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Publisher : Niruta Publications

#244, 3rd Main, Poornachandra
Road, MPM Layout, Mallathahalli,
Ph: 080-23213710,
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1 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
Niruta Publications
Ramesha M.H.
Dr. D. Sreenivasa Reddy
Dr. Shashidhar Channappa
2 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
Niruta Publications
Social Work (Paper II and III)
Edited By: Ramesha M.H., Dr. D. Sreenivasa Reddy, Dr. Shashidhar Channappa
Published by: Niruta Publications, Bangalore.
ISBN : 978-81-923326-9-7
Copyright : Publisher
Pages : 496
First Impression : 1000 copies
First Edition : 2014
Paper : Maplitho 70 GSM
Price : Rs. 750-00
Cover Page : Shivakumar, Niratanka.
All rights are reserved. No part of the this book can be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by
any means without the prior permission of the publisher or copy write owner. All data, views, opinions and
information published in this proceeding is sole responsibility of the authors. Neither the publisher nor mem-
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Printed at : Niruta Print Solutions
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MPM Layout, Mallathahalli, Bangalore-560056.
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Niruta Publications,
#244, 3rd Main, Poornachandra Road,
MPM Layout, Mallathahalli, Bangalore-560056.
Ph: 080-23212309, Mob: 9980066890
Email: ramesha.mh@gmail.com,
3 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
Niruta Publications
Dedicated to
H.M. Marulasiddaiah
A Pioneer of Social Work
Literature in Karnataka
4 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
Niruta Publications
A Note to the Readers
It gives me immense pleasure to publish a book on UGC NET in Social work by Niruta Publications.
This book has taken a lot of time and effort which has been exclusively prepared for the aspirants of the
NET examination for social work. I believe this book not only helps UGC- NET aspirants but also social
work students. An attempt has been made to enable the reader to prepare well for the examination. It is
a collective and group effort of young and energetic professional social workers.
I received tremendous help from the co-editors Dr. D. Sreenivasa Reddy and Dr. Shashidhar Channappa
who have reviewed all the articles in this book and worked hard towards realising the final step of
publishing the book successfully. I also thank all the contributors who have spent their valuable time and
effort in bringing out this book.
I am deeply indebted to my parents, brother for their encouragement and support in my endeavour.
I invite criticism and suggestions for improving the book.
Ramesha M.H.
Niruta Publications
/ A Note to the Readers
5 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
Niruta Publications
Amrita Mukherjee Ms. Amrita Mukherjee is
presently working as an Assistant Professor
in the Department of Social Work, The
Oxford College of Arts, Bangalore. She
completed her B.A. (honors) in Sociology
from Lady Shri Ram College for Women,
Delhi University and Post Graduation in
Social Work from Acharya Institute of
Management and Sciences, affiliated to
Bangalore University with Rank 1 in
Bangalore University in 2011. She has
qualified NET/JRF in December 2011. She
worked as a project coordinator for
Nirantara Social Welfare Society for Sarva
Shikshana Abhiyana project and National
Child Labor project. She has a couple of
publications in National and International
journals and paper presentations at National
level Conferences.
Ananda N.L Completed his Post Graduation in
Social Work from Bangalore University and
pursued M.Phil degree from Sri Krishna
Devaraya University, Anantapura, Andhra
Pradesh. He cleared Junior Research Fel
lowship in 2012. He is an author of the book,
Neladodala Chiguru-Life and Thoughts of
Nadoja L. Narayana Reddy, a renowned
Organic Farmer from Karnataka; he is also
a co-author of the book, Samaja Karyada
Kanasugara- A Biography of Prof. H M
Maralasiddiah, well known Social scientist
from Bangalore. He has written extensively
in Kannada on a wide variety of Social Is
sues with a view to find social awareness
among the masses. He is a Founder Direc
tor of the NGO, Samrudhi Seva Samste
working for empowering rural communities
in Bangalore Rural Dist. He has 7 years of
teaching experience in various institutions.
Since 2009, he is working as a Assistant Pro
fessor in Department of Social Work, CMR
Institute of Management Studies (Autono
mous), Bangalore.
Gangadhara Reddy N, M.S.W, M.Phil, born in
Chalakayalaparthy, Chickaballapur district
of Karnataka. He has completed his Under
Graduation in Arts (BA) in 2005 from
Government First Grade College,
Chickaballapur, Post Graduation in Social
Work (MSW) in 2007 and M.Phil in 2010
from Bangalore and Pondicherry
Universities respectively.
He is actively involving with various
organisations and networks working for
Human and Child Rights. He held different
positions in various organisations as
Programme Co-ordinator for Child Labour
Project at Community Development
Foundation, Bangalore, Program Assistant
at Child Rights Trust, Bangalore, Research
Consultant at HLPPT, Bangalore, Resource
Person and Consultant at CACL-K,
Belgaum, Programme coordinator for RTE
programme at SICHREM, Bangalore and
also headed Social Audit Exercise on RTE
at SICHREM supported by National
Commission for Protection of Child Rights.
Currently he is working as Full Time Guest
Faculty in Dept of Social Work,
Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore
University, Bangalore.
He is author of bilingual Hand Book
(Kannada and English, Telugu and English)
on Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education Act 2009 and
Shikshana Makkala Hakku in Kannada
published by SICHREM. He is founder
member of RTE Taskforce which existed in
Our Authors
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6 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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2012 to help people to clarify their doubts
about RTE. As a resource person, he has
conducted state level training of trainers
and regional level workshops on RTE,
Human Rights, Child Rights, Child Labour
and Child Marriage. He has also contributed
some articles on child marriage and child
labour to CACL-Ks newsletter Update. His
areas of interest are Human and Child
Rights, RTE, Research and Development.
Lakshman G Sagar, Dr. Lakshmana G, is an
Assistant Professor, in the Department of
Social Work, Central University of
Karnataka, Gulbarga. He has graduated his
B.A with 32
Rank in the University and Post
Graduation in Social Work (MSW) from
Bangalore University. He obtained his
M.Phil and Ph.D from National Institute of
Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences
(NIMHANS), Bangalore. He also obtained
PGDHRM from Bangalore University. He
has many publications in national and
international journals including Indian
Journal of Social Work and has presented
many papers at National and International
Conferences. He has UGC major research
project to his credit. He has also worked
as co-investigator in two research projects
and involved in many workshops as
organizing committee member and
organized many workshops. He has
delivered many Guest Lectures and was a
resource person on various issues in different
places including few companies as well.
He has won Gold Medal for the best paper
presentation at a National Conference. His
research and teaching interests are
Psychosocial Intervention with Families and
Children, Community Care and Mental
Health, Rural development, Corporate
Social Responsibility, HIV/AIDS and
working with vulnerable population.
Laxman Toli Laxman Toli is a Post Graduate from
Karnatak University, Post Graduate Center
He is presently a Research Scholar in the
Department of studies and Research Social
work, Vijayanagara Sri Krishnadevaraya
university P G Centre Nandihalli, Sandur,
Bellary. Previously, he has worked as
Project Fellow under the UGC Major
Research Project, at Karnatak University,
Post Graduate Center Bijapur. He has also
worked as a Lecturer in SSAC College,
chadachan, Bijapur. He has presented
Several Papers in the National Seminars
and has more than 3 publications to his
Nagaraj Naik M, M.S.W, M.Phil, is Currently
working as Guest Faculty in Dept of Social
Work, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore
University, Bangalore. He completed his
Post Graduation in Master of Social Work
in 2004 from Bangalore University and
M.Phil, from National Institute of Mental
Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in
the year of 2008.
He has worked in Industries and also
published several articles in the national
and international Journals.
His area of interest is Human Resource
Management, Mental Health, School
Mental Health, and Life skills education.
Shanivaram Reddy K, M.S.W, M.Phil, Ph.D, is
Currently working as Guest Faculty in Dept
of Social Work, Jnanabharathi Campus,
Bangalore University, Bangalore. He
completed his Post Graduation in Master
of Social Work in 2005 from Bangalore
University. M.Phil, and Ph.D from National
Institute of Mental Health and
Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in the year of
2008 to 2012.
He has developed two standardized tools
for Indian Population called Schedule of
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7 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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Factors Inluenceing Adherance (SOFIA) and
Schedule of Factors Inf luencing to Access
(SOFIAc) to psychiatric care persons with
Schizophrenia. He has also published
several original articles in the national and
international Journals.
His area of interest is Community Mental
Health, School Mental Health, Women
Mental Health and Life skills education.
Shashidhar Channappa Dr. Shashidhar C, is
presently heading the Department of Social
Work, The Oxford College of Arts,
Bangalore. He completed his Bachelors
Degree in Arts from National College,
Jayanagar and Post Graduation in Social
Work from Lorven Educational Centre
affiliated to Bangalore University. He
recently was awarded with a PhD from
Bangalore University. He has many
publications to his credit in various
National and International level Journals
and he has presented academic papers in
numerous International and National
Conferences. He has more than 10 years of
experience in the field of teaching, training
and development. His research and
teaching interest include studies of the
Informal Sector, HIV/AIDS, Womens
Hygiene and CSR to name a few. He has
worked as a trainer for BESCOM
(Parivarthana Dhare Module) where he
trained around 2000 people in various
districts of Karnataka like Bangalore and
Tumkur. He was also a resource person
who conducted a 2 day workshop on Field
Work Supervision: A key factor for
Strengthening Field Work Program funded
by Asia Foundation which was organized
at Talawa, Anuradapura, Sri Lanka.
D. Sreenivasa Reddy did his MSW from
Aacharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP,
M.Phil from Delhi School of Social Work,
University of Delhi. He obtained his PhD
from Sri Krishnadevaraya University,
Anantapur, AP and MBA from Sikkim
Manipal University, Gangtok. As a research
officer he served for three years at LBS
National Academy of Administration,
Mussoorie. Later, he started his teaching
career as Principal-cum-Lecturer in Social
Work at CVLNR Degree & PG College,
Anantapur, A.P. Then, he worked as a guest
faculty in the Department of Studies in
Social Work, VSK University, Nandihalli
PG Centre, Sandur, Bellary, Karnataka.
Currently he is working as a faculty in the
Department of Social Work, Sri
Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, AP.
He has twelve years of experience in
teaching and research. He is an active life
member in Indian Society of Professional
Social Work (ISPSW). He has written many
research papers and articles, presented in
various national and international seminars
& conferences and some of them were
published in national journals and books. He
has organised many training modules,
seminars, conferences, consultations in the
field of rural development and social work.
He has authored two books on social work
namely A Handbook of Social Work and
Readings in Social Work Practice.
Suma K G , Smt. Suma K G is a Post Graduate
in Social work from Bangalore University,
Bangalore. She is Presently working as an
Assistant Professor, Department of studies
and Research in Social work, Vijayanagara
Sri Krishnadevaraya university, P G Centre
Nandihalli, Sandur, Bellary. She started her
social work career as an ICTC Counselor
in Victoria hospital, Bangalore.She also
worked as a Lecturer in the Department of
studies in Social Work, Rani Channamma
University, Post Graduate Centre ,Bijapur.
Our Authors /
8 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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She has presented several papers in the
National seminars, organized workshops.
She is a Life Member of Many professional
Social Work Associations and has more
than 6 publications to her Credit.
Venkatesh Murthy S, M.S.W., M.Phil (Ph.D)
Working as a Head of the Department,
Department of Social Work, CMR Institute
of Management Studies (Autonomous),
Bangalore. He has got a total of 15 years
of experience in the field of social work (9
years teaching and 6 years of practicein
the field of HRM and Development sector).
He has published 15 articles in edited
volumes, journals, proceedings etc. and
presented about 15 papers at the National
and International conferences. He is
associated with several professional
bodies/associations namely Associate
Secretary for KAPSW and Life member for
ISPSW, NIPM, KCRO etc. He is also a
member, Board of Examinations for the
Department of Social Work,Christ
University and St.Joseph College,
Bangalore. He has been actively involved
in various Consultation services in Policy
Formulation, Planning and organizing the
programmes on many social aspects and
in the various activities of Niratanka
organisation and Social Work Foot Prints
(Monthly and Quarterly Journal).
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9 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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A Note to the Readers - 4
Our Authors - 5
Syllabus - 10
Part - 1
Unit I
History and Philosophy of Social Work in India and Western Countries
- Gangadhar N., Nagaraj Naik - 13
Unit II
Community and Society - Venkatesh Murthy S. - 47
Unit - III
Psychology - Amrita Mukherjee - 137
Unit IV
Social Case Work - Shashidhar Channappa - 165
Unit V
Social Group Work - D. Sreenivasa Reddy - 193
Unit VI
Community Organization & Social Action - Ananda N.L. - 221
Unit VII
Social Work Research - D. Sreenivasa Reddy - 259
Social Policy in India - Lakshman G Sagar - 299
Unit IX
Social Justice - Suma KG, Laxman Toli - 367
Unit X
Social Development - Shanivaram Reddy K. - 435
Part - 2
Solved Question Papers - 449
Contents /
10 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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Evolution of Social work Profession-Impact of
Social Reform Movements; Factors that influenced
the emergence of method approach in Social Work
Practice; Social Work profession and Human
Philosophy and Principles of Social Work and
their application.
System Approach to social Work practice; Role
of Social Work in the Remedial, Preventive and De-
velopmental Models.
Definition, Relevance and Scope of Integrated
Approach to Social Work Practice, Skills and Tech-
Social Work Education- Content, Traning, Super-
vision, Problems and Challenges.
Meaning and Characteristics of Society, Com-
munity, Social Group and Social Institution; Social
Structure and Social Stratification; Theories of So-
cial Change and Social Disorganisation.
Tribal, Rural and Urban Communities, weaker
and Vulnerable Sections and Minoriy Groups.
Population, Poverty,Unemployment, Underdevel-
opments; Problems of Developing Economies and
Consequences of New Economic Policy.
Concept of Welfare State, Indian Constitution-
Features, Problems, Fundamental Rights and Direc-
tive Principles and Planning in India- Five - Year
Concept and Causative Factors of Indian Social
Intervention in Social Problems - Government
and Voluntary Efforts at Micro and Macro levels.
Role of the Social Workers in identifying social
problams and development of appropriate strate-
Unit- III
Human Behaviour, Human Needs, Human Moti-
vation and Problems of Humam Beheviour and Cop-
ing Mechanisms.
Human Growth and Development in the Lifespan
of Individual.
Learning, Socialisation and theories of person-
Case work - Concept, Objectives and Principles.
Social Case Work Process- Intake, Study, So-
cial Diagnosis Treatment, Termination and Evalua-
Approaches in Case Work - Psycho - analytical,
Psycho- Social, Problem Solving, Behaviour Modi-
fication, Crisis Intervention, Eclectic Approach.
Techniques and skills in Social Case Work.
Interviews, Home visit, Resource Mobilisation,
Referral, Environmental Modification, Case Work
Relationship, Communication, Types of Record-
ings in Case Work.
Role of Social Case Worker in Various Settings.
Concept of Group Work- Assumptions, Defini-
tion and Goals of Group Work.
Principles, Skills and Values of Social Group
Stages of Group Development and Use of
Programmes for Group Development : Orientation
Stage, Working Stage, Termination Stage,
Programme Planning, Implementation and Evalua-
Study of Group Process - Group Dynamics,
Members behaviour, Leadership and Role of the
Worker in Various Settings.
(Core Group)
/ Syllabus
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Approaches and Models in Group Work Prac-
tice - Therapeutic/Social Treatment. Development
Group and Task - oriented Group.
Concept, Principles and Objectives Community
Approaches in Community Organisation - Mod-
els, Strategies and Role of Social Worker in each
of the Approaches.
Community Development and Community
Social Action in Community Organisation - Con-
cept, Purpose and Techniques.
Community Organisation as a Para-political Pro-
cess-Networking, Conscientisation, Planning and
Organising, Role and Strategies of Social
Movemens - Types and Role of NGOs.
Definition, Nature, Scope and purposes of So-
cial Work Research.
Research Designs, Types and Methods.
Steps in Social Work Research- Problem Formu-
lation Operationalisation of Variables, Sampling,
Tools and Techniques of Data Collection, Data
Analysis and Report Writing.
Role and Responsibilities of the Researcher.
Statistics - Its use and limitation in Social Work
Research (measures of central tendency, chisquare
test, t-test, correlation).
Social Policy - Concept and Scope, Distinction
between Social and Economic Policies, Place of
Ideology and Values.
Evolution of Social Policy in India; Review of
Major Policies and Programmes, viz., Education,
Health, Shelter, Environment, Social Security, Em-
ployment, Family, Child, Women and Youth Wel-
fare, Welfare of the Weaker Sections, Elderly and
Characteristics of Social Welfare Organisations
- Size, Nature, Design, Legal Status, Rules and Pro-
cedure and Overall Policy.
Management of Social Welfare Organisations -
(Government and voluntary) - Home relation, Fi-
nancial relation and Physical relation.
Programme and Project Management - Identify-
ing Overall and Specific Needs, Project Formula-
tions, Monitoring and Evaluation, Recording and Ac-
Unit- IX
Concept of Social Justice - Its relationship with
Social Legislation; Civil Rights; Human Rights; and
Issues of Social Justice.
Legislations pertaining to women and Children.
Legislation pertaining to Social Defence, Social
Security nd Social Assistance.
Legislations pertaining to people with Disabil-
ity, the Underprivileged and Health related Legis-
Role of Social Worker in promoting Social Leg-
islation and Social Justice.
