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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

DICTIONARY
TECHNICAL




A N P R

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

A
a

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a. Symbol in structural petrology for the
direction of tectonic transport,
similar to the direction in which cards
might slide over one another.
Striations in a slickensided surface are
parallel to direction a.
b. A crystallographic axis: In the isometric
system each axis is
designated a; in hexagonal, tetragonal, and
trigonal systems the nonunique
axes are a; in the orthorhombic system a is
always shorter than b with c
either the longest or the shortest axis; in
the monoclinic and triclinic
systems a may be determined by one of
several conventions.
aa
A Hawaiian term for lava consisting of a
rough assemblage of clinkerlike
scoriaceous masses. It is contrasted with
pahoehoe used to designate the
smoother flows. Pron. ah-ah. Fay; Hess
a axis
a. One of the three crystallographic axes
used as reference in crystal
description. It is oriented horizontally,
front to back.
b. One of the three reference axes used in
describing a rock fabric
possessing monoclinic symmetry, such as
progressive simple shear. The a
axis is the direction of tectonic transport.
abandoned workings
Excavations, either caved or sealed, that
are deserted and in which
further mining is not intended and open
workings that are not ventilated
and inspected regularly. Federal Mine
Safety
abandonment
Abandonment of a mining claim may be
by failure to perform work, by
conveyance, by absence, and by lapse of
time. The abandonment of a mining
claim is a question of intent. To constitute
an abandonment of a mining
claim, there must be a going away and a
relinquishment of rights, with the
intention never to return and with a
voluntary and independent purpose to
surrender the location or claim to the next
comer.
Abbe jar
In mineral processing, a porcelain jar used
for laboratory batch grinding
tests in ceramic ware. Pryor, 1
Abbe refractometer
An instrument to determine the index of
refraction of a liquid between two
high-index glass prisms.
Abbe theory
The visibility of an object under the
microscope is directly proportional
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
to the wavelength of light, and inversely
to the aperture of lens.
Pryor, 3
Abbe tube mill
A gear-driven tube mill supported on a
pair of riding rings and
distinguished by an Archimedes spiral,
through which the ore is fed and
discharged. Grinding is effected by flint
pebbles fed into the mill.
ABC system
A method of seismic surveying by which
the effect of irregular weathering
thickness may be determined by a simple
calculation from reciprocal
placement of shotholes and seismometers.
The method was originally used to
solve refraction problems arising from
irregularities in the top of the
high-velocity layer. AGI
Abel's reagent
Etching agent consisting of 10%
chromium trioxide in water. Used in the
analysis of carbon steels. Bennett
abernathyite
A tetragonal mineral, K(UO
2
)(AsO
4
).4H
2

O ; in small
yellow crystals; in the Temple Mountains,
UT.
aberration
a. The failure of a lens or mirror to bring
the light rays to the same
focus. When aberration is due to the form
of the lens or mirror, it is
called spherical aberration. When due to
the different refrangibility of
light of different colors, it is called
chromatic aberration. When present
in magnifiers it often causes inaccurate
decisions as to flawlessness or
color of gems.
b. Distortion produced by a lens. It is
spherical if a flat image appears
closer to the viewer in the middle than
toward the edges of the field of
view. It is chromatic if the visible
spectrum is spread to give both a red
and a blue image.
abime
A large, steep-sided vertical shaft opening
at the surface of the ground.
AGI
A.B. Meco-Moore
A bulky machine that cuts a deep web of
coal up to 6 ft (1.8 m) and is
used in cyclic mining in medium to thick
seams. It runs on the floor of
the seam and does not require a prop-free
front. It carries two horizontal
jibs, one cutting at floor level and the
other at a height depending on
seam conditions. Nelson
Abney level
A surveying instrument for taking levels
up steep slopes; also used as a
clinometer. Hammond
abnormal place
A working place in a coal mine with
adverse geological or other conditions
and in which the miner is unable to earn a
wage, based on the pricelist,
equal to or above the minimum wage. A
term generally associated with
stalls or pillar methods of working. Nelson

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
abraser

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A device for assessing the wear resistance
of surfaces. The specimen to be
tested is rubbed alternately by the flat
faces of two weighted abrasive
wheels that revolve in opposite directions
through frictional contact with
the specimen and exert a combined
abrasive, compressive, and twisting
action twice in each revolution of the
specimen holder. Osborne
abrasion
a. The mechanical wearing away of rock
surfaces by friction and impact of
rock particles transported by wind, ice,
waves, running water, or gravity.
b. The wearing away of diamonds, drill-
bit matrices, and drill-stem
equipment by frictional contact with the
rock material penetrated or by
contact with the cuttings produced by the
action of the drill bit in
drilling a borehole. Long
abrasion hardness
Hardness expressed in quantitative terms
or numbers indicating the degree
to which a substance resists being worn
away by frictional contact with an
abrasive material, such as silica or
carborundum grits. Also called
abrasion resistance; wear resistance. Long
abrasion index
The percentage of a specially prepared 3-
in by 2-in (76-mm by 51-mm)
sample of coke remaining on a 1/8-in (3.2-
mm) mesh British Standards test
sieve after the sample of coke has been
subjected to a standardized
abrasion procedure in a rotating drum.
abrasive
a. Any natural or artificial substance
suitable for grinding, polishing,
cutting, or scouring. Natural abrasives
include diamond, emery, garnet,
silica sand, diatomite, and pumice;
manufactured abrasives include esp.,
silicon carbide, fused alumina, and boron
nitride. AGI
b. Tending to abrade or wear away. AGI
abrasive blasting respirator
A respirator designed to protect the wearer
from inhalation or impact of,
and abrasion by, materials used or
generated in abrasive blasting.
ANSI
abrasive formation
A rock consisting of small, hard, sharp-
cornered, angular fragments, or a
rock, the cuttings from which, produced
by the action of a drill bit, are
hard, sharp-cornered, angular grains,
which grind away or abrade the metal
on bits and drill-stem equipment at a rapid
rate.
abrasive hardness test
Test employing a rotating abrasive wheel
or plate against which specimens
are held. The specimens are abraded for a
given number of revolutions, and
the weight of material lost is a measure of
the abrasive hardness. Lewis


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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
abraumsalze
Ger. Mixed sulfates and chlorides of
potassium, sodium, and magnesium
overlying the rock salt in the Stassfurt salt
deposits.

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abriachanite
An earthy, amorphous variety of
crocidolite asbestos. Dana, 1
absolute
a. In chemistry, free from impurity or
admixture. Hess
b. In physics, not dependent on any
arbitrary standard. Hess
c. Frequently used in the trades to indicate
a thing as being perfect or
exact. Abbrev. abs. Crispin
absolute age
The geologic age of a fossil organism,
rock, or geologic feature or event
given in units of time, usually years.
Commonly used as a syn. of isotopic
age or radiometric age, but may also refer
to ages obtained from tree
rings, varves, etc. Term is now in disfavor
as it implies a certainty or
exactness that may not be possible by
present dating methods; i.e., two
absolute ages for the same pluton may
disagree by hundreds of millions of
years.
absolute atmosphere
An absolute unit of pressure equal to 1
million times the pressure
produced on 1 cm
2
by the force of 1 dyn.
Fay

absolute bulk strength
A measure of available energy per unit
volume of explosive.
absolute chronology
Geochronology in which the time-order is
based on absolute age, usually
measured in years by radiometric dating,
rather than on superposition
and/or fossil content as in relative
chronology. AGI
absolute daily range
During the 24 h of the day the difference
between the maximum easterly and
maximum westerly values of the magnetic
declination at any point.
Mason
absolute humidity
The content of water vapor in air,
expressed as the mass of water per unit
volume of air.
absolute isohypse
A line that has the properties of both
constant pressure and constant
height above mean sea level. Therefore, it
can be any contour line on a
constant-pressure chart, or any isobar on a
constant-height chart.
Hunt
absolute ownership
In law, an unqualified title to property and
the unquestioned right to
immediate and unconditional possession
thereof. Applies to mining claims
and properties. Standard, 2; Hess
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
absolute permeability

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A measure of possible flow of a standard
liquid under fixed conditions
through a porous medium when there is
no reaction between the liquid and
the solids. This measure is arbitrarily
taken for isothermal viscous flow.
It can be duplicated with gases if tests are
so conducted that extrapolation to infinite
pressure can be made; specific
permeability. Hess
absolute potential
True potential difference between a metal
and the solution in which it is
immersed. Pryor, 3
absolute pressure
a. Total pressure at a point in a fluid
equaling the sum of the gage
ressure and the atmospheric pressure.
b. Pressure measured with respect to zero
pressure, in units of force per
unit of area. CTD
absolute roof
The entire mass of strata overlying a coal
seam or a subsurface point of
reference.
absolute temperature
Temperature reckoned from absolute zero.
absolute time
Geologic time measured in terms of years
by radioactive decay of elements.

absolute weight strength
A measure of available energy per gram
of explosive.
absolute zero
The temperature at which a gas would
show no pressure if the general law
for gases would hold for all temperatures.
It is equal to -273.16 degrees
C or -459 degrees F.
absorbed water
Water held mechanically in a soil mass
and having physical properties not
substantially different from those of
ordinary water at the same
temperature and pressure. ASCE
absorbent formation
A rock or rock material, which, by virtue
of its dryness, porosity, or
permeability, has the ability to drink in or
suck up a drilling liquid, as
a sponge absorbs water.
absorbents
Substances, such as wood meal and wheat
flour, that are forms of low
explosive when mixed with metallic
nitrates and tend to reduce the
blasting power of the explosives, making
them suitable for coal blasting.
Cooper
absorber
a. An apparatus in which gases are
brought into intimate contact with an
extended surface of an absorbing fluid so
that they enter rapidly into
solution. Hess
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b. The resistance and capacitance in series
that is placed across a break
in an electrical circuit in order to damp
any possible oscillatory circuit
and would tend to maintain an arc or spark
when a current is interrupted.
c. Any material that absorbs or stops
ionizing radiation, such as
neutrons, gamma rays, alpha particles, and
beta particles. Lyman
absorptiometer
A device for measuring the solubility of a
gas in a liquid.
Bennett
absorption
a. The phenomenon observed when a
pleochroic mineral is rotated in plane
polarized light. In certain positions, the
mineral is darker than in
others, owing to the absorption of light.
b. In hydrology, a term applied to the
entrance of surface water into the
lithosphere by all methods. AGI
c. The reduction of light intensity in
transmission through an absorbing
substance or in reflection from a surface.
In crystals, the absorption may
vary with the wavelength and with the
electric vector of the transmitted
light with respect to crystallographic
directions.
d. Any mechanism by which energy, e.g.,
electromagnetic or seismic, is
converted into heat.
e. Taking up, assimilation, or
incorporation, e.g., of liquids in solids
or of gases in liquids.
f. The entrance of surface water into the
lithosphere by any method.

absorption hygrometer
A type of hygrometer with which the
water vapor content of the atmosphere
is measured by means of the absorption of
vapor by a hygroscopic chemical.
The amount of vapor absorbed may be
determined in an absolute manner by
weighing the hygroscopic material, or in a
nonabsolute manner by measuring
a physical property of the substance that
varies with the amount of water
vapor absorbed. The lithium chloride
humidity strip and carbon-film
hygrometer element are examples of the
latter. Hunt
absorption loss
a. The loss of water occurring during
initial filling of a reservoir in
wetting rocks and soil. Hammond
b. That part of the transmission loss due to
dissipation or the conversion
of sound energy into some other form of
energy, usually heat. This
conversion may take place within the
medium itself or upon a reflection at
one of its boundaries. Hy
absorption rate
a. The rate, expressed in quantitative
terms, at which a liquid, such as a
drilling circulation medium, is absorbed
by the rocks or rock materials
penetrated by the drill bit. Long
b. The amount of water absorbed when a
brick is partially immersed for 1
min; usually expressed either in grams or
ounces per minute. Also called
suction rate; initial rate of absorption.
ACSG, 1

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
absorption spectra

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Specific wavelengths of electromagnetic
radiation have precisely the
energy to cause atomic or molecular
transitions in substances they are
passing through; their removal from the
incident radiation produces
reductions in intensity of those
wavelengths, or absorption spectra,
characteristic of the substance under
study.
absorption spectrum
The array of absorption bands or lines
seen when a continuous spectrum is
transmitted through a selectively
absorbing medium. AGI
absorption tower
A tower in which a liquid absorbs a gas.
abundant vitrain
A field term denoting, in accordance with
an arbitrary scale established
for use in describing banded coal, a
frequency of occurrence of vitrain
bands comprising 30% to 60% of the total
coal layer.

abutment
A surface or mass provided to withstand
thrust, for example, the end
supports of an arch or bridge. In coal
mining, (1) the weight of the rocks
above a narrow roadway is transferred to
the solid coal along the sides,
which act as abutments of the arch of
strata spanning the roadway; and (2)
the weight of the rocks over a longwall
face is transferred to the front
abutment (the solid coal ahead of the face)
and the back abutment (the
settled packs behind the face).
abutment load
In underground mining, the weight of rock
above an excavation that has
been transferred to the adjoining walls.
Pryor, 3
abutment pillars
Pillars intended to support vertical load in
excess of the weight of the
strata directly above them. Generally,
these abutment pillars are large
pillars adjacent to smaller pillars,
sometimes called yield pillars, which
are incapable of carrying the weight of the
strata above them.
SME, 1
abysmal sea
That part of the sea occupying the ocean
basins proper. Fay
abyss
a. A very deep, unfathomable place. The
term is used to refer to a
particularly deep part of the ocean, or to
any part below 3,000 fathoms
(18,000 ft or 5.5 km). Hunt

abyssal
a. Pertaining to an igneous intrusion that
occurs at considerable depth,
or to the resulting rock; plutonic.
b. Pertaining to the ocean environment or
depth zone of 500 fathoms (3,000
ft or 915 m) or deeper; also, pertaining to
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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the organisms of that
environment. AGI
c. Of, or pertaining to, deep within the
Earth, the oceanic deeps below
1,000 fathoms (6,000 ft or 1.83 km), or
great depths of seas or lakes
where light is absent.
d. In oceanography, relating to the greatest
depths of the ocean; relating
to the abyssal realm.
abyssal deposit
A deposit of the deep sea, accumulating in
depths of more than 1,500
fathoms (9,000 ft or 2.7 km) of water;
these deposits comprise the organic
oozes, various muds, and red clay of the
deepest regions. CTD
abyssal injection
The process by which magmas,
originating at considerable depths, are
considered to have been driven up through
deep-seated contraction fissures.
abyssal plain
An area of the ocean floor with a slope of
less than 1 in 1,000 or flat,
nearly level areas that occupy the deepest
portions of many ocean basins.
Schieferdecker
abyssal realm
The deep waters of the ocean below 1,000
fathoms or 6,000 ft (1.83 km).
abyssal theory
A theory of mineral-deposit formation
involving the separation and sinking
of ore minerals below a silicate shell
during the cooling of the Earth
from a liquid stage, followed by their
transport to and deposition in the
crust as it was fractured (Shand, 1947).
Modern thought ascribes more
complex origins to mineral deposits. AGI

abyssal zone
The marine-life zone of the deep sea
embracing the water and bottom below
a depth of 6,000 ft (1.83 km). Stokes
abyssobenthic
Relating to that part of the abyssal realm
that includes the ocean floor;
pertaining to or living on the ocean floor
at great depths. CTD
abyssopelagic
a. Relating to that part of the abyssal
realm that excludes the ocean
floor; floating in the depths of the ocean.
CTD
b. Pertaining to that portion of the deep
waters of the ocean that lie
below depths of 6,000 ft (1.83 km). AGI
acanthite
A monoclinic mineral, 4[Ag
2
S] ;
dimorphous with argentite,
pseudohexagonal, in slender prisms; sp gr,
7.2 to 7.3; a source of silver.
accelerated weathering test
A test to indicate the effect of weather on
coal, in which the coal is
alternately exposed to freezing, wetting,
warming, and light; the
alternation may be varied to suit. This test
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
may be applied to other
bituminous materials. Hess
accelerator

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a. A machine that accelerates electrically
charged atomic particles, such
as electrons, protons, deuterons, and alpha
particles, to high velocities.
Lyman
b. A substance added to increase the rate
of a chemical reaction.
Nelson
accelerometer
A seismometer with response linearly
proportional to the acceleration of
earth materials with which it is in contact.
AGI
acceptor
A charge of explosives or blasting agent
receiving an impulse from an
exploding donor charge.
accessory
a. Applied to minerals occurring in small
quantities in a rock. The
presence or absence of these minor
minerals does not affect the
classification or the naming of the rock.
Holmes, 2
b. Fragments derived from previously
solidified volcanic rocks of related
origin; i.e., the debris of earlier lavas and
pyroclastic rocks from the
same cone.
c. Said of pyroclastics that are formed
from fragments of the volcanic
cone or earlier lavas; it is part of a
classification of volcanic ejecta
based on mode of origin, and is equivalent
to resurgent ejecta.
accessory mineral
Any mineral the presence of which is not
essential to the classification
of the rock. Accessory minerals generally
occur in minor amounts; in
sedimentary rocks they are mostly heavy
minerals.
accessory plate
a. The quartz wedge inserted in the
microscope substage above the
polarizer in order to estimate
birefringence and to determine optical
sign of uniaxial minerals.
b. The selenite plate that gives the
sensitive tint of a specimen between
crossed nicols. Pryor, 3
c. The mica plate that retards yellow light.
Pryor, 3
d. In polarized-light microscopy, an
optical device that may be inserted
into the light train to alter light
interference after passage through, or
reflection by, a crystalline material; e.g.,
quartz wedge, mica plate,
gypsum plate, or Bertrand lens.
e. In polarized-light microscopy, an
optical compensator that may be
inserted into the light train to alter
birefringence after light passage
through or reflection by an anisotropic
material; e.g., quartz wedge, mica
plate, gypsum plate, or Berek
compensator.
access road
A route constructed to enable plant,
supplies, and vehicles to reach a
mine, quarry, or opencast pit. In remote
and isolated regions, the
provision of an access road may be very
costly. Nelson
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

accordion roller conveyor
A roller conveyor with a flexible latticed
frame that permits variation in
length.

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accretion vein
A vein formed by the repeated filling of a
channelway and its reopening by
the development of fractures in the zone
undergoing mineralization.
accumulation
a. In coal mining, bodies of combustible
gases that tend to collect in
higher parts of mine workings and at the
edge of goaves and wastes. They
are found in cavities, at ripping lips, at
other sheltered places
protected from the ventilating current, and
at the higher sides of rise
faces. Mason
b. The concentration or gathering of oil or
gas in some form of trap.
Commercial accumulation is a volume or
quantity sufficient for profitable
exploitation. AGI
accumulator
a. A cylinder containing water or oil under
pressure of a weighted piston
for hydraulic presses, hoists, winches, etc.
It is between the pumps and
the presses, keeps a constant pressure on
the system, and absorbs shocks.
b. A storage battery.
c. In oceanography, a spring of rubber or
steel attached to a trawling
warp, to lessen any sudden strain due to
the trawl catching. CTD
accumulator conveyor
Any conveyor designed to permit
accumulation of packages or objects.
Usually roller, live roller conveyor, roller
slat conveyor, or belt
conveyor.
accuracy
The degree of conformity with a standard,
or the degree of perfection
attained in a measurement. Accuracy
relates to the quality of a result,
and is distinguished from precision, which
relates to the quality of the
operation by which the result is obtained.
AGI
acetamide
A trigonal mineral, CH
3
CONH
2
.
acetylene
The most brilliant of illuminating gases,
C
2
H
2
. It may be
produced synthetically from its elements,
by incomplete combustion of coal
gas, and commercially from calcium
carbide, CaC
2
. It also may be
produced by reaction with water. Used in
manufacturing explosives. Formerly used
as an illuminating gas in mines and
around drill rigs. When
combined with oxygen, acetylene burns to
produce an intensely hot flame
and hence now is used principally in
welding and metal-cutting flame
torches.
acetylene tetrabromide
Yellowish liquid; CHBr
2
CHBr
2
; sp gr,
2.98 to 3.00; boiling
point, 239 to 242 degrees C with
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decomposition (at 760 mm); also, boiling
point, 151 degrees C (at 54 mm); melting
point, 0.1 degrees C; and
refractive index, 1.638. Used for
separating minerals by specific gravity;
a solvent for fats, oils, and waxes; a fluid
in liquid gases; and a
solvent in microscopy. CCD, 2
achavalite
Former name for iron selenide, FeSe .
Acheson graphite
Artificial graphite made from coke by
electric furnace heating.
Bennett
Acheson process
A process for the production of artificial
or synthetic graphite. It
consists of sintering pulverized coke in the
Acheson furnace at 2,760 to
3,316 degrees C. Henderson
achirite
Former name for dioptase.
achroite
A colorless variety of elbaite tourmaline
used as a gemstone.
achromatic
In microscopy, a compound lens that does
not spread white light into its
spectral colors.
acicular
a. A mineral consisting of fine needlelike
crystals; e.g., natrolite.
Nelson
b. Slender needlelike crystal.
c. Refers to needlelike crystals.
acicular powder
In powder metallurgy, needle-shaped
particles. ASM, 1
acid
a. A solution of pH less than 7.0 at 25
degrees C.
b. A substance containing hydrogen that
may be replaced by metals with the
formation of salts. CTD
acid Bessemer converter
One lined with acid refractories.
acid bottom and lining
The inner bottom and lining of a melting
furnace, consisting of materials
like sand, siliceous rock, or silica brick,
which give an acid reaction at
the operating temperature.
acid clay
a. A clay that is used mainly as a
decolorant or refining agent, and
sometimes as a desulfurizer, coagulant, or
catalyst.
b. A clay that yields hydrogen ions in a
water suspension; a hydrogen
clay.
acid cure
In uranium extraction, sulfation of moist
ore before leaching.
Pryor, 1

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
acid-dip survey

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A method of determining the angular
inclination of a borehole in which a
glass, test-tubelike bottle partly filled with
a dilute solution of
hydrofluoric acid is inserted in a
watertight metal case. When the
assemblage is lowered into a borehole and
left for 20 to 30 min, the acid
etches the bottle at a level plane from
which the inclination of the
borehole can be measured.
acid test; acid-etch tube. Long
acid drainage
Water with a pH of less than 6.0 and in
which total acidity exceeds total
alkalinity; discharged from an active,
inactive, or abandoned surface coal
mine and reclamation operation.
acid electric furnace
An arc furnace having an acid refractory
hearth.
acid embrittlement
A form of hydrogen embrittlement that
may be induced in some metals by
acid treatment. ASM, 1
acid-etch tube
A soda-lime glass tube charged with dilute
hydrofluoric acid, left in a
borehole for 20 to 30 min to measure
inclination as indicated by the angle
of etch line on the tube. May be fitted in a
clinometer.

acid flux
Metallurgically acid material (usually
some form of silica) used as a
flux. Bennett
acid-forming materials
Earth materials that contain sulfide
minerals or other materials that, if
exposed to air, water, or weathering
processes, form acids that may create
acid drainage.
acidic
a. A descriptive term applied to those
igneous rocks that contain more
than 60% silica. Acidic is one of four
subdivisions of a widely used
system for classifying igneous rocks based
on their silica content:
acidic, intermediate, basic, and ultrabasic.
AGI
b. Applied loosely to any igneous rock
composed predominantly of
light-colored minerals having a relatively
low specific gravity.
acidization
The process of forcing acid into a
limestone, dolomite, or sandstone in
order to increase permeability and
porosity by dissolving and removing a
part of the rock constituents. It is also
used to remove mud injected
during drilling. The general objective of
acidization is to increase
productivity.
acidize
To treat a limestone or dolomitic
formation with dilute hydrochloric acid
to enlarge its void spaces. Wheeler, R.R.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
acid leach

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Metallurgical process for dissolution of
metals by means of acid solution.
Examples include extraction of copper
from oxide- or sulfide-bearing ore
and dissolution of uranium from
sandstone ores. Acid leaching can occur
on heap-leach pads or in situ.
acid mine drainage
a. Acidic drainage from bituminous coal
mines containing a high
concentration of acidic sulfates, esp.
ferrous sulfate.
b. Drainage with a pH of 2.0 to 4.5 from
mines and mine wastes. It results
from the oxidation of sulfides exposed
during mining, which produces
sulfuric acid and sulfate salts. The acid
dissolves minerals in the rocks,
further degrading the quality of the
drainage water. AGI
acid mine water
a. Mine water that contains free sulfuric
acid, mainly due to the
weathering of iron pyrites. A pit water,
which corrodes iron pipes and
pumps, usually contains a high proportion
of solids per gallon,
principally the sulfates of iron, chiefly
ferrous and alumina.
b. Where sulfide minerals break down
under chemical influence of oxygen
and water, the mine drainage becomes
acidic and can corrode ironwork. If
it reaches a river system, biological
damage may also result.
Pryor, 3


acid neutralizers
Calcium carbonate, CaCO
3
, magnesium
carbonate, MgCO
3
, and
china clay, which neutralize free acids,
thereby preventing explosives
from decomposing in storage. They also
have a cooling effect and tend to
reduce the sensitivity of the explosive.
Cooper
acid open-hearth steel
Low-phosphorus pig iron treated in an
acid (silica or sand)-lined furnace.
Mersereau, 2
acid process
A steelmaking process--Bessemer, open-
hearth, or electric--in which the
furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory,
and for which pig iron low
in phosphorus is required, as this element
is not removed.
acid-recovery operator
In the coke products industry, a person
who recovers sulfuric acid used in
processing coke-gas byproducts by
cooking sludge with steam in acid
regenerator pots.
acid refractory material
A general term for those types of
refractory material that contain a high
proportion of silica; e.g., silica refractories
(greater than 92% SiO (sub
2) ) and siliceous refractories (78% to
92% SiO
2
). The name
derives from the fact that silica behaves
chemically as an acid and at
high temperatures reacts with bases such
as lime or alkalies. Dodd
13
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
acid refractory product
Refractory product made of clay-silica
mixture or pure silica.
Rosenthal
acid rock drainage

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Drainage that occurs as a result of natural
oxidation of sulfide minerals
contained in rock that is exposed to air
and water. It is not confined to
mining activities, but can occur wherever
sulfide-bearing rock is exposed
to air and water. Abbrev. ARD.
acid slag
Slag that contains substantial amounts of
active silica.
acid sludge
Products of refining of tar, shale oil, and
petroleum in which sulfuric
acid reacts to form a sulfonic acid
mixture, green acids, and mahogany
acids and salts. Used in the flotation
process and in proprietary
collector agents for flotation of iron ores.
Pryor, 1
acid soil
A soil with a pH of less than 7.0. AGI
acid steel
Steel melted in a furnace with an acid
bottom and lining and under a slag
containing an excess of an acid substance,
such as silica.


