, experimentar
Thank (1) – agradecer Tie (2) – amarrar, empatar
Touch (1) – tocar Transcribe (2) – transcrever
Trasfer (3) – transferir Travel (1) – viajar
Trim (3) – pôr em ordem, arranjar, preparar, equipar, Turn (1) – virar, tornar
podar (plantas), cortar ou aparar (cabelos), enfeitar,
adornar, adaptar-se as circunstâncias
Type (2) – datilografar, “bater” no computador Underline (2) – sublinhar
Unload (1) – descarregar, tirar a carga Unpack (1) – desempacotar, desembrulhar
Use (2) – usar Vacuum (1) – aspirar (pó, sujeira, tec)
Vomit (1) – vomitar Vote (2) – votar
Wait (1) – esperar Walk (1) – caminhar, andar
Wash (1) – lavar Watch (1) – ver, assistir
Water (1) – regar, aguar Weed (1) – capinar, limpar de ervas daninhas
Weigh (1) – pesar, oprimir, causar mágoas ou desgosto, Wipe (2) – esfregar, limpar, passar pano em, secar,
ponderar, considerar ou examinar cuidadosamente enxugar
Work (1) – trabalhar, funcionar, dar certo Wrap (3) – embrulhar
Yield (1) – render, produzir, dar, conceder, concentir,
permitir, autorizar, submeter (se), sujeitar (se), descobrir,
revelar (segredo)

p. 194
Lista de Verbos Irregulares

Simple Simple Past Traslation


Present Past Participle

be was/were been ser , estar


bear bore born(e) suportar; dar à luz; produzir
beat beat beaten bater; vencer; rechaçar
begin began begun começar, iniciar
bend bent bent curvar, inclinar; desviar
bid bade bidden ordenar; fazer oferta; lance em leilão
bind bound bound amarrar; juntar; vincular
bite bit bitten morder; ferroar
bleed bled bled sangrar; sentir (angústa ou compaixão)
blow blew blown soprar; assoar
break broke broken quebrar; infringir
bring brought brought trazer; levar
build built built construir; estabelecer
burn burnt burnt queimar; chamuscar
burst burst burst romper; irromper; explodir
buy bought bought comprar, adquirir; subornar
catch caught caught apanhar, agarrar; prender; capturar
choose chose chosen escolher, selecionar
come came come vir, chegar; surgir
cost cost cost custar; causar prejuízo
creep crept crept engatinhar; arrastar-se
cut cut cut cortar, partir; reduzir
deal dealt dealt lidar; negociar
dig dug dug cavar; cavucar
do did done fazer; realizar; completar
draw drew drawn desenhar; puxar; arrastar; sacar (arma)
dream dreamt dreamt sonhar; imaginar
drink drank drunk beber, tomar; absorver
drive drove driven dirigir, guiar; impelir
dwell dwelt dwelt habitar, morar; existir
eat ate eaten comer; tomar (sorvete ou sopa)
fall fell fallen cair; desmoronar
feed fed fed alimentar; sustentar; suprir
feel felt felt sentir; examinar (pelo tato); tocar
fight fought fought brigar, lutar; combater
find found found achar, encontrar; descobrir
flee fled fled fugir, escapar; abandonar
fling flung flung arremessar, lançar; mover-se com violência

p. 195
fly flew flown voar; fazer voar; fugir; escapar

forget forgot forgotten esquecer;negligenciar (sem intenção)