Social Development - Meaning, Concept and
Approaches and Strategies - Growth and Equity,
Minimum Needs, Quality of Life.
Global efforts for Human Development, Concept
of Sustainable Development.
Social Work and Social Development.
Problems of Social Development in India.
Labour Welfare and Human Resource Manage-
ment - Concept, Principles and Approaches.
Problems concerning Industrial Labour in India -
Absenteeism, Migratory Character, Indebtedness
and Exploitation.
Concept of Collective Bargaining, Workers Par-
ticipation in Managament, and HRD Subsystems.
Legislations - Factories Act, 1948 and other Leg-
islations relating to Trade Union, Industrial Disputes,
Employees State Insurance, Wages, Gratuity, P.F.,
Bonus, Plantation, Mines and Others.
Role of Welfare Officer - Use of Social Work
Knowledge and Skills.
Syllabus /
12 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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Elective- II
Evolution of Social Work Practice in the field of
Medical and Psychiatric Social Work in India,
Emerging Trends and Scope.
Health/ Mental Health Care System-Policies,
Programmes, Analysis of existing Health Policies,
Major Health Concerns of Disadvantaged Groups.
Social and Psychological Factors and Physical
and Mental Disorders.
Role of Social Work in Health Care Delivery
System and in Institutions for the Disabled.
Social Work Practice in Hospitals, Specialized
Medical and Mental Health Institutions Child Guid-
ance Clinics, Stress and Crisis Intervention Centres.
Concept, Goals, Process and Models of Com-
munity Development.
Needs and Problems Related to Urban, Rural and
Tribal Development.
Institution of Panchayati Raj - Philosophy, Role
and Functions.
Government Programmes and Service For the
Development of Tribals, Schedule Castes, Women
and Children in Urban, Rural and Tribal Areas.
Role of NGOs in Urban, Rural, Tribal Develop-
Changes in Demographical and Social Situa-
tions of Families, Women, Youth, Aged and Chil-
dren in India.
Problems of Families Women, Yonth, Aged and
Children in India.
Social Legislation for Families, Women and
Policies, Programmes and Services for
Families,Women, Youth, and Children - Govern-
ment, NGO, National and International levels.
Social Work Intervention with Families, Children,
Women, Elderly and People with Special Needs.
Elective- V
Concepts of Crime and Deviance- Theories of
Objectives, Forms and Justification of Punish-
ment: Limitations of Punishment.
Correctional Services- Nature and Evolution,
Adult and Juvenile Correctional Programmes, Insti-
tutional and Community Based Treatment, Legal
Provisions, Intervention Programmes for Victims of
Violence, Neglect and Abuse.
Juvenile Delinquency - Nature and Causes, Ju-
venile Justice Law and Organisation.
Role of Social Worker in Correctionel Settings.
/ Syllabus
13 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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History and Philosophy of
Social Work in India
Western Countries
Gangadhar. N.
Nagaraj Naik
15 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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In India, the term social work is generally used
to include almost any activity which intended to
help, restore, or promote some aspects of the
physical, economic and social well-being of
individuals and groups (Nagpaul, 1988). It is not at
all a new thing and it has been done as it still is.
Social work in India has been practiced as an act
of friendship and in the ordinary course of duty by
the priest, the teacher, the doctor and the lawyer.
Historical analysis of the development of social
work in India on the basis of striking characteristic
feature of particular period is presented under
different following heads.
Social Work in Ancient India
The roots of social work found in the ancient
India. During this period, social work was practiced
as a social service activity in the form of Charity.
The reference of charity is found in the Rigveda
which encourages charity by saying May the one
who gives shine Most. The Vedic term Dana
(Charity), which reflects the social philosophy of
those days to help the needy people of the society.
Dana and Dharma are the terms often used during
Vedic period which means not only distribute wealth
to needy people but also scattering bounty all
around in the form of planting trees, building
highways, excavating wells and tanks, and providing
places of shelter and treatment, of which all
persons and even animals might avail themselves.
The prevalence of the system Yajna, Havana
and Dana clearly states that it was a society in
which all the members used to participate in the
productive enterprise and fruits of their collective
labour used to be distributed among them. Yajna
was the most popular ritual known in Vedic days
performed for the sustenance of its life and
reproduction. It was a collective from a labour
without any division. Each and every person tried
his bit towards the Yagna. Their intention was
common welfare of all and there were no personal
desires to be fulfilled. Havana was the distribution
of the daily proceeds of collective labour among
the individual members who used to consume them.
Dana was the distribution of goods acquired in war
among the people in the community at festive time.
It is a helping process through dana seems to have
found due recognition that period when Rigveda
declares that The riches of the one gives do not
diminish ... The solitary eater is also a solitary
In the Bhagwad Gita, Dana, i.e., charity is
described in terms of material aid, knowledge and
protection against fear, i.e., Abhayadan.
Aparigraha and Loksangrah, the terms used in
Gitas principle which mean that materials and
money should not be collected for self and that one
should work for the welfare of community
respectively. Gita advises that when any profit
accrued as result of the total dedicated efforts of
the many, is misappropriated by man, than he is a
thief. No single member has a right for a larger
share. The community was sure to succeed in
progress and welfare when it has learned to live
and strive as one entity. The privileged class moral
duty to serve the poor, such persons who served
the society with all their ability are freed from all
sins, but those who cook for themselves or produce
for their own gains are eating sin. In Mahabharata
we find that when Bhishma talked to Yudhishtira,
he described that essence of religion, non-violance,
truth, the conquest of anger and charity.
Upanishads like Brihadaranyaka, Chhandogya
and Taittiriya prescribed that every household must
practised charity.Upanishads concept of Ishats and
Apurtas become socially accepted. Ishats were
individual goods performed by philanthropic and
economically well-off persons and Apurtas were
History and Philosophy of Social Work in
India and Western Countries
Gangadhar. N.
Nagaraj Naik
HPSW in India and Western Countries /
16 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
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social goods in the form of wells, rest-houses etc.,
performed by the people for the general welfare
of the public. The concept of individual charity as
an instrument of repayment of various types of
Rinas (debts) also became widely accepted during
this period. The habbit of giving alms was common
and no householder turned away a beggar empty
handed as to do so was considered a s sin.
According to Manusutra, it was his duty to feed his
guests first, then his servants and later he and his
wife might eat last at all.
Hindu scriptures say that the man who helps other
or gives charity does not show the sense of
superiority. According to Aswalayana Griha, one
must daily perform Pancha Yagnas they are service
to God, ancestors, animals, ones ownself and ones
fellowmen. The Chhandogya Upanishad says that
life is succession of Yagnas or service for others.
Charity is not merely a social duty but it is like
prayer. One does it for its own sake, because one
feels it is a privilege because one is serving the
Lord through it. The Taittiriya Upanishad declares
that it is better not help at all rather than help without
showing due respect to the recipient of charity.
According to Shastri, in early Vedic period, the
communitarian republics (society) which functioned
like an extended family, everybodys needs were
catered by everybody. There was a life of complete
mutuality and reciprocal assistance whether the
needs were basic or special, generic or arising out
of vulnerable situations like disease and external
danger. In knowledge and skills of people differed
only in quantity and everybody did for others in need
what others did for him in similar circumstances.
The whole business of helping people in need was
everybodys business mainly handled in a collective
way. Thus everybody was client and agent either
on different occasions or for different purposes.
With the development of agrarian society with
private group ownership of land, the concept of
charity came in to existence. Earlier when there
was common ownership of property by the tribe,
dana was a protection as of right, against starvation,
for the sick, the aged, and the weak, who had the
first claim on social property. But during late and
after Vedic period the private property and class
rule came into existence. Dana was converted from
an instrument from an instrument of social insurance
to a privilege of the ruling of the ruling class and
became now a voluntary virtue and charity of the
kings and Kshatriyas.
By the later vadic period, dana became
institutionalised and acquired the characteristics of
charity with religious ideology. Dana was given to
acquire punya (merit). It was no longer given
merely in celebration of an event or a heroic
personality or in connection with a ceremony.
During the period of Smritis, psychological help
in the form of Tatwa Jnana and Atma Jnana, in
addition to material assistance was also made
available to the people in order to improve their
social functioning. Buddhists and Jains also
continued the tradition of helping people. Both
Jainism and Buddhism promoted equality and non-
violence. These are institutionalised religions in
terms of Sangha. Sanghas were the centres of
shelters and learning and were responsible for the
spread of literacy. Lord Buddha also talked of
welfare of the masses (Bahujana Hitaya.., Bahujana
The evolution of Buddhism during the Magadha
empires changed the characteristics of Indian
Society. It was changed from tribal agricultural
settlement to a class-based agrarian economy.
Buddhism also accepted the karma theory which
served the purpose of explaining the origin of social
inequality. Buddhism laid a great emphasis on
punya and dana. Charity was seen not only as a
means of alleviating the sufferings of the materially
poor but also as the giving gifts. Kings like
Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, Kanishka and
Harshawardhana influenced by the Buddhism who
initiated the welfare activities for the needy people.
Buddhism is the only Indian religion which crossed
over the frontiers into Asia and then became a world
Guilds were important corporate organisations
which performed a variety of economic and
welfare functions in ancient India. Guilds played
important role during Buddhist period. Apart from
economic and political functions, these guilds were
providing social security to the oppressed class of
the society. Some part of the funds was utilised for
the relief of deserving persons such as the distressed,
the blind, the idiotic, the infirm, the orphans and
helpless women.
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Multiple Choice Questions
1. The Social Security Measures, first of all was
adopted in Ancient India by
A) Kautilya
B) Shuklacharya
C) King Ashoka
D) Harshavardhana
2. Who had appointed Goops to keep records of
castes, births, marriages and looked after people
to institutionalise the help process?
A) Ashoka
B) Kautilya
C) Samudra Gupta
D) Harshavardhan
3. Who was the first Muslim king made a blood
attempt to prohibit the Sati system in India?
A) Ghias-ud-din Tugalak
B) Akbar
C) Humayun
D) Alla-udd-din-Kilji
4. Who was the great Muslim ruler brought many
reforms in Indian society along with abolished
slavery in 1583?
A) Ghias-ud-din Tugalak
B) Akbar
C) Humayun
D) Alla-udd-din-Kilji
5. Regulation XVII of 1829 of Lord Bentinck was
enacted to
A) Ban Sati
B) Ban Child Marriage
C) Encourage Widow Remarriage
D) None of the Above
6. The objective of social reform is
A) To help a minority group
B) To assist the marginalised group
C) To bring about social change
D) None of the above
7. Charter Act was passed in the year
A) 1973 B) 1983
C) 1963 D) 1986
8. Who started the Atmiya Samaj in 1815 which
later grew in to Bramho Samaj?
A) Rajaram Mohan Roy
B) Keshub Chander Sen
C) Dwarakanath Tagore
D) Devendranatha Tagur
9. Which Institution was founded by Justice M.G
A) Arya Samaj
B) Sathya Shodhaka Samaj
C) Prarthana Samaj
D) Atmiya Samaj
10.The Servants of India founded in the year
A) 1928 B) 1905
C) 1908 D) 1900
11.Who formed Widow Remarriage Association
in 1861 which was aimed at promotion of widow
A) Rajaram Mohan Roy
B) Annie Besent
C) Justice Ranade
D) Rabindranatha Tagur
12.Who founded Anglo-Mohammedan College at
Aligarh in 1875?
A) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
B) Mohamud Gavan
C) Shastri Jambhekar
D) Sasipada Banerjee
13.Who made efforts to culminate in 1929 into
enactment of the Sarda Act fixing the minimum
age of marriage at 14 years for girls and 18 years
for boys?
A) Rajaram Mohan Roy
B) Annie Besent
C) Justice Ranade
D) Har Bilas Sharda
14.Who was the founder of The Central Hindu
College at Benaras?
A) D.K Karve
B) Annie Besent
C) Justice Ranade
D) V. R Shinde
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15.Which among the following organisation founded
in 1881 at Madras by Madame Blavastsku and
Colonel Olcott?
A) Widow Remarriage Association
B) Indian National Social Congress
C) Prarthana Samaj
D) Theosophical Society
16.When was Literary and Scientific Society
A) 1830 B) 1849
C) 1888 D) 1850
17.Which among the following Institute founded
under the leadership of Bala Gangadhar Shastri
Jambekar at Bombay in 1830?
A) Elphistone Institute
B) Literary and Scientific Society
C) Servants of India
D) The Central Hindu College
18.Who was the first Indian Woman editor edited
a women journal, Bharati?
A) Sarala Devi Chaudhurani
B) Savitri-Bhai-Pule
C) Annie Besant
D) Swarnakumari Devi
19.Which among the following institutions founded
by Swarnakumari Devi in 1882 at Culcutta?
A) Ladies Society
B) The Bharat Stree Mahila Mandal
C) Bharat Stree Mandal
D) Widow Remarriage Association
20.When was the first Womens Indian Association
established in Madras?
A) 1915 B) 1916
C) 1917 D) 1918
21.Who founded The Servants of India?
A) Rajaram Mohan Roy
B) Mahatma Gandhi
C) Gopala Krishna Gokale
D) Debendranatha Tagur
22.When was the first professional school of social
work, Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of
Social work was set up in Bombay?
A) 1930 B) 1936
C) 1934 D) 1936
23.Who founded Arya Samaj in 1875?
A) Rajaram Mohan Roy
B) Annie Besent
C) Swami Dayanada Saraswathi
D) Rabindranatha Tagur
24.Justice Ranade formed Widow Remarriage
Association in the year
A) 1960 B) 1900
C) 1861 D) 1876
25.Who started the first exclusive schools for girls
in Poona?
A) Rajaram Mohan Roy
B) Annie Besent
C) Savitri-bhai-Pule
D) Sarojini Naidu
26. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was passed
in the year
A) 1966 B) 1856
C) 1851 D) 1876
27.Match the following persons with the
organizations they associated:
List I List II
I) JyotibhaPhule 1) Bharatiya Adimajati
Sevak Sangh
II) Thakarbappa 2) Servants of India
III)Gopal Krishna 3) Harijan Sevak Sangh
IV) M.K. Gandhi 4) Satya Sodhak Samaj
Codes :
(I) (II) (III) (IV)
A) (1) (2) (3) (4)
B) (4) (1) (2) (3)
C) (2) (4) (3) (1)
D) (1) (3) (4) (2)
28.Match items in List I with List II by choosing
the correct code given below:
List I List II
(Movement) (Propounder)
a) Arya Samaj i) Jotirao Phule
b) Brahma Samaj ii) Swami Dayanand
c ) Satya Sodhak iii) Mrs. Annie Besant
d) Theosophical iv) Raja Ram Mohan
society Roy
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)
B) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
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C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)
D) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)
29.Match the following:
List I List II
a) Anna Hazare (i) Narmada Bachaw
b) Baba Amte (ii)Ralegansiddhi
c ) Medha Patkar (iii)CHIPKO
d) Chandi Prasad Bhatt (iv)Anandwaan
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)
B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)
D) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
30.UGC published a Report model curriculum for
social work education in the year
A) 1980 B) 2001
C) 1999 D) 1991
31.The Book History, Philosophy and Fields of
Social Work in India is written by
A) M.S. Gore B) S.K. Khinduka
C) A.R. Wadia D) R.R. Singh
32.In which among the following states in India,
Community Development Programme was first
initiated in 1952?
A) Tamil Nadu
B) Punjab and Haryana
C) Uttar Pradesh
D) Rajasthan
33.Match the following legislations with the year
of enactment:
List I List II
I) The Child Marriage 1) 1929
Restraint Act
II) The Juvenile Justice Act 2) 1904
III)The Factories Act 3) 1986
IV)The Cooperative 4) 1948
Societies Act
Codes :
(I) (II) (III) (IV)
A) (4) (3) (2) (1)
B) (3) (2) (1) (4)
C) (1) (3) (4) (2)
D) (3) (4) (1) (2)
34.The Indian Journal of Social Work was started
in the year
A) 1938 B) 1940
C) 1948 D) 1952
35.Who was the first director of Tata Institute of
Social Sciences (TISS)?
A) Dr. J.M. Kumarappa
B) Sugata Dasgupta
C) Sir Clifford Manshardt
D) Mary Richmond
36.The First Review Committee of Social Work
Education in India was set up by UGC in the
A) 1965 B) 1972
C) 1978 D) 1981
37.Match the following organizations given in List
I with the professional Journals they are
publishing given in List II.
List I List II
I) NIRD 1) Perspectives in Social
II) TISS 2) Contemporary Social
III)University 3) Indian Journal of Social
of Lucknow Work
IV)Nirmala (4) Journal of Rural
Niketan Development
(I) (II) (III) (IV)
A) (2) (3) (1) (4)
B) (4) (3) (2) (1)
C) (1) (2) (4) (3)
D) (3) (1) (4) (2)
38.National Organisation of Women known as
National Council of Woman came to be
established in the year
A) 1922 B) 1925
C) 1917 D) 1920
39.UGC Second Review Committee of Social
Work Education in India was set up in the year
A) 1964 B) 1972
C) 1980 D) 1981
40.UGC sponsored Report of the Curriculum
Development Centre in Social Work Education
was published in
A) 1980 B) 1987
C) 1990 D) 1995
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Community and Society
Venkatesh Murthy S.
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Indian Social Structure
Social Structure is a basic concept in the society.
Since long several efforts have been made to define
social structure, still there is no unanimity of opinion
on its definition; Herbert Spencer was the first thinker
to throw light on the structure of society.