acid strength
Related to ability to liberate hydrogen ions
to solution, and hence to
electrical conductivity of equivalent
aqueous solutions of acids.
Pryor, 3
acid water
Water charged naturally with carbon
dioxide. Also applied to natural
waters containing sulfur compounds, esp.
sulfates.
aciform
Needle-shaped.
aciniform
A mineral aggregate shaped like a cluster
of grapes. Also, full of small
kernels like a grape.
acinose
a. Grapelike; applied to the structure of
clustered mineral aggregates.
b. Granulated; like grape seeds; applied to
the texture of some mineral
aggregates.
acinote
Former name for actinolite.
aclinal
A little-used term said of strata that have
no inclination; horizontal.
aclinic line
The line through those points on the
Earth's surface at which the magnetic
14
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
inclination is zero. The aclinic line is a
particular case of an isoclinic
line. Hunt
acmite

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A brown variety of aegirine having
pointed terminations.
acopolado
Mex. Ore containing 50 to 60 oz/st (1.56
to 1.88 kg/t) of silver.
Hess
acoustic
Used when the term that it modifies
designates something that has the
properties, dimensions, or physical
characteristics associated with sound
waves. Hy
acoustical well logging
Any determination of the physical
properties or dimensions of a borehole
by acoustical means, including
measurement of the depth of fluid level in
a well. AGI
acoustic attenuation log
In theory, a log designed to measure the
manner in which the energy of
elastic waves is dissipated in passing
through rock. Although no practical
log of this type has yet evolved, the belief
that a log of this parameter
would permit the estimation of the
permeability of formations would seem
to ensure such a development since no log
has been developed to record
permeability. Wyllie

acoustic dispersion
The change of speed of sound with
frequency. Hunt
acoustic impedance
The acoustic impedance of a given surface
area of an acoustic medium
perpendicular, at every point, to the
direction of propagation of
sinusoidal acoustic waves of given
frequency, and having equal acoustic
pressures and equal volume velocities per
unit area at every point of the
surface at any instance, is the quotient
obtained by dividing (1) the
phasor corresponding to the acoustic
pressure by (2) the phasor
corresponding to the volume velocity.
acoustic interferometer
An instrument for making physical
observations upon standing waves. It may
be used, e.g., to measure velocity,
wavelength, absorption, or impedance.
Hunt
acoustic log
A continuous record made in a borehole
showing the velocity of sound waves
over short distances in adjacent rock;
velocity is related to porosity and
nature of the liquid occupying pores. AGI
acoustic-radiation pressure
A unidirectional steady-state pressure
exerted upon a surface exposed to
an acoustic wave. Such a steady pressure
is usually quite small in
magnitude and is really observable only in
the presence of very intense
sound waves. Hunt
15
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
acoustic radiometer
An instrument for measuring acoustic-
radiation pressure by determining the
unidirectional steady-state force resulting
from reflection or absorption
of a sound wave at its boundaries. Hunt
acoustic resistance
Product of longitudinal wave velocity and
density, being the property that
controls the reflective power at a
boundary plane. Schieferdecker
acoustics
The study of sound, including its
production, transmission, reception, and
utilization, esp. in fluid media such as air
or water. With reference to
Earth sciences, it is esp. relevant to
oceanography. The term is sometimes
used to include compressional waves in
solids; e.g., seismic waves.
AGI
acoustic scattering
The irregular reflection, refraction, or
diffraction of sound waves in
many directions. Hy
acoustic sounding
The indirect evaluation of water depth,
using the principle of measuring
the length of time necessary for a sound
wave to travel to the bottom,
reflect, and travel back to the water
surface. Hunt
acoustic-strain gage
An instrument for measuring strains; e.g.,
in concrete linings to shafts
or roadways. It contains a length of fine
wire under tension, the tension
being varied by the strain to which the
gage is subjected. The measurement
made is that of the frequency of vibration
of the wire when it is plucked
by means of an electromagnetic impulse,
and this measurement can be made
with great accuracy. The gage is highly
stable, and readings can be made
over a period of years without any fear of
zero drift.

acoustic theodolite
An instrument designed to provide a
continuous vertical profile of ocean
currents at a specific location. Hunt
acoustic wave
a. The waves that contain sound energy
and by the motion of which sound
energy is transmitted in air, in water, or in
the ground. The wave may be
described in terms of change of pressure,
of particle displacement, or of
density. AGI
b. Used increasingly to study the physical
properties of rocks and
composition of gases. Investigations may
be made both in situ and in the
laboratory. Nelson
acquired lands
Defined by the U.S. Department of the
Interior as "lands in Federal
ownership which were obtained by the
Government through purchase,
condemnation, or gift, or by exchange for
such purchased, condemned, or
donated lands, or for timber on such lands.
They are one category of
public lands." Public land laws are

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16
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
generally inapplicable to acquired
lands. SME, 1
acre

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a. A measure of surficial area, usually of
land. The statute acre of the
United States and England contains
43,560 ft
2
(4,840 yd
2
;
4,047 m
2
; or 160 square rods). The so-
called Scotch acre
contains about 6,150 yd
2
(5,142 m
2
), and
the Irish acre
7,840 yd
2
(6,555 m
2
). There are various
special or
local acres in England (as in Cheshire or
among the hop growers), varying
from 440 yd
2
(368 m
2
) to more than
10,000 yd
2

(8,361 m
2
). Standard, 2
b. Can. In Quebec, a linear measure that
equals the square root of 43,560,
or approx. 208.7 ft (63.6 m). Fay
c. For the calculation of coal reserves, a
convenient rule is to allow
1,200 st/ft (coal thickness) per acre (8,821
t/m/ha). For known and
dependable areas, 1,500 st/ft per acre
(11,027 t/m/ha) may be used.
Nelson
acreage rent
Royalty or rent paid by the lessee for
working and disposing of minerals
at the rate of so much per acre.
acre-foot
The quantity of water that would cover 1
acre, 1 ft deep (1 ha, 13.6 cm
deep). One acre-foot contains 43,560 ft
3

(1,233 m
3
).

acre-inch
The volume of water, soil, or other
material that will cover 1 acre, 1 in
deep (1 ha, 1.1 cm deep). AGI
acre-yield
The average quantity of oil, gas, or water
recovered from 1 acre (0.4 ha)
of a reservoir. AGI
actinide
A chemical element with atomic number
greater than 88; all are
radioactive.
actinide element
a. One of the group of chemical elements
of increasing atomic number,
starting with actinium (atomic number 89)
and extending through atomic
number 103. These elements occupy one
single place in the extended
periodic table, in the same group into
which the rare-earth elements
(lanthanides) are classified.
b. One of the radioactive elements, atomic
numbers 89 to 103.
Hurlbut
actinolite
A monoclinic mineral, 2[Ca
2
(Mg,Fe)
5
Si
8

O
22

(OH)
2
] in the hornblende series
Mg/(Mg+Fe
2+
) = 0.5 to
0.89 of the amphibole group; forms a
series with tremolite; green, bladed,
acicular, fibrous (byssolite asbestos), or
massive (nephrite jade);
prismatic cleavage; in low-grade
metamorphic rocks.
17
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
activated alumina
Highly porous, granular aluminum oxide
that preferentially absorbs liquids
from gases and vapors, and moisture from
some liquids.
McGraw-Hill, 1

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activated carbon
Carbon, mostly of vegetable origin, and of
high adsorptive capacity.
activated clay
A clay whose adsorbent character or
bleaching action has been enhanced by
treatment with acid. CCD, 2
activated coal plow
With a view to applying the coal plow to
seams too hard to be sheared by
the normal cutting blade, German mining
engineers have developed various
types of power-operated cutters. One
consists of a series of
compressed-air picks mounted above each
other; another, of a resonance
pattern, houses two high-speed motors
eccentrically mounted and rotating
in opposite directions. The latter imparts a
vibration to the cutting edge
equivalent to 2,500 blows per minute with
a stroke of 3/16 to 1/4 in (4.8
to 6.4 mm) and a force of approx. 200 st
(181 t). Mason
activating agent
a. A substance that when added to a
mineral pulp promotes flotation in the
presence of a collecting agent.
b. Reagent used particularly in differential
mineral flotation to help
cleanse the mineral surface so that a
collector may adhere to it and
permit or aid its floatability. Frequently
used to allow floating minerals
that had been previously depressed.
Mitchell
activation
a. In the flotation process of mineral
dressing, the process of altering
the surface of specific mineral particles in
a mineral pulp to promote
adherence of certain reagents. Pryor, 3
b. The changing of the passive surface of
a metal to a chemically active
c. In the flotation process of ore
beneficiation, the process of altering
the surface of specific mineral particles in
an ore pulp to promote
adherence of certain reagents. Henderson
d. The process of making a material
radioactive by bombardment with
neutrons, protons, or other nuclear
particles.
activation analysis
A method for identifying and measuring
the chemical elements in a sample
to be analyzed. The sample is first made
radioactive by bombardment with
neutrons, charged particles, or other
nuclear radiation. The newly
radioactive atoms in the sample give off
characteristic nuclear radiations
that can identify the atoms and indicate
their quantity.
activator
a. In flotation, a chemical added to the
pulp to increase the floatability
of a mineral in a froth or to refloat a
depressed (sunk) mineral. Also
called activating reagent. CTD
b. A reagent that affects the surface of
18
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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minerals in such a way that it is
easy for the collector atoms to become
attached. It has the opposite
effect of a depressor.
c. A substance that is required in trace
quantities to impart luminescence
to certain crystals. CCD, 2
d. Ions that are photon emitters. Van Vlack
e. Any agent that causes activation.
active agent
Surface-active substance that immunizes
solids against a parting liquid.
Hess
active earth pressure
The minimum value of lateral earth
pressure exerted by soil on a
structure, occurring when the soil is
allowed to yield sufficiently to
cause its internal shearing resistance along
a potential failure surface
to be completely mobilized.
active entry
An entry in which coal is being mined
from a portion thereof or from
connected sections. USBM, 1
active fault
One liable to further movement.
CF:passive fault
active layer
a. The surficial deposit that undergoes
seasonal changes of volume,
swelling when frozen or wet, and
shrinking when thawing and drying.
AGI
b. A surface layer of ground, above the
permafrost, that is frozen in the
winter and thawed in the summer. Its
thickness ranges from several
centimeters to a few meters. AGI
active mining area
a. The area, on and beneath land, used or
disturbed in activity related to
the extraction, removal, or recovery of
coal from its natural deposits.
This term excludes coal preparation
plants, areas associated with coal
preparation plants, and post-mining areas.
SME, 1
b. The area in which active mining takes
place relative also to extraction
of metal ores, industrial minerals, and
other minerals of economic value.
active workings
All places in a mine that are ventilated and
inspected regularly.
Federal Mine Safety
activity
a. In nuclear physics, the rate of decay of
atoms by radioactivity. It is
measured in curies. Bennett
b. The ideal or thermodynamic
concentration of a substance, the
substitution of which for the true
concentration, permits the application
of the law of mass action.
actual breaking strength
The breaking load obtained from a tensile
test to destruction on a sample
of rope. Hammond
actual horsepower
The horsepower really developed, as
proved by trial. Standard, 2
19
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
actual performance curve
A performance curve showing the results
actually obtained from a coal
preparation treatment. BS, 5
actuated roller switch

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A switch placed in contact with the belt
conveyor immediately preceding
the conveyor it is desired to control. In the
centrifugal sequence control
switch, a driving pulley bears against the
driving belt; as the latter
moves, the pulley rotates and the governor
weights attached to the pulley
shaft are flung out and so complete an
electrical pilot circuit and thus
start the subsidiary belt. Nelson
acute bisectrix
a. The line that bisects the acute angle of
the optic axes of biaxial
minerals. Fay
b. The angle <90 degrees between the
optic axes in a biaxial crystal, bxa.
CF:optic angle
adamantine
a. Like the diamond in luster. Webster 3rd
b. Diamond hard. A commercial name for
chilled steel shot used in the
adamantine drill, which is a core-barrel
type of rock-cutting drill with a
cutting edge fed by these shots.
CF:vitreous
adamantine luster
Diamondlike luster. Hurlbut
adamellite
See:quartz monzonite
adamic earth
A term used for common clay, in
reference to the material of which Adam,
the first man, was made; specif. a kind of
red clay. AGI
adamite
A rare hydrous zinc arsenate, Zn
2
(AsO
4

)(OH) , occurring
granular or in crusts and crystallizing in
the orthorhombic system. Weakly
radioactive; variable color--yellowish,
greenish, or violet, rarely
colorless or white; found in the oxidized
zone of zinc orebodies.
Associated with smithsonite, calcite,
malachite, hemimorphite, limonite,
and azurite. Small amounts of uranium
have been found in some specimens of
adamite. Fay; Crosby
adamsite
A greenish-black muscovite found in a
schist at Derby, VT; has been called
margarodite. Dana, 1
[ ( k DICTIONARY
TERMS:Adam's snuffbox Hollow,
roughly rectangular pebble
[\B]Adam's snuffbox[\N]
ada mud
A conditioning material that may be added
to drilling mud in order to
obtain satisfactory cores and samples of
formations. Williams
adapter trough
A short section of a shaker conveyor
trough that serves as a connecting
link between any two sizes of trough.
Jones, 1
20
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
added diamonds

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As used by the diamond-bit
manufacturing industry, the number or
carat
weight of new diamonds that must be
added to the resettable diamonds
salvaged from a worn bit in order to have
enough to set a new bit.
Long
additive
A correction applied to times of seismic
reflections measured from an
arbitrary time origin. The additive is
normally applied for the purpose of
translating the time origin to correspond to
the datum elevation chosen
for computation, and it is algebraic in
sign. AGI
addlings
A term used in the northern and parts of
other coalfields in Great Britain
to describe earnings or wages. Nelson
Adeline steelmaking process
A process of producing precision castings
of steel or steel alloys, which
comprises first forming the steel or steel
alloy in molten form by the
aluminothermic process, by igniting a
mixture of iron ore and aluminum;
then running the molten metal into a mold
prepared by packing a refractory
mold composition around a model made
of wax or other comparatively
low-melting-point substance and heating
to melt out the wax and
consolidate the mold; and finally
centrifuging the mold. Osborne

adelite
a. An orthorhombic mineral, CaMg(AsO
4

)(OH) ; occurs with manganese
ores.
b. The mineral group adelite, austinite,
conichalcite, duftite, and
gabrielsonite.
adhesion
a. The molecular force holding together
two different substances that are
in contact, as water in the pore spaces of a
rock. CF:cohesion
b. Shearing resistance between soil and
another material under zero
externally applied pressure. ASCE
c. In the flotation process, the attachment
of a particle to air-water
interface or to a bubble.
adhesive slate
A very absorbent slate that adheres to the
tongue if touched by it.
Standard, 2
adiabatic calorimeter
A calorimeter that practically remains
unaffected by its surroundings and
neither gains nor loses heat. Osborne
adiabatic compression
Compression in which no heat is added to
or subtracted from the air and
the internal energy of the air is increased
by an amount equivalent to the
external work done on the air. The
increase in temperature of the air
during adiabatic compression tends to
increase the pressure on account of
the decrease in volume alone; therefore,
the pressure during adiabatic
21
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
compression rises faster than the volume
diminishes. Lewis
adiabatic efficiency

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A compression term obtained by dividing
the power theoretically necessary
to compress the gas and deliver it without
loss of heat, by the power
supplied to the fan or compressor
driveshaft.
adiabatic expansion
Expansion in which no heat is added to or
subtracted from the air, which
cools during the expansion because of the
work done by the air.
Lewis
adiabatic temperature
The temperature that would be attained if
no heat were gained from or lost
to the surroundings. Newton, 1
adiabatic temperature change
The compression of a fluid without gain
or loss to the surroundings when
work is performed on the system and
produces a rise of temperature. In
very deep water such a rise of temperature
occurs and must be considered
in the vertical temperature distribution. Hy
adinole
An argillaceous sediment that has
undergone albitization as a result of
contact metamorphism along the margins
of a sodium-rich mafic intrusion.
CF:spilosite; spotted slate. AGI

adipite
An aluminosilicate of calcium,
magnesium, and potassium having the
composition of chabazite. Dana, 1
adit
a. A horizontal or nearly horizontal
passage driven from the surface for
the working or dewatering of a mine. If
driven through the hill or
mountain to the surface on the opposite
side, it would be a tunnel.

b. As used in the Colorado statutes, it may
apply to a cut either open or
undercover, or open in part and
undercover in part, dependent on the
nature of the ground.
c. A passage driven into a mine from the
side of a hill.
Statistical Research Bureau
adit end
The furthermost end or part of an adit
from its beginning or the very
place where the miners are working
underground toward the mine.
Hess
adit level
Mine workings on a level with an adit.
adjacent sea
A sea adjacent to and connected with the
oceans, but semienclosed by land.
The North Polar, Mediterranean, and
Caribbean Seas are examples.


22
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
adjustment of error
Method of distributing the revealed
irregularities over a series of
results. Pryor, 3
adjutage

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Nozzle or tube from which hydraulic
water is discharged.
admission
See:admittance
admittance
a. In a crystal structure, substitution of a
trace element for a major
element of higher valence; e.g., Li
+
for
Mg
2+
. Admitted
trace elements generally have a lower
concentration relative to the major
element in the mineral than in the fluid
from which the mineral
crystallized. CF:capture; camouflage.
b. The reciprocal of impedance or the ratio
of complex current to voltage
in a linear circuit. AGI
adobe
A fine-grained, usually calcareous, hard-
baked clayey deposit mixed with
silt, usually forming as sheets in the
central or lower parts of desert
basins, as in the playas of the
southwestern United States and in the arid
parts of Mexico and South America. It is
probably a windblown deposit,
although it is often reworked and
redeposited by running water.
AGI

adobe charge
A mud-covered or unconfined explosive
charge fired in contact with a rock
surface without the use of a borehole..
Atlas
adobe flat
A generally narrow plain formed by
sheetflood deposition of fine sandy
clay or adobe brought down by an
ephemeral stream, and having a smooth,
hard surface (when dry) usually unmarked
by stream channels. AGI
adobe shot
Ordinarily referred to as a dobe shot. A
stick or part of a stick of
dynamite is laid on the rock to be broken
and covered with mud to add to
the force of the explosion. A mudcap shot.
Hess
adsorption
a. Adherence of gas molecules, or of ions
or molecules in solution, to the
surface of solids with which they are in
contact, as methane to coal or
moisture to silica gel. CF:absorption
b. The assimilation of gas, vapor, or
dissolved matter by the surface of a
solid or liquid.
c. The attachment of a thin film of liquid
or gas, commonly monomolecular
in thickness, to a solid substrate.
adsorption analysis
Separation by differential adsorption.
Pryor, 1

23
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
adular
See:adularia
adularescence

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a. A milky white to bluish sheen in
gemstones. CMD
b. The changeable white to pale bluish
luster of an adularia cut cabochon.
Webster 3rd
c. A floating, billowy, white or bluish
light, seen in certain directions
as a gemstone (usually adularia) is turned,
caused by diffused reflection
of light from parallel intergrowths of
another feldspar of slightly
different refractive index from the main
mass.
adularia
A colorless, moderate- to low-temperature
variety of orthoclase feldspar
typically with a relatively high barium
content.
adularia moonstone
Precious moonstone, a gem variety of
adularia.
advance
a. The work of excavating as mining goes
forward in an entry and in
driving rooms; to extract all or part of an
area; first mining as
distinguished from retreat. BCI
b. Rate at which a drill bit penetrates a
rock formation. Long
c. Feet drilled in any specific unit of time.
Long
d. The linear distance (in feet or meters)
driven during a certain time in
tunneling, drifting, or in raising or sinking
a shaft. Fraenkel
advance development
S. Afr. Development to provide an ore
reserve in advance of mining
operations. Beerman
advanced gallery
In tunnel excavation, a small heading
driven in advance of the main
tunnel.
advanced materials
Materials developed since 1960 and being
developed at present that exhibit
greater strength, higher strength-density
ratios, greater hardness, and/or
one or more superior thermal, electrical,
optical, or chemical properties,
when compared with traditional materials
(Sorrel, 1987) and with
properties needed to perform a specific
function and often entirely new
functions. SME, 1
advance gate
Gate road that is driven simultaneously
with the longwall coal face, when
the advancing longwall technique is used,
but which is maintained some 10
to 20 yd (9 to 18 m) or more in advance of
the face. The area immediately
ahead of the coal face is therefore
preexplored, and steps can be taken to
cope with minor disturbances and thus
prevent a serious loss of output.
Nelson


24
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
advance overburden
Overburden in excess of the average
overburden-to-ore ratio that must be
removed in opencut mining. Mining
advance per round

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The length, measured along the
longitudinal axis of the working, tunnel,
or gallery, of the hollow space broken out
by each round of shots. For
raises, it is upward advance; for sunk
shafts, downward advance.
Fraenkel
advance stope
A stope in which sections of the face or
some pillars are a little in
advance of the others. This is achieved
either by beginning the stoping of
the section that is to be advanced earlier,
or by proceeding more quickly.
Stoces
advance stripping
The removal of overburden required to
expose and permit the minable grade
of ore to be mined. The removal of
overburden is known as stripping.
advance wave
The air-pressure wave preceding the flame
in a coal-dust explosion. The
bringing of the dust into suspension is
accomplished by such a wave and
the violent eddies resulting therefrom.
Rice, 2


advance working
Mine working that is being advanced into
the solid, and from which no
pillar is being removed.
advancing
Mining from the shaft out toward the
boundary.Stoces
advancing longwall
A longwall mining technique, most
commonly found in European coal mines,
where the gate roads are advanced while
the longwall face is advanced
toward the mining limits. The gate roads
are maintained throughout the
worked-out portion of the longwall panel.
adventurine
Spelling variant of aventurine.
adverse
To oppose the granting of a patent to a
mining claim.
adverse claim
A claim made to prevent the patenting of
part of the ground within the
area in question; e.g., an adverse claim is
made by a senior locator to
exclude the part of his or her claim that is
overlapped by the claim of a
junior locator, when the junior locator is
applying for patent.
Lewis
adverse intent
The terms "claim of right," "claim of
title," and "claim of ownership,"
25
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
when used in the books to express adverse
intent, mean nothing more than
the intention of the dissessor to
appropriate and use the land as his or
her own to the exclusion of all others,
irrespective of any semblance or
shadow of actual title. Ricketts

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advertised out
A term used to express the result of the
action of a joint owner of a
mining claim who by proper notices
causes the interest of the co-owner to
be forfeited for failure to perform his or
her share of the assessment
work.
aedelforsite
A name given to (1) a mixture of
wollastonite, quartz, and feldspar from
Edelfors, Sweden; (2) impure wollastonite
from Giellebak, Sweden (called
also gillebackit); and (3) impure
laumontite, under the impression that
they were new minerals.
aedelite
See:prehnite
AED process
An electrostatic process under
development, in which fine-size dry coal
is
passed through an ionized field that
selectively charges the coal and the
liberated mineral matter. The output of the
ionizer is then fed into an
electrostatic separator where the coal and
impurities are separated.

aegirine
A sodium-ferric iron silicate, NaFe
3+
Si
2

O
6
,
occurring commonly in soda-rich igneous
rocks; monoclinic; Mohs hardness,
6 to 6.5; sp gr, 3.40 to 3.55.
aegirine-augite
A monoclinic mineral,
(Ca,Na)(Ca,Mg,Fe)Si
2
O
6
, in the range
20% augite to 20% aegirine end members
of the pyroxene group. Formerly
called acmite-augite, aegirineaugite.
aegirite
Former spelling of aegirine..
aenigmatite
a. A triclinic mineral, Na
2
Fe
5
2+
TiSi
6
O
20
; a rare titanium-bearing silicate; black
color; found associated
with alkalic rocks. Dana, 4
b. The mineral group aenigmatite,
rhoenite, serendibite, and welshite.
CF:enigmatite
aeolian
See:eolian
Aeonite
Trade name for a bitumen allied to
wurtzilite. Similar to elaterite.
Tomkeieff; English
aerate
a. To expose to the action of the air; to
supply or to charge with air.
Standard, 2
b. To charge with carbon dioxide or other
26
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
gas, as soda water.
Standard, 2
aeration

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a. The introduction of air into the pulp in a
flotation cell in order to
form air bubbles. BS, 5
b. In mineral beneficiation, use of copious
air bubbled into mineral pulps
(1) to provide oxygen in cyanidation, (2)
to prevent settlement of solids,
and (3) to remove aerophilic minerals in
froth flotation by binding them
into a mineralized froth that is temporarily
stabilized by frothing
agents. Pryor, 1
c. The process of relieving the effects of
cavitation by admitting air to
the section affected. Seelye, 1
aeration zone
The zone in which the interstices of the
functional permeable rocks are
not (except temporarily) filled with water
under hydrostatic pressure; the
interstices are either not filled with water
or are filled with water that
is held by capillarity. Rice, 1
aerator
An apparatus for charging water with gas
under pressure, esp. with carbon
dioxide. Standard, 2
aerial
Relating to the air or atmosphere.
Subaerial is applied to phenomena
occurring under the atmosphere as
subaqueous is applied to phenomena
occurring underwater. Fay

aerial cableway
An arrangement of overhead cable
supporting a traveling carriage from
which is suspended a skip or container
that can be lowered and raised at
any desired point. Nelson
aerial mapping
The taking of aerial photographs for
making maps and for geologic
interpretation. AGI
aerial photograph
Any photograph taken from the air, such
as a photograph of a part of the
Earth's surface taken by a camera mounted
in an aircraft.
aerial railroad
A system of cables from which to suspend
cars or baskets, as in hoisting
ore.
aerial ropeway
System of ore transport used in rough or
mountainous country. A cable is
carried on pylons, and loaded buckets are
(1) towed from loading point to
discharge, (2) suspended from a carriage
running on this cable and then
returned empty along a second cable, or
(3) the whole cable moves
continuously carrying buckets that hang
from saddle clips and are loaded
and discharged automatically or by hand
control.
aerial spud
A cable for moving and anchoring a
dredge. Fay
27
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
aerial survey
a. A survey using aerial photographs as
part of the surveying operation.
AGI
b. The taking of aerial photographs for
surveying purposes. AGI

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aerial tramway
A system for the transportation of
material, such as ore or rock, in
buckets suspended from pulleys or
grooved wheels that run on a cable,
usually stationary..
Fay; Peele
aerobe
An organism that lives in the presence of
free oxygen. The oxygen is
usually used in the cell's
metabolism.:aerobic
aerobic
a. Said of an organism (esp. a bacterium)
that can live only in the
presence of free oxygen; also, said of its
activities.
AGI
b. Said of conditions that can exist only in
the presence of free oxygen.
CF:anaerobic
aeroclay
Clay, particularly china clay, that has been
dried and air separated to
remove any coarse particles. Dodd
aerodynamical efficiency
This furnishes a measure of the capacity
of a fan to produce useful
depression (or positive pressure in the
case of a forcing fan) and
indicates the extent to which the total
pressure produced by the fan is
absorbed within the fan itself. Sinclair, 1
aerodynamic diameter
The diameter of a unit density sphere
having the same terminal settling
velocity as the particle in question. ANSI
aerodynamic fan
A fan that consists of several streamlined
blades mounted in a revolving
casing. The cross section and spacing of
the blades are designed
aerodynamically. This design ensures that
the air flows without
recirculation between the blades and
leaves the rotor in a steady and
regularly distributed stream. This
appreciably reduces frictional,
conversion, and recirculation losses. Fans
of a convenient size can handle
large volumes of air at the highest
pressures likely to be required in
mine ventilation.
aerodynamic instability
Flutter that may occur in a structure
exposed to wind force. This form of
instability can be guarded against by
suitable design. Hammond
aeroembolism
a. The formation or liberation of gases in
the blood vessels of the body,
as brought on by a change from a high, or
relatively high, atmospheric
pressure to a lower one. Hunt
b. The disease or condition caused by the
formation or liberation of gases
in the body. The disease is characterized
28
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
principally by neuralgic pains,
cramps, and swelling, and sometimes
results in death.