freeze froze frozen congelar; tomar-se coberto de gelo
get got got conseguir; receber; comprar; ganhar
give gave given dar; conceder
go went gone ir; viajar; partir; mover-se
grind ground ground moer; triturar; esmagar
grow grew grown crescer; cultivar; criar
has/have had had ter, possuir
hang hung hung pendurar; suspender; enforcar
hear heard heard ouvir; ouvir falar; prestar atenção
hide hid hidden esconder, ocultar; abrigar clandestinamente
hit hit hit bater, golpear; atingir
hold held held segurar; prender; deter
hurt hurt hurt ferir, machucar; magoar
keep kept kept manter, conservar, guardar
knell knelt knelt ajoelhar-se; ficar de joelhos
know knew known saber; conhecer; entender
lay laid laid prostrar; derrubar; preparar (p/ usar)
impor; colocar (em posição horizontal), guiar, conduzir; levar a;
lead led led
impelir
leave left left partir; ir embora; deixar
learn learnt learnt Aprender, compreender
lend lent lent emprestar; proporcionar
let let let deixar; permitir; alugar
lie lay lain deitar-se;reclinar-se;jazer; estender-se; ficar, estar situado
light lit lit acender; iluminar
lose lost lost perder; extraviar
make made made fazer; produzir, fabricar
mean meant meant significar; querer dizer; pretender
meet met met encontrar, encontrar-se; conhecer
pay paid paid pagar; recompensar; prestar (atenção)
put put put pôr, colocar; enfiar
read read read ler; decifrar; prever
ride rode ridden cavalgar; andar (meio de transporte)
ring rang rung tocar (sino, campainha), soar
rise rose risen levantar; levantar-se; erguer-se
run ran run correr; gerenciar (negócios)
say said said dizer; expressar (opinião)
see saw seen ver; assistir a
seek sought sought procurar; buscar; tentar
sell sold sold vender; convencer
send sent sent enviar; mandar; despachar
set set set estabelecer, determinar; pôr a mesa
sew sewed sewn costurar; pregar (botão)

p. 196
shake shook shaken agitar; fazer tremer ou vibrar; apertar (a mão ao cumprimentar)
shed shed shed Lançar, dar a luz, perder, cortar, derramar
shine shone shone brilhar, cintilar; irradiar
shoot shot shot atirar, dar tiros; lançar, arremessar
show showed shown mostrar, indicar, apresentar
shrink shrank shrunk encolher; contrair; reduzir
shut shut shut fechar; obstruir; encerrar (temporada)
sing sang sung cantar; entoar; gorjear
sink sank sunk afundar, submergir
sit sat sat sentar-se; assentar
sleep slept slept dormir; acomodar (para passar a noite)
smell smelt smelt cheirar, farejar, sentir cheiro de
sow sowed sown semear; espalhar; propagar
speak spoke spoken falar; dizer; expressar
spell spelt spelt soletrar; grafar; enfeitiçar
spend spent spent gastar; passar (o tempo)
spread spread spread espalhar; expandir
spring sprang sprung fazer explodir; fazer soltar
stand stood stood pôr ou colocar de pé, fazer ficar de pé; tolerar, suportar
steal stole stolen roubar, furtar; mover-se furtivamente
stick stuck stuck cravar, fincar; enfiar
strike struck struck bater, golpear; chocar-se com
strive strove striven empenhar-se, esforçar-se
swear swore sworn jurar; prometer; praguejar
sweep swept swept varrer; vasculhar
swim swam swum nadar; deslizar
swing swung swung balançar; sacudir; abanar
take took taken pegar, agarrar; capturar
teach taught taught ensinar; dar instrução
tear tore torn rasgar; despedaçar; dilacerar
tell told told contar, narrar; dizer
think thought thought pensar, achar; refletir
throw threw thrown jogar, arremessar
thrust thrust thrust empurrar; meter, enfiar
tread trod trodden pisar; trilhar; esmagar com o pé
wake woke woken acordar, despertar; animar
wear wore worn usar, vestir; calçar
weep wept wept lamentar; verter (lágrimas)
win won won vencer, ganhar; conseguir
wind wound wound enrolar; dar corda a relógio
write wrote written escrever; grafar; redigir

p. 197
Referências Bibliográficas

GREGORIN, Clóvis O.; BRITTO, Marisa M. Jenkins de. Michaelis Inglês Gramática Prática. São Paulo:
Melhoramentos, 1995.