According to MacIver and Page, The various
modes of grouping together comprise the complex
pattern of the social structure. In the analysis of
the social structure the role of diverse attitudes and
interests of social beings is revealed. MacIver and
Page have also regarded that social structure is
abstract which is composed of several groups like
family, church, class, caste, state, community etc.
After going through the various views on social
structure, we may conclude as under:
a. Social structure is an abstract and intangible
b. Individuals are the units of association and
institutions who are in turn the units of social
c . These institutions and associations are inter-
related in a particular arrangement and thus create
the pattern of social structure.
d. Social Structure is a living structure which
is created, maintained for a time and changes.
The term Society is derived from Latin word
Socious which means companionship
Companionship means sociability.
George Simmel pointed out that the society is
the element of sociability which defines the true
essence of society. It indicates that man always
lives in the company of other people.
Society is the complex or organized
associations and institutions with the community
D.M. Cole
Society is the Web of social relationship
According to Auguste Comte, all societies
whatsoever they are from contain both force for
stability, which he called social relationship
According to Auguste Comte, all societies
whatever they contain both force for stability, which
he called social statics and forces for change
called as social dynamics.
Many other sociologists define society as a
population living in the same geographical area
that share a culture and a common identity and
whose members are subject to the same political
Characteristics of Society
Society consists of people
Mutual interaction and mutual awareness
Society depends on likeness
Society rests differences too
Cooperation and division of labour
Social control by informal and formal means
Society is dynamic
Unique culture
Gregarious nature of man
Community refers to a group of individuals living
in a geographical area. They aware the same
physical environment and the basic conditions of
common living.
Examples are neighborhood, village, tribal etc.,
Community is a social group with some degree
of we feeling and living in a common area
Community and Society
Venkatesh Murthy S.
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Community is the smallest territorial group that
can embrace all aspects of social ill
Kingsley Davis.
Community is an area of social living marked
by some degree of social coherence
Community is a group or collection of groups
that inhibits a locality
- Nimkoff&Ogburn
Community is any circle of people who live
together and belong together in such a was that they
do not share this or their particular interest only but
a whole set of interest
Elements of Community
Group of people
Community sentiment
Permanency or stability
Wider ends
A particular name
No legal status
Regulation of relation
Size of the Community
Characteristics of Community
Community refers to an aggregate of
It is associated with a locality
The members of community have strong
community sentiments or a sense of
belongingness or we feeling
Community as a group of people is created
spontaneously over a long period of time
Therefore, it has more permanence or
endurance than those groups which are
created with a purpose
Community serves wider ends
A community is usually associated with
specific name.
Types of Communities
F.Tennies Greman Sociologist used two terms
such as Gemeinschaft which means community
and Geselleschaft means association to refer
different types of human groupings found in human
societies. There are many types of communities,
out of those four clearly identified communities are:
a. Village or rural
b. City or urban
c . Nation
d. World
Difference between Society and Community
Community Organization: In order to study
community organization, we have to understand the
concept of community. The term community is
used in different contexts: a religious community,
business community or caste based community etc.,
but in the context of social work, a community is
defined as a group of people lining in a common
geographical area, sharing common interests and
having a sense of belonging.
Community Welfare Services: The terms
community development and community
organization are relatively new in India. With the
launching of the rural development projects as part
of the five year plans, the term community
development came to be used with reference to
these projects, but community development now
refers to welfare and development work in any
i. Community consists
individuals who are
living in a particular
geographical area
and some degree of
we feeling
ii. Geographical area is
very essential
iii.Community is
iv. Community is
smaller than a
v. Likeness is very much
essential than a
i. Society is a web of
social relationships.
There are a lot of
associations and
ii. Definite geogra-
phical area is not
iii.Society is abstract
iv. Society is wider
v. the likeness and
difference is
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Multiple Choice Questions
Community And Society
1. In Sociology, Society refers to the
a) Members of a specific in-group
b) Pattern of the norms of interaction
c ) Congregation of people
d) People with laws and customs
2. Society is the total social heritage of folkways,
mores and Institutions, of habits, sentiments and
ideals. This is a view of society.
a) Structural b) Cultural
c ) Functional d) None of the above
3. Who among the following has given the structural
view of society?
a) Durkheim b) Giddings
c ) MacIver d) Cooley
4. Who among the following has given the functional
view of society?
a) Giddings b) August Comte
c ) Parsons d) Spencer
5.According to ............. society is a web of social
a) Cooley b) MacIver
c ) Parsons d) Leacock
6. The relation existing between a type writer and
a desk can be called
a) Material b) Cultural
c ) Physical d) Structural
7. The relationship between fire and smoke is not a
social one as the very relationship is not in any
way determined by
a) Co-operation b) Mutual awareness
c ) Integration d) Social compulsion
8. According to Giddings, society rests on
a) Mutual co-operation
b) Altruism
c ) Consciousness of kind
d) Folkways and mores
9. Find out the incorrect match
a) Giddings structural view of society
b) Cooley society is a web of social
c ) Parsons functional view of society
d) Cooley we feeling.
10. Man is a social animal. Who said this?
a) MacIver b) Freud
c ) Aristotle d) Rousseau
11. is a system of relationship between cells
a) Society b) Aggregation
c ) Organism d) Group
12. Who has compared society with an organism?
a) Darwin b) Durkheim
c ) Spencer d) MacIver
13. Patriarchal theory has been propounded by
a) Tylor b) Henry Maine
c ) Aristotle d) Morgan
14. According to theory, individuals made a
mutual agreement and created society
a) Patriarchal b) Social contract
c ) Agreement d) Divine origin
15. According to , the life of man was solitary,
poor, nasty, brutish and short
a) Rousseau b) Locke
c ) Plato d) None of the above
16. Society is not a make, but a growth. This view
is related to
a) Patriarchaltheory
b) Matriarchal theory
c ) Divine origin theory
d) Evolutionary theory
17. Animal society is based on whereas human
society is based on
a) Instincts, reason
b) Sex drives, cultural needs
c ) Strength, knowledge
d) None of the above
18. the process by which the individual learns
to conform to the norms of the group
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a) Integration b) Socialization
c) Conformity d) Assimilation
19. Socialization is a matter of
a) Learning
b) Biological inheritance
c ) Socialising
d) Division of labour
20. Sociality is a and socialization is a
a) Quality, Process
b) Principle, biological Inheritance
c ) Cultural process, virtue
d) None of the above
21.The social order is maintained largely by
a) Division of labour b) Law
c ) Socialization d) State
22. The process of imitation may be perceptual or

a) Conscious b) Deliberate
c ) Spontaneous d) Ideational
23. is the process of communicating
information which has no logical or self-evident
a) Suggestion b) Imitation
c ) Transculturation d) Accommodation
24.When the child attempts to walk with a stick like
his father, he is following a factor
responsible in the process of socialization?
a) Identification b) Suggestion
c ) Imitation d) Conformity
25. is the means of cultural transmission
a) Education b) Society
c ) Language d) Archaeology
26.The of a person is that he consciously or
unconsciously conceives himself to be
a) Self b) Personality
c ) Culture d) Worth
27.The concept of Looking-glass self has been
given by
a) Mead b) Giddings
c ) Cooley d) MacIver
28.The concept of Looking glass self revolves
a) Our perception of how we look to other
b) Out perception of their judgment of how we
c ) Our feeling about these judgments
d) All of the above
29.According to , Id, Ego and Super ego
constitutes the three systems of mind
a) Freud b) Mead
c ) Cooley d) Boas
30.According to Freud, represents untamed
passions and instinctive desires.
a) Id b) Ego
c ) Child d) Self
31.When a father relieves his aggression by beating
the child, finds expression in disguised form?
a) Id b) Ego
c ) Super ego d) Real self
32.According to , self and society are not
a) Cooley b) Mead
c ) Freud d) Marx
33. Match both the groups
1. Id, Ego and Super Ego
2. Significant others
3. Looking glass self-
4. Consciousness of kind
(A) Mead (B) Cooley
(C) Giddings (D) Freud
a) A=1, B=2, C=3, D=4
b) A=2, B=3, C=4, D=1
c) A=4, B=3, C=4, D=1
d) A=3, B=4, C=1, D=2
34. Socialization brings man into relation with others
whereas, makes him autonomous or self-
a) Personification b) Identification
c ) Individualization d) Integration
Social Group
35.A is a collection of individuals two or more,
interacting with each other, which have some
common objects of attention and participate in
similar activities
a) Community b) Social group
c ) Organization d) Aggregate
36. is an aggregate which lacks organization
and whose members may be unaware of the
existence of the grouping
a) Social group b) Secondary group
c ) Quasi-group d) Spatial group
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37. Which of the following is a Quasi-group?
a) Nation b) Political Party
c ) Status group d) Tribe
38. Who has coined the term Quasi-group?
a) MacIver b) Ginsberg
c ) Ogburn d) Sorokin
39.Which of the following is not a characteristic of
social group?
a) Sense of unity b) We-feeling
c ) Common interests d) Common territory
40. A group is an
a) Organic whole
b) Artificial creation
c ) Organized gathering
d) Natural growth
41.In group, membership is whereas in case of
society it is
a) Compulsory, Limited
b) Voluntary, compulsory
c ) Spontaneous, deliberate
d) Involuntary, regulative
42.Group is a , society is a system of relationship
a) Collection of human beings
b) Structure
c ) Functional relationship
d) None of the above
43. Group is formed for a purpose but society
involves purposes.
a) Philanthropic, legal
b) Specific, general
c ) Limited, altruistic
d) Voluntary, specific
44. Society is marked by
a) Co-operation
b) Conflict
c ) Acculturation
d) Cooperation and Conflict
45.A social group is
a) Static b) Dynamic
c ) Involuntary d) Altruistic
46.According to Tonnies, Neighbourhood is a type
a) Community b) Gesellschaft
c ) Social group d) Primary group
47.The classification of group into Primary and
secondary group has been done by
a) Cooley b) Tonnies
c ) Summer d) MacIver
48. ............ is characterized by intimate face-to face
a) Secondary group b) Spatial group
c ) Primary group d) Gemeinschaft
49.Impersonal relations characterize..................
a) Society b) Association
c ) Secondary group d) Neighbourhood
50. ................has classified groups into in-group and
a) Cooley b) Summer
c ) Kingsley Davis d) Simmel
51.The groups with which the individual identifies
himself by virtue of his consciousness of kind
are his............................
a) In-groups b) Primary group
c ) Social groups d) Marginal groups
52. Find out the incorrect match
a) Sumner In group and out group
b) Cooley Ethnocentrism
c ) Mead Signification others
d) Simmel Monad, dyad and triad
53.According to Sumner, the assumption that the
values, the ways of life and the attitudes of ones
own group are superior to others is called............
a) Sub-nationalism b) Ethnocentrism
c ) Racial superiority d) In-group superiority
54. Match the groups
(A) Sumner 1. Consciousness of kind
(B) Tonnies 2. Gesselshaft
(C) Cooley 3. Ethno Centrism
(D) Giddings 4. Looking-glass self
(a) A = 1, B= 3, C= 4, D=2
(b) A=3, B=2, C=4, D=1
(c) A = 4, B= 3, C=2, D=1
(d) A=2, B=1, C=4, D=3
55. .................... is referred to as a temporary
collection of people reacting together to a stimuli
a) Public b) Gathering
c ) Group d) Crowd
56.A group of students recreating by the sea shore
are an
a) Aggregate b) Public
c ) Mob d) Community
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Amrita Mukherjee
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Human Behavior
Human behavior can be understood as the
capacity of mental, physical, emotional, and social
activities experienced during the five stages of a
human beings life - prenatal, infancy, childhood,
adolescence, and adulthood. This also includes the
behaviors as dictated by culture, society, values,
morals, ethics, and genetics. The behavior of
humans (and other organisms or even mechanisms)
falls within a range with some behavior being
common, some unusual, some acceptable, and
some outside acceptable limits. In sociology,
behavior in general is characterized as having no
meaning, being not directed at other people, and
thus is the most basic human action. Behavior in
this general sense should not be mistaken with social
behavior, which is a more advanced action, as
social behavior is behavior specifically directed at
other people. The acceptability of behavior depends
heavily upon social norms and is regulated by
various means of social control. Human behavior
is studied by the specialized academic disciplines
of psychiatry, psychology, social work, sociology,
economics, and anthropology.
Human behavior is experienced throughout an
individuals entire lifetime. It includes the way they
act based on different factors such as genetics,
social norms, core faith, and attitude. Behavior is
impacted by certain traits each individual has. The
traits vary from person to person and can produce
different actions or behavior from each person.
Social norms also impact behavior. Due to the
inherently conformist nature of human society in
Amrita Mukherjee
general, humans are pressurized into following
certain rules and display certain behaviors in
society, which conditions the way people behave.
Different behaviors are deemed to be either
acceptable or unacceptable in different societies
and cultures. Also, ones attitude is essentially a
reflection of the behavior he or she will portray in
specific situations. Thus, human behavior is greatly
influenced by the attitudes we use on a daily basis.
Human Needs
We as human beings all have basic fundamental
needs in which must be fulfilled to some degree for
us to be able to function reasonably well in society,
and for our well being and continued growth.
1.) Artur Manfred Max Neef, a Chilean
economist and environmentalist known mainly for
his human development model based on
fundamental human needs classified the
fundamental human needs as:
Needs are also defined according to the
existential categories of being, having, doing and
interacting, and from these dimensions, a 36 cell
matrix is developed
Psychology /
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Needs are also constant through all human
cultures and across historical time periods. What
changes over time and between cultures are the
strategies by which these needs are satisfied.
Human needs can be understood as a system - i.e.
they are interrelated and interactive. In this system,
there is no hierarchy of needs (apart from the basic
need for subsistence or survival) as postulated by
Western psychologists such as Maslow, rather, they
are simultaneous and complementary.
2.) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: Psychologist
Abraham Maslow identified seven categories of
basic needs common to all people. Maslow
represented these needs as a hierarchy in the shape
of a pyramid. A hierarchy is an arrangement that
ranks people or concepts from lowest to highest.
According to Maslow, individuals must meet the
needs at the lower levels of the pyramid before
they can successfully be motivated to tackle the
next levels. The lowest four levels represent
deficiency needs, and the upper three levels
represent growth needs.
Need Being (qualities) Having (things) Doing (actions) Interacting
subsistence physical and mental food, shelter, work feed, clothe, rest, living environment,
health work social setting
protection care, adaptability, social security, health co-operate, plan, social environment,
autonomy systems, work takecare of, help dwelling
affection respect, sense of friendships, family, share, take care privacy, intimate
humour, generosity, relationships with of, make love, spaces of
sensuality nature express emotions togetherness
understan- critical capacity, literature, teachers, analyse, study, schools, families,
-ding curiosity, intuition policies, educational meditate, universities,
investigate communities,
participation receptiveness, responsibilities, duties, cooperate, associations, parties,
dedication, sense of work, rights dissent, express churches,
humour opinions neighbourhoods
leisure imagination, games, parties, peace day-dream, landscapes, intimate
tranquility, spontaneity of mind remember, relax, spaces, places to be
have fun alone
creation imagination, boldness, abilities, skills, invent, build, spaces for
inventiveness, curiosity work, techniques design, work, expression,
compose, workshops,
interpret audiences
identity sense of belonging, language, religions, get to know places one belongs
self-esteem, work, customs, values, oneself, grow, to, everyday settings
consistency norms commit oneself
freedom autonomy, passion, equal rights dissent, choose, anywhere
self-esteem, open- run risks, develop
mindedness awareness
/ Psychology
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1. Negative reinforcement leads to _________
a) Extinguish a behavior
b) Increase in desired responses
c ) Eliminate desirable responses
d) Learn helplessness
2. Who develop the physical quality of life index?
a) Richard estes
b) D M Morris
c ) Mohammed Yunus
d) Amartya Sen
3. Match the items in list one with list two
List 1 List 2
a) Reproductive child a) Police research
b) The national rural b) Trauma
guarantee act
c ) Post traumatic c ) Mother & child
stress disorder
d) Bureau of police d) Employment at
research and village level
a b c d
A) 2 1 3 4
B) 3 4 2 1
C) 4 3 2 1
D) 1 2 3 4
4. match the items of list1 with those list2
List 1 List 2
(event) (year)
A) International youth year 1) 2005
B) International micro credit 2) 1950
C) Mental health act 3) 1947
D) Establishment of planning 4) 1987
5) 1985
Multiple Choice Questions
a b c d
A) 1 2 4 3
B) 5 1 4 2
C) 3 1 2 5
D) 5 1 3 4
5. Emotional disorders in which an individual
remains oriented to reality but suffers from
cronic anxiety is____
6. One of the following theories is known as growth
oriented theory
a) Psycho analytic theory
b) Client centred theory
c ) Existential theory
d) Cognitive learning theory
7. Detachment from work, inability to accomplish
goals aand emotional discharge is known as ___
a) Blockade b) Burnout
c ) Ambiguity d) Lockout
8. Agoraphobia is the fear of___
A) Height B) Blood
C) Crowd D) Animal
9. In classical conditioning what happens to a
neutral stimulus after it is associated with the
unconditional stimulus ? it becomes___
a) Conditioned stimulus
b) Conditioned response
c ) Unconditioned response
d) A phobia
10.Emotionally intellectual person can
a) accurately perceive emotions
b) think without emotions
c ) disregards emotional meaning
d) has difficulty in managing on emotions
11.who gave the three dimensional model of
personality- the child, the adult, the parent?