aerofall mill

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A short, cylindrical grinding mill with a
large diameter, used dry, with
coarse lumps of ore, pebbles, or steel balls
as crushing bodies. The mill
load is flushed with an air stream to
remove finish mesh material.
Pryor, 3
aerofloc
Synthetic water-soluble polymer used as a
flocculating agent.
Bennett
aerofoil-vane fan
An improved centrifugal-type mine fan.
The vanes, of aerofoil section, are
curved backward from the direction of
rotation. This fan is popular in
British coal mines, and total efficiencies
of about 90% have been
obtained.
aerohydrous
a. Enclosing a liquid in the pores or
cavities, as some minerals.
Standard, 2
b. Characterized by the presence of both
air and water.
Standard, 2
aeroides
Pale sky-blue aquamarine beryl.

aeromagnetic prospecting
A technique of geophysical exploration of
an area using an airborne
magnetometer to survey that area.
AGI
aerometer
An instrument for ascertaining the weight
or the density of air or other
gases. Webster 3rd
aerial railroad
A system of cables from which to suspend
cars or baskets, as in hoisting
ore.
aerial ropeway
System of ore transport used in rough or
mountainous country. A cable is
carried on pylons, and loaded buckets are
(1) towed from loading point to
discharge, (2) suspended from a carriage
running on this cable and then
returned empty along a second cable, or
(3) the whole cable moves
continuously carrying buckets that hang
from saddle clips and are loaded
and discharged automatically or by hand
control.
Pryor, 3
aerial spud
A cable for moving and anchoring a
dredge. Fay
aerial survey
a. A survey using aerial photographs as
part of the surveying operation.
AGI
29
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
b. The taking of aerial photographs for
surveying purposes. AGI
aerial tramway

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A system for the transportation of
material, such as ore or rock, in
buckets suspended from pulleys or
grooved wheels that run on a cable,
usually stationary.
Fay; Peele
aerobe
An organism that lives in the presence of
free oxygen. The oxygen is
usually used in the cell's metabolism.
aerobic
a. Said of an organism (esp. a bacterium)
that can live only in the
presence of free oxygen; also, said of its
activities.
AGI
b. Said of conditions that can exist only in
the presence of free oxygen.
CF:anaerobic
aeroclay
Clay, particularly china clay, that has been
dried and air separated to
remove any coarse particles. Dodd
aerodynamical efficiency
This furnishes a measure of the capacity
of a fan to produce useful
depression (or positive pressure in the
case of a forcing fan) and
indicates the extent to which the total
pressure produced by the fan is
absorbed within the fan itself. Sinclair, 1

aerodynamic diameter
The diameter of a unit density sphere
having the same terminal settling
velocity as the particle in question. ANSI
aerodynamic fan
A fan that consists of several streamlined
blades mounted in a revolving
casing. The cross section and spacing of
the blades are designed
aerodynamically. This design ensures that
the air flows without
recirculation between the blades and
leaves the rotor in a steady and
regularly distributed stream. This
appreciably reduces frictional,
conversion, and recirculation losses. Fans
of a convenient size can handle
large volumes of air at the highest
pressures likely to be required in
mine ventilation.
aerodynamic instability
Flutter that may occur in a structure
exposed to wind force. This form of
instability can be guarded against by
suitable design. Hammond
aeroembolism
a. The formation or liberation of gases in
the blood vessels of the body,
as brought on by a change from a high, or
relatively high, atmospheric
pressure to a lower one. Hunt
b. The disease or condition caused by the
formation or liberation of gases
in the body. The disease is characterized
principally by neuralgic pains,
cramps, and swelling, and sometimes
results in death.

30
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
aerofall mill

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A short, cylindrical grinding mill with a
large diameter, used dry, with
coarse lumps of ore, pebbles, or steel balls
as crushing bodies. The mill
load is flushed with an air stream to
remove finish mesh material.
Pryor, 3
aerofloc
Synthetic water-soluble polymer used as a
flocculating agent.
Bennett
aerofoil-vane fan
An improved centrifugal-type mine fan.
The vanes, of aerofoil section, are
curved backward from the direction of
rotation. This fan is popular in
British coal mines, and total efficiencies
of about 90% have been
obtained.
aerohydrous
a. Enclosing a liquid in the pores or
cavities, as some minerals.
Standard, 2
b. Characterized by the presence of both
air and water.
Standard, 2
aeroides
Pale sky-blue aquamarine beryl.
aeromagnetic prospecting
A technique of geophysical exploration of
an area using an airborne
magnetometer to survey that area.
AGI
aerometer
An instrument for ascertaining the weight
or the density of air or other
gases. Webster 3rd
aerosite
Former name for pyrargyrite.
aerosol
a. A suspension of ultramicroscopic solid
or liquid particles in air or
gas, as smoke, fog, or mist. Webster 3rd
b. Particles, solid or liquid, suspended in
air. ANSI
c. A sol in which the dispersion medium is
a gas (usually air) and the
dispersed or colloidal phase consists of
solid particles or liquid
droplets, e.g., mist, haze, most smoke, and
some fog. AGI
Aerosol
Trade name of strong wetting agent based
on sulfonated bi-carboxy-acid
esters. Pryor, 3
aerugite
A grass-green to brown nickel arsenate,
perhaps Ni
17
As
6
O
32
; an analysis gave 48.77% nickel. It is
an oxidized vein mineral.
Hess
aerugo
a. Copper carbonate, due to weathering of
the metal; esp., the patina
adhering to old bronzes. Hess
b. Copper rust; verdigris; esp., green
copper rust adhering to old
bronzes. Standard, 2
31
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
aeschynite
An orthorhombic mineral,
(Ce,Ca,Fe,Th)(Ti,Nb)
2
(O,OH)
6
;
radioactive; occurs in black sands and
pegmatites.

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aethiops mineral
A former name for metacinnabar;
isometric HgS .
aetite
a. A nodule consisting of a hard shell of
hydrated iron oxide within which
yellow iron oxide becomes progressively
softer toward the center, which
may be hollow. Fay
b. See:eaglestone
affinity
In ion exchange, relative strength of
attachment of competing ions for
anchorage on a resin. Pryor, 3
A-frame
a. Two poles or legs supported in an
upright position by braces or guys
and used as a drill mast. Long
b. An open structure tapering from a wide
base to a narrow load-bearing
top. Nichols, 2
A-frame headgear
A steel headgear consisting of two heavy
plate A-frames, set astride the
shaft mouth. They are braced together and
carry the heavy girders that
support the winding sheaves platform. It is
a completely self-supporting
and rigid structure that leaves usable space
around the shaft collar and
includes a guide-tower structure built over
the shaft collar. A number of
these headgears have been erected in the
Republic of South Africa.
Nelson
African emerald
a. A deceiving name for green fluor; also
for green tourmaline.
b. An emerald from the Transvaal. It is
usually quite yellowish green;
often dark and dull. Hardness, 7.5; sp gr,
2.72 to 2.79; refractive index,
1.58 to 1.59; birefringence, 0.007.
c. A term variously used for southern
African emeralds (beryl), green
tourmaline, and other green gemstones
from this region.
afterblast
During an explosion of methane and
oxygen, carbon dioxide and steam are
formed. When the steam condenses to
water a partial vacuum is created,
which causes an inrush or what is known
as an afterblast. Cooper
afterblow
Continued blowing of air through
Bessemer converter after flame has
dropped, for removal of phosphorus in
steel production. Pryor, 3
afterbreak
In mine subsidence, a movement from the
sides, the material sliding
inward, and following the main break,
assumed to be at right angles to the
plane of the seam. The amount of this
movement depends on several factors,
such as the dip, depth of seam, and nature
32
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
of overlying materials.
Lewis
afterburst
a. A tremor as the ground adjusts itself to
the new stress distribution
caused by new underground openings.
b. In underground mining, a sudden
collapse of rock subsequent to a rock
burst.
aftercooler
A device for cooling compressed air
between the compressor and the mine
shaft. By cooling and dehumidifying the
air, and thus reducing its volume,
the capacity and efficiency of the pipeline
are increased.
Nelson
afterdamp
The mixture of gases that remain in a
mine after a mine fire or an
explosion of combustible gases. It consists
of carbonic acid gas, water
vapor (quickly condensed), nitrogen,
oxygen, carbon monoxide, and in some
cases free hydrogen, but usually consists
principally of carbonic acid gas
and nitrogen, and is therefore irrespirable.
Fay
aftergases
Gases produced by mine explosions or
mine fires. Fay
aftershock
An earthquake that follows a larger
earthquake or main shock and
originates at or near the focus of the larger
earthquake. Generally, major
earthquakes are followed by many
aftershocks, which decrease in frequency
and magnitude with time. Such a series of
aftershocks may last many days
for small earthquakes or many months for
large ones. CF:foreshock
AGI
aftersliding
In mine subsidence, an inward movement
from the side, resulting in a pull
or draw beyond the edges of the workings.
Briggs
afwillite
A monoclinic mineral, Ca
3
Si
2
O
4
(OH)
6
;
it is
formed as portland cement is hydrated
under special conditions, and where
calcium silicate is autoclaved (as in sand-
lime brick manufacture).
agalite
A fine fibrous variety of talc
pseudomorphous after enstatite.
agalmatolite
A soft, waxy stone--such as pinite,
pyrophyllite, or steatite--of a gray,
green, yellow, or brown shade; used by
the Chinese to simulate jade for
carving small images, miniature pagodas,
and similar objects.
agardite
A hexagonal mineral, (RE,Ca)Cu
6
(AsO
4

)
3
(OH)
6

.3H
2
O ; mixite group. Lanthanum,
yttrium, or cerium may
predominate among the rare earths.

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33
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
agaric mineral
a. A soft, pulverulent hydrated silicate of
magnesium in Tuscany, IT, from
which floating bricks can be made. Fay
b. A light, chalky deposit of calcium
carbonate formed in caverns or
fissures in limestone.
agate
a. A kind of silica consisting mainly of
chalcedony in variegated bands or
other patterns; commonly occupying vugs
in volcanic and other rocks.
AGI
b. A translucent cryptocrystalline variety
of variegated chalcedony
commonly mixed or alternating with opal
and characterized by colors
arranged in alternating stripes or bands, in
irregular clouds, or in
mosslike forms; occurs in virtually all
colors, generally of low
intensity, in vugs in volcanic rocks and
cavities in some other rocks.
CF:onyx, moss agate.
agate jasper
An impure variety of agate consisting of
jasper with veins of chalcedony.
agate opal
Opalized agate. Fay
agatized wood
A variety of silicified wood which
resembles any variety of agate.
age
a. The formal geochronologic unit of
lowest rank, below epoch, during
which the rocks of the corresponding
stage were formed. AGI
b. A term used informally to designate a
length of geologic time during
which the rocks of any stratigraphic unit
were formed. AGI
c. A division of time of unspecified
duration in the history of the Earth,
characterized by a dominant or important
type of life form; e.g., the age
of mammals. AGI
d. The time during which a particular
geologic event or series of events
occurred or was marked by special
physical conditions; e.g., the Ice Age.
AGI
e. The position of anything in the geologic
time scale; e.g., the rocks of
Miocene age. It is often expressed in
years.
AGI
Agecroft device
A device placed in the rail track to arrest a
forward runaway tram. The
front axle of a descending tram traveling
at normal speed depresses the
catch and allows it to drop back in time
for the back axle to pass over.
Should the tram be traveling at excessive
speed, the tail end of the catch
arrests the rear axle. Mason
agent
a. The manager of a mining property. Zern
b. On a civil engineering contract, the
responsible representative of the
contractor, acting for him or her in all
matters. Hammond
c. Before nationalization in Great Britain,
the term referred to the chief
official of a large coal mine or group of
mines under the same ownership.
After nationalization, the equivalent term

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34
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
is group manager.
Nelson
d. A chemical added to pulp to produce
desired changes in climate of the
system. Pryor, 3
age ratio

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The ratio of daughter to parent isotope
upon which the age equation is
based. For a valid age determination, (1)
the isotope system must have
remained closed since solidification,
metamorphism, or sedimentation, (2)
the decay constant must be known, and (3)
the sample must be truly
representative of the rock from which it is
taken. AGI
agglomerate belt flotation
A coarse-fraction concentration method
used in milling pebble phosphate in
which conditioned feed at 70% to 75%
solids is placed on a flat conveyor
belt traveling at a rate of about 75 ft/min
(22.9 m/min). Water sprayed on
the surface of the pulp aerates the pulp,
causing agglomerates of
phosphate particles to float to the side of
the belt for removal. The
silica fraction travels the length of the belt
and is permitted to flow
off the opposite end. Baffles are
positioned at appropriate points along
the belt to stir the material so that trapped
phosphate particles are
given an opportunity to float. Concentrate
from the first belts or rougher
operation is cleaned on a second belt for
further silica removal. Tailings
from the cleaner belt are recycled to the
rougher circuit. Arbiter

agglomerate screening
A coarse-fraction concentration method
used in milling pebble phosphate
that is based on flowing reagentized feed
over a submerged sloping,
stationary screen. Agglomerated
phosphate particles float on top of the
screen and are recovered at the lower end.
Sand particles pass through the
screen and are removed as a tailings
fraction. Each screen section is
approx. 3 ft (0.9 m) wide by 4 ft (1.2 m)
long and treats 2 to 3 st/h (1.8
to 2.7 t/h) of feed. Arbiter
agglomerating value
A measure of the binding qualities of coal
but restricted to describe the
results of coke-button tests in which no
inert material is heated with the
coal sample. CF:agglutinating value
agglomeration
a. In beneficiation, a concentration
process based on the adhesion of pulp
particles to water. Loosely bonded
associations of particles and bubbles
are formed that are heavier than water;
flowing-film gravity concentration
is used to separate the agglomerates from
nonagglomerated particles.
Agglomeration also refers to briquetting,
nodulizing, sintering, etc.
Gaudin, 1
b. See:kerosine flotation
agglutinate
A welded pyroclastic deposit
characterized by vitric material binding
the pyroclasts, or sintered vitric
pyroclasts. Also spelled agglutinite.
AGI
35
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
agglutinating power
See:caking index
agglutinating value
A measure of the binding qualities of a
coal and an indication of its
caking or coking characteristics.
Applicable with reference to the ability
of fused coal to combine with an inert
material such as sand.
CF:agglomerating value
agglutinating-value test
A laboratory test of the coking properties
of coal, in which a
determination is made of the strength of
buttons made by coking a mixture
of powdered coal and 15 to 30 times its
weight of sand.
agglutination
See:cementation
aggradation
a. The building up of the Earth's surface
by deposition; specif., the
upbuilding performed by a stream in order
to establish or maintain
uniformity of grade or slope.
b. A syn. of accretion, as in the
development of a beach. The spread or
growth of permafrost, under present
climatic conditions, due to natural or
artificial causes. AGI
aggregate
a. A mass or body of rock particles,
mineral grains, or a mixture of both.
AGI
b. Any of several hard, inert materials,
such as sand, gravel, slag, or
crushed stone, mixed with a cement or
bituminous material to form
concrete, mortar, or plaster, or used alone,
as in railroad ballast or
graded fill. The term can include rock
material used as chemical or
metallurgical fluxstone.; lightweight
aggregate. AGI
aging
A change in the properties of a substance
with time. precipitation hardening. Nelson
Agitair flotation machine
Uses air to separate aerophilic and
hydrophilic particles. Low-pressure
air bubbles lift aerophilic particles to an
overflow, leaving hydrophilic
particles behind. Pryor, 3
agitation dredging
Consists of pumping the discharge
directly into the sea and using the tide
to carry the fines to deeper water areas.
Agitation dredging is employed
only during ebb tide in tidal estuaries
having swift tidal flows that will
disperse the accumulations of silt. Carson,
2
agitation ratio
In older type gravity concentrators, such
as tables and vanners, the ratio
between the average diameter of a mineral
particle and the diameter of a
gangue particle that travels at equal speed.
agitator
a. A tank in which very finely crushed ore
is agitated with leaching

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36
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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solution. Usually accomplished by means
of a current of compressed air
passing up a central pipe and causing
circulation of the contents of the
tank. Sometimes called a mixer. CTD
b. A device used to stir or mix grout or
drill mud. Not to be confused
with shaker or shale shaker. Long
c. A device used to bring about a
continuous vigorous disturbance in a
pulp; frequently used to assist bubble
formation. BS, 5
d. Pac. See:settler
aglaite
A pseudomorph of spodumene in which
the spodumene has been replaced by
muscovite either as pinite or as visible
plates. Also called pihlite and
cymatolite in the belief that the material
was a new mineral. Hess
agmatite
Migmatite with appearance of breccia.
CF:contact breccia
agnesite
An early name for bismutite, Cornwall,
U.K. Fay
agonic line
An isogonic line that connects points of
zero magnetic declination. Its
position changes according to the secular
variation of the Earth's
magnetic field.
agreement
The formal document by which the
contractor and the authority mutually
agree to comply with the requirements of
the drawings, specification,
schedule, conditions of tendering, and
general conditions of contract and
the tender.
agricolite
A former name for eulytite.
agricultural geology
The application of geology to agricultural
needs, e.g., mineral deposits
used as fertilizers or the location of
ground water.
AGI
agricultural lime
a. Either ground quicklime or hydrated
lime whose calcium and magnesium
content is capable of neutralizing soil
acidity. ASTM
b. Lime slaked with a minimum amount of
water to form calcium hydroxide.
CCD, 2
agrite
A brown, mottled calcareous stone.
Schaller
agrogeology
See:agricultural geology
aguilarite
An orthorhombic mineral, Ag
4
SeS .
ahlfeldite
A monoclinic mineral, NiSeO
3
.2H
2
O;
forms a series with
cobaltomenite; rose colored; vitreous
luster; no cleavage; conchoidal
37
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
fracture; strongly pleochroic, X rose, Y
pale green, Z brown green; from
Pacajake, Bolivia. Am. Mineral., 1
A-horizon
In a soil profile, the uppermost zone from
which soluble salts and
colloids have been leached and in which
organic matter has accumulated.

aikinite
a. An orthorhombic mineral, PbCuBiS
3
;
sp gr, 6.1 to 6.8; an ore of
lead, copper, and bismuth.;
acicular bismuth; aciculite.
b. Wolframite pseudomorphous after
scheelite.
aimafibrite
See:hemafibrite
AIME
American Institute of Mining and
Metallurgical Engineers.
Statistical Research Bureau
air
a. The mixture of gases that surrounds the
Earth and forms its atmosphere;
composed by volume of 21% oxygen and
78% nitrogen; by weight about 23%
oxygen and 77% nitrogen. It also contains
about 0.03% carbon dioxide, some
aqueous vapor, argon, and other gases.
Hartman, 1
b. The current of atmospheric air
circulating through and ventilating the
workings of a mine.
c. Atmospheric air delivered under
compression to bottom of drill hole
through the drill stem and used in place of
water to clear the drill bit
of cuttings and to blow them out of the
borehole. Long
d. Air piped under compression to work
areas and used to operate drilling
or mining machinery.
airafibrite
See:hemafibrite
air-avid surface
A surface that seems to prefer contact
with air to contact with water. A
particle (or mineral) of this sort will
adhere to an air bubble and float
out of a flotation pulp; otherwise, the
particle will not float. Also
called water-repellent surface;
hydrophobic. CF:water-avid surface
Newton, 1
air barrage
The division of an opening in a mine by
an airtight wall into two sides;
one side is used as an air intake, the other
side as a return.
air bell
In froth flotation, the small air pocket
inducted or forced into the pulp
at depth; e.g., bell and the two-walled
semistable bubble after emergence
from pulp into froth have different
characteristics and gas-to-liquid,
area-to-volume relationships, hence the
distinction. These bubbles vary in
attractive and retaining power for
aerophilic grains and are a critical
component of the flotation process.


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38
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
Electromagnetic surveys carried out with
airborne instruments.
Dobrin
air belt
In a cupola furnace, an annular air space
around the furnace, from which
air is forced into the furnace. Henderson airborne magnetic prospecting
See:aeromagnetic prospecting airblast
a. A term improperly used by some
diamond drillers as a syn. for air
circulation.
b. A disturbance in underground workings
accompanied by a strong rush of
air. The rush of air, at times explosive in
force, is caused by the
ejection of air from large underground
openings, the sudden fall of large
masses of rock, the collapse of pillars,
slippage along a fault, or a
strong current of air pushed outward from
the source of an explosion.
Long
airborne magnetometer
An instrument used to measure variations
in the Earth's magnetic field
while being transported by an aircraft.
AGI
air box
a. A rectangular wooden pipe or tube
made in lengths of 9 to 15 ft (2.7 to
4.6 m) for ventilating a heading or a
sinking shaft. Fay
b. A box for holding air. Fay
c. The conduit through which air for
heating rooms is supplied to a
furnace. Standard, 2
airblasting
A method of blasting in which
compressed air at very high pressure is
piped to a steel shell in a shot hole and
discharged. BS, 12
air breakers
A method of breaking down coal by the
use of high-pressure compressed air.
McAdam, 2 air block
Air trapped in the upper end of an
unvented inner tube of a double-tube
core barrel, which, when sufficiently
compressed, acts like a solid and
stops further advance of core into the
inner tube.
Long
air brick
A hollow or pierced brick built into a wall
to allow the passage of air.
air bridge
A passage through which a ventilating
current is conducted over an entry
or air course; an overcast.
airborne electromagnetic prospecting

To Go At Beginning Of The Dictionary

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39
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

N
needle
a. A piece of copper or brass about 0.5 in
(1.3 cm) in diameter and 3 ft
or 4 ft (0.9 m to 1.2 m) long, pointed at
one end, and turned into a
handle at the other, tapering from the
handle to the point. It is thrust
into a charge of blasting powder in a
borehole, and while in this position
the borehole is tamped solid, preferably
with moist clay. The needle is
then withdrawn carefully, leaving a
straight passageway through the
tamping for the miner's squib to shoot or
fire the charge. Fay
b. A timber set on end to close an opening
for the control of water; it
may be either vertical or inclined; a form
of stop plank.
Seelye, 1
c. A small metal rod for making the
touchhole in the powder used for
blasting.
d. A hitch cut in the side rock to receive
the end of a timber.
needle bearing
An antifriction bearing using very small-
diameter rollers between wide
faces. Nichols, 1
needled
Pocketed, as when face bars are set with
the face end of the bar pocketed
into the coal adjacent to the roof. TIME
needle instrument
Any surveying instrument controlled by a
magnetic needle.
needle ore
a. Iron ore of very high metallic luster,
found in small quantities, which
may be separated into long, slender
filaments resembling needles.
AGI
b. See:aikinite
needles
Elongated crystals, tapering at each end to
a fine point, as those typical
of martensite. Rolfe
needle traverse
In a survey with a dial (compass), use of a
magnetic needle to read the
bearing of lines. Opposite is fast needle
traverse or work, and refers to
the use of a dial as in traversing with a
theodolite, where proximity of
iron might deflect the needle. Systems can
be combined, using needle
readings where iron is absent. Also called
swinging needle traverse; loose
needle traverse. Pryor, 3


negative crystal

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40
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
a. A birefringent crystal in which the
refractive index of the
extraordinary ray is less than that of the
ordinary ray.
b. A cavity within a crystal bounded by
the crystal faces of that crystal.