TORRES, Nelson. Gramática Prática da Língua Portuguesa: O Inglês Descomplicado. 9. ed. São Paulo:
Saraiva, 2002.

MURPHY, Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use: A self-study reference and practice book for elementary
students of English.. 2. ed. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

MURPHY, Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate
students of English.. 2. ed. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

SHAPIRO, Norma; ADELSON-GOLDSTEIN, Jayme. Picture Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1998.

MARQUES, Amadeu. Skull Friends. São Paulo: Ática, 1995.

MARQUES, Amadeu. Happiness. São Paulo: Ática, 1994.

p. 198
Extra – Exercícios – lesson 1

1. Escolha quatro verbos regulares para completar as tabelas abaixo, escolha verbos com diferentes
classificações de acordo com as páginas 192, 193 e 194 (verbos classificados como 1, 2, 3 e 4);

a) Verbo regular 1: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

b) Verbo regular 2: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

p. 199
c) Verbo regular 3: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

d) Verbo regular 4: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

2. Agora escolha três verbos irregulares para completar as tabelas abaixo:

a) Verbo irregular 1: _________________________________________________________________

p. 200
Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future

Pronouns AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

b) Verbo irregular 2: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

c) Verbo irregular 3: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE AFFIRMATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

p. 201
3. Escolha três verbos que você já conjugou acima e coloque-os na negativa e interrogativa:

a) Verbo 1: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

b) Verbo 2: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE

You

p. 202
He

She

It

We

You

They

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

c) Verbo 3: _________________________________________________________________

Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future


Pronouns NEGATIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

p. 203
Personal Simple present Simple past Simple future
Pronouns INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

4. Traduza as frases para o inglês:


(vocabulary: triste = sad, alegre = happy, aqui = here, lá = there)
a) Eu sou feliz._____________________________________________________________________________________________________
b) Não sou triste___________________________________________________________________________________________________
c) Não estou triste_________________________________________________________________________________________________
d) Ele é feliz?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
e) Eles são felizes?_________________________________________________________________________________________________
f) Elas não estão felizes____________________________________________________________________________________________
g) Elas estão felizes?_______________________________________________________________________________________________
h) Eu estou aqui, não estou lá_____________________________________________________________________________________
i) Estamos aqui, não estamos lá___________________________________________________________________________________
j) Ele está lá?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
k) Ele estará lá?____________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Consulte a página 9 para traduzir as palavras seguintes, a partir de uma primeira “palavra raiz” -
Cheer = alegria, satisfação, regozijo, ânimo, grito de aplauso, de aprovação, aclamação, etc...
a) cheerful_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
b) cheerfully_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
c) cheerfulness_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
d) cheerily / cheerly________________________________________________________________________________________________
e) cheerless________________________________________________________________________________________________________
f) cheerlessly_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
g) cheery___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

p. 204
6. Agora passe as palavras para o inglês de acordo com os dois verbos:
. To use = uso, usar, pratica, praticar, ...
. To utilize / utilise = utilizar
a) usual____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
b) ultil______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
c) inutilidade_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
d) desuso__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
e) utilidade_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
f) inútil_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
g) utilização________________________________________________________________________________________________________
h) usado___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
i) utilizado__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
j) utilizável_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
k) usuário__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
l) uso errado_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
m) uso excessivo___________________________________________________________________________________________________
n) reutilizar / reusar________________________________________________________________________________________________
o) estar em uso / sendo utiliçado__________________________________________________________________________________
p) usando / utilizando_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Vamos pesquisar no dicionário as palavras que foram derivadas conforme a tabela da página 9
identificando todas as aplicações, fique a vontade para reportar o que você encontrar tanto do inglês para o
português quanto do português para o inglês. Também é permitido livres associações que você souber ou
achar interessante...Mãos a obra!

Inglês – Português Português - Inglês

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