a) Sigmund Freud b) Otto Rank
c ) Eric Berne d) Joseph Wolpe
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12.Behavioral modification involves
A) Solving problems through insight
B) Bringing behavior under stimulus control
C) Demonstrating learning in the absence of
D) Application of learning principles to change
13.Sanatorium means_____
a) institution for open air treatment of
b) Institution for help of elderly people
c ) Institution for the treatment of mentally sick
d) Institution for the treatment of lepers
14.Who among the following is associated with
Gestalt therapy?
a) C R Rogers b) Sigmund freud
c ) B F Skinner d) F Poul
15.Person-focused psychological process in social
work are aimed at
1) Social policy
2) Planning and development
3) Counselling and therapy
4) All the above
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 1, 2 and 3 only
c ) 3 only
d) All the above
16.Which is not developmental characteristic of
A) Enuresis
B) Adjustment to the role of the head of the
C) Earning for aging parents
D) Saving for future
17.Who among the following is associated with the
Gestalt system of therapy?
a) C R Rogers
b) Freud
c ) F S Perls and Laura P Perls
d) B F Skinner
18.The mental health Act was enacted in the year
a) 1985 b) 1987
c ) 1989 d) 1990
19.a race is valid biological concept. It is a group
united by heredity, a breed or genetic strain or
subspecies. This definition is attributed to
a) R M Maclver b) James
c ) A L Kroeber d) A W Green
20.Animism is a belief in
a) Spirits of the dead ancestors
b) Some spiritual power
c ) Object having life
d) Supernatural being
21.Learned behavior is believed to be found in
a) Man b) Dog
c ) Chimpanzee d) All of the above
22.The mental health policy was adopted in India
in the year
a) 1987 b) 1980
c ) 1982 d) 1990
23.Psychoanalytic theory about human personality
was proposed by
a) Carl jung b) Skinner
c ) Freud d) Alfred adler
24.Behavioural changes which occur in the basis
of physiological development rather than
learning and which appear in virtually all
members of species are the result of
a) Socialization b) Rationalization
c ) Maturation d) Fermentation
5. To trace the cause of mental growth in an
individual or the race is the problem of
a) analytical psychology
b) synthetic psychology
c ) genetic psychology
d) physiological psychology
26.There is an evidence of a hereditary component
in the element of the mental illness known as
a) paranoia
b) psychoneurotic disorders
c ) schizophrenia
d) paralysis
27.at what age the child takes his first step in
a) 5-6 years b) 10-12 years
c ) 4-5 years d) None of these
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Social Case Work
Shashidhar Channappa
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Since humans are social animals, the
overpowering role of the society on the life of
human beings cannot be negated as individuals are
shaped by the society that they live in. Individuals
in the process of living in the society and being a
part of that society, build certain social
relationships with other members of the society as
well as the environment that they are a part of. These
social relationships and the way they play out in
the lives of individuals actually define the nature
and personality of human beings. As long as these
relationships play along smoothly, society also
functions smoothly without problems but when
problems occur and relationships are obstructed
due to barriers in communication, the whole social
order is impacted. Social work as a discipline deals
with understanding these human problems and
finding a solution to the same.
Social work has existed since the time human
beings have existed. Although initially Social Work
did not exist in an organised manner as a discipline,
but even then it had been exhibited in instances when
humans have helped each other to function smoothly
in the society. At the beginning social work was
associated substantially to working with poor,
homeless and the destitute but gradually over the
years social work got established as a discipline
and presently the services of a social worker is
utilized in every possible field be it schools,
hospitals, companies, in working with aged, juvenile
delinquents, women and any other section of the
society which faces marginalization and
discrimination. As a discipline Social Work follows
6 general methods:
Social Case Work is a primary method of social
work and it defines the nature of social work in its
true sense. This method of social work focuses on
the individual and the problems being faced by the
person. The aim of Social Case Work is to identify
the problems being faced by individuals and then
finding out possible ways of dealing with those
problems so as to reinstate the individual to his/her
fully functional level. The third dimension of Social
Case Work is to equip the person not only to deal
with present problems but address by themselves
any problem that might occur in the future as well
without external help.
The major milestone in the establishment of
Social Case Work as a method of social work was
the publishing of Social Diagnosis by Mary E.
Richmond in the year 1917. According to Mary E.
Richmond (1915), Social Social Case Work may
be defined as the art of doing different things for
and with different people by cooperating with them
to achieve at one and the same time their own and
societys betterment.
Few other definitions of
Social Case Work:
Richmond (1917): Social Social Case Work is
the art of bringing about the better adjustments in
the social relationship of individual men, or women
or children.
Taft (1920): Social Social Case Work means
social treatment of a maladjusted individual
involving an attempt to understand his personality,
Social Case Work
Shashidhar Channappa
Social Case Work /
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behavior and social relationships and to assist him
in working out better social and personal
Richmond (1922): Social Social Case Work
means, those processes which develop personality
through adjustment consciously affected, individual
by individual, between men and their social
Porter R. Lee (1923): Social Case Work is the
art of changing human attitudes.
Hollis (1954): Social Social Case Work is a
method employed by social workers to help
individuals find solutions to problems of social
adjustment which they are unable to handle in a
satisfactory way by their own efforts.
Hamilton (1956): in social case work the client
is stimulated to participate in the study of his
situation, to share his plans, to make an active effort
to solve his problems, using his own resources and
whatever community resources are available and
Perlman (1957): Social Social Case Work is
process used by certain human welfare agencies
to help individuals to cope more effectively with
their problems in social functioning.
Basis Concepts of Social Case Work:
The primary aim of Social Case Work is to equip
the client with the knowledge of his/her own reality,
the understanding of the causes of the problems
being faced by him/her, the probable solutions for
the problems and finally developing the capacities
of the client to deal with future problems without
external help. In order to achieve this, the foremost
important step is conducting a psycho-social study
of the client to assess the psychological as well as
the sociological conditions of each client. For
conducting the psycho-social study, the Social Case
Worker concentrates on 3 basic concepts to
analyze the problem and then plan proper
treatment. These concepts are:
1. Social Role: According to Sargent, A
persons role is a pattern or type of social behavior
which seems situationally appropriate to him in
terms of the demands and expectations of those in
his group.
A combination of many such roles that
an individual is expected to perform in order to be
a properly functional member of a particular
position in the society and to perform social
functions appropriately is called a social role. The
society comprises many social institutions like
family, kinship, education, religion, politics etc and
for all these institutions to function properly,
individuals are expected to perform many roles at
once, for example, a parent (family), employer/
employee (work place) and so on. Each such role
has a set of expectations attached to it which needs
to be performed by the occupant in order for the
society to function properly. Many a time
individuals face transitions in their social roles when
they are expected to shift from one role to another,
example, marriage, parenthood etc.
At times of these transitions individuals usually
experience role conflicts because:
They are not trained properly to deal with
the next role efficiently.
Individuals have an unrealistic view of what
their role actually is.
People have problems in understanding what
they want to be and what they actually are.
In any case role conflicts occur when the
individual is not able to balance or cope with the
roles and expectations that he/she is supposed to
perform to be a part of the society. The task of a
social worker here is to understand the nature of
role conflict and the way in which the individual
can strike a balance and maintain various roles that
they are supposed to perform.
2. Ego: The concept of Ego was first given by
Sigmund Freud in 1920 in his essay Beyond the
Pleasure Principle and later in his book The Ego
and The Id in 1923, the concepts of Id, Ego and
Super-Ego was discussed in detail. According to
Freud, Id is the seat of desires and instincts in a
person whereas; the Super-Ego is the moral
guardian of ones personality. The moderator
between these two extremes and that part of ones
personality which is organized and the closest to
reality is the Ego. Most of the decisions,
perception of reality, ability to adapt and
compromise are presided over by the ego of a
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1) In Social Case Work, interview is an important:
a) Tool b) Method
c ) Technique d) All the above
2) In HIV Counseling VCTC refers to:
a) Voluntary Condom use Training Centre
b) Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre
c ) Voluntary Centre for Training and Care
d) Voluntary Care and Treatment Centre
3) Which one of the following is not a technique of
case work?
a) Interviewing b) Observation
c ) Counseling d) Lobbying
4) While working with an individual client on a one
to one basis, the relationship is:
a) A friendly association
b) A contract
c ) Purposeful to meet the psycho social needs
of the client
d) A sympathetic understanding of the client
5) Which one refer to the behavior that an individual
engages in while enacting the role?
a) Role taking b) Role playing
c ) Playing at a role d) Role expectation
6) Identify the correct answer:
Recording in social case work can be classified
a) Narrative recording, process recording,
evaluative recording and summary recording
b) Problem oriented, field oriented, process
oriented, individual centered
c ) Referral summaries, diagnostic summaries,
narrative records and problem oriented
d) Process oriented narrative situational and
7) Mary Richmonds Social Diagnosis can be
considered as first book of
a) Social group work
b) Social and preventive medicine
c ) Social case work
d) Social action
8) Putting oneself in the shoe of another person and
understanding his/her perceptual world is
a) Empathy
b) Positive regards
c ) Genuineness
d) None of the above
9) Which word among the following refers to
physical and psychological exhaustion caused
by an inability to cope?
a) Frustration b) Crisis
c ) Burnout d) Insomnia
10)Case study involves
a) Careful observation of a person
b) Complete observation of a person
c ) Very careful observation of a person
d) Very careful and complete observation of a
11) The reaction of a child when scolded can be
studied under control condition by a planned
technique of
a) Observation b) Interview
c ) Questionnaire d) Field survey
12) Case study aims to
a) Established statistical correlation
b) Bring out the structure of the unit as a whole
c ) Expose persons danger to society
d) Treats cases requiring self help
13) According to P.V. Young which one of the
following is essentially needed for the objective
of fact finding
a) In consistent thinking
b) Rigid pursuit for accurate data
c ) Thinking nothing for granted
d) Scientific attitudes
14) The interview guide will be used during interview
a) Interviewee
b) Interviewer
c ) Different people
d) Both interviewer and interviewee
Multiple Choice Questions
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15) A schedule is a list of questions which will be
answered in an interview by
a) An interviewer b) A respondent
c ) A surveyor d) A researcher
16) which one may be defined as a method of
measuring individuals social behavior?
a) Sociometry b) Sample method
c) Verstehen method d) Interview method
17) The second stage of scientific or experimental
method is
a) Clarification b) Recording
c ) Observation d) Prediction
18) Case study involves
a) very careful observation of a person
b) complete observation of a person
c ) careful observation of a person
d) very careful and complete observation of a
19) which technique is most suitable to study in
a) mailed questionnaire
b) interview guide
c ) interview schedule
d) structured interview
20) What is social case work is written by?
a) G.R. Banerjee b) Mary Richmond
c ) H.H. Perlman d) F. Biestek
21) Identify the correct items The tool of the social
case work are
a) Home visit b) Summarization
c ) Recording d) Interviewee
22)A: The emphasis on person in situation is to
understand and help the individual client better
R: the person in situation configuration is
23) Match the following pair and choose the answer
from the code given below
List 1 List 2
a) psycho analytic theory 1) Began
b) ego psychology 2) Anafreud
c) psycho social therapy 3) Hamilton
d) problem solving therapy 4) Sigmund Fruid
24) UGC second review committee of social work
education submitted its reports in the year
a) 1964 b) 1972
c ) 1978 d) 1981
25) Match the following pairs
List 1 List 2
a) Progressive 1) Social welfare
programme administration
b) Confidentiality 2) Community
c ) Need identification 3) Social case work
d) Authority and 4) Social group
obedience work
26) Functional approach in case work was
developed by
a) Jessie Teft b) Otto Rank
c ) Gordon Hamilton d) Talcott Parsons
27) The therapy developed by Otto Rank is called
a) Crisis intervention
b) Humanistic therapy
c ) Rational emotive therapy
d) Will therapy
28) Which one of the following is not the correct
a) Murray G. Ross Community
b) P.D. Kulkarni Social Policy in India
c ) H.B. Trucker Social Group Work
d) M.S. Gore Social Case Work
29) Assertion (A): social work is a human rights
Reason (R): clients problem should be solved
as per his/her decision
30) Arrange case work processes in order
a) Study, diagnosis, intake, treatment, follow up.
b) Intake, study, diagnosis, treatment, follow up
c ) Study, intake, follow up, diagnosis, treatment
d) Intake, diagnosis, treatment, study, follow up
31) The principles of social case work are
a) Joint decision meaking
b) Acceptance
c ) Non judgemental attitude
d) Individualization
32) Treatment in social case work involves
a) Counseling
b) Environmental modification
c ) Administration of social services
d) Counseling, environmental modification and
administration of social services
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Social Group Work
D. Sreenivasa Reddy
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Human being is a social animal they cant
live without the social interaction, and community
life. Social interaction is one of the indirect ways
learning by doing. The establishment of
satisfying group life outside the family is pre-
requisite for effective social living, which every
individual must accomplish though out his life. All
human beings do not live alone and group life is
basic for every human being. Another important
area of social work is social group work, which
deals with the individuals as a member of the group.
Social Group: Social group in the ordinary sense
means that any collection of more than one
individual, but sociologically it is a collection of
individuals interacting with each other under a
recognized structure. A social group is always
motivated by some common goals and interests,
characterized by some rules and regulations
(formal and informal), which regulates the behavior
of its members. Ogburn defines it: The group in a
statement We feelings. We feelings mean that
the members of the group develop basic responses
for each other. The following are some of the
essential characteristics, which distinguish a group
from a non-group:
1. Collection of individuals
2. Psychological interaction.
3. Common goals and interaction.
4. Group norms.
Group work is a method of social work practice
by which individuals are served within and through
small face to face groups, in order to solve their
problems and bring about desired changes at the
individual, group and community level. It
recognizes the strength of the social forces that are
generated within small groups and seeks to
mobilize them for change in the client. Group work
is a conscious attempt to help people to become
more effective in group situations and to find
common interests and mutual satisfaction in doing
Genesis of Group Work:
Social group work began as 'group work' with
its own unique history and heroes. It was not part of
the mainstream of professional social work, which
in the early days was synonymous with casework,
as far as the method was concerned.
The ideological roots of social group work
were in the self-help and informal
recreational organisations, such as YMCA,
YWCA settlement, scouting, Jewish Centres
in U.S.A. and democratic ideals that all
should share in the benefits of society
following the Industrial Revolution.
Social group work was also influenced by
progressive education as it developed in
Europe and stressed the use modern and
liberal techniques in group learning.
The major thrust of early group-serving
agencies was toward the normal rather than
the maladjusted person who would seek
service primarily during his 'leisure' hours. He
came for recreation, education, enjoyment
and the development of special skills and
Group work was then not geared towards
individuals with particular problems. The
person with severe problems who appeared
in the group was incorporated as much as
possible with his peers or was referred for
Social Group Work
D. Sreenivasa Reddy
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individual attention to a casework agency or
psychiatric clinic.
The first course in group work was offered
by the Western Reserve University in the
U.S.A. in the early 1930s. There was then
great preoccupation and focus on the activity
and programme of the group. This,
unfortunately, in many ways held back the
flowering of group work as a theoretically
sound method within social work.
In 1935 Grace Coyle, as the Chairman of the
newly established section of social group
work of the National Conference of Social
Work, began to clarify that group work was
a method within social work and that
recreation and education were other fields
(professions) which might include group work
as a method.
The focus then gradually moved from doing
activities to talking activities which was
understood at that time as leading more
quickly towards self-understanding, insight
and behavioural change.
In the 1940s, with the efforts of persons such
as Grace Coyle, Clara Kaiser, Wilber
Newsetter, Gertrude Wilson and Helen
Phillips, group work was more fully rooted
within the profession of social work and
began to be taught in many more schools in
the USA.
By the early 1950s the method developed its
own distinctiveness and was introduced in
most schools of social work throughout the
U.S.A., Great Britain, Canada and other parts
of the world.
Social group work now wrested itself from
the field of social psychology and also
distinguished its methodology from group
psychotherapy. It moved into many
'specialized' settings previously reserved for
the practice of casework to serve problem
It developed a refined and sophisticated set
of techniques as the National Association of
Social Workers and the Council of Social
Work Education produced new documents
and publications in group work. Gisella
Konopka, William Schwartz and Dorothea
Spellman were the new group work writers.
They urged that group work cease following
the path of casework development and move
to identify and elaborate its own therapy and
Thus group work obtained a new depth and
vision. Its competence is reserved neither for
dysfunctioning individuals alone nor for the
range of services to maximize potentials; it
can be used for a range of services.
In the late 1960s, Ruth Smalley's new text book
"Theory for Social Work Practice" whose
uniqueness rests in the fact that it is the first
book to present a unified theory applicable
to casework, group work and community
organisation, made a breakthrough in social
work education by emphasizing the
commonalities of the three methods.
The seventies and eighties saw the method
of group work being utilised in new
innovations such as the laboratory method,
sensitivity training, encounter groups and
many movements like transactional analysis,
gestalt therapy and so forth.
Basic Assumptions of Social Group Work:
Douglas has mentioned the following basic
assumptions upon which group work practice is
That group experience is universal and an
essential upon of human existence.
That group can be used to affect changes in
the attitudes, and behaviour of individuals.
That groups provide experience which can
be monitored or selected in some way for
beneficial ends. Life outside the group is in
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Multiple Choice Questions
1. Sociologists describe the term group as .
a) Collection of people
b) People involved in organized pattern of
c ) People interacting at a place
d) Participants in a gathering.