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negative element
A large structural feature or portion of the
Earth's crust, characterized
through a long period of geologic time by
frequent and conspicuous
downward movement (subsidence,
submergence), extensive erosion, or an
uplift that is considerably less rapid or less
frequent than those of
adjacent positive elements. AGI
negative elongation
Lathlike, rodlike, or acicular crystals in
which the slow polarized light
ray lies across the long direction of the
crystal.
CF:positive elongation
negative moment
See:hogging moment
negative rake
a. The orientation of a cutting tool in such
a manner that the angle
formed by the leading face of the tool and
the surface behind the cutting
edge is greater than 90 degrees .
b. Describes a tooth face in rotation whose
cutting edge lags the surface
of the tooth face.

negligence
In a legal sense, a failure upon the part of
a mine operator to observe
for the protection of the interests of the
miner that degree of care,
precaution, and vigilance that the
circumstances justly demand, whereby
the miner suffers injury. Ricketts
neighborite
An orthorhombic mineral, NaMgF
3
;
insoluble; forms rounded grains
or pseudo-octahedral crystals; associated
with dolomite and quartz in oil
shale within the Green River Formation,
UT.
nekton
A biological division made up of all the
swimming animals found in the
pelagic division. Hy
Nelson Davis separator
A cylindrical dense-medium washer
developed in the United States. It uses
a magnetite water suspension as medium.
The bath resembles a drum in
shape, its longitudinal axis being
horizontal; within the stationary outer
casing there is a rotor divided into
compartments. Raw coal is fed near
the top of the separator, and separation
takes place as the rotor
revolves. The machine produces clean
coal and shale; the magnetite is
recovered. It can handle coal up to 10 in
(254 mm) in size, the lower
limit being about 1/4 in (6.4 mm).
Magnetite consumption runs at about 1/2
lb/st (0.25 kg/t) of feed.

nelsonite
41
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
A rock composed essentially of ilmenite
and apatite, with or without
rutile. The ratio of ilmenite to apatite
varies widely. CF:ilmenitite
nematoblastic

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Pertaining to the texture of a recrystallized
rock in which the shape of
the grains is threadlike.
neokerogen
Organic debris deposited among marine
sediments and modified by bacterial
action in such a way as to form the source
material of petroleum, or,
under certain conditions, to form the
kerogen of oil shales.
Tomkeieff
neolite
A silky, fibrous, stellated, green, hydrous
magnesium-aluminum silicate.
Standard, 2
Neolithic
In archaeology, the last division of the
Stone Age, characterized by the
development of agriculture and the
domestication of farm animals.
Correlation of relative cultural levels with
actual age (and, therefore,
with the time-stratigraphic units of
geology) varies from region to
region. Adj: pertaining to the Neolithic.
AGI
elivery strokes of the piston. Crispin

neomineralization
Chemical interchange within a rock
whereby its mineral constituents are
converted into new mineral species; a type
of recrystallization.
AGI
neomorphic
Said of the mineral grains of a rock that
have been regenerated by zones
of secondary growth in crystalline
continuity. The new material may have
been deposited from solutions or from
molten fluids.
neoprene plug closure
The function of the neoprene plug is to
provide a completely waterproof
seal at the open end of the detonator.
Moisture penetration could cause
desensitization of the explosive charge in
the detonator, and in the case
of copper-tubed detonators, moisture
could produce a potentially dangerous
chemical reaction between the lead azide
and the copper. McAdam, 2
nepheline
A hexagonal mineral, (Na,K)AlSiO
4
;
feldspathoid group; greasy
luster; forms glassy crystals, colorless
grains, coarse crystals with
prismatic cleavage, or masses without
cleavage; occurs in alkalic igneous
rocks; an essential constituent of some
sodium-rich rocks, e.g., nepheline
syenite. Formerly called nephelite;
eleolite.


nepheline syenite
42
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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A plutonic rock composed essentially of
alkali feldspar and nepheline. It
may contain an alkali ferromagnesian
mineral, such as an amphibole
(riebeckite, arfvedsonite, barkevikite) or a
pyroxene (acmite or
acmite-augite); the intrusive equivalent of
phonolite. Sodalite,
cancrinite, hauyne, and nosean, in addition
to apatite, sphene, and opaque
oxides, are common accessories. Rare
minerals are also frequent
accessories. AGI
nephelinite
A fine-grained or porphyritic extrusive or
hypabyssal rock, of basaltic
character, but primarily composed of
nepheline and clinopyroxene, esp.
titanaugite, and lacking olivine and
feldspar. AGI
nephelinitoid
A nepheline-rich groundmass in an
igneous rock; the glassy groundmass in
nepheline rocks. AGI
nephelinization
The process of introduction of or
replacement by nepheline. AGI
nephelometry
The measurement of the cloudiness of a
medium; esp. the determination of
the concentration or particle sizes of a
suspension by measuring, at more
than one angle, the scattering of light
transmitted or reflected by the
medium. CF:turbidimetry
nephrite
An exceptionally tough, compact, fine-
grained, greenish or bluish variety
of amphibole (specif. tremolite or
actinolite) constituting the less rare
or valuable kind of jade.; greenstone.
neptunian dike
A dike filled by sediment, generally sand,
in contrast to a plutonic dike
filled by volcanic materials.
neptunian theory
See:neptunism
neptunism
The theory, advocated by A. G. Werner in
the 18th century, that the rocks
of the Earth's crust all consist of material
deposited sequentially from,
or crystallized out of, water. Etymol:
Neptune, Roman god of waters.
CF:plutonism
neptunite
A monoclinic mineral, KNa
2
Li(Fe,Mn)
2

Ti
2
Si
8

O
24
; forms red to black prismatic crystals;
occurs in late stages
of reduced, silica-deficient environments;
e.g., alkaline igneous rocks
and veins in serpentinite.
neritic
Pertaining to the shallow seas; for
accumulations of shells, but sometimes
for the whole environment of deposition
on the continental shelf.
Challinor
neritic zone
43
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
That part of the sea floor extending from
the low tide line to a depth of
200 m.
Nernst film

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In ion exchange, the diffusion-layer
supposed to surround a bead of resin.
This static film is reduced, or diffusion
through it is accelerated, if
agitation of the ambient liquor is
increased, if temperature is raised, or
if concentration of ions in solution is
made greater. Pryor, 3
nero-antico
A black marble found in Roman ruins,
probably from the Taenarian
peninsula, Greece.
nesquehonite
An orthorhombic mineral, Mg(HCO
3

)(OH).2H
2
O ; forms
low-temperature efflorescences,
particularly as an alteration product of
lansfordite. Named for a coal mine at
Nesquehoning, PA.
ness
A British term used esp. in Scotland for a
promontory, headland, or cape,
or any point or projection of the land into
the sea; commonly used as a
suffix to a place name, e.g., Fifeness. Also
called nose. AGI
nest
a. A concentration of some relatively
conspicuous element of a geologic
feature, such as a nest of inclusions in an
igneous rock or a small,
pocketlike mass of ore or mineral within
another formation. AGI
b. A fitting of the next-smaller-size casing
inside the casing already set
in a borehole, or of one tube inside
another.
nested variogram model
A model that is the sum of two or more
component models, such as nugget,
spherical, etc. Adding a nugget
component to one of the other models is
the most common nested model, but more
complex combinations are
occasionally used.
net
a. Scot. Strapping used for lowering or
raising horses in shafts.
Fay
b. A plane of points each with identical
point surroundings.
CF:space lattice; lattice.
net calorific value
The heat produced by combustion of unit
quantity of a solid or liquid fuel
when burned, at a constant pressure of 1
atm (0.1 MPa), under conditions
such that all the water in the products
remains in the form of vapor. Net
heat of combustion at constant pressure is
expressed as Q
p
(net).
ASTM
net-corrected fill
Net fill after making allowance for
shrinkage during compaction.
Nichols, 1

net cut
44
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
The amount of excavated material to be
removed from a road section, after
completing fills in that section. Nichols, 1
@A U U< eDICTIONARY
TERMS:net drilling time The rotating
time actually spent
[\B]net drilling time[\N]

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net fill
The fill required, less the cut required, at a
particular station or part
of a road. Nichols, 1
nether
The lower part of, as in nether roof;
opposite of the term "upper."
TIME
nether roof
a. The strata directly over a coal seam.
The props set at the face hold
only the nether roof. E.g., if the props
carry a load of 20 st (18.1 mt)
each and are set 4 ft (1.2 m) apart each
way, the supported weight is 1.5
st/ft
2
(14.6 t/m
2
).;
absolute roof; overarching weight;
immediate roof. Nelson
b. In mine subsidence, the immediate roof
of limited depth, such as timber
might be expected to support. Briggs
nether strata
The roof and strata immediately above the
coal. Mason
net slip
On a fault, the distance between two
formerly adjacent points on either
side of the fault, measured on the fault
surface or parallel to it. It
defines both the direction and relative
amount of displacement.
AGI
net texture
See:network structure
Nettleton method
An indirect means of density
determination in which a closely spaced
gravity traverse is run over some
topographic feature, such as a small
hill or valley. When the profile of
observed values is plotted, the
gravitational effect of the feature itself is
calculated at each
observation point along the profile and
removed from the observed value
for that point. The calculation is repeated
a number of times, different
densities being assumed for each
computation. The density value at which
the hill is least conspicuous on the gravity
profile is considered to be
most nearly correct. Dobrin
net unit value
The difference between the gross unit
recoverable value and the cost of
mining, treating, and marketing ore; in
other words, the net operating
profit.
Nelson
network
a. Esp. in surveying and gravity
prospecting, a pattern or configuration
of stations, often so arranged as to provide
a check on the consistency of
the measured values. AGI
b. In ventilation surveys, the multiple
development openings, haulage
45
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
ways, and working faces that constitute
the ventilation system of a mine.
Hartman, 2
network deposit
See:stockwork

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network structure
A structure in which one constituent
occurs primarily at the grain
boundaries, thus partially or completely
enveloping the grains of the
other constituent.
Neuenburg saw
A plow consisting of a 2-in (5.1-cm) steel
plate 6 ft by 20 in (1.8 m by
50.8 cm) of seven pieces hinged together
to follow floor rolls; picks on
the face edge cut in both directions. The
minimum workable seam is 14 in
(35.6 cm) on gradients of 35 degrees to 70
degrees . Maximum face length
is 80 yd (73.2 m). The machine is used in
the Ruhr. Nelson
neuk
The tailgate corner of a face behind the
face conveyor tension end.
Trist
Neumann lamellae
Straight, narrow bands parallel to the
crystallographic planes in the
crystals of metals that have been subjected
to deformation by sudden
impact. They are actually narrow twin
band, and are most frequently
observed in iron. CTD
neuropteris
A large tree-fern of the coal forest, with
trunks about 2 ft (0.6 m)
thick, containing several cylinders of
wood inside the stem instead of one
column of wood as in modern trees.
Nelson
neutral atmosphere
Atmosphere in which there is neither an
excess nor a deficiency of oxygen.
neutral axis
The line of zero fiber stress in any given
section of a member subject to
bending; it is the line formed by the
intersection of the neutral surface
and the section. Roark
neutral equilibrium
A body is said to be in neutral equilibrium
if on being slightly displaced
it remains in its new position; e.g., a ball
placed on a horizontal
surface or a cone supported on its side on
a horizontal surface.
Morris
neutralize
To add either an acid or alkali to a
solution until it is neither acid nor
alkaline. Gordon
neutral lining
Furnace lining of neutral refractories.
Osborne


neutral point
46
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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a. A neutral point in a wye-connected
alternating-current power system
means the connection point of transformer
or generator windings from which
the voltage to ground is nominally zero,
and which is the point generally
used for system grounding.
b. In titration, the point at which hydrogen
ions and hydroxyls are
approx. balanced, each at about 1 times
10
-7
molar. Since
color-change-indicating dyes do not all
react at this point, selection for
a given titration must be made with regard
to the required point of
change. Pryor, 3
neutral pressure
The hydrostatic pressure of the water in
the pore space of a soil.
Hammond
neutral refractory
a. A refractory that is neither strongly
basic nor strongly acid, such as
chrome, mullite, or carbon. ARI
b. A refractory that is resistant to chemical
attack by both acid and
basic slags, refractories, or fluxes at high
temperatures. ASTM
neutral salt
A salt in which all the hydrogen of the
hydroxyl groups of an acid is
replaced by a metal. Standard, 2
neutral salt effect
Reduction of ionization of a weak acid or
base by addition of ionizing
salt that contains one of the ions already
present; form of common ion
effect. Pryor, 3
neutral stress
The stress transmitted by the fluid that
fills the voids between particles
of a soil or rock mass; e.g., that part of the
total normal stress in a
saturated soil caused by the presence of
interstitial water.
AGI
neutral surface
The longitudinal surface of zero fiber
stress in a member subject to
bending; it contains the neutral axis of
every section. Roark
neutral zone
A strain-free area. CF:compression zone;
tension zone. Nelson
neutron
An uncharged elementary particle with a
mass that nearly equals that of
the proton. An isolated neutron is unstable
and decays with a half-life of
about 13 min into an electron, a proton,
and a neutrino. Neutrons sustain
the fission chain reaction in a nuclear
reactor. Lyman
neutron density
The number of neutrons per cubic
centimeter. Lyman
neutron-gamma log
A radioactivity log employing both
gamma and neutron-log curves. The
neutron log should respond best to porous
fluid-filled rock and the gamma
best to shale markers. AGI
47
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
neutron log

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Strip recording of the secondary
radioactivity arising from the
bombardment of the rocks around a
borehole by neutrons from a source being
caused to move through the borehole.
Used, generally in conjunction with
other types of logs, for the identification
of the fluid-bearing zones of
rocks.
Inst. Petrol.; AGI
neutron logging
A radioactivity logging method used in
boreholes in which a neutron source
provides neutrons that enter rock
formations and induce additional gamma
radiation, which is measured by use of an
ionization chamber. The gamma
radiation so induced is related to the
hydrogen content of the rock.
AGI
Nevadan orogeny
Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous
diastrophism in Western North America.
nevyanskite
A former name for iridosmine.
Newark Supergroup
Continental strata of Lower Jurassic or
Upper Triassic age in the Eastern
United States, consisting essentially of red
sandstone, shale, arkose, and
conglomerate, some 14,000 to 18,000 ft
(4.3 to 5.5 km) thick. The series
includes black shales with fish remains,
thin coal seams in Virginia and
North Carolina, and basaltic flows and
sills. CTD
Newaygo screen
A slanting screen in which the material to
be screened passes down. The
screen is kept in vibration by the impact of
a large number of small
hammers. Liddell
newjersite
Variety of resin. Tomkeieff
Newlyn datum
The mean sea level now used as the
British Ordnance Datum for leveling. It
was determined as the result of several
years' observations at Newlyn,
Cornwall, England, and differs at various
places by more than 0.3 m from
levels based on the Liverpool datum,
which it supersedes. Hammond
Newmann hearth
A modified Scotch hearth in which poking
or rabbling is done mechanically.
CTD
new miner training
In mining, mandatory training given the
miners having no previous mining
experience; includes instruction in the
statutory rights of miners and
their representatives, use of self-rescue
devices and respiratory devices
where appropriate, hazard recognition,
emergency procedures, electrical
hazards, first aid, walk around training,
and other health and safety
aspects of the tasks to which the person
will be assigned.
CF:refresher training; task training.
Federal Mine Safety
48
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
new sand
Newly mixed, but not unused, molders'
sand. Standard, 2
new scrap

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The material generated in the
manufacturing process of articles for
ultimate consumption; it includes
defective castings, clippings, turnings,
borings, drosses, slags, etc., that are
returned directly to the
manufacturing process or sold directly for
reprocessing.
Newtonian fluid
Term marking the distinction, made in
mineral processing that involves
agitation, between a truly viscous
(Newtonian) liquid and one in which
shear or apparent viscosity
(pseudoviscosity) varies with the
dimensions
of the containing system and the speed of
agitation. The latter type of
fluid is said to be non-Newtonian. Pryor,
3
Newton's law of gravitation
See:law of gravitation
New York rod
A leveling rod marked with narrow lines,
ruler fashion. Nichols, 1
N-frame brace
A diagonal brace in a square set. Fay
ngavite
A chondritic stony meteorite composed of
bronzite and olivine in a
friable, breccialike mass of chondrules.
AGI
niccolite
A former name for nickeline. Also spelled
nicolite.
.
Nicholls' technique
A technique used in the determination of
elastic constants of rock in
situ. Longitudinal and shear waves are
generated in rock by small
explosive charges in shallow drill holes.
Accelerometers and strain gages
are employed to measure arrival times for
both waves. From wave velocities
and measured density, Poisson's ratio,
modulus of elasticity, modulus of
rigidity, Lame's constant, and bulk
modulus can be calculated.
Lewis
nickel
a. An isometric mineral, elemental Ni;
hard; metallic; silver-white; a
native metal, esp. in meteorites; also
alloyed with iron in meteorites.
b. A silvery white, hard, malleable,
ductile, somewhat ferromagnetic
element. Symbol: Ni. It takes on a high
polish and is a fair conductor of
heat and electricity. Used for making
stainless steel and other
corrosion-resistant metals and is chiefly
valuable for the alloys it
forms. Also used extensively in coinage,
in desalination plants for
converting sea water into fresh water, and
in making nickel steel for
49
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
armor plate and burglar-proof vaults.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 3

nickel antimony glance
Sulfantimonide of nickel, crystallizing in
the cubic system. Also called
ullmannite. CMD
nickel bloom
A green hydrated and oxidized patina on
rock outcrops indicating the
existence of primary nickel minerals;
specif. annabergite (a nickel
arsenate). The term is also applied to
zaratite (a nickel carbonate) and
to morenosite (a nickel sulfate).
nickel carbonyl
A volatile compound of nickel, Ni(CO)
4
,
formed by passing carbon
monoxide over the heated metal. The
compound is decomposed into nickel and
carbon monoxide by further heating. It is
used on a large scale in
industry for the production of nickel from
its ores by the Mond process.
CTD
nickel glance
See:gersdorffite
nickel green
See:annabergite
nickeliferous
Containing nickel.
nickeline
a. A hexagonal mineral, 2[NiAs] ;
commonly contains antimony, cobalt,
iron, and sulfur; one of the chief ores of
nickel. Formerly called:
niccolite; nickelite; arsenical nickel;
copper nickel; kupfernickel.
b. The mineral group breithauptite,
freboldite, imgreite, langisite,
nickeline, sederholmite, sobolevskite,
stempflite, and sudburyite.
nickel iron
a. A mineral, NiFe, containing about 76%
nickel and found in meteorites.
Isometric. Dana, 4
b. The native alloy of nickel with iron in
meteorites.

nickelite
A former name for nickeline.
nickel ocher
An early name for annabergite. Fay
nickelous oxide
a. NiO; green, becoming yellow. Found in
nature as the mineral bunsenite.
Soluble in acids and in ammonium
hydroxide; insoluble in water; sp gr, 6.6
to 6.8. NiO absorbs oxygen at 400 degrees
C forming Ni
2
O
3

which is reduced to NiO at 600 degrees C.
Used in nickel salts and in
porcelain painting. CCD, 2
b. Isometric; green to black; molecular
weight, 74.71; melting point,
1,990 degrees C; sp gr, 6.67. Used for
painting on china.
Bennett; Handbook of Chemistry and
Physics, 2

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nickel oxide

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Comprises the two nickel oxides,
nickelous oxide (NiO) and nickelic oxide
(Ni
2
O
3
) , which are used extensively as
colorants in
glasses, glazes, and enamels. The use of
nickel oxide in enamels is
generally in the ground coat, in which it is
used with cobalt and
manganese. It is also used in cover coat
enamels to give what is known as
a daylight shade for reflector units.
Nickelic oxide imparts a color to
glass which is dependent upon the
character of the alkali present.
Nickelous oxide is used in glazes to
produce blues, greens, browns, and
yellows. Nickel oxide is also one of the
principal components of certain
type of ferrites, e.g, the nickel-zinc ferrite.

nickel plating
The deposition of a coating of metallic
nickel by electrolysis.
Nelson
nickel pyrite
See:millerite
nickel-skutterudite
An isometric mineral, NiAs
2-3
;
isostructural with skutterudite;
tin white; in intermediate-temperature
hydrothermal veins, particularly in
association with Co, Ni, Fe arsenides,
sulfarsenides, and native silver.

nickel vitriol
See:morenosite
nicking
a. The cutting of a vertical groove in a
seam to liberate coal after it
has been holed or undercut. Nelson
b. Used in wire-rope terminology to
describe the internal crosscutting of
wires within a rope. Sinclair, 5
c. The chipping of coal along the rib of an
entry or room, which is
usually the first indication of a squeeze.
Fay
d. A vertical cutting or shearing one side
of a face of coal. Also called
cut; cutting. Fay
nickings
Newc. The small coal produced in making
a nicking.Fay
nicol
a. Nicol prism.
b. Any apparatus that produces polarized
light, e.g., Nicol prism or
Polaroid..
nicolite
A former name for nickeline.
Nicol prism
A special prism for producing polarized
light, made from two pieces of
Iceland spar (calcite) cemented together
with Canada balsam. Light
entering the prism is split into two
polarized rays; of these, the
ordinary ray is totally reflected at the
balsam layer while the
extraordinary ray is able to pass through
the prism. In a petrological
microscope two Nicol prisms are
incorporated.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
Niggli's classification

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a. A classification of igneous rocks on the
basis of their chemical
composition, similar in some respects to
the norm system. It was proposed
in 1920 by the Swiss mineralogist Paul
Niggli. AGI
b. A classification of ore deposits, the
major groups being plutonic, or
intrusive, and volcanic, or extrusive. It
was proposed in 1929.
AGI
night emerald
See:evening emerald
night pair
Corn. Miners who work underground
during the night. The night shift.
Fay
night shift
The coal miners' shift from about 12:00
p.m. to 8:00 a.m. It may be a
coal-winning shift, but in general it is a
preparation or maintenance
shift. Nelson
nigritite
A product of the coalification of fix
bitumens rich in carbon; insoluble
or only slightly soluble in organic
solvents. It is subdivided into
polynigritite, humonigritite, exinonigritite,
and keronigritite.
Tomkeieff
nil
Nothing; zero. Often used in reporting
gold and silver assays.
Webster 3rd; Fay
nine-inch straight
A standard 9-in by 4-1/2-in by 2-1/2-in
(22.9-cm by 11.4-cm by 6.4-cm)
straight brick.
nine-point sample
Final sample taken for test when a small
quantity of finely ground mineral
is required for assay. A suitable quantity
of dry material is thoroughly
mixed on glazed cloth or paper, if
necessary, being rolled lightly with a
round bottle to break down any floccules.
It is then flattened to a disk
and eight equal segments are marked out
diametrically with a spatula.
Approx. equal quantities are taken from
each segment and from the center,
making the nine points of withdrawal.
Pryor, 3
ningyoite
An orthorhombic mineral, (U,Ca,Ce)
2

(PO
4
)
2
.1-2H
2
O ; rhabdophane group; occurs in an
unoxidized zone of the
Ningyo-toge Mine, Tottori prefecture,
Japan.
niobite
See:columbite
niobium
A shiny, white, soft, and ductile metallic
element. Symbol, Nb (niobium)
or Cb (columbium). The name niobium
was adopted by the International Union
52
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Many
chemical societies and government
organizations refer to it as niobium, but
most metallurgists, metals
societies, and commercial producers still
refer to the metal as columbium.
Found in niobite (or columbite), niobite-
tantalite, pyrochlore, and
euxenite. Used as an alloying agent in
carbon and alloy steels, in
nonferrous metals, and in superconductive
magnets.
niobium boride
One of several compounds that have been
reported, including the following:
NbB
2
; melting point, 3,050 degrees C; sp
gr, 7.0; thermal
expansion, 5.9 X 10
-6
parallel to a and 8.4
X 10
-6

parallel to c; NbB, melting point, 2,300
degrees C; sp gr, 7.6; Nb
3

B
4
melts incongruently at 2,700 degrees
C; sp gr, 7.3. Dodd
niobium nitride
One of three nitrides that have been
reported: NbN, Nb
2
N , and Nb
4
N
3
. During reaction between niobium
and N
2
at 800
to 1,500 degrees C the product generally
consists of more than one
compound. Most of the phases are stable
at least to 1,500 degrees C.
Dodd
nip
a. Where the roof and the floor of a coal
seam come close together
pinching the coal between them. CF:want
b. The contact ends of a cable for quick
attachment to a power cable.
BCI
c. The device at the end of the trailing
cable of a mining machine used
for connecting the trailing cable to the
trolley wire and ground.
Jones, 1
d. To move a machine along a track by
sliding the nip along the trolley
wire. Hess
e. The seizing of material between the
jaws or rolls of a crusher.
Nichols, 1
f. See:angle of nip
g. To cut grooves at the end of a bar, to
make it fit more evenly.
h. An undercutting notch in rock,
particularly limestone, along a seacoast
between high- and low-tide levels
produced by erosion or possible
solution. AGI
niperyth
See:penthrite
nipple
A tubular pipe fitting usually threaded on
both ends and under 12 in (30.5
cm) in length. Longer pipe is regarded as
cut pipe.
Ni-resist
A cast iron consisting of graphite in a
matrix of austenite. It contains
3.0% carbon, 14.0% nickel, 6.0% copper,
2.0% chromium, and 1.5% silicon;
it has a high resistance to growth,
oxidation, and corrosion. CTD
nital
See:Boylston's reagent
niter

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
An orthorhombic mineral, 4[KNO
3
] ;
water soluble; has a cooling
salty taste; a product of nitrification in
most arable soils in hot, dry
regions, and in the loose earth forming the
floors of some natural caves.
CF:nitratine

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niter cake
Crude sodium sulfate, a byproduct in the
manufacture of nitric acid from
sodium nitrate. Fay
nitrate
a. A salt of nitric acid; e.g., silver nitrate
or barium nitrate.
Standard, 2
b. A mineral compound characterized by a
fundamental anionic structure of
NO
3
-
. Soda niter, NaNO
3
, and niter,
KNO
3
,
are nitrates. CF:carbonate; borate. AGI
c. Salts formed by the action of nitric acid
on metallic oxides,
hydroxides, and carbonates. Readily
soluble in water and decompose when
heated. The nitrates of polyhydric alcohols
and the alkyl radicals explode
violently. CTD
nitratine
A trigonal mineral, NaNO
3
;
rhombohedral cleavage; water soluble
with a cooling taste; occurs only in very
arid regions. Formerly called
soda niter.
nitrification
The formation of nitrates by the oxidation
of ammonium salts to nitrites
(usually by bacteria) followed by
oxidation of nitrites to nitrates. It is
one of the processes of soil formation.
AGI
nitro
An abbrev. for nitroglycerin or dynamite.
nitrocalcite
A monoclinic mineral, Ca(NO
3
)
2
.4H
2
O ;
water
soluble; soft; occurs as an efflorescence,
e.g., on walls and in limestone
caves.
nitrocellulose
Nitric acid esters of cellulose formed by
the action of a mixture of
nitric and sulfuric acids on cellulose. The
cellulose can be nitrated to a
varying extent, ranging from two to six
nitrate groups in the molecule.
Nitrocellulose having a low nitrogen
content, up to the tetranitrate, is
not explosive. They dissolve in ether-
alcohol mixtures and in so-called
lacquer solvents, such as butyl acetate. A
nitrocellulose having a high
nitrogen content is guncotton, an
explosive. The principal nitrocellulose
plastic is celluloid.
nitrocotton
A chemical combination of ordinary
cotton fiber with nitric acid. It is
explosive, highly inflammable, and in
certain degrees of nitration,
soluble in nitroglycerin.
nitrogelatin
See:gelatin dynamite
nitrogen
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
Colorless, tasteless, odorless, relatively
inert element. Symbol, N.
Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air, by
volume. From this inexhaustible
source it can be obtained by liquefaction
and fractional distillation.
Used in the production of ammonia and
nitric acid, as a blanketing medium
in the electronics industry, as a refrigerant,
in annealing stainless
steel, in drugs, and for forcing crude oil
from oil wells.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 3
nitrogen fixation
a. Extracting nitrogen from the air in
commercial quantities for use in
agriculture or industry.
b. In a soil, the conversion of atmospheric
nitrogen to a combined form by
the metabolic processes of some algae,
bacteria, and actinomycetes.
AGI
nitroglycerin
CH
2
NO
3
CHNO
3
CH
2
NO
3
; pale yellow;
flammable; explosive; thick liquid;
soluble in alcohol; soluble in ether
in all proportions; slightly soluble in
water; melting point, 13.1 degrees
C; and explosion point, 256 degrees C.
Used as an explosive, in the
production of dynamite and other
explosives, as an explosive plasticizer
in solid rocket propellants, and as a
possible liquid rocket propellant.
Molecular weight, 227.09; triclinic or
orthorhombic when solid; sp gr,
1.5918 (at 25 degrees C, referred to water
at 4 degrees C); soluble in
methanol and in carbon disulfide; very
soluble in chloroform; and slightly
soluble in petroleum ether. This highly
explosive liquid is made by mixing
sulfuric acid and nitric acid in a steel tank
and then adding glycerin.
Its great shattering effect has made it esp.
suitable for shooting oil
wells. Because of its sensitiveness to
shock, liquid nitroglygerin is
dangerous to transport and unsuitable for
use in mining and quarrying
operations.;
explosive oil. CCD, 2; Handbook of
Chemistry and Physics, 2; Lewis
nitroglycerin explosive
An explosive containing, principally,
nitroglycerin, nitrocotton, and
inorganic nitrates, with a suitable
combustible absorbent giving a
balanced composition. Nelson
nitroglycerin powder
Explosive usually characterized by a low
nitroglycerin content, up to 10%
, and a high ammonium nitrate content of
80% to 85%, with carbonaceous
material forming the remainder of the
composition. This composition
produces a powdery consistency and,
consequently, nitroglycerin powders
have relatively poor water-resistance
properties, so that they should be
used only in dry conditions. Their storage
properties are fairly good, but
this is largely dependent on the protection
given after manufacture, for
example, in the methods of cartridging
and packing. The main application
of these explosives is in quarrying and
mining where the ground to be
blasted is relatively soft. McAdam, 2

nitrohydrochloric acid

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
See:aqua regia
nitrolite
An excellent and cheap explosive in
powder form, consisting of the
constituents ammonium nitrate + trotyl +
nitroglycerin + silicon.
Fraenkel
nitromagnesite
A monoclinic mineral, Mg(NO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O
; water
soluble; white; an efflorescence in
limestone caverns.
nitromuriatic acid
See:aqua regia
nitrostarch explosive
Nitrostarch explosives have been used to a
limited extent for over 50
years. When these explosives were first
introduced, nitrostarch was the
principal explosive ingredient in their
composition. Of recent years,
because of the trend toward the low-
sensitivity, noncap sensitive
nitrocarbonitrates and ammonium nitrate-
oil mixtures, certain grades of
explosives are being produced with low
amounts of sensitizers. Some of
these explosives today contain a very
large percentage of ammonium
nitrate, and nitrostarch is used only in
small quantities to act as a
sensitizer. Pit and Quarry


nitrosubstitution
The act or process of introducing by
substitution the nitryl radical, NO
2
, in place of one or more replaceable
hydrogen atoms, such as in
an organic compound. Nitrosubstitution
compounds are used in the
manufacture of some explosives.
Standard, 2
nitrosulfuric acid
An exceedingly corrosive mixture of one
part by weight of nitric acid and
two parts by weight of sulfuric acid. Used
in the manufacture of
nitroglycerin. Standard, 2
nitrous oxide
A gas with the chemical formula, N
2
O ;
molecular weight, 46; sp
gr, 1.6. This gas is produced by the
blasting of certain nitroglycerine
explosives, esp. if there is incomplete
detonation. It is also produced in
the exhaust of diesel locomotives. It is
used as an anesthetic in
dentistry and is commonly known as
laughing gas. Morris
niveau surface
See:equipotential surface
noble
a. A term used to express great value or
purity, as in a noble metal
(e.g., platinum); or inertness, as in a noble
gas (e.g., helium).
b. An adj. usually modifying "metal" or
"gas" and referring to those
elements which do not normally combine
with oxygen or other non-metallic
elements under near-surface conditions;
thus they commonly occur as native