2. Which one of the following is a secondary
a) Nuclear family
b) Peer group
c). Association
d). Joint family
3. The success of group work does NOT depend
a). Achievement of goals
b). Understanding and agreement on major
c). Handling of behavioural problems
d). Ignoring individual problems
4. Leader in a group does NOT depend on?
a). Authoritarian Approach
b). Distribution of responsibility
c). Rapport with individual members
d). Understanding group dynamics
5. Who among the following helped group work
rooted in social work profession?
a). Kurt Lewin
b). H.B. Trecker
c). Murry G. Ross
d). G. Hamilton
6. Responsibility for the choice of programme in
group work rest with ?
a). Members of the group
b). Group worker
c). The Agency
d). Members of the group with the help of group
7. The basic objective of group work is ?
a). Personality development
b). Problem solving
c). Readjustment
d). Remediation
8. Value of the programme in group work lies in?
a). Establishing satisfying affective (love)
b). Enhancing knowledge of possible alternative
c). Giving expression to creative dynamics
d). Increasing proficiency in the chosen
programme activity.
9. Programme in social group work is base on
a). Interest and resources
b). Interests and resources of the worker
c). Interests and resources of the group
d). None of the above.
10.Social group work as a method of social work
aims at?
a). Development of democratic life style
b). Development of leadership qualities
c). Development of capability of adjustment
d). All the above
11.Group morale refers to ?
a). Cooperation in a group
b). Coordination in a group
c). Unity in a group
d). Team spirit in a group.
12.Which of the following is NOT a principle of
social group work?
a). Confidentiality
b). Guided group interactions
c). Progressive programme development
d). Evaluation of the progress made by the group
13.Who was an early pioneer in the settlement
house movement in London?
a). Jane Addams
b). Harriet Belet
c). F. Hollis
d). Mary E. Richmond
14.The book Social Group Work A Helping
Process is authored by?
a). H.B. Trecker
b). G. Konopka
c). G.H. Mead
d). Peter Samuel
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15.Self disclosure is an effective method of
a). Group study
b) Group diagnosis
c). Group relations
d). Group treatment
16.The stages of forming, storming, norming,
performing, adjourning is the contribution of
a). Napier b). Bruce Tuckmen
c). Anne Hopes d). James Albert
17.The relationship in a secondary group is ?
a). Personal b). Intimate
c). Formal d). Informal
18. is a graphic representation of the
choices or the association of group members
using symbols for people and their interactions.
a). Histogram b). Sociogram
c). Sonogram d). Isogram
19.No compromise on law is characteristic of
a). Democratic b). Autocratic
c). Bureaucratic d). Laissz Faire
20.Field work in social group work helps to
a). Knowledge b). Skill
c). Attitude d). All the above
21.The Mutual Aid Model of group work practice
has its roots in the practice theory proposed by
a). H.B. Trecker b). G. Konopka
c). William Schwartz d). Naiper
22. Model of group work focuses on
restoration to normalcy after a point of
a). Remedial model b). Development model
c). Preventive model d). None of the above.
23.Cognitive Behavioural group work model was
developed by?
a). James Albert b). Rose
c). Napier d). Peter Samuel
24.Sociometry is a technique widely used for study
a). Group structure
b). Status of members in the group
c). Leadership
d). All the above
25.Groups are classified into primary groups by
a). H.B. Trecker b). Cooley
c). MacIver d). Max Weber
26.Which of the following is NOT a stage of social
group work process?
a). Conforming b). Norming
c). Storming d). Performing
27.Which of the following is NOT a primary group?
a). Mob b). Family
c). Gang d). Pear group
28.Group work is intended specially ?
a). To promote social action
b). To facilitate community organization
c). To enhance social functioning
d). To solve individual and group problems
through group process
29.Role of the group worker can be best understood
through the term?
a). Indirect leader b). Enabler
c). Resource person d). Programme planner
30.Good recording in group work should focus on
a). Activities organised
b). Skills used
c). Group process
d). Members characteristics
31.Social group work is a process by which
a). Individuals are helped to feel comfort in a
b). Social functioning is enhanced through
c). Social functioning is enhanced through
purposeful group experience
d). Social functioning of group is the focus
32.What is the unique characteristic of social group
a). The natural of being the primary group
b). Worker client relationship
c). Creative use of programme media
d). None of the above
33.The most important tool at the disposal of group
worker is?
a). Professional self
b). Verbal interaction
c). Programme activities
d). Group morale
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34.The main feature of the primary group is
a). Face to face relationship
b). Relations are causal
c). It has large membership
d). It governs rules and regulations
35.Programme in social group work is based on
a). Interests and resources of the agency
b). Interests and resources of the worker
c). Interests and resources of the members of the
d). None of the above
36.Social group as a method of social work
primarily aims at?
a). Development of leadership qualities
b). Development of democratic life style
c). Development of capability for adjustment
d). All the above
37.Which one of the following is a reference group?
a). Occupational group
b). Group taken to evaluate ones own aspect of
c). A relative longer group
d). A group which allows for social mobility
38.Programme planning in group work practice
a). Group members practice
b). Group members interest
c). The programme content
d). All the above
39.Which of the following is NOT a principle of
group work?
a). Progressive and Programme experience
b). Specific objectives
c). Group experiment planning
d). Continuous evaluation
40.Which is a social group with some degree of
we feeling and living in a given area?
a). Community b). Society
c). Association d). Crowd
41.Group which serves as point of comparison is
known as?
a). In-group b). Out-group
c). Reference group d). Primary group
42.Self-disclosure is an effective method of
a). Group study b). Group dynamics
c). Group relations d). Group treatment
43.Wilson & Ryland is the author of the book ?
a). Social group work
b). Social work with groups
c). Group work practice
d). Social group work practice
44.Founder of YMCA in the year 1844 is ?
a). George Williams b). Jane Addams
c). Trecker H.B. d). None of the above
45.YWCA which was formed in the year 1877 by
a). Mrs. Kinnird & Miss. Roberts
b). Ms. Annibesent
c). G.H. Cooley
d). Coyle
46.Name of the place where the first YWCA was
formed in USA in 1866?
a). New Jersey b). Washington
c). Boston d). New South Wales
47.Which one of the following is NOT the purpose
of social group work?
a). Social adjustment of individual
b). Social consciousness of the group
c). Personality development
d). Inter-group rivalry
48.Social group work is a method of social work
which helps individuals to enhance their social
functioning through purposeful group
experiences this definition is given
a). Grace Coyle b). G. Konopka
c). Hamilton d). Skidmore
49.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic
of secondary group?
a). Large size
b). Personal orientation
c). Secondary relations
d). Formal communication
50.In a democratic group process the group morale
and discipline will be ?
a). Leader centered b). Agency centered
c). Change centered d). We centered
51.What has led to the development of social group
work as a method of social work?
a). Community Chest
b). Reform movement
c). Clubs and recreation movements
d). Paid volunteers
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Community Organization &
Social Action
Ananda N.L.
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Community is a locus social system of a
particular kind compost of interacting social
institution which meets the basic human needs
through the function of which the people have
developed a sense of belongingness and potential
ability to act together as an entity.
In this state, the characteristics of the community
They are closest entity
There systems are inter-related
The communities are complexes of sub-
There is a desirable relationship and
leadership within the community.
Community, in the sense in which it is used
here, refers to two major groupings of people.
Firstly, it may be all the people in a specific
geographic area, i.e., a village, a town, a city, a
neighborhood, or a district in a city. In the same
manner it could refer also to all the people in a
province or a state, a nation, or in the world.
Secondly, it is used to include groups of people
who share some common interest or function, such
as welfare, agriculture, education, and religion. In
this context community organization may be
involved in bringing these persons together to
develop some awareness of, and feeling for their
community and to work at common problems
arising out of the interest or function they have in
What is community organization?
Community organization is a primary method
of Social Work, which address the community
problem as a whole. It considers total society as a
unit and applies skills, techniques and approaches
of Social work to make the society self sustain.
Community organization is the process of people
coming together to address issues that matter to
them. Community members developing plans for
how the city can be a place where all its children
do well. Neighbors joining in protests to stop drugs
and violence in their community. Members of faith
communities working together to build affordable
housing. These are all examples of community
organization efforts.
Murray G. Ross (1967) defines community
organization as a process by which a community
identifies its needs or objectives, gives priority to
them, develops the confidence and will to work at
them, finds resources (internal and external) to deal
with them, and in doing so, extends and develops
co-cooperative and collaborative attitudes and
practices in the community.
Importance of Community Organization:
1. It Promote sense of Participation among the
2. It bring about individual progress towards
material and recreational goals
3. It help in personal acceptance and
appreciation of each other
4. It creates an atmosphere of respect for the
rights and interest of people
5. It promotes sense of belongingness and
neighborhood among the people of the
community and thereby developing a healthy
community life.
Objectives of Community Organization: Arthur
Dunham given following objectives:
1. Meeting the needs and bringing about &
maintaining adjustment between needs and
resources in community or other areas
2. Helping people to deal effectively with their
problems and objectives by helping them to
do develop strengthening and maintain
qualities of participation, self-direction and
3. Bringing about changes in community & grow
relationship & in the distribution of decision
making power.
Community Organization & Social Action
Ananda N.L.
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Principles of Community Organization:
Following are the principles of community
1. Acceptance of community: The community
organizer should accept the community and
should act in a way that the community should
accept him and if he has some problem, he
should study that and contact the local
leaders in this regards and then approach the
community to the interest for the welfare of
people in the community.
2. Understanding of felt needs and resources:
The community worker should know the felt
needs of the people and their resources and
they should start work according to those felt
needs. They should also explore available
resources, which are available outside the
3. Individualization: Community worker should
always try to identify problems faced by
some individuals and group and should repair
special plans and programmes for them to
make them participate with other groups or
individual of the community. By this we mean
that individuals attention is also necessary
for the community workers.
4. Self-determination: Community worker
should provide full freedom to the local
community to determine their needs and
problems and resources act their own and
should also give plans for their solution. He
should encourage them in the planning for
solution of these problems and should not
impose his own views on them.
5. Freedom within limits: The social worker
should guide the community and make them
free in giving the ideas of all about the
solution of the problems but in decisions
should not close the limits to violate the
interest of the group but the decision should
be in the common interest of the community.
6. Empathy, not sympathy: Community workers
attitude as also his approach towards work
with the community should be non-
judgemental. Whenever any decision is to be
taken, it should be based on objective facts
concerning community life and values
cherished by the community, not by the
7. Flexibility: The community worker should
involve various members of the community
in different matters and also delicate
authority to them. The community workers
should also be flexible to give rise to new
leadership according to change situation.
8. Progress programme experience: All the
programmes in the community should be
evolutionary and not revolutionary. All the
programmes chalked out by the community
and should take in to consideration the local
needs and problems with the involvement of
people in the community.
9. Peoples participation: The community worker
should involve in the identification of all
issues, problems, needs and resources and
also development plans for this area. This
participation should be from the first stage
till final decision is taken.
10.Good or meaningful relationship: The
community worker should establish good
relationship in the community. He should need
all the groups and sub-groups of the
community and should understand their
problems. This would enable him to involve
the community as long as he feels.
They had developed capacity to lead as he
deals at with their own felt needs and
11.Mobilization: The community organizer
should mobilize its all resources whether
internal or external to avoid duplication of
efforts. He should utilize these resources. He
should also explore the talents and ability of
different groups in the community. It is very
necessary for the development of community.
12.Evaluation: The community worker should
evaluate his work and people participation.
He should also find out the various drawbacks
and the groups between the various
programmes of the community development.
The purpose of the evaluation is to readjust
you according to the change situation.
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Multiple Choice Questions
1. In Community Development, the word jack-
of-all-trades and master of none the title is
given to
a. Village-level Workers
b. Supervisors
c . Officers
d. Politicians
2. Who is the first person established principles
of Community Organaisation in Social work?
a. Edvard Lindman
b. Gisela Konapkax
c . Dorothea Dix
d. M G Ross
3. The book Edward Lindman and Social Work
philosophy was written by:
a. Gisela Konapka
b. Marry E Richmond
c . Richard Thomas
d. M G Ross
4. Which is considered first book on Community
a. Social Diagnosis Marry E Richmond
b. Community Organization M G Ross
c . Community Edward C Lindman
d. Community organization and Development-
Herbert J Ruhim Irene S, Rulin
5. Who established First Settlement home
(Toynbee Hall) in London?
a. E.T Gerry
b. Herbert Spenser
c . Vicar Samuel A Barnett
d. Jame Adams
6. Who is the term Social Action first time in
Social Work?
a. Marry E Richmond
b. Edward Lindman
c . Gisela Konapka
d. Luigi Cavestro
7. Which one of the following is correct
according to Pluralistic Model of Power
a. It rejects the idea that small homogeneous
group dominates community decision
b. It oppose the idea that small homogeneous
group dominates community decision
c . It expects the idea that small homogeneous
group dominates community decision
d. It empowers the idea that small
homogeneous group dominates community
decision making.
8. Which of the following organaisation
recognizes Community Organaisation as a
legitimate specialization for Social Work
9. Government of India introduced Community
Development Programmes in India First time
a. 1950 b. 1952
c . 1957 d. 1969
10.As a result of the Social Movement lead by
the first state asylum for
mentally ill people is established in Trenton.
a. Dorothan Dix
b. Marry E Richmond
c . Ross
d. Richmond Thomas
11.The 21
century Social Movements will
become increasingly................as information
and transportation technique promotes rapid
community and cultural diffusion.
a. Progress b. Corporatist
c . Violent d. Global
12.According to . Theory, a Social
Movement will be more likely to succeed in
creating social change if it can raise funds,
attract and organize members, and build
effective alliance with other groups.
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a. Resource Mobilization
b. Structural contrariness
c . Philanthropic
d. Structural Adjustment
13.The Moral of people into or out of
geographical area is known as
a. Assimilation
b. Diffusion
c . Acculturation
d. Migration
14.Who is considered as Water Gandhi of India?
a. Rajendra Singh
b. Baaba Ampte
c . Sundarlal Bahuguna
d. Anna Hajare
15.Who identified the Elite and Popular Social
Action as two types of Social Action?
a. Britto
b. Antonio Gramsci
c . M G Ross
d. Friedlander, W.A.
16.Who had given the model Conscientisation
Model of Social Action?
a. Paulo Fiero
b. Herbert Spenser
c . Antonio Gramci
d. Jame Adams
17.Conscientation Model of Social Action
speaks about,
a. Educate b. Sensitize
c . Empower d. Dictate
18.Who coin the term SocialMovement.
a. Mary E Richmond
b. Antonio Gramsi
c . Margarate Atto
d. Lovenz von Stein
19.The author of the famous book, Socialist and
Communist Movement.
a. Lenin b. Karl Marx
c . Lovenz von Stein d. Stalin
20.Identify the correct sequence of the Social
a. Emerge, Coalesce, Bureaucratese,
Success or Failure, Decline.
b. Emerge, Bureaucratese, Coalesce,
Success or Failure, Decline.
c . Emerge, Coalesce, success or Failure,
Bureaucratese, Decline.
d. Emerge, Bureaucratese, Decline,
Coalesce, Success or Failure.
21.Match the following.
1. Co-operative a. 26 March 1974
2. Chipko Movement b. 20 Aug 1828
3. Brahmo Samaja c. 1989
4. Narmada d. 25 March 1904
Bachavo Andolan
A. 1-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-b
B. 1-c, 2-b, 3-a, 4-d
C. 1-d, 2-a, 3-b, 4-c
D. 1-d, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d
22.Who used the term RRA (Rapid Rural
Appraisal) first time in 1983?
a. Robert Chambers
b. Britto, G.A.A.
c . Friedlander
d. Luigi Cavestro
23.The roots of PRA technique can be trace to
the activist Adult Education method of,
a. Antonio Gramci
b. Paulo Faire
c . Jawahara lal Neharu
d. Blumer
24.In order to awaken the people, it is the women
who have to be awaked. Once she is on the
move, the households moves, the village
moves and the community moves. And
through the women, the children are brought into
the picture and given the opportunities of a
healthier life and better training.- Who given
the above statement?
a. Mahatma Gandhiji
b. Sardar Vallabai patel
c . Durgabai Deshmukh
d. Jawaharalal Nehru.