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
elements (or alloys). The metals usually
included are gold, silver,
platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium,
rhodium, and osmium; the gases
are helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon,
and radon. Other elements found
in their native states, such as sulfur,
copper, or mercury, are not noble
because they spontaneously (even though
slowly) oxidize.
noble gas
A rare inert gas: helium, neon, argon,
krypton, xenon, and radon.

nobleite
A monoclinic mineral, CaB
6
O
9
(OH)
2

.3H
2
O ;
tabular or mammillary; transparent;
formed by the weathering of colemanite
and priceite in Death Valley, CA.
noble metal
A metal with marked resistance to
chemical reaction, particularly to
oxidation and to solution by inorganic
acids. The list includes mercury
and the precious and platinum-group
metals.
no-cut rounds
In blasting underground, drilling all holes
straight into the face.
Lewis
nodular
a. Composed of nodules; e.g., nodular
bedding consisting of scattered to
loosely packed nodules in matrix of like
or unlike character. AGI
b. Having the shape of a nodule, or
occurring in the form of nodules;
e.g., nodular ore such as a colloform
mineral aggregate with a bulbed
surface. AGI
c. Orbicular. AGI
nodular cast iron
A cast iron that has been treated while
molten with a master alloy
containing an element, such as magnesium
or cerium, to produce primary
graphite in the spherulitic form.
nodular structure
See:orbicular structure
nodule
a. A small, irregularly rounded knot, mass,
or lump of a mineral or
mineral aggregate, normally having a
warty or knobby surface and no
internal structure, and usually exhibiting a
contrasting composition from
the enclosing sediment or rock; e.g., a
nodule of pyrite in a coalbed, a
chert nodule in limestone, or a phosphatic
nodule in marine strata.
Nodules can be separated as discrete
masses from the host material.
AGI
b. One of the widely scattered
concretionary lumps of manganese,
cobalt,
iron, and nickel found on the floors of the
world's oceans; esp. a
manganese nodule. Etymol: Latin
nodulus, small knot. CF:concretion
AGI
c. A rounded material accretion built of
successive layers, of easily
handled size. Pryor, 3
d. A small, rounded, irregularly shaped

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
mass, as those of graphite in
malleable cast iron. Rolfe
nodulizing

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a. The forming of rounded shapes by the
application to fine coal of a
gyratory, rotary, or oscillatory motion,
without the use of pressure.
BS, 5
b. See:balling
noise
a. Any undesired sound. NCB
b. By extension, any unwanted
disturbance such as undesired electric
waves
in any transmission channel or device.
NCB
c. In gravity and magnetic prospecting,
disturbances in observed data due
to more or less random inhomogeneities in
surface and near-surface
material. AGI
d. In seismic prospecting, all recorded
energy not derived from the
explosion of the shot. Sometimes loosely
used for all recorded energy
except events of interest. AGI
noise level
In observed or recorded data, the
fluctuations not attributable to
signals. AGI
noise reduction rating
A measure of a hearing protector's
effectiveness in reducing noise such as
results from mining operations where
drilling, cutting, blasting, etc.
create high noise levels. Abbrev. NRR.
MSHA, 2
nolanite
A hexagonal mineral, (V,Fe,Ti)
10
O
14

(OH)
2
; rare;
forms tabular prisms and plates;
associated with uranium ores at
Beaverlodge, SK, Canda, and with native
gold and various tellurides at
Kalgoorlie, Western Australia.
nominal area
Of a screen, the total area of the screen
deck exposed to the flow of the
material feed. BS, 5
nominal bandwidth
In a filter, the difference between the
nominal upper and lower cutoff
frequencies. This difference may be
expressed in cycles per second, as a
percentage of the pass-band center
frequency, or as the difference between
the upper and lower cutoffs in octaves. Hy
nominal capacity
A notional figure expressed in tons per
hour used in the title of a
flowsheet and in general descriptions of
the plant, applying to the plant
as a whole and to the specific project
under consideration. It may be
taken as representing the approximate
tonnage expected to be supplied to
the plant during the hour of greatest load.
BS, 5
nominal price
An estimate of the price for a future
month date which is used to
designate a closing price when no trading
has taken place in that date.
Also used for current price indications in
58
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
similar circumstances in
physical trading. Wolff
nominal screen aperture
a. A nominal mesh aperture used to
designate the result of a screening
operation. BS, 5
b. A notional size at which it is intended
to divide a feed by a screening
operation.
nominal screen size
See:nominal screen aperture
nominal size
The limit or limits of particle size used to
describe a product of a
sizing operation. BS, 5
nomogram
A type of line chart that graphically
represents an equation of three
variables, each of which is represented by
a graduated straight line. It
is used to avoid lengthy calculations; a
straight line connecting values
on two of the lines automatically
intersects the third line at the
required value.
nomograph
See:nomogram
nonangular unconformity
See:disconformity

nonasphaltic pyrobitumen
Any of several species of pyrobitumens,
including dark-colored,
comparatively hard and nonvolatile solids,
composed of hydrocarbons
containing oxygenated bodies, infusible
and largely insoluble in carbon
disulfide. This includes peat, coal, and
nonasphaltic pyrobitumen shales.
Tomkeieff
nonbanded coal
Coal that does not display a striated or
banded appearance on the vertical
face. It contains essentially no vitrain and
consists of clarain or
durain, or of material intermediate
between the two. AGI
non-Bessemer ore
Ore containing up to about 0.18%
phosphorus. Newton, 1
noncaking coal
Coal that does not form cake; namely
hard, splint, cherry, and durain
coal. Tomkeieff
noncaving method
Any of several stoping methods, including
open stopes, sublevel,
shrinkage, cut-and-fill, and square set.
Lewis
noncoal mine
A mine in which the material being mined
is incombustible or contains at
least 65% by weight of incombustible
material, and in which the
underground atmosphere in any open
workings contains less than 0.25% by
volume of flammable gas. CFR, 2

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noncoking coal

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A bituminous coal that burns freely
without softening or any appearance of
incipient fusion. The percentage of
volatile matter may be the same as for
coking coal, but the residue is not a true
coke. Fay
noncombustible
Any material that will neither ignite nor
actively support combustion in
air at 1,200 degrees F (649 degrees C)
when exposed to fire.
nonconformable
Pertaining to the stratigraphic relations
shown by a nonconformity.
AGI
nonconformity
a. An unconformity developed between
sedimentary rocks and older rocks
(plutonic igneous or massive metamorphic
rocks) that had been exposed to
erosion before the sediments covered
them. The restriction of the term to
this usage was proposed by Dunbar &
Rodgers (1957). Although the term is
well known in the classroom, it is not
commonly used in practice (Dennis,
1967). AGI
b. A term that formerly was widely, but is
now less commonly, used as a
syn. of angular unconformity, or as a
generic term that includes angular
unconformity. Term proposed by Pirsson
(1915). AGI

nonconsumable-electrode arc melting
A method of arc melting in which a
carbon or tungsten electrode is used
and the sponge metal to be melted is fed
into the arc at the proper rate.
Newton, 1
noncore bit
See:plug bit
noncore drilling
Drilling a borehole without taking core.
Long
noncoring bit
A general type of bit made in many shapes
that does not produce a core and
with which all the rock cut in a borehole is
ejected as sludge. Used
mostly for blasthole drilling and in the
unmineralized zones in a borehole
where a core sample is not wanted. Also
called blasthole bit; plug bit.
CF:fishtail bit; roller bit.
nondestructive testing
Methods of examination, usually for
soundness, which do not involve
destroying or damaging the material or
part being tested. It includes
radiological examination, magnetic
inspection, etc. Also called
nondestructive inspection. Rolfe
nondiamond core drill
A rotary or percussive-type drill equipped
with core-cutting tools or
bits, the cutting points of which are not
inset with diamonds.
Long
nonel
60
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
See:nonelectric blasting
nonelectric blasting
The firing of one or more charges using
safety fuse, igniter cord,
detonating cord, shock or gas tubing, or
similar nonelectric materials to
initiate a blasting cap.
shock tube system. Federal Mine Safety
nonelectric delay blasting cap
A detonator with an integral delay element
and capable of being initiated
by miniaturized or regular detonating
cord. CFR, 1
nonferrous
Of, or relating to, a metal or compound
that does not contain appreciable
quantities of iron; ores that are not
processed primarily for their iron
content.
nonferrous alloy
Specif., an alloy containing no iron.
Generically, any alloy that has as
its base any element other than iron.
Common commercial nonferrous alloys
are based upon aluminum, copper, lead,
magnesium, nickel, tin, and zinc.
Henderson
nonferrous metallurgy
That branch of metallurgy that deals with
the broad field of metals other
than iron, or alloys other than of iron base.
CF:ferrous metallurgy
Henderson
nonferrous metals
a. Classification of metals that are not
commonly associated with alloys
of iron, including base metals, precious
metals, and light metals.
b. In singular form, an alloy that has as its
base metal a metal other
than iron, e.g., copper, lead, aluminum,
etc.
nonflowing well
A well that yields water at the ground
surface only by means of a pump or
other lifting device.
nonfreezing explosive
Explosive to which 15% to 20% of
nitroethylene glycol has been added. This
acts as a freezing-point depressant and
prevents freezing at ordinary
temperatures. Polar or Arctic explosives
are nitroglycerin explosives of
this type. Higham
nongraded sediment
a. In geology, detrital sediment, loose or
cemented, containing notable
amounts of more than one grade; e.g.,
loam or boulder clay.

b. In engineering, sediment in which the
constituent particles are all of
nearly the same size. Stokes
nonhardening salt
Salt containing substantial quantities of
impurities such as calcium
and/or magnesium chloride, which are
highly deliquescent and prevent
caking. Kaufmann
nonluminous flame

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Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or aerated
coal gas flames. Francis, 2
nonmagnetic rod

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A drill rod made of brass, aluminum, or
other metal unaffected by
magnetism. Long
nonmagnetic steel
Steel alloyed with 12% or more of
manganese, chromium, or nickel. Such an
alloy cannot be removed from a passing
stream of ore by an ordinary guard
magnet. Magnetic permeability is below
1.05. Pryor, 3
nonmetal
A chemical element (as boron, carbon,
phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen,
sulfur, chlorine, or argon) that is not
classed as a metal because it does
not exhibit most of the typical metallic
properties. An element that, in
general, is characterized chemically by the
ability to form anions, acidic
oxides and acids, and stable compounds
with hydrogen. Webster 3rd
nonmetallic
a. Of or pertaining to a nonmetal. AGI
b. Said in general of mineral lusters other
than metallic luster.
CF:submetallic luster
c. An industrial mineral; usually used in
the plural. AGI
nonmetallic armor
A tough outer covering or cable sheath of
rubber, rubber compound, or
thermoplastic, designed to protect cable
conductors and insulation from
abrasion or other damage from external
sources. USBM, 2
nonmetallic mineral
a. In resource usage, "nonmetallic
mineral" refers to the nonmetallic
character of the product, not the
mineralogy. Thus graphite is a
nonmetallic mineral and molybdenite is
"metallic" even though the minerals
graphite and molybdenite are so similar in
appearance that they may be
confused in a casual inspection. Examples
include: asbestos, barite,
cement, feldspar, gem stones, helium,
kyanite, perlite, salt, soda ash,
and vermiculite, and even extending to
mineral fuels. CF:metallic
b. In mineral usage, the luster of a
nonopaque mineral, which transmits
light at least through the thinnest edges
and in thin section.
nonmetallic minerals
Minerals are conveniently divided into
metallic and nonmetallic groups,
and then arranged in subdivisions
according to the elements which form
their main constituents. The nonmetallic
minerals (carbon, diamond, coals,
bitumen, asphalt, boron, sulfur, rock salt,
etc.) lack the properties of
the metallic minerals such as a bright
metallic luster, hardness, density,
and good conduction of heat and
electricity. Nelson
non-metallic minerals
Rocks, minerals, and select naturally
occurring and synthetic materials of
economic value, exclusive of fuel and
metallic ore minerals. The select
materials include peat, mineral-derived
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
materials such as lime and cement,
and synthetic versions of gemstones,
abrasives, graphite, and calcite.
Generally, non-metallic minerals undergo
no chemical or mineralogical
alteration for and in their end-uses; are
low-price, high-volume
commodities such as construction
materials; are higher-priced and
large-volume commodities that are raw
materials in the chemical and
agricultural industry; and very high price
but very low volume materials
such as gemstones. A characteristic of
non-metallic minerals is that, in
most cases, they maintain their form and
physical properties through
processing to final end use.
AGI; Indust. Miner.
non-Newtonian flow
Flow in which the relationship of the
shear stress to the rate of shear
strain is nonlinear; i.e., flow of a
subsurface in which viscosity is not
constant. AGI
nonnitroglycerin explosive
Explosive containing TNT instead of
nitroglycerin to sensitize ammonium
nitrate; a little aluminum powder may also
be added to increase power and
sensitiveness. Straight TNT-ammonium
nitrate explosives usually contain
15% to 18% TNT and 82% to 85%
ammonium nitrate. TNT-ammonium
nitrate
explosives have densities between 1.0
g/cm
3
and 1.2 g/cm (super
3) and velocities of detonation between
3,200 m/s and 4,000 m/s. They are
reasonably free from noxious fumes. This
type of explosive is susceptible
to moisture and should be used only in dry
conditions unless packed in
sealed containers. The main use of non-
nitroglycerin explosives is in
primary blasting in quarries and opencast
mining, although they are used
in some underground work, particularly in
ironstone mining. The
combination of high strength and
relatively high velocity of detonation
also makes them applicable for secondary
blasting by plaster shooting.
McAdam, 2
nonpareil brick
An insulating brick.
nonpermissible explosive
An explosive that is not approved in law
for use in gassy mines.
nonpolarizable electrode
Electrode in which the phenomenon of
polarization cannot occur.
Schieferdecker
nonproductive formation
a. A rock unit that, because of its
stratigraphic position, is presumed to
contain no valuable mineral deposits.
Long
b. A rock unit in which no minerals of
interest are found. Long
nonrotating rope
A wire rope composed of 18 strands of 7
wires each; the inner 6 strands
are left lay and outer 12 strands are right
lay. It is esp. fabricated for
use where loads are handled in free
suspension, as in lifting of loads
with a single line. Lewis

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
nonsegregating chute
A chute, usually used to charge stoker
hoppers, so designed as to deliver
coal in a mixed state rather than having
the large lumps tend to be
deposited separate from the fine.

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nonselective mining
The object of nonselective mining is to
secure a low cost, generally by
using a cheap stoping method combined
with large-scale operations. This
method can be used in deposits where the
individual stringers, bands, or
lenses of high-grade ore are so numerous
and so irregular in occurrence
and separated by such thin lenses of waste
that a selective method cannot
be employed. Nonselective methods of
stoping include caving, top slicing,
some forms of open stoping, and
shrinkage stoping under most conditions.
Jackson, 2
nonsequence
A diastem or other relatively unimportant
sedimentary or stratigraphic
interruption. CF:unconformity;
paraconformity.
nonsignificant anomaly
An anomaly that is superficially similar to
a significant anomaly but is
unrelated to ore. Formerly called false
anomaly. Hawkes, 2


nonsparking tool
Tool, made from beryllium-copper or
aluminum-bronze, that produces no
sparks, or low energy sparks, when used
to strike other objects.
NSC, 1
nonspin cable
A wire or fiber cable so constructed as to
reduce twisting to a minimum.
Long
nonspin differential
A differential that will turn both axles,
even if one offers no
resistance. Nichols, 1
nonspinning rope
A rope wire consisting of 18 strands of 7
wires each, in 2 layers; the
inner layer consists of 6 strands lang lay
rope and left lay around a
small hemp core, and the outer of 12
strands regular lay, right-hand lay.
Will carry a load on a single end without
untwisting. Hunt
nonstranded rope
A rope in which the wires are not laid up
in strands but in concentric
sheaths, and in opposite directions in the
different sheaths, which gives
the rope nonspinning properties. The outer
sheaths are composed of
specially shaped interlocking wires, and
there is no hemp core in the
rope. Sinclair, 5
nonstructural
A phase transformation not involving
structural rearrangement, e.g., Curie
point in magnetism.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
nontabular deposit
A mineral deposit of irregular shape.
nontectonite

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Any rock whose fabric shows no influence
of movement of adjacent grains;
e.g., a rock formed by mechanical settling.
Some rocks are transitional
between a tectonite and a nontectonite.
AGI
nontronite
A monoclinic mineral, Na
0.33
Fe
3+
2

(Si,Al)
4

O
10
(OH)
2
.nH
2
O ; smectite group;
expansive, a
swelling clay; earthy; occurs in vesicles
and veins in weathered basalt
and as an alteration product of volcanic
glass.
nonuniform flow
A flow the velocity of which is
undergoing a positive or negative change.
If the flow is constant it is referred to as
uniform flow.
Seelye, 1
nonvitreous
A relative term as applied to ceramic
products based on the water
absorbing characteristics; i.e., brick, tile,
etc., which absorb water in
excess of that given by the specifications
would be described as
nonvitreous.
nonvitrified
See:nonvitreous
nonweathering coal
Coal having a weathering index, as
defined by U.S. Bureau of Mines
standards, of less than 5%. AGI
nonwetted
a. A term used in the flotation process and
applied to certain metallic
minerals that are not wetted with water
but are easily wetted with oil.
Fay
b. As used by diamond-bit setters, a
diamond inset in a metal or alloy
that has not adhered to or wetted the
surface of the diamond. Long
Norbide
Trade name for boron carbide, an artificial
abrasive; chemical formula,
BC. It is markedly harder than silicon
carbide and second only to diamond.
AIME, 1
nordite
An orthorhombic mineral,
(La,Ce)(Sr,Ca)Na
2
(Na,Mn)(Zn,Mg)Si
6

O
17
; forms pale brown crystals on the
Kola Peninsula, Russia.
norite
A coarse-grained plutonic rock containing
basic plagioclase (labradorite)
as the chief constituent and differing from
gabbro by the presence of
orthopyroxene (hypersthene) as the
dominant mafic mineral.
CF:hypersthenite
norm
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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a. The theoretical mineral composition of
a rock expressed in terms of
normative mineral molecules that have
been determined by specific chemical
analyses for the purpose of classification
and comparison; the theoretical
mineral composition that might be
expected had all chemical components
crystallized under equilibrium conditions
according to certain rules. Adj:
normative.
AGI
b. Optimum operating condition of one or
more controlled characteristics
in a process such as continuous ore
treatment. Pryor, 3
normal
a. Of or pertaining to a solution having a
concentration of 1 g-equivalent
weight of solute per liter of solution;
commonly used term in analytical
chemistry.
b. Used to designate aliphatic
hydrocarbons, their derivatives, or alkyl
radicals, the molecules of which contain a
single unbranched chain of
carbon atoms.
normal air
A mixture of dry air and water vapor,
varying from 0.1% to 3% by volume
(usually over 1% in mines). Hartman, 2
normal arc
A term specif. intended to differentiate
between the arcs that are
commonly observed and the low-pressure
skittering arcs.

normal calorie
The quantity of heat required to raise 1 g
of water from 14.5 degrees C to
15.5 degrees C. Newton, 1
normal corrosion
When used in connection with galvanic
corrosion, it may refer to corrosion
of the anodic metal when there is no
contact with the dissimilar metal.
Schlain
normal depth
The depth of water in an open conduit that
corresponds to uniform velocity
for the given flow. It is a hypothetical
depth under conditions of steady
nonuniform flow, the depth for which the
surface and bed are parallel;
also termed the neutral depth. Seelye, 1
normal dip
See:regional dip
normal displacement
See:dip slip
normal fault
A fault in which the hanging wall appears
to have moved downward relative
to the footwall. The angle of the fault is
usually 45 degrees to 90
degrees . There is dip separation, but there
may or may not be dip slip.
CF:reverse fault; thrust fault.
normal field
In magnetic prospecting, the smoothed
value of a magnetic field component
as derived from a large-scale survey,
worldwide or of continental scope.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
The normal field of the Earth varies
slowly with time, and maps of it are
as of a certain date. AGI
normal fold
See:symmetrical fold

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normal haul
A haul whose cost is included in the cost
of excavation, so that no
separate charge is made for it. Nichols, 1
normalized steel
Steel that has been given a normalizing
heat treatment intended to bring
all of a lot of samples under consideration
into the same condition.
normalizing conveyor
A conveyor that moves material through a
normalizing furnace under heat.
normally consolidated
Said of a soil deposit that has never been
subjected to an effective
pressure greater than the existing
overburden pressure and one that is
also completely consolidated by the
existing overburden. ASCE
normal moisture capacity
See:field capacity
normal pressure
Usually equal to the weight of a column of
mercury 760 mm in height.
Approx. 14.7 psi (101.4 kPa).
Webster 3rd; Fay
normal price
As applied to metal prices, it is the
average over a long term--sometimes
a period greater than the life of a mine.
normal scale
See:effective temperature
normal shift
In a fault, the horizontal component of the
shift, measured perpendicular
to the strike of the fault.
normal solution
A solution made by dissolving 1 g-
equivalent weight of a substance in
sufficient distilled water to make 1 L of
solution.
CTD
normal stress
The stress component at right angles to a
given plane.ASCE
normal stress component
That component of the stress in a rock
mass that acts perpendicular to the
lode plane or any other reference plane.
Spalding
normal temperature
a. Normal temperature and pressure are
taken as 0 degrees C (273 degrees
absolute) and 30 in (760 mm) of mercury
pressure. Also called standard
temperature. Cooper
b. As applied to laboratory observations of
the physical characteristics
of bituminous materials, it is 77 degrees F
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
(25 degrees C).
Urquhart
normal theory
A theory claiming that the removal of a
coal seam caused the overlying
strata to fracture at right angles to the
inclination of the beds.
Subsidence observations do not support
this theory.
normal travel-time curve
In fan shooting, a time-distance curve
obtained along a profile in some
nearby area that does not contain geologic
structures of the type being
sought. AGI
normative
The adj. of norm.
normative mineral
A mineral whose presence in a rock is
theoretically possible on the basis
of certain chemical analyses. A normative
mineral may or may not be
actually present in the rock.
AGI
norm system
A system of classification and
nomenclature of igneous rocks based on
the
norm of each rock. It is used in detailed
petrologic studies rather than
in ordinary geologic or mining work.

Norsk-Staal process
A process for the direct production of iron
sponge. A mixture of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen is used as the
reducing agent. The equipment
consists of three vertical ovens, for
preheating, reducing, and cooling
the charge, and apparatus for regenerating
the spent gases. The ore is
contained in a series of muffle trays, each
tray holding about 3 tons of
ore. These trays pass down through the
preheating oven, where the ore is
heated to 1,000 degrees C, and are then
transferred to the reducing oven,
where they are raised through and against
the downward gas current, then
transferred to the cooling shaft, and
slowly lowered down it. The transfer
of a tray from one oven to another is made
without contact with air. The
ore is preheated in the first oven by part of
the gases from the reduction
oven, and the sponge iron is cooled in the
third oven to 50 degrees C by
cold gas from a gas holder. Osborne
norstrandite
A triclinic mineral, Al(OH)
3
;
cryptocrystalline; a constituent of
strongly weathered soils, of laterites and
bauxites.
north end
York. The rise side of the coal in North
Yorkshire.
north-seeking pole
The end of a magnet that points approx.
north. The other end is the
south-seeking pole. Morris
Norwalt separator

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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Trade name for a dense-medium washer
for treating coal lump size down to
about 1/8 in (3.2 mm). It comprises a
shallow circular tank with a flat
base and a conical inner shell containing
the driving mechanism. The clean
coal floats and passes over a weir while
the shale sinks to the bottom and
is conveyed to an outlet chute. Its capacity
ranges from about 50 st/h
(45.4 t/h) to over 500 st/h (454 t/h),
depending on the size of the
vessel. Nelson
Norwegian cut
A variation of the ordinary cut that may be
said to represent a
combination of the latter and the fan cut.
The first drill holes are
formed with a sharper angle toward the
working face, which facilitates
breaking. This type of cut has been
employed successfully in headings of
small section, the cut hole being blasted
first, followed by the bench
holes. In order to obtain the maximum
possible advance the cut may also be
deepened after blasting, during the first
pause in working, e.g, the whole
section then being broken out
simultaneously. Fraenkel
nose
a. Scot. A point; a projecting angle of coal
or other mineral. Also called
ness. Fay
b. The lead face of the crown of a
diamond bit. Long
c. A short plunging anticline without
closure.
d. To dip or run in the form of a
geological nose. Webster 3rd
nosean
An isometric mineral, Na
8
Al
6
Si
6
O
24
(SO
(sub
4) ).H
2
O ; sodalite group; occurs in silica-
and lime-deficient
igneous rocks. Formerly called noselite,
nosin, nosite.
nose in
Eng. A stratum is said to nose in when it
dips beneath the ground into a
hillside in a V-form or nose form.
noselite
See:nosean
nose out
a. Eng. A nose-shaped stratum cropping
out. Fay
b. To diminish by losing stratum after
stratum and getting into the lower
part of the measure; said of a coal seam.
Standard, 2
nose pipe
The inside nozzle of a tuyere. Standard, 2
nosin
See:nosean
nosite
See:nosean
notch
a. An angular recess cut in the ends of a
crossbar of a timber set to fit
over a corresponding wedge in the upright
posts. With the advent of steel
arches, the craft of notching is becoming
extinct.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
b. Eng. See:let into
c. A small weir made for use in measuring
flow in laboratory models of
hydraulic structures.
d. A hollow formed by the undermining of
a cliff, as a result of wave
erosion and/or solution. Schieferdecker
notch effect
Locally increased stress at that point in a
structural load-bearing member
where the section changes at a sharp
angle. Hammond
notcher
A machine tool in a steel-fabrication shop
used to strip the flanges from
the ends of rolled steel joists. Hammond
notching
a. A method of excavating in a series of
steps. Standard, 2
b. Cutting out various shapes from the
edge of a strip, blank, or part.
ASM, 1
notch sensitivity ratio
Alternative term for factor of stress
concentration in fatigue or fatigue
strength reduction factor. Roark
not previously known to exist
These words refer to the time of the
location and commencement of the
tunnel and not to the respective times of
the discoveries of the various
veins in the tunnel. Ricketts

Nottingham system
A longwall method of working coal seams
in which the trams run on a rail
track along the face and are hand loaded at
the sides. It follows that the
system can be adopted only in relatively
thick seams where the trams can
travel along the face without any roof
ripping. The method is now replaced
by face conveyors.
noumeite
See:garnierite
novackite
A monoclinic mineral, (Cu,Ag)
21
As
10
;
pseudotetragonal;
forms steel-gray granular aggregates; at
Cerny Dul, Czech Republic.
novaculite
a. A dense, hard even-textured, light-
colored cryptocrystalline siliceous
sedimentary rock, similar to chert but
characterized by dominance of
microcrystalline quartz over chalcedony.
It was formerly believed to be
the result of primary deposition of silica,
but in the type occurrence
(Lower Paleozoic of the Ouachita
Mountains, Arkansas and Oklahoma) it
appears to be a thermally metamorphosed
bedded chert, distinguished by
characteristic polygonal triple-point
texture. The origin of novaculite
has also been ascribed to crystallization of
opaline skeletal material
during diagenesis. The rock is used as a
whetstone.
ouachita stone. AGI
b. A term used in southern Illinois for an
extensive bedded chert.
AGI
c. A general name formerly used in

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
England for certain argillaceous stones
that served as whetstones. AGI
nowel

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a. The inner part of a large mold,
corresponding to the core in small
work. Standard, 2
b. The bottom or drag of a molding flask,
as distinguished from the cope.
Standard, 2
noxious gas
A gas that is injurious to health. BS, 8
nozzle brick
A tabular refractory shape used in a ladle,
with a hole through which
steel is teemed at the bottom of a ladle, the
upper end of the shape
serving as a seat for the stopper. ARI
nozzleman
In metal mining, one who operates a
hydraulic giant or monitor (nozzle)
used to direct a high-pressure stream of
water against a bank of
gold-bearing gravel to erode and force the
gravel into sluiceboxes, where
the gold separates out and is caught by
riffles (cleats).

NPN process
A modification of the basic Bessemer
process. The main feature is the
shortening of the blow by increasing the
pressure of the blast as much as
possible. Normally, the melt is cooled by
the addition of scrap or iron
ore, but it is claimed that a fairly high
temperature can be maintained
without an undue increase of the nitrogen
content, so that ladle skulls
can be avoided. Osborne
NQ
A letter name specifying the dimensions
of bits, core barrels, and drill
rods in the N-size and Q-group wireline
diamond drilling system having a
core diameter of 47.6 mm and a hole
diameter of 75.7 mm.
Cumming, 2
N rod bit
A Canadian standard noncoring bit having
a set diameter of 2.940 in (74.7
mm). More commonly called a 2-15/16 N
drill-rod bit. Long
N-truss
A bridge or roof truss that has parallel
upper and lower chords and an
arrangement of web members consisting
of tension diagonals and compression
verticals, with the vertical struts
separating the panels. Also known as a
Pratt truss.
nubber
a. Mid. A block of wood about 12 in (30.5
cm) square, for throwing mine
cars off the road in case the couplings or
ropes break. Fay
b. See:stopblocks
nuclear-assisted mining
The use of a nuclear explosive for
fracturing and fragmenting large
volumes of ore underground into rubble
chimneys, in preparation for
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
block-cave-type mining or in-situ
leaching. SME, 1
nuclear log
See:radioactivity log

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nuclear magnetism log
Primarily a hydrogen log, useful for the
following purposes: (1) provides
valuable correlating curve to replace the
S.P. in holes containing oil or
invert muds; (2) provides a means of
qualitatively distinguishing zones
containing hydrocarbons from zones
containing only water; (3) provides a
means of measuring quantitatively what
proportion of the total
fluid-filled porosity in a formation is
sufficiently free from the
influence of chemical binding forces to be
considered mobile and thus
potentially recoverable; and (4) provides a
means of estimating the
permeabilities of formations. Wyllie
nuclear magnetometer
See:nuclear resonance magnetometer
nuclear powerplant
Any device, machine, or assembly thereof
that converts nuclear energy into
some form of useful power, such as
mechanical or electric power. In a
nuclear electric powerplant, heat produced
by a reactor is used to make
steam, and the steam drives a turbine
generator in the conventional way.
Lyman

nuclear reaction
A reaction involving the nucleus of the
atom, such as fission, neutron
capture, radioactive decay, or fusion; and
distinct from a chemical
reaction, which is limited to changes in
the electron structure
surrounding the nucleus. Lyman
nuclear resonance magnetometer
An instrument that measures the Earth's
magnetic field, depending on the
magnetic moment of the atom. Hydrogen
atoms are generally used, and these
can be in a compound such as water. Each
hydrogen atom can be viewed as a
tiny electromagnet whose strength and
direction are determined by the
revolution of the electron of the atom
about its nucleus. In a magnetic
field, atoms of hydrogen have a tendency
to align themselves in opposition
to the field. If the direction of the field is
suddenly changed, there
will be a moment pulling the atoms
toward the new direction. But each atom
is a midget gyroscope, and instead of
shifting directly to the new field
direction, it will precess about this
direction. The frequency of this
precession will be a function only of the
strength of the magnetic field.

nucleation
The beginning of crystal growth at one or
more points. AGI
nucleometer
A Geiger counter employing 20 Geiger
tubes to increase the sampling area
and overcome the inefficiency of a 1-tube
counter. Ballard
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
nucleon
A constituent of the atomic nucleus; i.e., a
proton or a neutron.
Lyman
nucleus

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The central point about which matter
accumulates to form a larger mass,
esp. of a growing crystal or pearl. Plural:
nuclei.
nuclide
Any species of atom that exists for a
measurable length of time. A nuclide
can be distinguished by its atomic weight,
atomic number, and energy
state. The term is used synonymously with
isotope. A radionuclide is the
same as a radioactive nuclide, a
radioactive isotope, or a radioisotope.
Lyman
Nuflex
Trade name for a nonrotating rope of 17 X
7 or 34 X 7 strand construction.
Hammond
nugget
A large lump of placer gold or other
metal. CF:heavy gold
nugget effect
Anomalously high precious metal assays
resulting from the analysis of
samples that may not adequately represent
the composition of the bulk
material tested due to nonuniform
distribution of high-grade nuggets in
the material to be sampled. SME, 1
nugget model
A constant variance model most often
used in combination with one or more
other functions when fitting mathematical
models to experimental
variograms.
nuisance dust
Dust with a long history of little adverse
effet on the lungs; does not
produce significant organic disease or
toxic effect when exposures are
kept at reasonable levels.
Nujol
In flotation, any of a group of nonionizing
hydrocarbon oils that act as
collector agents by smearing action,
giving aerophilic quality to the
surface they selectively coat. Pryor, 3
Nullagine Series
Local name in Western Australia for the
formation consisting essentially
of pre-Cambrian rocks made up mainly of
jasperoid quartzites and dolomite.
Crocidolite asbestos occurs in this
formation as cross-fiber seams in
lodes in stratified ferruginous quartzites
and shales with occasional
bands of dolomite. Sinclair, 7
nullah
a. A term used in the desert regions of
India and Pakistan for a sandy
river bed or channel, or a small ravine or
gully, that is normally dry
except after a heavy rain. AGI
b. The small, intermittent, generally
torrential stream that flows through
a nullah. Etymol: Hindi nala.AGI
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
Numidian marble
A general name for marbles of cream,
yellow, pink, and red color, found in
northern Africa. The quarries were
worked by the ancient Romans.

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Nummulite limestone
A thick bed of limestone, of Eocene age,
composed mainly of the remains of
the foraminifer Nummulites. The
formation stretches from the Alps through
Iran to China. It is the stone of which the
Great Pyramid is built.
Nusse and Grafer PIV/6 drilling
machine
A rotary machine used for drilling the
holes in combustible gases
drainage. It is a two-speed, 150- to 250-
rpm machine, drill-rod rotation
being operated by a 6-hp (4.47-kW)
motor. Traversing is done by a 2-hp
(1.5-kW) motor, a pinion of which
engages a toothed rack that runs the
length of the drill frame. A forward
drilling thrust of 4 st (3.6 t) is
possible. The machine measures 10 ft (3
m) overall and weighs about 1,000
lb (454 kg). With an improved high-speed
gearbox, 100 to 130 ft (30 to 40
m) of coal measures strata can be drilled
in a shift. Nelson
nut coal
a. An abbrev. for chestnut coal. Also
called nuts. Fay
b. Prepared bituminous coal that passes
through 2- to 3-in (5.1- to
7.6-cm) round holes and over 3/4-, 1-, or
1-in (1.9-, 2.54-, or 3.2-cm)
holes, depending on the screening
practice. Anthracite, through 1-5/8-in
(4.1-cm) and over 3/16-in (4.8-mm) round
holes. Jones, 1
nutcracker
See:boulder buster
NW
Letter name specifying the dimensions of
bits, core barrels, and drill
rods in the N-size and W-group wireline
diamond drilling system having a
core diameter of 54.7 mm and a hole
diameter of 75.7 mm. The NW
designation has replaced the NX
designation. Cumming, 2
NX
The NX designation for coring bits has
been replaced by the NW
designation.
nylon
A generic term for a group of synthetic
fiber-forming polyamides. The
polymer is melted, extruded, stretched,
and finally processed to turn it
into a textile yarn having a very high
strength, great powers of energy
absorption, and high resistance to abrasion
and rotting. Its major uses in
mining are as a reinforcement for
conveyor belting and ventilation
ducting. Nelson
nylon belt
A rubber belt containing nylon fiber
reinforcing. It is stronger than
cotton-duck belts of equivalent size and
possesses better troughability
and fastener holding strength. Nylon belt
has the advantage of a long flex
74
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
life, and the thinner carcass means easier
bending. Nelson

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An eye disease suffered by some miners,
in which there is a spasmodic
oscillatory movement of the eyeballs; in
severe cases, the victim finds
difficulty in walking straight. Bad lighting
is generally believed to be
the main cause, and is possibly aggravated
by the workers lying on their
sides in thin seams.


nystagmus


To Go At beginning the Dictionary

75
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

O


oakum
Loosely twisted fiber usually of hemp or
jute impregnated with tar or with
a tar derivative (such as creosote or
asphalt); used in caulking seams
(such as the wood hulls and decks of
ships) and in packing joints (in
pipes, caissons, etc.). Webster 3rd
Oamaru stone
A white, granular limestone found in large
quantities in Oamaru, New
Zealand, and valued as a building stone.
obduction
The overriding or overthrusting of oceanic
crust onto the leading edges of
continental lithospheric plates; plate
accretion.
AGI
object glass
See:objective
objective
The lens (or lenses) that gives an image of
an object in the focal plane
of a microscope or telescope eyepiece.;
object glass.
objective glass
See:objective
objective lens
See:objective
oblique block
A quarry term applied to a block of stone
bounded by 3 pairs of parallel
faces--4 of the 12 interfacial angles being
right angles, 4 obtuse, and 4
acute.
oblique fault
A fault that strikes oblique to, rather than
parallel or perpendicular to,
the strike of the constituent rocks or
dominant structure.
CF:oblique-slip fault; strike fault; dip
fault. AGI
oblique illumination method
See:van der Kolk method
oblique joint
a. A joint whose strike is oblique to the
strike of the strata or
metamorphic rocks in which it occurs.
b. A joint that forms an acute angle with
dip joints and strike joints.
Lewis

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oblique offset
The distance of a point from a main
survey line measured at an angle to
the latter that is not a right angle.
oblique projection
A pictorial view of an object showing its
elevation, plan, or section to
scale with parallel lines projected from the
corners, at 45 degrees or any
other angle, indicating the other sides.
Hammond
oblique slip
In a fault, movement or slip that is
intermediate in orientation between
the dip slip and the strike slip. CF:strike
slip
oblique-slip fault
A fault in which the net slip lies between
the direction of dip and the
direction of strike.
obra
The narrow prismatic part of a blast
furnace immediately above the
crucible. Fay
obsequent fault-line scarp
A scarp along a fault line, where the
topographically low area is on the
upthrown block. CF:resequent fault-line
scarp
observer
a. In seismic prospecting, the person in
charge of the recording crew,
including the shooters and linemen. The
observer must maintain the
electronic equipment and decide on the
best shooting and detector
arrangement as well as the best
instrumental settings for getting records
of optimum quality. The observer operates
the recording equipment in the
field, often with the help of an assistant. In
conventional recording, or
in tape recording when photographic
monitors are run, the observer or an
assistant develops the record in the
recording truck immediately after it
is shot. Also called operator. Dobrin
b. In gravity and magnetic prospecting, a
person who secures the
instrument readings, e.g., on a torsion
balance or magnetometer.
AGI
obsidian
A black or dark-colored volcanic glass,
usually of rhyolite composition,
characterized by conchoidal fracture. It is
sometimes banded or has
microlites. Usage of the term goes back as
far as Pliny, who described the
rock from Ethiopia. Obsidian has been
used for making arrowheads, other
sharp implements, jewelry, and art
objects.
AGI
obsidianite brick
Lightweight, siliceous fireclay, acid-
resisting brick, burned to a
glasslike mass.
obtuse bisectrix

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a. That axis that bisects the obtuse angle
of the optic axes of biaxial
minerals. Fay
b. The angle >90 degrees between the
optic axes in a biaxial crystal, bxo.
CF:optic angle

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occidental cat's-eye
See:cat's-eye; tiger's-eye.
occlude
To take in and retain (a substance) in the
interior rather than on an
external surface; to sorb. Used esp. of
metals sorbing gases; e.g.,
palladium occludes large volumes of
hydrogen. Webster 3rd
occluded
Contained in pores (said of gas occluded
in coal). Mason
occluded gas
Any of several gases that enter a mine
atmosphere from pores, as feeders
and blowers, and also from blasting
operations. These gases pollute the
mine air chiefly by the absorption of
oxygen by the coal, and in addition
by chemical combination of oxygen with
carbonaceous matter, for example,
from decaying timbers, rusting of iron
rails, burning of lights, and
breathing of humans and animals. These
gases include oxygen, nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, and methane. Kentucky
occlusion
a. Taking up or incorporation of liquids in
solids or of gases in liquids.
AGI
occupant
An occupant of a tract of land, as the word
ordinarily is used, is one who
has the use and possession thereof,
whether he resides upon it or not.
Ricketts
occupation
As used in the mining law, it is equivalent
to possession, and the right
to locate is included in the right to occupy,
and incident to a location
is the right of possession; but mere
occupancy of the public lands and
making improvement thereon gives no
vested right therein as against a
location made in pursuance of law.
Ricketts
occurrence
See:mineral occurrence
ocean current
a. The name current is usually restricted to
the faster movements of the
ocean, while those movements that
amount to only a few miles a day are
termed drifts. AGI
b. A nontidal current constituting a part of
the great oceanic
circulation. Examples are gulf stream,
kuroshio, and equatorial currents.
AGI
oceanic ridge
See:Mid-Atlantic Ridge; mid-ocean ridge.
oceanic trench
See:trench
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
oceanographic dredge
Apparatus used aboard ships to bring up
quantity samples of the ocean
bottom deposits and sediments. Hunt
oceanography

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The broad field of science that includes all
fields of study that pertain
to the sea. This includes the studies of
boundaries of the ocean, its
bottom topography, the physics and
chemistry of seawater, the
characteristics of its motion, and marine
biology. Hy
ocher
A name given to various native earthy
materials used as pigments. They
consist essentially of hydrated ferric oxide
admixed with clay and sand in
varying amounts and in impalpable
subdivision. When carrying much
manganese ochers grade into umbers.
They are either yellow, brown, or red.
The best reds are sometimes obtained by
calcining the yellow varieties.
They are called burnt ochers. Others are
obtained by calcining copperas or
as a residue from roasting pyrite. In
general, the native yellows and
browns are varieties of limonite and the
native reds are varieties of
hematite. One variety of red ocher is
known as scarlet ocher. Their value
as pigments depends not only on the depth
of color but also on the amount
of oil required as a vehicle.
CCD, 2
octagon
A polygon having eight sides. Jones, 2
octahedral borax
A rhombohedral form of hydrous sodium
borate, Na
2
B
4
O (sub
7) .5H
2
O , simulating regular
octahedrons. From the Lagoong of
Tuscany, Italy.
octahedral cleavage
In the isometric system, cleavage parallel
to the faces of an octahedron.
Fay
octahedral copper
See:cuprite
octahedral iron ore
See:magnetite
octahedrite
a. A class of meteorites. Hey, 1
b. The most common iron meteorite
contains 6% to 18% nickel in the metal
phase; on etching, shows Widmanstaetten
structure owing to the presence of
intimate intergrowths (of plates of
kamacite with narrow selvages of
taenite) oriented parallel to the octahedral
planes.
c. A former name for anatase.
octahedron
a. A closed crystallographic form with
isometric symmetry and eight faces,
each an equilateral triangle; sometimes
called a regular octahedron to
distinguish it from the more general usage
defined below. Commonly
observed in isometric minerals, such as
fluorite, pyrite, magnetite, and
diamond.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
b. Less precisely, a closed
crystallographic form composed of (or
bounded
by) eight triangular surfaces (a
bipyramid), such as in some samples of
anatase. Plural: octahedra. Adj.:
octahedral.
octant
Each eighth of crystal space divided by
three noncoplanar axial planes.
CF:dodecant
octant search
Used to limit the number of sample data
points used for estimating
intermediate spatial values. The search
neighborhood is divided into eight
equal-angle sectors. Constraints on
selection of data values to include in
the estimation include: minimum and
maximum of samples or the number of
consecutive empty sectors. If either
criteria is below minimum, an
interpolated value is not calculated.
Applies to any interpolation method
where a limited number of sample data
points are used to estimate
intermediate values.
octaphyllite
a. A trioctahedral clay mineral. AGI
b. A group of mica minerals that contains
eight cations per ten oxygen and
two hydroxyl ions.
c. Any mineral of the octaphyllite group,
such as biotite; a trioctahedral
clay mineral. CF:heptaphyllite
octopus
A bin or tank to facilitate the concrete
lining of circular shafts. The
concrete is mixed on the surface, taken
down the shaft in buckets, and
discharged into the octopus. The concrete
is then led away through
flexible rubber pipes to different points
around the shaft. Nelson
ocular
Eyepiece of a microscope. Pryor, 3
O'Donaghue formula
A formula used for calculating the
thickness of tubbing: t = hdF/2C + A,
where: t is the required thickness of
tubbing in inches; h is the pressure
of water in pounds per square inch; d is
the diameter of the shaft in
inches; C is the crushing strength of cast
iron in pounds per square inch,
which may be taken as 95,000; F is the
factor of safety adopted between 5
and 10; and A is the allowance for
possible flaws and corrosion and may
vary from 1/4 to 1 in (6.4 to 25.4 mm),
averaging 1/2 in (12.7 mm).
Sinclair, 2
O'Donahue's theory
A mine subsidence theory based on an
extension of the theory of the
normal. In it, subsidence is regarded as
taking place in two stages. There
is, first, a breaking of the rocks in which
the lines of fracture tend to
run at right angles to the stratification.
This is followed by an
aftersliding, or inward movement from the
sides, resulting in a pull or
draw beyond the edges of the workings.
Briggs


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odontolite

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A fossil bone or tooth colored deep blue
by iron phosphate (vivianite),
and rarely green by copper compounds,
and resembling turquoise, such as
that from the tusks of mammoths found in
Siberia. It is cut and polished
for jewelry. AGI
oersted
a. The practical, cgs electromagnetic unit
of magnetic intensity. A unit
magnetic pole, placed in a vacuum in
which the magnetic intensity is 1 Oe
(79.577 A/m), is acted upon by a force of
1 dyn in the direction of the
intensity vector. AGI
b. Commonly used as the cgs unit of
magnetic-field intensity. Except in
magnetized media, a magnetic field with
an intensity (H) of 1 Oe has an
induction (B) of 1 Gs (0.1 mT). AGI
Oetling freezing method
A method of shaft sinking by freezing wet
ground in sections as the
sinking proceeds. The permanent lining is
also inserted as the shaft is
sunk. The freezing equipment is a cylinder
equal in diameter to the shaft
and 44 in. (1.12 m) in height, with the
lower end closed by a plate. The
cylinder is in sections, each of which can
be removed. Each section is
provided with freezing coils. After
freezing the ground, two sections are
removed, the ground is thawed locally and
removed, and a segment of the
permanent lining is inserted. The process
is repeated.
Nelson

off center waterway
A waterway port in a noncoring diamond
bit, not located in the center of
the bit face. Long
off gate
N. of Eng. One of the goaf roadways in
longwall workings, which are set
about 120 yd (110 m) apart. Fay
off-highway truck
A truck of such size, weight, or
dimensions that it cannot be used on
public highways.
official plat of survey
The expression in a patent according to
the official plat of survey of the
land returned to the general land office by
the surveyor general refers to
the description of the land as well as to the
quantity conveyed.
Ricketts
off line
a. A condition existing when the drive rod
of the drill swivel head is not
centered and parallel with the borehole
being drilled. Long
b. A borehole that has deviated from its
intended course. Long
c. A condition existing wherein any linear
excavation (shaft, drift,
borehole, etc.) deviates from a previously
determined or intended survey
line or course.


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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
off-peak load
Electricity drawn at a period when the
power station that supplies it is
not fully loaded. Pryor, 3
offretite
A hexagonal mineral, (K
2
,Ca)
5
Al
10
Si
26

O
72
.30H
2
O ; zeolite group; commonly
intergrown with erionite
and levyne as a vein or cavity filling in
mafic lavas.
offset
a. A short drift or crosscut driven from a
main gangway or level.
Fay
b. The horizontal distance between the
outcrops of a dislocated bed.
Fay
c. Of a fault, the horizontal component of
displacement, measured
perpendicular to the disrupted horizon.
AGI
d. A side (horizontal) measurement of
distance perpendicular to a line,
usually a transit line. Seelye, 2
e. To collar and drill a borehole at some
distance from the designated
site to avoid a difficult setup. Long
f. To drill a borehole near one previously
drilled, which may have been
lost, for purposes of correlation or to
determine the lateral extent of
mineralization. Long
g. An abrupt change in the trend of a drill
hole, usually caused by a
small shelflike projection of rock
alongside one wall of the drill hole.
Long
h. A well drilled near the boundary of a
lease opposite a completed well
on an adjacent lease. offset well. Long
i. To offset a well by drilling the next
adjoining location in accordance
with a spacing pattern. Wheeler, R.R.
j. A spur or minor branch from a principal
range of hills or mountains.
k. The distance along the strain coordinate
between the initial portion of
a stress-strain curve and a parallel line that
intersects the
stress-strain curve at a value of stress
which is used as a measure of the
yield strength. It is used for materials that
have no obvious yield point.
A value of 0.2% is commonly used. ASM,
1
offset deposit
a. A mineral deposit, esp. of sulfides,
formed partly by magmatic
segregation and partly by hydrothermal
solution, near the source rock.
AGI
b. At Sudbury, ON, Canada, the term
refers to dikelike bodies radiating
from the Sudbury Complex, thought to
have been filled from above by
xenolithic rock fragments and massive
pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite-pentlandite.
AGI
offset digging
In a ladder ditcher, digging with the boom
not centered in the machine.
Nichols, 1
offset hole
See:offset
offset line
In surveying, a line established parallel to
the main survey line, and
usually not far from it; e.g., a line on a

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sidewalk, 2 ft (0.6 m) from the
established street line, or a line parallel to
the centerline of a bridge
and 50 ft (15.2 m) from it. Seelye, 2
offset ridge

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A ridge that is discontinuous because of
faulting. AGI
offset staff
In surveying, a rod, usually 10 links
(0.2012 m) long, used in measuring
short offsets. Webster 2nd
offset well
See:offset
off-sider
A driller or drill-crew-worker working on
the opposite shift. Also called
drill helper. Long
offtake
A length of boring rods unscrewed and
detached at the top of a borehole.
Also called rod stand; setout. BS, 9
offtake lad
See:shackler
offtake rod
One of the auxiliary rods at the top of a
winding shaft for guiding and
steadying the cages during decking or
loading and unloading operations.
Nelson

off-the-road hauling
Hauling that takes place off the public
highways, generally on a mining or
excavation site. The hauling units used are
generally higher and wider
than those used in over-the-road hauling
since highway restrictions do not
limit size, weight, etc. CF:over-the-road
hauling
off the solid
In this type of blasting, coal is blasted
from the solid with no
precutting or shearing. McAdam, 2
ogie
The space before the fire in a kiln. Also
called killogie.
Standard, 1
ohm
he United States. Symbols, Omega and
omega .
Webster 3rd; Zimmerman
ohmmeter
A type of galvanometer that directly
indicates the number of ohms of the
resistance being measured. Crispin
Ohm's law
The formula expressing Ohm's law is I =
E/R, in which I is the electric
current in amperes; E is the electromotive
force in volts; and R is the
resistance in ohms. Handbook of
Chemistry and Physics, 2
The practical mks unit of electric
resistance that equals the resistance
83
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
of a circuit in which a potential difference
of 1 V produces a current of
1 A; the resistance in which 1 W of power
is dissipated when 1 A flows
through it..
-oid

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A suffix meaning "in the form of." AGI
oikocryst
In poikilitic fabric, the enclosing crystal.
AGI
oil agglomeration
A coal beneficiation process in which an
oil is used to preferentially wet
the coal particles, which have an affinity
to agglomerate into masses that
are then selectively removed by screening,
e.g.

oil base
The residuum from the distillation of
petroleum. When paraffin is obtained
from petroleum, the original oil is said to
have a paraffin base; when the
residue is entirely asphaltic, the original
petroleum is said to have an
asphaltic base. Some petroleums have
both an asphaltic and a paraffin
base. API, 1
oil-bearing shale
Shale impregnated with petroleum. Not to
be confused with oil shale.
Tomkeieff


oiled
A term used in flotation when a particle is
given a water repellent
surface. When such a coating has been
formed, the particle is said to be
oiled or treated and ready to be floated.
Newton, 1
oiler
a. In flotation, oil that provides a film
around a mineral particle.
b. One of several types of mechanical
devices that deliver oil to machines
and into air or steam lines in controllable
amounts. Also called atomizer;
line oiler; lubricator; oil pot; pineapple;
pot. Long
oilfield winch
An extremely powerful low-speed winch
on a crawler tractor.
Nichols, 1
oil flotation
A process in which oil is used in ore
concentration by flotation.