25...is the behavior and beliefs
between people that is dependent upon the
behavior and beliefs of each other and of other
a. Social Interaction
b. Cooperation
c . Coercion
d. Co-ordination
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26.The Functional theorist examined the
preconditions of social Movement
.was especially concerned with the
structural strain found in society as an initial
condition of a Social Movements.
a. Neil Smelser
b. Charlers Tilly
c . Sidney Tarrow
d. Karl Marx
27.There are a number of conditions that increase
Participation in Social Movements which of the
following conditions involves the active
framing of relevant issues?
a. Mobilizing the people
b. Justifying the Movement
c . Framing the Strategy
d. Optimum utilization of Medias
28.When people begin to Share their grievances
which of the following conditions that increase
participation in Social Movements has
a. Recruiting members
b. Intensification of dissent
c . Conduct Meetings
d. Identify Mediation
29.This theory stress that as people interacts they
begin to bounce grievances and angry moods
off one another, heightening their emotional
a. Convergence b. Conflict
c . Contagion d. Networking
30.This theory emphasizes that people are not so
much transformed and swept away by
emotional contagion they are self-selected to
engage in certain lines of behavior
a. Convergence b. Contagion
c . Co-operation d. Co-ordination
31.What type of crowd involves people self
selected and assembled for a specific purpose,
such as observing a game?
a. Casual b. Seasonal
c . Conventional d. Conflictual
32.................Crowd is a self-selected gathering
of people who initiated to be influenced by
norms, ideologies, rituals and emotional
contagion, as is the case at a religious revival,
rock concert, or political rally.
a. Non Conventional
b. Casual
c . Conventional
d. Expressive
33.Which of the following theory argues that
Social Movement and other change-producing
patterns of collective behaviors emerge only
when they are resources?
a. Contagion mobilization
b. Resource Mobilisation
c . Conventional
d. Expressive
34.Abbreviation of CAPART is:
a. Council for Advancement of Peoples
Action & Rural Technology
b. Council of Advancement of People
Association & Rural technology
c . Advancement of People Association and
Rural Transformation
d. Council of Additional Peoples Association
& Rural Technology
35.CAPART Was Established In The Year
a. April 1990
b. September 1986
c . August 1985
d. October 1993
36.Community organizer encourages, provides
direction and guidelines to proceed in carrying
out the different activities as an .
a. Catalyst
b. Advocator
c . Animator
d. Resource Mobilisor
37.The role of is to be a
representative or persuade the members of the
community and prepare them to be a
representative as well as represent the issues
to the concerned body to bring a solution to
unmet needs the advocacy role is an important
role in the present context.
a. Advocate b. Catalyst
c . Animator d. Guide
38.When People participate by forming group to
meet predetermined objectives related to the
project, which can involve development and
promotion of externally initiated social
organizations called,
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Unit - VII
Social Work Research
D. Sreenivasa Reddy
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Nature and Significance of Social
In the contemporary world every society today
is faced with serious social, economic and politi-
cal problems. These problems need systematic, logi-
cal and practical solution. Problem solving is a tech-
nical process. It requires among all other things and
accumulation of new knowledge. Research pro-
vides means of accumulating such a kind of knowl-
edge and wisdom. In other words research is a sys-
tematic effort at gathering, analysis and interpreta-
tion of the problems confronted by humanity. It is a
thinking process and a scientific method of study-
ing a problem and finding a solution. Social re-
search, however assumes a distinct character of its
own in a significant measure when it comes to the
application of scientific process as in natural sci-
ences, to social phenomena. Unlike, physical and
natural sciences, in social research the objects are
conscious and active human beings. The individual
behaviour of the objects whether it is free or deter-
mined makes the social research really a difficult
job. Further, the researcher and object being simi-
lar, the scope of an objective approach in social
research is limited to a considerable extent.
Social research concerns with social data, which
are much more complex than that of the physical
data. The basis of all social interactions, whether it
is a large complex group
or a small cohesive group, is expectations of
behaviour, which in turn is result of many factors.
The complex nature of social data reduces the
power of exact prediction in social research. Most
of the subject matter of social research is qualita-
tive and does not admit quantitative measurement.
It is more so, because social phenomena are known
only symbolically through concepts or terms repre-
senting such phenomena.
Types of social research: There are two types of
social research.
Unit - VII
Social Work Research
D. Sreenivasa Reddy
1. Pure/Fundamental Research: These re-
searches may be conducted either for the verifica-
tion of some old theory or establishment of a new
theory. In this kind of studies old theories should
constantly be tested in order to make them more
2. Applied Research: This kind of studies deals
with application of the result of fundamental re-
search to social problems. Applied research gen-
erally takes the form of social surveys.
Social Work Research: Social work research is
an indirect or enabling method. Social research oc-
cupies a very important place in the field of social
work. Social work requires proper understanding,
collections and analysis of social facts. For it so-
cial research is an effective method and we col-
lect empirical data through research. The solution
to individual, group and community problems are
found out by research. Therefore, social work re-
search is an organized effort to acquire new knowl-
edge about various aspects of society and social
phenomenon. In the field of social work, social
work research (SWR) is used as an auxiliary
method. Social work research offers an opportunity
for all social workers to make a difference or modi-
fication in their practice. There is no doubt about
the fact that social worker will be more effective
practitioner guided by the findings of social work
research. Thus, social work research seeks to ac-
complish the same humanistic goals, as does a so-
cial work method. Social work research deals with
those methods and issues, which are useful in evalu-
ating social work programmes and practices. It
explains the methodology of social research and
illustrates its applications in social work settings.
Nature of Social Work Research:
Social work research primarily deals with prob-
lems, faced by professional social workers, social
work agencies and community in its concern with
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social work functions. In other words, in social work
research the problems to be investigated are always
found in the course of doing social work or plan-
ning to do it (Dasgupta, 1968). It is very obvious that
in social work research the study of a problem is
from the point of view of social work and that of
professional social work. The designing of research,
problems, data collection and its interpretation will
have to be attempted in a manner as would be use-
ful to professional social work which would add new
knowledge to the social work theory and practice
and improve the efficiency of professional social
Social work research mostly draws its inferences
through inductive reasoning. That is, inferring some-
thing about a whole group or a class of objects from
the facts or knowledge of one or few members of
that group or class. Thus, in social work research,
inductive reasoning carries us from observation to
theory through intervention/assessment.
Scope of SWR: Its scope is based on the nature
of social work. Scope means opportunity, outlet,
range of action, change to make use of research.
Before independence there was not much change
to use S.W.R. After independence there are plenty
of opportunities to make use of S.W.R. in India. Ac-
cording to our constitution, India should aim at be-
coming welfare of children, women, handicapped,
old and the people affected by natural calamities
like flood, earth quake, cyclone, etc. and manmade
calamities like wars, riots, migration, etc. There-
fore, there is need to study the welfare needs and
social problems through research.
There is need to evaluate the programmes al-
ready undertaken. Hence the various ministries and
the planning commission and various departments
at the centre and state are asking social work insti-
tutions and agencies to conduct research to social
agencies and institutions. Indian Council of Social
Science Research (ICSSR), Natural Institute of Pub-
lic Cooperation (NIPC), and many foreign agencies
are providing funds for conducting research. Uni-
versity Grants Commission (UGC), Department of
Social Welfare Board, Central Social Welfare
Board (CSWB) and many other departments are
providing grants for conducting social work research
in India.
Purpose of SWR: Social work is a practical pro-
fession. As such, the major objective/purpose of
social work research is to search for answers to
questions raised regarding interventions or treatment
effectiveness in social work practice. In other words
social work research attempts to provide knowl-
edge about what interventions or treatments really
help or hinder the attainment of social work goals.
In addition, it also helps in searching for answers to
problems or difficulties faced by social work prac-
titioners in the practice of their profession. Ulti-
mately, it helps building knowledgebase for so-
cial work theory and practice.
Research Designs:
A research design is a systematic plan to study
a scientific problem. After selecting the topic the
researcher is to plan how to conduct his/her research
in the most efficient and successful manner. Good
planning gives the researcher right direction for the
successful completion of the project. The plan of
study is called research design. Research design is
a blue print for the proposed study.
A Research design is a logical and systematic
planning and directing a piece of research. Re-
search design addresses itself to certain key issues
such as:
What is the problem?
What are the major research questions?
What is the population for the study (area)?
What is the sample size for the study?
How the sample size will be selected?
What methods and techniques will be used to
collect the date from the samples?
Thus, the details about these issues constitute a
research design. To be more specific, a research
design includes the details about the problem, the
objectives, research questions, area of study (popu-
lation), sampling method, and method and tech-
niques of data collection. In fact, research design
spells out in considerable detail what occur in the
research process.
Importance of Research Designs:
Research design specifies the objectives of
the study, the methodology and techniques to
be adopted for achieving the objectives.
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1) Which of the following is a form of research
typically conducted by teachers, counselors,
and other professionals to answer questions they
have and to specifically help them solve local
a. Action research
b. Basic research
c . Predictive research
d. Orientational research
2) How much confidence should we place in a
single research study?
a. We should completely trust a single research
b. We should trust research findings after
different researchers have found the same
c . Neither a nor b
d. Both a and b
3) Which form of reasoning is the process of
drawing a specific conclusion from a set of
a. Rationalism
b. Deductive reasoning
c . Inductive reasoning
d. Probabilistic
4) Research that is done to examine the findings
of someone else using the same variables but
different people is which of the following?
a. Exploration
b. Hypothesis
c . Replication
d. Empiricism
5) ________________ is the idea that knowledge
comes from experience.
a. Rationalism
b. Deductive reasoning
c . Logic
d. Empiricism
6) According to the text, what are the five key
objectives of science?
a. Prediction, summary, conclusion,
explanation, description
b. Influence, prediction, questions, exploration,
c . Exploration, description, explanation,
prediction, influence
d. Questions, answers, prediction, explanation,
7) A researcher designs an experiment to test how
variables interact to influence how well children
learn spelling words. In this case, the main
purpose of the study was:
a. Explanation
b. Description
c . Influence
d. Prediction
8) Which of the following is not a characteristic of
a good theory or explanation?
a. It is parsimonious
b. It is testable
c . It is general enough to apply to more than
one place, situation, or person
d. All of the above are characteristics of good
9) Which of the following is not a basic assumption
of science?
a. Science cannot provide answers to all
b. It is possible to distinguish between more and
less plausible claims
c . Researchers should follow certain agreed
upon norms and practices
d. Science is best at solving value conflicts, such
as whether abortion is immoral
10) What general type of research is focused on
collecting information to help a researcher
advance an ideological or political position?
a. Evaluation research
b. Basic research
c . Action research
d. Orientational research
11) Which scientific method follows these steps:
1) observation/data, 2) patterns, 3) theory?
a. Inductive b. Deductive
c . Inductive d. Top down
Multiple Choice Questions
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12) Rene Descartes is associated with which of the
following approached to knowledge generation?
a. Empiricism b. Rationalism
c . Expert opinion d. None of the above
13) Which scientific method is a top-down or
confirmatory approach?
a. Deductive method
b. Inductive method
c . Hypothesis method
d. Pattern method
14) Which scientific method is a bottom-up or
generative approach to research?
a. Deductive method
b. Inductive method
c . Hypothesis method
d. Pattern method
15) Which scientific method focuses on testing
hypotheses developed from theories?
a. Deductive method
b. Inductive method
c . Hypothesis method
d. Pattern method
16) Which scientific method often focuses on
generating new hypotheses and theories?
a. Deductive method
b. Inductive method
c . Hypothesis method
d. Pattern method
17) Which of the following statements is true of a
a. It most simply means explanation
b. It answers the how and why questions
c . It can be a well developed explanatory
d. All of the above are correct
18) Which of the following best describes
quantitative research?
a. The collection of nonnumerical data
b. An attempt to confirm the researchers
c . Research that is exploratory
d. Research that attempts to generate a new
19) A condition or characteristic that can take on
different values or categories is called ___.
a. A constant
b. A variable
c . A cause-and-effect relationship
d. A descriptive relationship
20) A variable that is presumed to cause a change
in another variable is called a(n):
a. Categorical variable
b. Dependent variable
c . Independent variable
d. Intervening variable
21) All of the following are common characteristics
of experimental research except:
a. It relies primarily on the collection of
numerical data
b. It can produce important knowledge about
cause and effect
c . It uses the deductive scientific method
d. It rarely is conducted in a controlled setting
or environment
22. Qualitative research is often exploratory and
has all of the following characteristics except:
a. It is typically used when a great deal is
already known about the topic of interest
b. It relies on the collection of nonnumerical
data such as words and pictures
c . It is used to generate hypotheses and develop
theory about phenomena in the world
d. It uses the inductive scientific method
23) What is the key defining characteristic of
experimental research?
a. Extraneous variables are never present
b. A positive correlation usually exists
c . A negative correlation usually exists
d. Manipulation of the independent variable
24) In _____, random assignment to groups is never
possible and the researcher cannot manipulate
the independent variable.
a. Basic research
b. Quantitative research
c . Experimental research
d. Causal-comparative and correlational
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25)What is the defining characteristic of
experimental research?
a. Resistance to manipulation
b. Manipulation of the independent variable
c . The use of open-ended questions
d. Focuses only on local problems
26) A positive correlation is present when _______.
a. Two variables move in opposite directions.
b. Two variables move in the same direction.
c . One variable goes up and one goes down
d. Several variables never change.
27) Research in which the researcher uses the
qualitative paradigm for one phase and the
quantitative paradigm for another phase is known
as ______.
a. action research
b. Basic research
c . Quantitative research
d. Mixed method research
28) Research in which the researcher uses both
qualitative and quantitative research within a
stage or across two of the stages in the research
process is known as ______.
a. Action research
b. Basic research
c . Quantitative research
d. Mixed model research
29) Research that is done to understand an event
from the past is known as _____?
a. Experimental research
b. Historical research
c . Replication
d. Archival research
30) ______ research occurs when the researcher
manipulates the independent variable.
a. Causal-comparative research
b. Experimental research
c . Ethnography
d. Correlational research
31) Which of the following includes examples of
quantitative variables?
a. Age, temperature, income, height
b. Grade point average, anxiety level, reading
c . Gender, religion, ethnic group
d. Both a and b
32) What is the opposite of a variable?
a. A constant
b. An extraneous variable
c . A dependent variable
d. A data set
33) In research, something that does not vary is
called a ___________.
a. Variable
b. Method
c . Constant
d. Control group
34) When interpreting a correlation coefficient
expressing the relationship between two
variables, it is very important to avoid _______.
a. Checking the strength of relationship
b. Jumping to the conclusion of causality
c . Checking the direction of the relationship
d. Expressing a relationship with a correlation
35) The strongest evidence for causality comes
from which of the following research methods?
a. Experimental
b. Causal-comparative
c . Correlation
d. Ethnography
36) Which correlation is the strongest?
a. +.10
b. -.95
c . +.90
d. -1.00
37) The correlation between intelligence test scores
and grades is:
a. Positive
b. Negative
c . Perfect
d. They are not correlated
38) A good qualitative problem statement:
a. Defines the independent and dependent
b. Conveys a sense of emerging design
c . Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested
d. Specifies the relationship between variables
that the researcher expects to find
39) The tool function of theory is to:
a. Summarize existing knowledge
b. Summarize existing hypotheses
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Social Policy in India
Lakshman G Sagar
301 UGC NET / JRF / SET Social Work Paper II and III
Niruta Publications
Social Policy-Concept and Scope
An understanding of social policy is vital for
engaging practically with social work values,
dealing with political and ethical questions about
responsibility, rights, our understanding of the good
society. The concept of social policy has often
been misunderstood or misrepresented in recent
development literature, relegated a secondary
order of importance after economic policy. It has
been depicted as a reactive tool to address the
social consequences of market failure or social
casualties. This conventional view relates that
social policy must concern itself with ensuring
equitable access to social services such as
healthcare and education and must also respond
to social challenges and market failures by
providing social security systems and structures to
support vulnerable and marginalized groups in
society. But social policy is much more than that.
Within this understanding, social policy is an
approach or an agenda to social equity that requires
the mainstreaming of social equity concerns within
all public policies and programs.
Social policy relates to guidelines for the
changing, maintenance or creation of living
conditions that are conducive to human welfare.
Historically, social policy has been about
interventions of a socially redistributive kind (from
rich to poor, young to old), of a social regulatory
kind (setting the ground rules of a market economy),
of a social rights kind (delimiting the rights and
duties of citizens with regard to access to services
and incomes) (Deacon, Ollila Koivussalo and
Stubbs, 2003).
Social policy is concerned with intervention by
governments and other organizations to meet human
needs. Social policy is essentially focussed on those
aspects of the economy, society and polity that are
necessary to human existence and the means by
which they can be provided.
Social Policy is an interdisciplinary and applied
subject concerned with the analysis of societies
responses to social need. It seeks to foster in its
students a capacity to understand theory and
evidence drawn from a wide range of social
science disciplines, including economics,
sociology, psychology, philosophy and political
science. Social Policy is focused on those aspects
of the economy, society and polity that are
necessary to human existence and the means by
which they can be provided (Brooks, 1998).
Definitions of Social Policy:
Social policy is often defined as social services
such as education, health, employment, and social
security. However, social policy is also about
redistribution, protection and social justice. The
term policy, social policy too does not seem to
have unanimity among the authors. Social policy is
used in different contexts by different opinion like
leaders, administrators, thinkers, philosophers and
the scholars of social policy as well as other social
scientists. The term social policy is not only used
to refer to academic study, however, it is also used
to refer to the social actions taken by policy makers
in real world. So, social policy refers both to the
activity of policy making to promote well-being and
to academic study of such action (Alcock, Erskine
and May, 2004).
According to Erskine (1998) social policy is a
discipline as well as being an area of practice. This
is to point to a distinction, which is frequently
confusing, between social policy as a field of study
and social policy a set of policies adopted by
government, local authorities and other
organization to achieve social purposes.
Social Policy in India
Lakshman G Sagar
Social Policy in India /
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According to Levin (1997) social policy refers
to the practice of social intervention aimed at
securing social change to promote the welfare and
wellbeing of citizens. Many organization and
agencies, and the people who work in or for them,
are involved in formulating and implementing social
Rice (2000) says that social policy is a broad
term encompassing not only social welfare but other
activities of government affecting social life. Social
policy endeavours to affect the nature of the quality
of life. It creates conditions which are intended to
increase the welfare of, insure just treatment of
individuals, and provide resources to those who, due
to an inability to earn income, are unable to meet
their own needs and reduce or, if possible, eliminate
social inequalities through redistribution. Social
policy in its broadest dimensions encompasses
many areas: social welfare, health care, justice and
corrections, culture, broadcasting and the arts, and
native people, to name a few.