oil of vitriol
Concentrated sulfuric acid.
oil pot
See:line oiler; oiler.
oil pump
A hydraulic pump supplying oil under
pressure to the hydraulic-feed
cylinders and pistons of a hydraulic-type
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
swivel head on a diamond drill.
Long
oil shale
A kerogen-bearing, finely laminated
brown or black sedimentary rock that
will yield liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons
on distillation.
CF:bituminous shale
petrolo-shale. AGI
oilstone
A fine-grained stone used for sharpening
edged tools or other similar
metal surfaces. Fay
oil-temper
To harden steel by quenching in oil after
heating. Webster 3rd
okenite
A triclinic mineral, Ca
10
Si
18
O
46
.18H
2
O ;
white; fibrous; commonly associated with
zeolites in basalts.
old age
a. The stage in the development of a
stream at which erosion is decreasing
in vigor and efficiency, and aggradation
becomes dominant as the gradient
is reduced. It is characterized by a broad
open valley with a flood plain
that may be 15 times the width of the
meander belt; numerous oxbows,
bayous, and swamps; a sluggish current;
and slow erosion, effected chiefly
by mass-wasting at valley sides. AGI
b. The final stage of the cycle of erosion
of a landscape or region, in
which the surface has been reduced almost
to base level and the landforms
are marked by simplicity of form and
subdued relief. It is characterized
by a few large meandering streams
flowing sluggishly across broad flood
plains, separated by faintly swelling hills,
and having dendritic
distributaries; and by peneplanation. AGI
c. A hypothetical stage in the development
of a coast, characterized by a
wide wave-cut platform, a faintly sloping
sea cliff pushed far inland, and
a coastal region approaching
peneplanation. The stage is probably a
theoretical abstraction, since it is doubtful
whether stability of sea
level is maintained long enough for the
land to be so reduced. AGI
oldhamite
An isometric mineral, (Ca,Mn)S ; pale
brown; occurs in some meteorites and
slags; rapidly oxidizes in contact with air.
Oldham stone duster
A self-contained transportable stone
duster. A high-velocity current of
air from a fan or blower is mechanically
fed from a hopper above, both the
fan and the feeding mechanism being
driven from the tub axle as it is
drawn along by rope haulage, horse, or
manually. It delivers about 3/4 lb
(0.34 kg) of dust per yard (0.9 m) of
travel. Sinclair, 1
Oldham-Wheat lamp
A cap lamp designed for full self-service.
This lamp, weighing 6-5/8 lb
(3.0 kg), has a 4-V lead-acid battery in a
hard rubber case with covers of
stainless steel or nickel-plated hard brass.
The switch is magnetically
operated and is situated in a sealed plastic

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moulding. A 4-W bulb burning
11 h or a 2-W bulb burning 14 h is used.
The lamp is of one-piece
construction and no dismantling is needed
to charge the accumulator.
Sinclair, 1

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old hole
See:main hole
oldland
a. Any ancient land; specif. an extensive
area (such as the Canadian
shield) of ancient crystalline rocks
reduced to low relief by
long-continued erosion and from which
the materials of later sedimentary
deposits were derived. AGI
b. A region of older land, behind a coastal
plain, that supplied the
material of which the coastal-plain strata
were formed. AGI
c. A term proposed by Maxson and
Anderson (1935) for the land surface of
the old-age stage of the cycle of erosion,
characterized by subdued
relief. AGI
Old Red Sandstone
A thick sequence of nonmarine,
predominantly red sedimentary rocks,
chiefly sandstones, conglomerates, and
shales, representing the Devonian
System in parts of Great Britain and
elsewhere in northwestern Europe.
AGI
old scrap
Scrap derived from consumer goods that
have outlived their usefulness in
the economy; it includes discarded white
goods, automobiles, electrical
equipment, machinery, etc.
old silver
Silver made to appear old by the
application of graphite and grease.
old waste
Scot. Old or abandoned workings. Fay
old working
Mine working that has been abandoned,
allowed to collapse, and perhaps
sealed off. Unless proper safeguards are
taken, old workings can be a
source of danger to workings in
production particularly if they are
waterlogged and their plan position is
uncertain.

oleander-leaf texture
Leaf-shaped masses of stromeyerite (or
other minerals) in a matrix of
chalcocite (or other mineral). AGI
oleic acid
Ch
3
(CH
2
),CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH ; a
mono-unsaturated fatty acid used in ore
flotation; insoluble in water; and
soluble in alcohol, ether, and in most other
organic solvents.
CCD, 2
oligist
See:hematite
oligist iron
See:hematite
86
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
Oligocene

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An epoch of the early Tertiary Period,
after the Eocene and before the
Miocene; also, the corresponding
worldwide series of rocks. It is
considered to be a period when the
Tertiary is designated as an era.
AGI
oligoclase
A triclinic mineral, (Na,Ca)[(Si,Al)AlSi
2

O
8
] ; plagioclase
series of the feldspar group; has NaSi
(albite) 10 to 30 mol % and CaAl
(anorthite) 90 to 70 mol %;
pseudomonoclinic with prismatic cleavage
and
characteristic polysynthetic twinning
commonly visible on cleavage traces;
white; may be chatoyant; a common rock-
forming mineral in igneous and
metamorphic rocks of intermediate to high
silica content; forms the entire
mass in some anorthosites; less commonly
a vein mineral.
oligonite
A former name for manganoan siderite,
(Fe,Mn)CO
3
.
oligosiderite
A meteorite containing a small amount of
metallic iron. AGI
oligotrophic peat
Peat poorly supplied with nutrients.
Tomkeieff


olivenite
An orthorhombic mineral, Cu
2
AsO
4
(OH)
; adamantine to
vitreous; a secondary mineral in copper
deposits.
Oliver filter
A continuous-type filter made in the form
of a cylindrical drum with
filter cloth stretched over the convex
surface of the drum. The drum
rotates slowly about a horizontal axis, and
the lower part is immersed in
a tank containing the pulp to be filtered.
Arrangement of pressure and
suction pipes on the interior of the drum
permits the application of
suction to the filtering surface. As the
filter passes through the tank,
it picks up a layer of solid material and
emerges carrying a layer of
filter cake.
olivine
A mineral group including fayalite, Fe
2

SiO
4
; forsterite,
Mg
2
SiO
4
; liebenbergite, (Ni,Mg)
2
SiO
4
;
and
tephroite, Mn
2
SiO
4
; orthorhombic; olive
green, grayish
green, brown, or black; members
intermediate in the forsterite-fayalite
crystal solution series are common rock-
forming minerals in gabbros,
basalts, peridotites, and dunites; alters
hydrothermally to serpentine.
Fayalite occurs in some granites and
syenites, forsterite in thermally
metamorphosed dolomites, and tephroite
in iron manganese ore deposits and
their associated skarns..

87
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
olivine rock
See:dunite
olivinite

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a. In the International Union of Geological
Sciences classification.
b. An olivine-rich ore-bearing igneous
rock that also contains other
pyroxenes and/or amphiboles.
olivinoid
An olivinelike substance found in
meteorites.
oldland
a. Any ancient land; specif. an extensive
area (such as the Canadian
shield) of ancient crystalline rocks
reduced to low relief by
long-continued erosion and from which
the materials of later sedimentary
deposits were derived. AGI
b. A region of older land, behind a coastal
plain, that supplied the
material of which the coastal-plain strata
were formed. AGI
c. A term proposed by Maxson and
Anderson (1935) for the land surface of
the old-age stage of the cycle of erosion,
characterized by subdued
relief. AGI
Old Red Sandstone
A thick sequence of nonmarine,
predominantly red sedimentary rocks,
chiefly sandstones, conglomerates, and
shales, representing the Devonian
System in parts of Great Britain and
elsewhere in northwestern Europe.
AGI
old scrap
Scrap derived from consumer goods that
have outlived their usefulness in
the economy; it includes discarded white
goods, automobiles, electrical
equipment, machinery, etc.
old silver
Silver made to appear old by the
application of graphite and grease.
old waste
Scot. Old or abandoned workings. Fay
old working
Mine working that has been abandoned,
allowed to collapse, and perhaps
sealed off. Unless proper safeguards are
taken, old workings can be a
source of danger to workings in
production particularly if they are
waterlogged and their plan position is
uncertain.

oleander-leaf texture
Leaf-shaped masses of stromeyerite (or
other minerals) in a matrix of
chalcocite (or other mineral). AGI
oleic acid
Ch
3
(CH
2
),CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH ; a
mono-unsaturated fatty acid used in ore
flotation; insoluble in water; and
soluble in alcohol, ether, and in most other
organic solvents.
CCD, 2

88
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
oligist
See:hematite
oligist iron
See:hematite

Editorial Grupo Universitario: grupouniversitario@hotmail.com

Oligocene
An epoch of the early Tertiary Period,
after the Eocene and before the
Miocene; also, the corresponding
worldwide series of rocks. It is
considered to be a period when the
Tertiary is designated as an era.
AGI
oligoclase
A triclinic mineral, (Na,Ca)[(Si,Al)AlSi
2

O
8
] ; plagioclase
series of the feldspar group; has NaSi
(albite) 10 to 30 mol % and CaAl
(anorthite) 90 to 70 mol %;
pseudomonoclinic with prismatic cleavage
and
characteristic polysynthetic twinning
commonly visible on cleavage traces;
white; may be chatoyant; a common rock-
forming mineral in igneous and
metamorphic rocks of intermediate to high
silica content; forms the entire
mass in some anorthosites; less commonly
a vein mineral.
oligonite
A former name for manganoan siderite,
(Fe,Mn)CO
3
.
oligosiderite
A meteorite containing a small amount of
metallic iron. AGI
oligotrophic peat
Peat poorly supplied with nutrients.
Tomkeieff
olivenite
An orthorhombic mineral, Cu
2
AsO
4
(OH)
; adamantine to
vitreous; a secondary mineral in copper
deposits.
Oliver filter
A continuous-type filter made in the form
of a cylindrical drum with
filter cloth stretched over the convex
surface of the drum. The drum
rotates slowly about a horizontal axis, and
the lower part is immersed in
a tank containing the pulp to be filtered.
Arrangement of pressure and
suction pipes on the interior of the drum
permits the application of
suction to the filtering surface. As the
filter passes through the tank,
it picks up a layer of solid material and
emerges carrying a layer of
filter cake.
olivine
A mineral group including fayalite, Fe
2

SiO
4
; forsterite,
Mg
2
SiO
4
; liebenbergite, (Ni,Mg)
2
SiO
4
;
and
tephroite, Mn
2
SiO
4
; orthorhombic; olive
green, grayish
green, brown, or black; members
intermediate in the forsterite-fayalite
crystal solution series are common rock-
forming minerals in gabbros,
basalts, peridotites, and dunites; alters
hydrothermally to serpentine.
Fayalite occurs in some granites and
syenites, forsterite in thermally
89
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
metamorphosed dolomites, and tephroite
in iron manganese ore deposits and
their associated skarns..
olivine rock
See:dunite

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olivinite
a. In the International Union of Geological
Sciences classification,

b. An olivine-rich ore-bearing igneous
rock that also contains other
pyroxenes and/or amphiboles.
olivinoid
An olivinelike substance found in
meteorites.
oldland
a. Any ancient land; specif. an extensive
area (such as the Canadian
shield) of ancient crystalline rocks
reduced to low relief by
long-continued erosion and from which
the materials of later sedimentary
deposits were derived. AGI
b. A region of older land, behind a coastal
plain, that supplied the
material of which the coastal-plain strata
were formed. AGI
c. A term proposed by Maxson and
Anderson (1935) for the land surface of
the old-age stage of the cycle of erosion,
characterized by subdued
relief. AGI
Old Red Sandstone
A thick sequence of nonmarine,
predominantly red sedimentary rocks,
chiefly sandstones, conglomerates, and
shales, representing the Devonian
System in parts of Great Britain and
elsewhere in northwestern Europe.
AGI
old scrap
Scrap derived from consumer goods that
have outlived their usefulness in
the economy; it includes discarded white
goods, automobiles, electrical
equipment, machinery, etc.
old silver
Silver made to appear old by the
application of graphite and grease.
old waste
Scot. Old or abandoned workings. Fay
old working
Mine working that has been abandoned,
allowed to collapse, and perhaps
sealed off. Unless proper safeguards are
taken, old workings can be a
source of danger to workings in
production particularly if they are
waterlogged and their plan position is
uncertain.

oleander-leaf texture
Leaf-shaped masses of stromeyerite (or
other minerals) in a matrix of
chalcocite (or other mineral). AGI
oleic acid
Ch
3
(CH
2
),CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH ; a
mono-unsaturated fatty acid used in ore
flotation; insoluble in water; and
soluble in alcohol, ether, and in most other
90
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
organic solvents.
CCD, 2
oligist
See:hematite

Editorial Grupo Universitario: grupouniversitario@hotmail.com

oligist iron
See:hematite
Oligocene
An epoch of the early Tertiary Period,
after the Eocene and before the
Miocene; also, the corresponding
worldwide series of rocks. It is
considered to be a period when the
Tertiary is designated as an era.
AGI
oligoclase
A triclinic mineral, (Na,Ca)[(Si,Al)AlSi
2

O
8
] ; plagioclase
series of the feldspar group; has NaSi
(albite) 10 to 30 mol % and CaAl
(anorthite) 90 to 70 mol %;
pseudomonoclinic with prismatic cleavage
and
characteristic polysynthetic twinning
commonly visible on cleavage traces;
white; may be chatoyant; a common rock-
forming mineral in igneous and
metamorphic rocks of intermediate to high
silica content; forms the entire
mass in some anorthosites; less commonly
a vein mineral.
oligonite
A former name for manganoan siderite,
(Fe,Mn)CO
3
.

oligosiderite
A meteorite containing a small amount of
metallic iron. AGI
oligotrophic peat
Peat poorly supplied with nutrients.
Tomkeieff
olivenite
An orthorhombic mineral, Cu
2
AsO
4
(OH)
adamantine to
vitreous; a secondary mineral in copper
deposits.
Oliver filter
A continuous-type filter made in the form
of a cylindrical drum with
filter cloth stretched over the convex
surface of the drum. The drum
rotates slowly about a horizontal axis, and
the lower part is immersed in
a tank containing the pulp to be filtered.
Arrangement of pressure and
suction pipes on the interior of the drum
permits the application of
suction to the filtering surface. As the
filter passes through the tank,
it picks up a layer of solid material and
emerges carrying a layer of
filter cake.
olivine
A mineral group including fayalite, Fe
2

SiO
4
; forsterite,
Mg
2
SiO
4
; liebenbergite, (Ni,Mg)
2
SiO
4
;
and
tephroite, Mn
2
SiO
4
; orthorhombic; olive
green, grayish
green, brown, or black; members
intermediate in the forsterite-fayalite
crystal solution series are common rock-
91
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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forming minerals in gabbros,
basalts, peridotites, and dunites; alters
hydrothermally to serpentine.
Fayalite occurs in some granites and
syenites, forsterite in thermally
metamorphosed dolomites, and tephroite
in iron manganese ore deposits and
their associated skarns..
olivine rock
See:dunite
olivinite
a. In the International Union of Geological
Sciences classification,

b. An olivine-rich ore-bearing igneous
rock that also contains other
pyroxenes and/or amphiboles.
olivinoid
An olivinelike substance found in
meteorites.
Standard, 2
oldland
a. Any ancient land; specif. an extensive
area (such as the Canadian
shield) of ancient crystalline rocks
reduced to low relief by
long-continued erosion and from which
the materials of later sedimentary
deposits were derived. AGI
b. A region of older land, behind a coastal
plain, that supplied the
material of which the coastal-plain strata
were formed. AGI
c. A term proposed by Maxson and
Anderson (1935) for the land surface of
the old-age stage of the cycle of erosion,
characterized by subdued
relief. AGI
Old Red Sandstone
A thick sequence of nonmarine,
predominantly red sedimentary rocks,
chiefly sandstones, conglomerates, and
shales, representing the Devonian
System in parts of Great Britain and
elsewhere in northwestern Europe.
AGI
old scrap
Scrap derived from consumer goods that
have outlived their usefulness in
the economy; it includes discarded white
goods, automobiles, electrical
equipment, machinery, etc.
old silver
Silver made to appear old by the
application of graphite and grease.
old waste
Scot. Old or abandoned workings. Fay
old working
Mine working that has been abandoned,
allowed to collapse, and perhaps
sealed off. Unless proper safeguards are
taken, old workings can be a
source of danger to workings in
production particularly if they are
waterlogged and their plan position is
uncertain.
oleander-leaf texture
Leaf-shaped masses of stromeyerite (or
other minerals) in a matrix of
chalcocite (or other mineral). AGI

92
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
oleic acid

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Ch
3
(CH
2
),CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH ; a
mono-unsaturated fatty acid used in ore
flotation; insoluble in water; and
soluble in alcohol, ether, and in most other
organic solvents.
CCD, 2
oligist
See:hematite
oligist iron
See:hematite
Oligocene
An epoch of the early Tertiary Period,
after the Eocene and before the
Miocene; also, the corresponding
worldwide series of rocks. It is
considered to be a period when the
Tertiary is designated as an era.
AGI
oligoclase
A triclinic mineral, (Na,Ca)[(Si,Al)AlSi
2

O
8
] ; plagioclase
series of the feldspar group; has NaSi
(albite) 10 to 30 mol % and CaAl
(anorthite) 90 to 70 mol %;
pseudomonoclinic with prismatic cleavage
and
characteristic polysynthetic twinning
commonly visible on cleavage traces;
white; may be chatoyant; a common rock-
forming mineral in igneous and
metamorphic rocks of intermediate to high
silica content; forms the entire
mass in some anorthosites; less commonly
a vein mineral.

oligonite
A former name for manganoan siderite,
(Fe,Mn)CO
3
.
oligosiderite
A meteorite containing a small amount of
metallic iron. AGI
oligotrophic peat
Peat poorly supplied with nutrients.
Tomkeieff
olivenite
An orthorhombic mineral, Cu
2
AsO
4
(OH)
; adamantine to
vitreous; a secondary mineral in copper
deposits.
Oliver filter
A continuous-type filter made in the form
of a cylindrical drum with
filter cloth stretched over the convex
surface of the drum. The drum
rotates slowly about a horizontal axis, and
the lower part is immersed in
a tank containing the pulp to be filtered.
Arrangement of pressure and
suction pipes on the interior of the drum
permits the application of
suction to the filtering surface. As the
filter passes through the tank,
it picks up a layer of solid material and
emerges carrying a layer of
filter cake.
olivine
A mineral group including fayalite, Fe
2

SiO
4
; forsterite,
Mg
2
SiO
4
; liebenbergite, (Ni,Mg)
2
SiO
4
;
and
93
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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tephroite, Mn
2
SiO
4
; orthorhombic; olive
green, grayish
green, brown, or black; members
intermediate in the forsterite-fayalite
crystal solution series are common rock-
forming minerals in gabbros,
basalts, peridotites, and dunites; alters
hydrothermally to serpentine.
Fayalite occurs in some granites and
syenites, forsterite in thermally
metamorphosed dolomites, and tephroite
in iron manganese ore deposits and
their associated skarns..
olivine rock
See:dunite
olivinite
a. In the International Union of Geological
Sciences classification,

b. An olivine-rich ore-bearing igneous
rock that also contains other
pyroxenes and/or amphiboles.
olivinoid
An olivinelike substance found in
meteorites.
Standard, 2
oldland
a. Any ancient land; specif. an extensive
area (such as the Canadian
shield) of ancient crystalline rocks
reduced to low relief by
long-continued erosion and from which
the materials of later sedimentary
deposits were derived. AGI
b. A region of older land, behind a coastal
plain, that supplied the
material of which the coastal-plain strata
were formed. AGI
c. A term proposed by Maxson and
Anderson (1935) for the land surface of
the old-age stage of the cycle of erosion,
characterized by subdued
relief. AGI
Old Red Sandstone
A thick sequence of nonmarine,
predominantly red sedimentary rocks,
chiefly sandstones, conglomerates, and
shales, representing the Devonian
System in parts of Great Britain and
elsewhere in northwestern Europe.
AGI
old scrap
Scrap derived from consumer goods that
have outlived their usefulness in
the economy; it includes discarded white
goods, automobiles, electrical
equipment, machinery, etc.
old silver
Silver made to appear old by the
application of graphite and grease.
old waste
Scot. Old or abandoned workings. Fay
old working
Mine working that has been abandoned,
allowed to collapse, and perhaps
sealed off. Unless proper safeguards are
taken, old workings can be a
source of danger to workings in
production particularly if they are
waterlogged and their plan position is
uncertain.

94
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
oleander-leaf texture
Leaf-shaped masses of stromeyerite (or
other minerals) in a matrix of
chalcocite (or other mineral). AGI
oleic acid

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Ch
3
(CH
2
),CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH ; a
mono-unsaturated fatty acid used in ore
flotation; insoluble in water; and
soluble in alcohol, ether, and in most other
organic solvents.
CCD, 2
oligist
See:hematite
oligist iron
See:hematite
Oligocene
An epoch of the early Tertiary Period,
after the Eocene and before the
Miocene; also, the corresponding
worldwide series of rocks. It is
considered to be a period when the
Tertiary is designated as an era.
AGI
oligoclase
A triclinic mineral, (Na,Ca)[(Si,Al)AlSi
2

O
8
] ; plagioclase
series of the feldspar group; has NaSi
(albite) 10 to 30 mol % and CaAl
(anorthite) 90 to 70 mol %;
pseudomonoclinic with prismatic cleavage
and
characteristic polysynthetic twinning
commonly visible on cleavage traces;
white; may be chatoyant; a common rock-
forming mineral in igneous and
metamorphic rocks of intermediate to high
silica content; forms the entire
mass in some anorthosites; less commonly
a vein mineral.
oligonite
A former name for manganoan siderite,
(Fe,Mn)CO
3
.
oligosiderite
A meteorite containing a small amount of
metallic iron. AGI
oligotrophic peat
Peat poorly supplied with nutrients.
Tomkeieff
olivenite
An orthorhombic mineral, Cu
2
AsO
4
(OH)
; adamantine to
vitreous; a secondary mineral in copper
deposits.
Oliver filter
A continuous-type filter made in the form
of a cylindrical drum with
filter cloth stretched over the convex
surface of the drum. The drum
rotates slowly about a horizontal axis, and
the lower part is immersed in
a tank containing the pulp to be filtered.
Arrangement of pressure and
suction pipes on the interior of the drum
permits the application of
suction to the filtering surface. As the
filter passes through the tank,
it picks up a layer of solid material and
emerges carrying a layer of
filter cake.

95
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
olivine
A mineral group including fayalite, Fe
2

SiO
4
; forsterite,
Mg
2
SiO
4
; liebenbergite, (Ni,Mg)
2
SiO
4
;
and
tephroite, Mn
2
SiO
4
; orthorhombic; olive
green, grayish
green, brown, or black; members
intermediate in the forsterite-fayalite
crystal solution series are common rock-
forming minerals in gabbros,
basalts, peridotites, and dunites; alters
hydrothermally to serpentine.
Fayalite occurs in some granites and
syenites, forsterite in thermally
metamorphosed dolomites, and tephroite
in iron manganese ore deposits and
their associated skarns..
olivine rock
See:dunite
olivinite
a. In the International Union of Geological
Sciences classification,

b. An olivine-rich ore-bearing igneous
rock that also contains other
pyroxenes and/or amphiboles.
olivinoid
An olivinelike substance found in
meteorites.
Standard, 2
oldland
a. Any ancient land; specif. an extensive
area (such as the Canadian
shield) of ancient crystalline rocks
reduced to low relief by
long-continued erosion and from which
the materials of later sedimentary
deposits were derived. AGI
b. A region of older land, behind a coastal
plain, that supplied the
material of which the coastal-plain strata
were formed. AGI
c. A term proposed by Maxson and
Anderson (1935) for the land surface of
the old-age stage of the cycle of erosion,
characterized by subdued
relief. AGI
Old Red Sandstone
A thick sequence of nonmarine,
predominantly red sedimentary rocks,
chiefly sandstones, conglomerates, and
shales, representing the Devonian
System in parts of Great Britain and
elsewhere in northwestern Europe.
AGI
old scrap
Scrap derived from consumer goods that
have outlived their usefulness in
the economy; it includes discarded white
goods, automobiles, electrical
equipment, machinery, etc.
old silver
Silver made to appear old by the
application of graphite and grease.
old waste
Scot. Old or abandoned workings. Fay
old working
Mine working that has been abandoned,
allowed to collapse, and perhaps
sealed off. Unless proper safeguards are
taken, old workings can be a
source of danger to workings in

Editorial Grupo Universitario: grupouniversitario@hotmail.com

96
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
production particularly if they are
waterlogged and their plan position is
uncertain.

oleander-leaf texture
Leaf-shaped masses of stromeyerite (or
other minerals) in a matrix of
chalcocite (or other mineral). AGI
oleic acid
Ch
3
(CH
2
),CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH ; a
mono-unsaturated fatty acid used in ore
flotation; insoluble in water; and
soluble in alcohol, ether, and in most other
organic solvents.
CCD, 2
oligist
See:hematite
oligist iron
See:hematite
Oligocene
An epoch of the early Tertiary Period,
after the Eocene and before the
Miocene; also, the corresponding
worldwide series of rocks. It is
considered to be a period when the
Tertiary is designated as an era.
AGI
oligoclase
A triclinic mineral, (Na,Ca)[(Si,Al)AlSi
2

O
8
] ; plagioclase
series of the feldspar group; has NaSi
(albite) 10 to 30 mol % and CaAl
(anorthite) 90 to 70 mol %;
pseudomonoclinic with prismatic cleavage
and characteristic polysynthetic twinning
commonly visible on cleavage traces;
white; may be chatoyant; a common rock-
forming mineral in igneous and
metamorphic rocks of intermediate to high
silica content; forms the entire
mass in some anorthosites; less commonly
a vein mineral.
oligonite
A former name for manganoan siderite,
(Fe,Mn)CO
3
.
oligosiderite
A meteorite containing a small amount of
metallic iron. AGI
oligotrophic peat
Peat poorly supplied with nutrients.
Tomkeieff
olivenite
An orthorhombic mineral, Cu
2
AsO
4
(OH)
; adamantine to
vitreous; a secondary mineral in copper
deposits.
Oliver filter
A continuous-type filter made in the form
of a cylindrical drum with
filter cloth stretched over the convex
surface of the drum. The drum
rotates slowly about a horizontal axis, and
the lower part is immersed in
a tank containing the pulp to be filtered.
Arrangement of pressure and
suction pipes on the interior of the drum
permits the application of
suction to the filtering surface. As the
filter passes through the tank,
it picks up a layer of solid material and