According to Alcock (2003) social policies are
developed within societies to meet the needs for
the welfare and wellbeing within the population.
Richard Titmus (1958), was the first professor of
Social Administration, who was appointed at the
London School of Economics in 1950, says that
social policy as collective interventions to meet
certain needs of the individual and/or to serve the
wider interests of the society. He believes that
social policy is designed to provide welfare for
citizens includes economic as well as non-
economic objectives, involves some measure of
progressive redistribution in command-over-
resources from rich to poor.
According to Mecbeath (1957) social policies
are concerned with the right ordering of the network
of relationships between men and women who live
together in societies, or with the principles which
should govern the activities of individuals and
groups so far as they affect the lives and interests
of other people.
Pension (1962) point out social policy can be
defined as a policy which aims at a continual
reform of society in order to eliminate weaknesses
and constructs or ameliorates good situations.
According to Kulkarni (1965) social policy as
the strategy of action indicting the means and
methods to be followed in successive phases to
achieve the declared social objectives.
Marshal (1965) defines social policy refers to
the policy of governments with regard to action
having a direct impact on the welfare of citizens
providing them with sources of income.
According to Hagenbuch (1958) social policy
is the desires to ensure every member of the
community achieve certain standards and certain
opportunities in the life.
Gil (1973) avers, Social policies are principles
or courses of action designed to influence the
overall reality of life in a society.
The social work dictionary (1991) defines social
policy as the activities and principles of a society
that guide the way it intervenes in and regulates
relationships between individuals, groups,
communities, and social institutions. Social policy
includes plans and programs in education, health
care, crime and corrections, economic security and
social welfare made by governments, voluntary
organizations and the people in general.
After evaluating the above definitions one can
conclude that social policy is defined as a series
of public policies designed to promote social
development, undertaken by a variety of actors
through a range of instruments. It empowers
individuals and community to be their own
advocates for change.
Characteristics of Social Policy
The following are the characteristics of social
policy (Wals, Stephen and Moore, 2003; Kennett,
1. Social policy is a subject as well as an area
of practice
2. Social policy as an instrument
3. Social policy plays distributional and
redistributive role
4. Social policy is the unilateral transfer of
resources from one section of society to
another section of society
5. Social policy has concern for weaker and
vulnerable sections of the society
6. Social policies do not exist in isolation rather
they are effective in relation to other policies.
Hence, it is called Co-existence.
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Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who was the first professor of Social
Administration, appointed at the London School
of Economics?
a. Richard Titmus b. Alcock
c . Miller d. George
2. Historically social policy relates to................
a. About interventions of a socially redistributive
b. Social regulatory kind
c . Social rights kind
d. All the above
3. Social policy relates to .................
a. Guidelines for the changing, maintenance or
creation of living conditions those are
conducive to human welfare.
b. Economic development
c . Political development
d. Religious development
4. Social policy is concerned with ___
a. Intervention by governments and other
organizations to meet human needs
b. Industrial development
c . Political development
d. Economic development
5. According to Devereux and Cook, social policy
intervenes in the following areas
a. Social sector and Social insurance
b. Social protection
c . Social service and social rights
d. All the above
6. What are the objective of Social Policy?
a. Social change
b. Social integration
c . Improvement of quality of life
d. All the above
7. Social policies deal with issues such as
a. Poverty b. Poor housing
c . Disability d. All the above
8. Social policy is part of _____
a. Public policy
b. Economic policy
c . Political policy
d. Religious policy
9. Social sector includes__
a. Health & Education
b. Water and sanitation
c . Housing
d. All the above
10.The Central Social Welfare Board was
established in the year____
a. 1980 b. 1970
c . 1950 d. 1953
11.The first five year plans duration was.............
a. 1951-55 b. 1950-55
c . 1955-60 d. 1953-58
12. Social insurance includes____
a. Pensions
b. Unemployment benefits
c . Disability allowances
d. All the above
13. Social protection does not include
a. Food subsidies
b. Public works projects
c . Supplementary feeding
d. Alms
14. Social services will not include
a. Care for vulnerable groups
b. Care for weaker section
c . Care for affluent
d. Care for needy
15. Social rights will not include
a. Child
b. Labour
c . Womens rights
d. Care for political section
16.Welfare programmes based on Social Policy in
India are not provided in one of the sectors
mentioned below:
a. Health b. Entertainment
c. Employment d. Education
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17.Which one of the following programmes is not
based on Affirmative Action Policies?
a. Programmes to meet economic needs of poor
b. Specific programmes for the development of
Scheduled Castes
c . Programmes for Industrial Growth
d. Programmes for the Welfare of Women
18.Assertion (A): The role of professional social
worker is empowering and capacity building of
the oppressed and marginalized sections of
Reason (R): Professional social workers have
requisite skill and sensitivity to deal with the
problems of such sections of society.
a. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the
explanation of (A)
b. Both (A) and (R) are not correct
c . (A) is correct, but (R) is wrong
d. (A) is not correct, but (R) is correct
19.Accountability in governance refers to
a. The ability of citizens to hold leaders,
government and public organizations to
b. The ability of citizens to open accounts in
the bank
c . The national income account that show profit
and loss of the government
d. The behaviour of chartered accountants in
corporate banks
20.Panchayati Raj institutes in India have brought
about which one of the following?
a. Eradication of untouchability
b. Spread of land ownership to depressed
c . Formal representation of the weaker sections
in village governance
d. Spread of education to the masses
21.Which article of Indian Constitution lays down
the provision of free and compulsory education
for children?
a. 45 b. 46
c. 47 d. 48
22. Probation means:
a. Release on licence
b. Release on bail
c . Conditional suspension of punishment
d. Suspension of punishment
23.Assertion (A): Social Workers working with
minorities requires the knowledge and indepth
understanding of the effects of oppression on
minority groups
Reason (R): Social Workers are duty bound to
serve the oppressed and marginalized
a. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
explanation of (A)
b. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A)
c . (A) is true, but (R) is not true
d. (A) is not true, but (R) is true
24. Social Legislation attempts to
(a) Justice as well as social security
(b) Anticipate social needs
(c) Provide for change in social order
(d) All the above
25.Institutional Redistributive Model of Social
Policy is associated with
(a) Capitalist State
(b) Communist State
(c) Totalitarian State
(d) Welfare State
26.Which was not the core instrument of the
economic policy?
a) Monetary policy
b) Fiscal policy
c ) Regulation and other direct controls
d) Youth policy
27.Which was not the approach of social policy?
a) New right approach & Social democratic
b) The radical socialist approach & Feminist
c ) Anti-racist approach
d) Community approach
28.Public policy typically aims to do which of the
a) Exacerbate conflicting claims made on
scarce resources
b) Remove incentives for collective action
c ) Prohibit morally acceptable behaviour
d) Protect the rights and activities of individuals
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29.Which of the following best summarizes group
a. Groups elect politicians who vote to provide
benefits to the masses.
b. The smaller the group, the more success it
has in influencing public policy.
c . Public policy is made by a small group of
influential leaders.
d. Public policy emerges from a competition
between the interests of different groups.
30.Which of the following best exemplifies
distributive policy?
a. Social Security
b. Declaring that June will be National Dairy
c . Welfare benefits for the poor
d. Environmental protection
31.The steps that must be taken by administrative
agencies are examples of which of the following
a. Procedural policy
b. Regulatory policy
c . Material policy
d. Substantive policy
32.Which of the following correctly lists the stages
of the policymaking process in chronological
a. Policy evaluation; issue identi-fication and
agenda setting; policy adoption; policy
formulation; policy implementation
b. Issue identification and agenda setting;
policy formulation; policy adoption; policy
implementation; policy evaluation
c . Policy formulation; issue identi-fication and
agenda setting; policy evaluation; policy
implementation; policy adoption
d. Policy implementation; policy evaluation;
issue identification and agenda setting; policy
formulation; policy adoption
33. Who evaluates public policies?
a. The media
b. Academics
c . Government officials
d. All of the political actors listed above may
evaluate public policies.
34.Which of the following best describes
a. Decision makers rationally evaluate all of the
options and then select the policy that is the
most appropriate means of achieving an
b. Policies are ranked according to their costs
and expected impact on the problem before
a course of action is determined.
c . Policies are crafted so as to create the
greatest amount of good for the greatest
number of people.
d. Policy makers focus on making necessary
changes and adaptations in existing
35.Which of the following is not generally
considered social-welfare policy?
a. Health care b. Interest rates
c . Food stamps d. Education
36.Of the following countries, which typically
provides the least extensive welfare benefits?
a. The United States
b. Sweden
c . Germany
d. India
37.Which of the following approaches to social
welfare policy is based on the belief that
government policy should be designed to
discourage the poor from being idle by making
it difficult for them to obtain public assistance?
a. The incomes approach
b. The alleviative approach
c . The curative approach
d. The punitive approach
38.National Policy on Education was approved by
the parliament in the year
a. 1985 b. 1986
c. 1990 d. 1984
39.Tagore say that we achieveour greatest
a. We are being appreciated
b. We earn lot of money
c . We realize ourselves through others
d. None of the above
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Social Justice
Suma K.G.
Laxman Toli
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The term justice in the Preamble of Indian
constitution embraces three distinct forms- social,
economic and political, secured through various
provisions of Fundamental Rights and Directive
Principles. Social justice denotes the equal
treatment of all citizens without any social
distinction based on caste, colour, race, religion,
sex and so on.
Social justice is the balance between the
individuals rights and social control ensuring of the
fulfillment of the legitimate expectation of the
individual under the existing laws and to assure him
benefits there under and protection in case of any
violation or enrichment on his rights, consistent with
the unity of the nation and needs of the society.
The Supreme Court of India regarded the
concept of social justice, as a living concept of
revolutionary import, it gives sustenance to the rule
of law and meaning and significance to the ideal
of a welfare state. Social Justice will undoubtedly
involve or require the sacrificing of some rights of
Individuals in the interests of society.
Justice is not merely right determination and
adjudication of disputes and enforcement of Law,
but is so comprehensive in its meaning and import
that it takes within its ambit the whole of political,
social, juristic and moral idealism. It is so, because
Justice has reference to the whole of human
existence which we want to realize by our thought,
will and action. The mystery of Justice cannot be
unraveled by human reason, logic or language
completely. It has greater appeal to human soul.
Justice as reality is only fully reflected in our
conscience and felt through our intuition.
Social Justice is considered to be the primary
goal of a welfare state whose very existence in
turn rests on the parameters of justice, the greatest
contrast, however, between ancient and modern
thinking about the social harmony of justice is in
the changed conception of individual personality
in relation of law.
Concept of Social Justice:
The concept of social justice emerged out of a
process of evolution of social norms, order, law and
morality. It laid emphasis upon the just action and
creates intervention in the society by enforcing the
rules and regulations based on the principles of
social equality.
The term Social-Justice consist by two words:
one is social and second is justice. The term social
is concern with all human beings who lives in
society and term justice is related with liberty,
equality and rights. Thus social justice is concerned
with, to ensure liberty, provide equality and maintain
individual rights to every human being of society.
In other words, to securing the highest possible
development of the capabilities of all members of
the society may be called social justice.
The term social justice was first used in 1840 by
a Sicilian priest, Luigi Taparelli dAzeglio, and
given prominence by Antonio Rosmini Serbati in
La Costitutione Civile Secondo la Giustizia Sociale
in 1848. The concept of social justice is a
revolutionary concept which provides meaning and
significance to life and makes the rule of law
dynamic. When Indian society seeks to meet the
challenge of socioeconomic inequality by its
legislation and with the assistance of the rule of
law, it seeks to achieve economic justice without
any violent conflict.
The ideal of welfare state postulates unceasing
pursuit of the doctrine of social justice. That is the
significance and importance of the concept of
social justice in the Indian context of today. justice
Social Justice
Suma K.G.
Laxman Toli
Social Justice /
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was used as equivalent to Righteousness, since
the beginning of recorded ethical and legal history.
In 1918, Karl Kautsky wrote in the Dictatorship of
proletariat: Socialism as a means to the
emancipation of the proletariat without democracy
is unthinkable. Socialism is for us inseparably
connected with democracy. No socialism without
The concept of social justice consists of diverse
principles essential for the orderly growth and
development of personality of every citizen. Social
Justice is thus an integral part of justice in the
generic sense. Social Justice is dynamic devise to
mitigate the sufferings of the poor, weak, tribals
and deprived sections of the society and to elevate
them to the level of equality to live a life with
dignity of persons.
Social Justice is not a simple or single idea of a
society but is an essential part of complex social
change to relieve the poor etc., from handicaps,
penury to ward of distress and to make their life
livable for greater good of the society at large. In
other words, the aim of Social Justice is to attain
substantial degree of social, economic and political
equality, which is the legitimate expectation and
constitutional goal. In a developing society like ours,
stepped with unbridgeable and ever widening caps
of inequality in status and of opportunity, law is a
catalyst, rub icon to poor etc to reach the ladder of
Social Justice.
Meaning of Social Justice:
Social justice denotes the equal treatment of all
citizens without any social distinction based on
caste, color, race, religion, sex and so on. It means
absence of privileges being extended to any
particular section of the society, and improvement
in the conditions of backward classes and women.
Social Justice is the foundation stone of Indian
Constitution. Indian Constitution makers were well
known to the use and minimalist of various
principles of justice.
Social justice is a comprehensive enough to
include economic justice as well as political
justice, must be distinguished from both, just as
component part from the whole, and distinguished.
In the border perspective, social justice deals
with the regulation of wage, profits, protection of
individual rights through the legal system of
allocation of goods and resources. In different
words social justice means availability of equal
social opportunities for the development of
personality to all the people in the society, without
any discrimination on the basis of caste, sex or race.
No one should be deprived, basis on these
differences, because these are those condition
which are essential for social development.
Therefore, the issue of social justice is associated
with social equality and individual rights.
Social justice can be made available only in a
social system where the exploitation of man by man
is absent, and where privileges of the few are not
built upon the miseries of the many. The core
element of social justice is equal social worth which
required that citizens be guaranteed certain social
rights as well as the civil and political rights.
The idea of social justice demands freedom,
equality and other human rights to secure to greatest
happiness and common good of human beings. The
core concept of social justice is, men are equal in
their lives, and they should enjoy equal freedom
and rights in society. Thus the social justice is an
intrinsic virtue of society.
Definitions of Social Justice
Social justice is defined as promoting a just
society by challenging injustice and valuing
diversity. It exists when all people share a
common humanity and therefore have a right to
equitable treatment, support for their human rights,
and a fair allocation of community resources. In
conditions of social justice, people are not be
discriminated against, nor their welfare and well-
being constrained or prejudiced on the basis of
gender, sexuality, religion, political affiliations, age,
race, belief, disability, locat ion, social class,
socioeconomic circumstances, or other
characteristic of background or group
membership. (Toowoomba Catholic Education,
Social justice is generally equated with the
notion of equality or equal opportunity in society.
Although equality is undeniably part of social
justice, the meaning of social justice is actually
much broader (Scherlen and Robinson, 2008).
Further, equal opportunity and similar phrases
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Multiple Choice Questions
1. are distinct forms of Justice in
Indian constitution.
a) Justice, empowerment, well being
b) Social, economical, political
c ) Social, Psychological, emotional
d) Social, educational, judicial
2. Social Problems are treated with Social reform
a) Social legislation.
b) Social work
c ) Social science
d) Social service
3. Social justice is the balance between..
a) Individuals rights and social control
b) Society and individual
c ) Fundamental rights and judicial system
d) Individual and family
4. According to the Supreme Court of India, social
a) as a living concept of revolutionary import
b) judicial mechanism
c ) social control measure
d) Social defense
5. The primary goal of a welfare state is to achieve
a) Social Justice
b) Freedom to all
c ) Employment to all
d) Political justice
6. The concept of social justice has emerged out
of a process of.?
a) Individual rights
b) Social practices
c ) social norms, order, law and morality
d) Religion, caste and community
7. The term social justice was first used in the year
a) 1840 b) 1856
c ) 1948 d) 1950
8. Social welfare policies were first introduced in
India in the year_________.
a) 1972 b) 1951
c ) 1947 d) 1851
9. The term social justice was first used by
a) Sicilian priest, Luigi Taparelli dAzeglio,
b) M. Gandhi
c ) Dr. BR. Ambedkar
d) Raja ram Mohan Roy
10.The concept of social justice is a which
provides meaning and significance to life and
makes the rule of law dynamic.
a) revolutionary concept
b) old age concept
c ) young old concept
d) new concept
11.justice was used as equivalent to
a) true b) false
c ) partially true d) partially wrong
12.What does Social justice denotes?
a) equal treatment of all citizens without any
social distinction
b) equal distribution of wealth
c ) equal participation of women in politics
d) equal employment opportunities between
men and women
13.Which one of the following is called as a
foundation stone of Indian Constitution?
a) Preamble b) Legislations
c ) Articles d) Social justice
14.What was the percentage of literate people at
the time of independence?
a) 12% b) 14%
c ) 16% d) 18%
15.Minimum needs programme was introduced
during the________.
a. fifth five year plan
b. second five year plan
c . fourth five year plan
d. sixth five year plan
16.Which one of the following is not an objective
of social justice?
a) To ensure that Rule of Law prevails in
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b) To ensure equality of outcome
c ) To prevent abuse and exploitation of weaker
and vulnerable sections.
d) To form social legislations to only
marginalized groups
17.Match the followings
a) The principle i) demands of upholding
of human dignity and defending human
b) The principle of ii) all the conditions of
respect for society and the goods
human life
c ) The principle iii) proscriptive and
of rights and cautionary ways
d) The principle iv) human beings are
of the common presumed to be free and
good responsible persons
a) a-iii, b-iv, c-i, d-ii
b) a-ii, b-i, c-iv, d-iii.
c ) a-iii, b-ii, c-i, d-iv
d) a-i, b-ii, c-iii, d-iv
18.Distributive justice is combination of ......?
a) rights and duties
b) constitutional remedies and social system
c ) social and economical justice
d) community and society
19.When was the World Summit for Social
Development held?
a) 1999 b) 1986
c) 1995 d) 2001
20.Which summit was adopted the Copenhagen
Declaration and Programme of Action?
a) World social justice summit
b) International summit for social development
c ) World Summit for Social Development
d) World Summit for international justice
21.The term weaker section, or backward classes
are use for the people who are____________
a) socially or educationally backward
b) socially or economically backward
c ) social or political backwardness
d) social or culture backwardness
22.Which Articles in Indian constitution refers the
concept of Distributive justice?
a) Articles 38 and 39
b) Articles 33 and 34
c ) Articles 44 and 45
d) Articles 58 and 59
23.The existence of opportunities for meaningful
work and employment is called as
a) Social equality
b) Social equity
c ) Economical and social equity
d) Economic justice
24.The term The qualities on just (or virtuous)
man is related .?
a) Orthodox concept of social justice
b) Ancient concept of social justice
c ) Neo-modern concept of social justice
d) Modern concept of social justice
25.The term a just-society is related to which one
of the followings?
a) Orthodox concept of social justice
b) Western concept of social justice
c ) British Indian concept of social justice
d) Modern concept of social justice
26.Which are the terms related to justice in ancient
Indian tradition?
a) Charity and Dhanda
b) Dandaniti and Dharma
c ) Village court and public justice
d) Labour and wage
27.Which one of the following is related to Law
and punishment in modern notions?
a) Dharma
b) Dandaniti
c ) Modern laws
d) Legal enforcement
28. is another name of code of duties and
justice in Indian tradition.
a) Dharma
b) Constitution
c ) Rights
d) Fundamental duties
29.State the two important approaches which are
related Modern Approach for Social Justice?
a) Marxist and Liberals approach
b) Social and economical approach
c ) Legal and fundamental approach.
d) Marxist and social approach
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30.Liberal justice focuses on ..?
a) rights of individuals
b) rights of marginalized groups
c ) rights of female
d) rights of old age
31.Who developed the concept of modern Liberal
a) John Locke b) Max Webber
c ) John miller d) Karl Marx
32.Who was a pioneer of the movement for social
justice in India?
a) M. Gandhi
b) J Nehru
c ) Dr. B R Ambedkar
d) L B Shastri
33.Which one of the following was not a Gandhian
concept of social justice?
a) truth and non-violence
b) Ramrajya and Swaraj
c ) Satyagraha and Trusteeship
d) Social and economical freedom
34.According to Marxist approach of social justice,
which is the source of injustice?
a) private ownership on the means of production
b) Public ownership on the means of production
c ) Govt. ownership on the means of production
d) Kingdoms ownership on the means of
35.According to Gandhiji which of the following is
a safeguard for achieving individual freedom?
a) Decentralization of Wealth
b) Decentralization of power and authority
c ) Formulation of effective social policies
d) centralization of power and authority
36.Gandhi laid emphasis upon which of the
a) Social equity b) Human equality
c ) Human dignity d) Human equity
37.International Womens year was celebrated in
the year.
a. 1979 b. 1978
c . 1975 d. 1976
38.The Hindu Succession Act 1956 provides for
women the right to...
a. Maintenance from husband
b. childless woman
c . inter caste marriage
d. parental property
39.Which Act gives protection to women from
being kidnapped and compelled to become
a. The Criminal Law Amendment
b. The Family Court Act
c . The Indecent Representation of Women
d. The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act
40.In which of the year The Society registration
act came into existence?
a. 1960 b. 1972
c . 1971 d. 1980
41.In which of the year Tamil Nadu societies
registration act came into existence?
a. 1975 b. 1972
c . 1970 d. 1852
42.In which of the year Religious and charitable
institution registration act came into existence?
a. 1820. b. 1920
c . 1852 d. 1475
43.The term untouchable caste was made use of
for the first time by which commission?
a. Simon commission
b. National commission
c . Kalalkar commission
d. The backward class commission
44.Who is regarded as the Champion of Social
justice. In india?
a) M. Gandhi
b) Dr. B R Ambedkar
c ) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
d) Jothiba Pule
45.Ambedkar gives a significant place for.?
a) Socialism
b) Liberalism
c ) Moral equality
d) Mutual sympathy and respect
46.For Ambedkar which one of the following is the
source for concept of social justice?
a) Social legislations of western countries
b) Constitution of Ireland
c ) French Revolution of 1789
d) Indian ancient views on social justice
47.According to Ambedkar which are the three
concepts of social justice?
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Social Development
Shanivaram Reddy. K
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Social development as a process and an
approach to social well-being is not an independent
and autonomous concept. And further, social
development strategies are not mutually exclusive,
but can be integrated to achieve social
development goals in conjunction with the dynamic
process of economic development (Midgley,
The proponents of social development, on the
country, refute some of the basic assumptions
regarding the percolation of economic
development effects to promotion of social
development. The argument advanced is that
economic development parameters of
development paradigm in the developed as well
as in developing countries have resulted in the
creation of islands of prosperity in the midst of an
ocean of poverty. The growth, in terms of material
prosperity, has made man an economic being,
blunting his social sensitivities, freezing his finer
instincts and emotions, converting him into a self-
centered, selfish and self-seeking person oblivious
of his social obligations to help all those who are
run down in the race of development and whose
lives are characterized by fear insecurity, want,
dearth, disease and despair. The trickle-down
effects of economic growth hardly reach the mass
of pauperized persons. Had that been so, the
developed western nations may not be having a
substantial proportion of their population living in
In specific terms, social development goals
aim at:
- Promotion of social progress and betterment
of human condition based on human dignity,
equality, respect, mutual responsibilty and
- Placement of people at the centre of
development and the economy at the service
of human needs.
- Integration of economic and social policies
to make them mutually supportive.
- Recognizing that sound and broad-based
economic policies are necessary foundation
to achieve sustainable social development
- Promotion of a just distribution of income and
access to resources through equity and
equality of all levels
- Strengthening of civil society and enabling
people to achieve satisfaction of basic needs
and to realize their dignity, safety and
- Empowering people to strengthen own
The characteristics of social development:
(a) The needs and aspirations of all people;
(b) Their empowerment to maximize their
capacities, resources and opportunities;
(c) Enhancement of peoples rights, resources
and potentialities to enable them to lead
satisfying lives and contribute to the well-
being of their families, their communities
and to their society at large;
(d) A fair distribution of the benefit of
(e) Facilitation of structural changes; and
(f) Promotion of a development perspective
in social welfare.
Given the social and econamic inequalities and
the unsatisfactory conditions of life for a
development substantially large section of society,
the social science discourse on deveolpment
paradigms conceives social development as a true
indicator of human development.The preferred
visions of development desires that human
development should occupy a centre stage and
Social Development
Shanivaram Reddy. K
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should emerge as an ultimate goal of development
planing. Large number of our social science writing
have shown preference for that vision of
development which results in the enhancement of
the quality of life (in both moral and material sense),
especially for the resource-poor sections of
society,whose basic needs often remain numet and
whose social and econamic empowerment is an
avowed objective of development planing.The
development debete tn the early eighties shifted to
social aspects of development,as is being currently
examined in the social science literature.
In recent years there has appeared a lot of
literature on social development and the subject
has been discussed at length in the world summit
on social development held in march 1995 at
copenhagen.The documents arising out of the
summit, when read along with our own writings on
social development, underscore the fact that social
development, while being an old concept
(Dube,1994;83) has acquired new meanings and
messages. It is apparently more comprehensive
than economic development. The term social
development. As understood in the UN quarters
broadly refers to improvements in human well-
being, to development that it not strictly economic
or market driven, and to improvements in the
quantity and quality of public or social sevices.
The Central Tenets of
Social Development are:
1. Economic growth is an essential but not
sufficient condition to ensure social
development,and,strategies of development
in order to be more relevant. Should focus on
soeieties and not an economies.
2. Development should be human centred and
broad-based,effecting equal opportunities for
all to participate fully and freely in
economic,social,culturaland politecal
activities .
3. People are the ends and not the means of
economic progress and development.
4. Economic growth should subserve the cause
of social development and ensure that
development has a human face.
5. social development and economic progress
are mutually reinforcing- social development
helps reduce economic inequalities and
bolsters economic growth and equitable
growth creates jobs and reduces poverty.
In the light of its central tenets,social
development requires modification conducive to
eradiation of poverty,promotion of productive
employment and acceleration of social integration
(UNESCO,1994:9). It means policies and
programmes to reduce and eliminate polarization
of societies,social exclusion,unemployment and
poverty and to provide opportunities for the
disadvantaged persons and gruops to improve their
living conditions (UNESCO,1994:10).
The aim of social development is to effect
social well-being,i.e.,the ability of every human
being to satisfy his/her basic needs and achieve a
satisfactory quality of life within the environment
of equity, social justice and human dignity.
Social development calls for strategic investment
in health,education and social services, and
necessitates access of the underprivileged to
means of economic well-being.
Sound and broad-based economic policies with
sufficient social safegruads and necessery
foundation to achieve sustained social development.
In connection with social development, two
allied concepts,namely, human deveopment and
sustainable human development find frequent
mention in the current social development
debate,especially when the issue of sustainability
is raised.
Human development tended to be equated to
with human resource years that human development
has taken on a deeper meaning by recognizing that
development is sustainable only when human being
are increasingly capable of taking charge of their
The concept of human development implies
people centred development, a development that
is focused o people, their needs and aspiration. The
ultimate objective of development is to improve
human well-being and the quality of peoples lives.
The concept of sustainable human development
lays emphasis on the development of social capital
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1. The book of Indias Economic Policy: Preparing
for the Twenty first Century written by
a) Bimal Jalan
b) YV.Reddy.
c ) Rangarajan
d) Man Mohan Singh
2. New agriculture policy was started in the year
a) 2000
b) 2001
c ) 2005
d) 2010
3. A person in normal health requires ______
calories per day
a) 1000-1800 calories
b) 2500-3000 calories
c ) 3000-4000 calories
d) 4000-5000 calories
4. Sex-ratio means
a) The relation between male and female
b) The ratio between the number of adult male
and adult female in a population
c ) The ratio between number of female and
number of male in a population
d) The number of females per 1000 males in a
5. Former president Dr.Abdul Kalams PURA refers
a) A model for growth of the metro cities
b) Providing urban amenities in Urban Areas
c ) providing urban amenities in rural areas
d) A plan for urban and rural areas
6. Human Development Index is a composite of
a) Income, trade and investment indicators
b) Poverty, human rights and unemployment
c ) Income, health and education indicators
d) Health, education and quality of life
7. Yeshaswini programme in Karnataka State aims
a) Assisting women in adopting family planning
b) Assisting women to earn wage income
c ) Assisting rural and tribal women in health
care services
d) Providing with health insurance facility for
farmers co-operations
8. Live births per 1000 population per year is called
a) Live birth rate
b) Birth rate
c ) Crude birth rate
d) New population rate
9. Chipko movement is associated with
a) Human rights
b) Women welfare
c ) Religious activists
d) Environmental conservation
10.Kothari Commission (1964-66) emphasized on
A) Expansion of Universal schooling
B) Non-formal and continuing education
C) Vocational education
D) Reading materials
11.The programme aimed at enabling illiterate
women to acquire functional skills, better
awareness of health, hygiene and child care is
A) National Female Literacy Mission
B) Functional Literacy for Adult Women
C) Female Farmers Functional Literacy and
D) Total Literary Programme
12.Which is the administrative authority controlling
Juvenile Justice Board?
A) Police Department
B) Judicial Department
C) Prosecution Department
D) Social Welfare Department
13.What official committee is associated with the
issue of corruption in India ?
A) Santhanam Committee
B) Malimath Committee
C) A. N. Mulla Committee
D) Krishna Iyer Committee
14.Till what age can a woman prisoner keep her
child, with her in the prison ?
A) Upto 5 years B) Upto 7 years
C) Upto 9 years D) Upto 11 years
Multiple Choice Questions
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15.HDI is entrusted with reference to :
I. Life expectancy at birth
II. Real GDP/per capita
III.Infant mortality
IV. Morbidity
Codes :
A) I and II are correct.
B) II and III are correct.
C) III and IV are correct.
D) All the above
16.Which of the following Committees has been set
up in India for identification of BPL families in
urban areas ?
A) Tendulkar Committee
B) Saxena Committee
C) Lakdawala Committee
D) Hashim Committee
17.A Kisan Credit Card (KCC) Scheme was
introduced in the year
A) 2001 B) 2005
C) 1998 D) 1999
18.The great sociologist who held the view that
education doesnt bring about social change;
rather the social change results into an
educational change was
A) McDougal B) Aristotle
C) Durkheim D) Dewey
19.Which of the following is not a factor for social
change in India ?
A) Caste B) Regionalism
C) Language D) Census
20.Equality of Educational opportunities is possible
A) Extending portals of educational institutions
to all without any discrimination
B) Opening more educational institutions
C) Privatizing the education system in the
D) Public funding of Education
21.Match Column I with Column II :
Column I Column II
i) Chipko Movement 1. Medha Patkar
ii) Narmada Bacchao 2. Al Gore
iii)Climate Change 3. Rachel Carson
iv) Silent Spring 4. Sundarlal Bahuguna
Choose the correct code :
Codes :
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
A) 1 2 3 4
B) 2 3 4 1
C) 4 1 2 3
D) 3 4 1 2
22.Generally visually impaired persons have visual
acuity of
A) 2/200 B) 20/100
C) 20/70 D) 20/200
23.Assertion (A) : Poverty is essentially a social
phenomenon and only secondarily a material
or physical phenomenon.
Reason (R) : Poverty is the socioeconomic
phenomenon whereby the resources available
to a society are used to satisfy the wants of the
few while many do not have even their basic
needs met.
Codes :
A) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
B) Both (A) and (R) are correct.
C) Both (A) and (R) are not correct.
D) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
24.The World Summit for Social Development
(WSSD) was held in March 1995 in
A) Copenhagen B) Helsinki
C) Hague D) Vienna
25.Human Rights Watch (HRW) was initially known
A) Helsinki Watch
B) Human Rights Initiative
C) Human Rights Cell
D) Human Rights Time
26.The Government of India has established
National Handicapped Finance Development
Corporation (NHFDC) under
A) The Ministry of Social Justice and
B) The Ministry of Human Resource
C) The Ministry of Women & Child Development
D) The Ministry of Rural Development
27.Arrange in sequence the adoption of following
Acts in India
i) The protection of women from Domestic
Violence Act.
ii) The Dowry Prohibition Act.
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iii) The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation)
iv) Protection of Civil Rights Act
Codes :
A) (ii), (iv), (iii), (i)
B) (iv), (ii), (i), (iii)
C) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
D) (iii), (iv), (ii), (i)
28.Arrange the following Conferences in the order
in which they were held :
i) The World Summit for Social Development
ii) United Nations Conference on Human
Settlement Istanbul
iii) World Conference on Human Rights Vienna
iv) World Conference against Racism Durban
Codes :
A) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
B) (iii), (i), (ii), (iv)
C) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv)
D) (iv), (ii), (iii), (i)
29.Arrange the Acts with the respective year of
passed :
i) The persons with Disabilities Act
ii) The Mental Health Act
iii) The Rehabilitation Council of India Act
iv) The National Trust Act
Codes :
A) (iv), (iii), (i), (ii)
B) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
C) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv)
D) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
30.Assertion (A) : Corruption is cause of poverty
and underdevelopment.
Reason (R) : Poor are corrupt and
Codes :
A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not
the correct explanation of (A).
C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
31.Which of the following were added to the
Directive Principles through constitutional
i) Protection and improvement of environment
and safeguarding of wildlife.
ii) Right of workers to participate in
management of industries.
iii) Right to work.
iv) Protection and maintenance of places of
historic interest.
Codes :
A) (i)
B) (ii) and (iv)
C) (i), (ii) and (iv)
D) (i) and (ii)
32.Assertion (A) : In ancient India during the time
of the Aryans, women enjoyed full and complete
freedom and equality with men.
Reason (R) : Because at that time women were
stronger than men and therefore men were afraid
of women.
A) Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
33.Acid Rains is considered as one of the
following :
A) Chemical accidents
B) Chemical chain reaction
C) Deforestation
D) Heavy chemical industrialisation and acidic
34.The maternity leave period with full wage is
A) six months B) twelve weeks
C) four months D) sixteen weeks
35.Child-Woman ratio is a measure of
A) Population growth B) Migration
C) Mortality D) Fertility
36.According to 2011 Census of India the density
of population is
A) 250 299 persons per sq. km.
B) 300 349 persons per sq. km.
C) 350 399 persons per sq. km.
D) 400 450 persons per sq. km.
37.Which one of the following States is mostly
urbanized ?
A) Andhra Pradesh B) Tamil Nadu
C) Maharashtra D) Orissa
38.Assertion (A) : The National Rural Health
Mission (NRHM) has been successful in
improving health condition of the poor couples
living in the villages.
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