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97
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
emerges carrying a layer of
filter cake.
olivine

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A mineral group including fayalite, Fe
2

SiO
4
; forsterite,
Mg
2
SiO
4
; liebenbergite, (Ni,Mg)
2
SiO
4
;
and
tephroite, Mn
2
SiO
4
; orthorhombic; olive
green, grayish
green, brown, or black; members
intermediate in the forsterite-fayalite
crystal solution series are common rock-
forming minerals in gabbros,
basalts, peridotites, and dunites; alters
hydrothermally to serpentine.
Fayalite occurs in some granites and
syenites, forsterite in thermally
metamorphosed dolomites, and tephroite
in iron manganese ore deposits and
their associated skarns..
olivinite
a. In the International Union of Geological
Sciences classification,
b. An olivine-rich ore-bearing igneous
rock that also contains other
pyroxenes and/or amphiboles.
olivinoid
An olivinelike substance found in
meteorites.
Standard, 2
olivinophyre
Porphyry containing olivine phenocrysts.
Fay
ollenite
A type of hornblende schist characterized
by abundant epidote, sphene, and
rutile. Garnet is one of the accessories.
AGI
O.L.P. steel process
A steelmaking method similar to the L.D.
except that powdered lime is
blown with the oxygen stream (therefore,
the letters O.L.P.--oxygen-
lime-powder).
Nelson
ombrogenous peat
Peat, the nature of which is determined by
the amount of rainfall.
Tomkeieff
omnibus
In glassmaking, a sheet-iron cover to
protect, from drafts, the glass
articles in a leer. Standard, 2
omnidirectional hydrophone
A hydrophone whose response is
essentially independent of angle of arrival
of the incident sound wave. Hy
omphacite
A mineral of the pyroxene group
intermediate among aegirine, jadeite, and
augite; i.e., high in aluminum and sodium,
and of high-pressure origin;
monoclinic; pale to grass green; occurs in
eclogites.
o.m.s.
a. Output (usually in hundredweights) per
manshift. It is a method of
expressing the productivity of mines,
miners, and management.
Nelson
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b. N. of England. Output (usually tons)
per manshift. Interpretation
depends on the basis for calculating
manshifts, e.g., face o.m.s. is based
on manshifts at the face; seam o.m.s. on
piecework and bargain work
manshifts in the seam; overall (pit) o.m.s.
on all manshifts underground,
including datal labor. Trist
on air
a. The state of a pump which is operating
although having no liquid in its
working parts. BS, 10
b. Scot. Said of a pump when air is drawn
at each stroke.
oncosimeter
An instrument for determining the specific
gravity of a molten metal by
the immersion of a ball made of another
metal and of known weight.
Standard, 2
onegite
A variety of goethite. Hey, 1
one on two
A slope in which the elevation rises 1 ft
(m) in 2 horizontal ft (m).
Nichols, 1
one-part line
A single strand of rope or cable. Nichols,
1
one-piece set
A term applied to a single stick of timber,
called a post, stull, or prop.
Post and prop are applied to vertical
timbers, and stull is applied to
inclined timbers, or those placed
horizontally.
Lewis
one shot
a. A borehole-survey instrument that
records a single inclination and/or
bearing reading on each round trip into a
borehole. Long
b. Single shot.
one-shot exploder
See:Little Demon exploder
one-spot strip mining
Consists of three operations: the top
material is cast out of the way; pay
material is dug and trucked away; and the
top is pushed or cast back in.
Nichols, 1
one-way ram
A hydraulic cylinder in which fluid is
supplied to one end so that the
piston can be moved only one way by
power.
one-way ventilation
See:peripheral ventilation
onion-skin weathering
See:spheroidal weathering
onlap
a. An overlap characterized by the regular
and progressive pinching out,
toward the margins or shores of a
depositional basin, of the sedimentary
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units within a conformable sequence of
rocks, in which the boundary of
each unit is transgressed by the next
overlying unit and each unit in turn
terminates farther from the point of
reference. Also, the successive
extension in the lateral extent of strata (as
seen in an upward sequence)
due to their being deposited in an
advancing sea or on the margin of a
subsiding landmass. Ant: offlap.
b. The progressive submergence of land
by an advancing sea.
CF:transgression
on line
a. A linear underground excavation
advancing in compliance with a
predetermined surveyed direction or line.
b. A borehole the course of which is not
deviating from the intended
direction. Long
c. Said of a diamond drill when its drive
rod is centered on and parallel
to a borehole. Long
on long awn
A face between end and crosscut.
onofrite
A former name for selenian metacinnabar
Hg(S,Se) .
on plane
Scot. In a direction at right angles to, or
facing, the plane or main
joints.
onsetter
a. The person in charge of loading and
unloading of cages or skips at the
pit bottom, and also the signaling to the
pithead. In modern mines, the
onsetter is stationed in a cabin and all
controls are within reach for the
loading and unloading of the cages, shaft
signaling, and other car control
equipment at the shaft bottom.. Nelson
b. The person in charge of winding
operations underground, who is
stationed at the shaft side and gives all
signals to the winding
engineman. Mason
onsetting machine
Eng. A mechanical apparatus for loading
cages with full tubs and
discharging the empties, or vice versa, at
one operation. Fay
on short awn
A face in a direction between bord and
crosscut. Sinclair, 6
on sights
a. Following sights placed by a surveyor.
Fay
b. On line.
Ontarian
a. Stage in New York State: Middle
Silurian (middle and lower parts of
Clinton Group). AGI
b. An obsolete name for the Middle and
Upper Ordovician in New York State.
AGI
on-the-solid
a. Applied to a blasthole extending into
coal farther than the coal can be
broken by the blast. Fay
b. That part of a blasthole that cannot be

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broken by the blast.
Fay
c. A practice of blasting coal with heavy
charges of explosives, in lieu
of undercutting or channeling. Fay
on the track

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Diamonds inset in the crown of a bit in
concentric circles so that the
diamonds in any one circle follow the
same groove cut into the rock.
Long
onyx
a. A chalcedonic variety of quartz with
color, chiefly white, yellow, red,
or black, in straight parallel bands; used
esp. in making cameos.
CF:onyx agate
b. A name applied incorrectly to dyed,
unbanded, solid-color chalcedony;
esp. black onyx.
c. Adj. Parallel banded; e.g., onyx marble
and onyx obsidian.
d. Jet black translucent layers of calcite
from cave deposits, often
called Mexican onyx or onyx marble.
onyx agate
Banded agate with straight parallel layers
of differing tones of gray; not
a syn. for onyx. CF:onyx
onyx marble
Translucent, generally layered,
cryptocrystalline calcite with colors in
pastel shades, particularly yellow, brown,
and green.
Mexican onyx; travertine. ASTM

oolite
a. A sedimentary rock, usually a
limestone, made up chiefly of ooliths
cemented together. The rock was
originally termed "oolith."
AGI
b. A term often used for oolith, or one of
the ovoid particles of an
oolite. Etymol. Greek oon, egg.
CF:pisolite
oolith
One of the small round or ovate
accretionary bodies in a sedimentary rock,
resembling the roe of fish, and having
diameters of 0.25 to 2 mm (commonly
0.5 to 1 mm). It is usually formed of
calcium carbonate, but may be of
dolomite, silica, or other minerals, in
successive concentric layers,
commonly around a nucleus such as a
shell fragment, an algal pellet, or a
quartz-sand grain, in shallow, wave-
agitated water; it often shows an
internal radiating fibrous structure
indicating outward growth or
enlargement at the site of deposition.
CF:pisolith
ovulite. AGI
oolitic
Pertaining to an oolite, or to a rock or
mineral made up of ooliths; e.g.,
an oolitic ironstone, in which iron oxide or
iron carbonate has replaced
the calcium carbonate of an oolitic
limestone. AGI
oolitic limestone
An even-textured limestone composed
almost wholly of relatively uniform
calcareous ooliths, with virtually no
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interstitial material. It is locally
an important oil reservoir (such as the
Smackover Formation in Arkansas),
and is also quarried for building stone.
AGI
oolitic texture
The texture of a sedimentary rock
consisting largely of ooliths showing
tangential contacts with one another. AGI
ooze
a. A soft, slimy, sticky mud. Fay
b. To emit or give out slowly. Webster 3rd
c. A fine-grained pelagic deposit that
contains more than 30% of material
of organic origin. AGI
d. An unconsolidated deposit composed
almost entirely of the shells and
undissolved remains of foraminifera,
diatoms, and other marine life;
diatom ooze and foraminiferal ooze. Hy
opacite
A general term applied to swarms of
opaque, microscopic grains in rocks,
esp. as rims that develop mainly on biotite
and hornblende phenocrysts in
volcanic rocks, apparently as a result of
post-eruption oxidation and
dehydration. Opacite is generally
supposed to consist chiefly of magnetite
dust. CF:ferrite
opacity
The quality of being opaque.
opal
An amorphous or microcrystalline
mineral, SiO
2
.nH
2
O ; may
be tridymite or cristobalite; has a varying
proportion of water (as much
as 20% but commonly 3% to 9%); occurs
in nearly all colors; transparent to
nearly opaque; typically shows a marked
iridescent "play of color";
differs from quartz in being isotropic; has
a lower refractive index than
quartz and is softer, more soluble, and less
dense; generally occurs
massive and may be pseudomorphous
after other minerals; deposited at low
temperatures from silica-bearing water;
occurs in cracks and cavities of
igneous rocks, in flintlike nodules in
limestones, in mineral veins, in
deposits of thermal springs, in siliceous
skeletons of various marine
organisms (such as diatoms and sponges),
in serpentinized rocks, in
weathering products, and in most
chalcedony and flint. The transparent
colored varieties exhibiting opalescence
are valued as gemstones.

opalescence
A milky or somewhat pearly appearance
or luster of a mineral, such as that
shown by opal and moonstone. CF:play of
color
opaline
a. Any of several minerals related to or
resembling opal; e.g., a
pale-blue to bluish-white opalescent or
girasol corundum, or a brecciated
impure opal pseudomorphous after
serpentine. AGI
b. An earthy form of gypsum. AGI
c. A rock with a groundmass or matrix
consisting of opal. adj. Resembling
opal, esp. in appearance; e.g., opaline
feldspar (labradorite) or opaline
silica (tabasheer). AGI

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opalite
See:opal
opalized wood
Silicified wood.
opaque
Said of a material that is impervious to
visible light or has metallic
luster. CF:transopaque; translucent;
transparency; transparent; opacity
opaque-attrite
Attritus that is opaque in thin sections.
Tomkeieff
opaque attritus
Refers to coal material of which the most
prominent and important
constituent is opaque matter and also
referred to as opaque matrix, black
fundamental matter or matrix and
residuum. IHCP
opaque-durit
See:opaque-attrite
open area
See:effective screening area
opencast
A working in which excavation is
performed from the surface. Commonly
called open pit.Webster 3rd
opencast method
A mining method consisting of removing
the overlying strata or overburden,
extracting the coal, and then replacing the
overburden. When the overlying
material consists of earth or clay it can be
removed directly by scrapers
or excavators, but where rock is
encountered it is necessary to resort to
blasting to prepare the material into
suitable form for handling by the
excavators.
opencast mine
See:opencast
opencast working
See:opencast; strike working.
open circuit
In mineral dressing, a flow line in which
the solid particles pass from
one appliance to the next without being
screened, classified, or otherwise
checked for quality; no fraction is returned
for retreatment.
Pryor, 2
open-circuit mill
A grinding mill without classifiers. Nelson
open-crib timbering
Shaft timbering with cribs alone, placed at
intervals. Fay
opencut
a. To increase the size of a shaft when it
intersects a drift so as to
form a puddle wall behind the sets of
timber.
b. Open pit; surface working in which the

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working area is kept open to the
sky.
opencut mine

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An excavation for removing minerals
which is open to the weather.

opencut mining
See:surface mining; openpit mining.
open-drive sampler
A drive-type soil-sampling device that is
essentially a headpiece,
threaded to fit a drill rod, to which is
attached a removable length of
thin-wall brass or steel tubing. An
example is the Shelby tube.
Long
open end method
A method of mining pillars in which no
stump is left; the pockets driven
are open on the goaf side and the roof is
supported on timbers.
Lewis
opener hole
The first hole or holes fired in a round
blasted off the solid to create
an additional free face in a coal mine.
CFR, 4
open fault
A fault in which the two walls are
separated. CF:closed fault
AGI

open fire
Fire occurring in a roadway or at the coal
face in a mine. Such fires may
or may not be easily accessible. They may
be in the roof of a roadway or
seam, or in the kerf of a machine-cut face.
However, they are quite
distinct in their initiation from gob fires.
An open fire may be ignited
by a blown-out shot, electrical failure, or
from sparks produced by
friction.
open fold
A fold in which the limbs diverge at a
large angle. AGI
open front
The arrangement of a blast furnace with a
forehearth. Fay
open-graded aggregate
Mineral aggregate containing very few
small particles so that the void
spaces are relatively large. Shell
open hearth
The form of regenerative furnace of the
reverberatory type used in making
steel by the Martin, Siemens, and
Siemens-Martin processes.

open-hearth furnace
A reverberatory melting furnace with a
shallow hearth and a low roof. The
flame passes over the charge on the
hearth, causing the charge to be
heated both by direct flame and by
radiation from the roof and sidewalls
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of the furnace. In the ferrous industry, the
furnace is regenerative.

open-hearth process

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A process for manufacturing steel, either
acid or basic, according to the
lining of the reverberatory furnace, in
which selected pig iron and
malleable scrap iron are melted, with the
addition of pure iron ore. The
latter, together with the air, contributes to
the oxidation of the silicon
and carbon in the melted mass. The final
deoxidation is sometimes produced
by the addition of a small quantity of
aluminum or ferromanganese, which
at the same time desulfurizes and
recarburizes the metal to the required
extent.
open-hearth steel
See:open-hearth process
open hole
a. Coal or other mine workings at the
surface or outcrop. Also called
opencast; opencut; open pit.
b. A borehole that is drilled without cores.
Nelson
c. Uncased portion of a borehole. Pryor, 3
d. A borehole free of any obstructing
object or material. Long
opening
a. A widening out of a crevice, in
consequence of a softening or
decomposition of the adjacent rock, so as
to leave a vacant space of
considerable width. Fay
b. A short heading driven between two or
more parallel headings or levels
for ventilation. Fay
c. Surface entrance to mine workings.
opening out
The formation of a longwall face by
driving headings and cross headings
and connecting the faces to form a
continuous line of coal face. It may be
viewed as the final stage in development,
leading to full coal production.
In pillar-and-stall mining, opening out
would imply the setting off of the
main headings and subsidiary drivages for
the formation of coal pillars.
Nelson
openings
a. The parts of coal mines between the
pillars, or the pillars and ribs.
Fay
b. A series of parallel chambers or
openings, separated by pillars or
walls, in slate mining. The width of an
opening varies from 35 to 50 ft
(11 to 15 m) depending on roof
conditions. Nelson
opening shot
In blasting into solid rock, the wedging
shot, gouging shot, or burn cut.
Leading shot fired to open up the rock
face by creating a cavity and
therefore easing the work done by later
shots in a round. Pryor, 3
opening stock
Quantity on hand at start of accounting
period--ore, concentrates, stores,
etc. Pryor, 3

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open lagging
Lagging placed a few inches apart.
open light
A naked light. Not a safety light. Fay

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open off
a. To turn stalls off stalls, or to drive
branch roadways from
crossheadings. Nelson
b. Eng. To begin the longwall system
from the shaft pillar, or the far end
of the royalty, or from any headings
previously driven out for the purpose
of commencing such system. Fay
c. To start any new working, as a heading,
entry, gangway, room, etc.,
from another working, as a slope,
gangway, etc. Fay
openpit mine
A mine working or excavation open to the
surface. See:strip mine
openpit mining
a. A form of operation designed to extract
minerals that lie near the
surface. Waste, or overburden, is first
removed, and the mineral is broken
and loaded, as in a stone quarry. Important
chiefly in the mining of ores
of iron and copper. Barger
b. The mining of metalliferous ores by
surface-mining methods is commonly
designated as openpit mining as
distinguished from the strip mining of
coal and the quarrying of other
nonmetallic materials such as limestone,
building stone, etc.

openpit quarry
A quarry in which the opening is the full
size of the excavation. One open
to daylight. Fay
open pot
Fireclay pot for melting glass--open at the
top. Mersereau, 2
open rock
Any stratum sufficiently open or porous to
contain a significant amount of
water or to convey it along its bed. AGI
opens
Large, open cracks or crevices and small
and large caverns. Long
open-sand casting
Casting made in a mold simply excavated
in sand, without a flask.
Fay
openset
Scot. An unfilled space between pack
walls.
open shop
A shop, or mine, where the union price is
paid, but where the workers are
not all union members. CF:union shop
open split
A split in which no regulator is installed.
Higham

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open stope
a. An unfilled cavity. Nelson
b. Underground working place either
unsupported, or supported by timbers
or pillars of rock. Pryor, 3
open-stope method
a. Stoping in which no regular artificial
method of support is employed,
although occasional props or cribs may be
used to hold local patches of
insecure ground. The walls and roof are
self-supporting, and open stopes
can be used only where the ore and wall
rocks are firm. Jackson, 2
b. See:overhand stoping
open-tank method
A method of treating mine timber to
prevent decay in which the timber is
immersed in a tank of hot preservative and
then in a tank of cold
preservative. The preservatives used are
creosote, zinc chloride, sodium
fluoride, and other chemicals.
Bethell's process. Lewis
open timbering
The usual method of setting timber or
steel supports in mines--they are
spaced from 2 to 5 ft (0.6 to 1.5 m) apart,
with laggings and struts to
secure the ground between each set. The
method is used in ground that does
not crumble or flow.
open-top carrier
The main use of this type of bucket
elevator has been in handling the
product of the larger crushers. Steel
buckets of large capacity, which may
be as long as 7 ft (2.1 m), are attached
rigidly to a heavy flat bar
chain, each strand made of two bars with a
pitch of 2 and with self-oiling
flanged rollers at each intersection. The
elevator rises at an angle of
about 60 degrees , and the rollers run on
ways made of light T-rails. The
buckets have overlapping edges, so that
there is no spill between them.
Pit and Quarry
open-top tubbing
A length of tubbing having no wedging
crib on the top of it. Fay
open traverse
A surveying traverse that starts from a
station of known or adopted
position but does not terminate upon such
a station and therefore does not
completely enclose a polygon. CF:closed
traverse
open working
Surface working, e.g., a quarry or
opencast mine. Among the minerals often
exploited by open workings are coal,
brown coal, gems; the ores of copper,
gold, iron, lead, and tin; and all kinds of
stone. Also called open work.
Nelson
operating carrier
The mechanism used with the automatic
duckbill through which the extension
and retraction of the shovel trough are
controlled. Jones, 1



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operating cost
The sum of the costs of mining,
beneficiation, and administration gives
the operating cost of a mine. Nelson
operating engineer
See:hoistman

operating point
A ventilation system is composed of a fan
and a set of connected ducts. In
a mine ventilation system, mine openings
comprise the ducts. At a given
air density and with the fan operating at
constant speed, there is only
one head and quantity of airflow that can
result. This is an equilibrium
condition and is known as the operating
point of the system.
Hartman, 2
operation
In crystallography, the rotation, reflection,
or inversion of an attribute
of a crystal structure to complete its
symmetry. CF:element
operational capacities
Figures given on flowsheets to indicate
quantities passing various points
in plant per unit time, taking account of
fluctuations in the rate of
supply and composition (as to size and
content of impurity), as follows:
(1) design capacity, the rate of feed,
defined by limits expressing the
extent and duration of load variations, at
which specific items of plant
subject to a performance guarantee must
operate continuously and give the
guaranteed results on a particular quality
of feed; (2) peak design
capacity, a rate of feed in excess of the
design capacity, which specific
items of plant will accept for short periods
without fulfilling the
performance guarantees given in respect
of them; and (3) mechanical
maximum capacity, the highest rate of
feed at which specific items of
equipment, not subject to performance
guarantees, will function on the
type and quality of feed for which they are
supplied. BS, 5
operative temperature
Operative temperature is that temperature
of an imaginary environment in
which, with equal wall (enclosing areas)
and ambient air temperatures and
some standard rate of air motion, the
human body would lose the same
amount of heat by radiation and
convection as it would in some actual
environment at unequal wall and air
temperatures and for some other rate
of air motion. Strock, 2
ophicalcite
A recrystallized metamorphic rock
composed of calcite and serpentine,
commonly formed by dedolomitization of
a siliceous dolostone. Some
ophicalcites are highly veined and
brecciated and are associated with
serpentinite. AGI
ophiolite
A group of mafic and ultramafic igneous
rocks ranging from spilite and
basalt to gabbro and peridotite, including
rocks rich in serpentine,

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chlorite, epidote, and albite derived from
them by later metamorphism,
whose origin is associated with an early
phase of the development of a
geosyncline. The term was originated by
Steinman in 1905. AGI

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ophite
A general term for diabases that have
retained their ophitic structure
although the pyroxene is altered to uralite.
The term was originated by
Palasson in 1819. AGI
ophitic
Applied to a texture characteristic of
diabases or dolerite in which
euhedral or subhedral crystals of
plagioclase are embedded in a mesotasis
of pyroxene crystals, usually augite. Also
said of a rock with such a
texture. CF:poikilitic
optical anomaly
Optical properties apparently at variance
with optical rules, such as:
anisotropy in isotropic minerals, such as
birefringent diamond; biaxiality
in uniaxial minerals, such as quartz; and
erratic variation in
birefringence near optical absorption
bands--e.g., some epidote minerals.
optical calcite
Crystalline calcite so clear that it has
value for optical purposes; e.g.,
polarizers.
optical centering device
An optical device that enables a theodolite
to be accurately positioned
over or under a survey station. Also called
optical plummet (undesirable
usage). BS, 7
optical character
The designation as to whether optically
positive or optically negative;
said of minerals. Fay
optical constant
In optical mineralogy, any of the
following: indices of refraction,
birefringence, optic sign, axial angles,
extinction angles, and dispersion
of a nonopaque mineral. In ore
microscopy (mineragraphy), any of the
reflectances and anisotropy of opaque
minerals.
optical crystallography
The study of the behavior of light in
crystals. Hurlbut
optical diffraction
Constructive interference of
monochromatic light; e.g.,
labradorescence in
plagioclase, fire in opal.
optical flat
Glass or other surface rendered truly
planar. Pryor, 3
optical glass
Carefully made glass of great uniformity
and usually special composition
to give desired transmission, refraction,
and dispersion of light.
CCD, 2

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optical mineralogy
The determination of optical properties of
minerals for the purpose of
characterization and identification.
optical property

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Any of several effects of a substance upon
light. Refractive index, double
refraction, (and its strength,
birefringence), dispersion, pleochroism,
and color are gemmologically the most
important optical properties.
optical pyrometer
A type of pyrometer that measures high
temperature by comparing the
intensity of light of a particular
wavelength from the hot material with
that of a filament of known temperature. It
is used to determine the
temperature of incandescent lavas.
optical sign
When a translucent crystal is viewed
under microscope, light travels
through the mineral at a speed which
corresponds with its refractive
index, as this is affected by the crystal
planes. A uniaxial crystal has a
negative optical sign when the velocity of
its extraordinary ray exceeds
that of the ordinary ray and vice versa.
Calcite is negative; quartz
positive. For biaxial crystals, the three
principal directions of
vibration are mutually at right angles.
optical square
A hand-held instrument enabling right
angles to be set out accurately on a
site. Hammond
optical twinning
A type of twinning in quartz in which the
parts of the twin are
alternately left- and right-handed. So
named because it can be recognized
by optical tests in distinction to Dauphine
(electrical) twinning. Optical
twinning as ordinarily applied includes all
twin laws in quartz with the
exception of the Dauphine. Also called
Brazil twinning; chiral twinning.
Am. Mineral., 2
optic angle
The angle between the two optic axes of a
biaxial crystal; its symbol is
2V (less than 90 degrees ), 2V
alpha
, or
2V
gamma
,
depending on whether the optic direction
X or Z is in the acute bisectrix.

optic-axial angle
See:optic angle
optic axis
A direction of single refraction in a
doubly refracting mineral. Hexagonal
and tetragonal minerals have one such
axis, and are termed uniaxial;
rhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic
minerals have two optic axes and are
thus biaxial.
Anderson
optics
The sub-field of physics that covers the
behavior of light.

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optic sign

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a. Indicates the type of double refraction
in a mineral. In uniaxial
minerals, the material is said to be positive
when the extraordinary ray
has a higher refractive index than the
ordinary ray and negative when the
ordinary ray has the greater index. In
biaxial minerals, which have three
basic optical directions, the refractive
index of the intermediate or beta
ray is the criterion; if its refractive index is
nearer that of the low or
alpha ray, it is said to be a positive
mineral or stone; if it is nearer
the high or gamma ray, it is said to be a
negative mineral or stone.
b. More technically, in uniaxial minerals,
the material is positive when
the extreme refractive index (n
epsilon
) is
greater than the
apparently isotropic one (n
omega
) and
negative when the extreme
refractive index is less. In biaxial
minerals, which have extreme
refractive indices both above and below
the apparently isotropic one (n
beta
), the material is positive when the
lower refractive index (n
alpha
) is closer to the apparently isotropic
one and negative when
the higher one (n
gamma
) is closer.;
optical character.
optimization
Coordination of various processing
factors, controls, and specifications
to provide best overall conditions for
technical and/or economic
operation. Pryor, 4


optimum depth of cut
That depth of cut required to completely
fill the dipper in one pass
without undue crowding. Carson, 1
optimum moisture content
The water content at which a soil can be
compacted to the maximum dry unit
weight by a given compactive effort. Also
called optimum water content.
ASCE
option
a. A privilege secured by the payment of a
certain consideration for the
purchase, or lease, of mining or other
property, within a specified time,
or upon the fulfillment of certain
conditions set forth in the contract.
b. S. Afr. The word option may refer to
shares under option to the holder
of option certificates. In regard to mining
activities, options are
granted to acquire the mineral rights
and/or surface rights over some farm
at a price fixed in the agreement. This
price may be a sum of money or a
participation in a mining company still to
be formed. The option itself
can be acquired for a lump sum or for a
payment of so much per morgen a
year. The option contract is generally
connected with the permission for
the option holder to prospect for minerals
and briefly referred to as
option and prospecting contract. Beerman
optional-flow storage
In coal preparation, optional-flow setups
are those where coal usually
goes to the plant but can be diverted into
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storage, either in bins or
hoppers or on the ground. Coal Age, 3
opx
Abbrev. for orthopyroxene. CF:cpx

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oral agreement to locate
An agreement to locate need not be in
writing. If a party, in pursuance of
an oral agreement to locate at the expense
of another, locates the claim
in his or her own name, he or she holds
the legal title to the ground in
trust for the benefit of the party for whom
the location was made. Such a
party could, upon making the necessary
proofs, compel the locator of the
mining claim to convey the title to him or
her, although the agreement to
do so was not in writing. Such an
agreement is not within the statute of
frauds. Ricketts
orange heat
A division of the color scale, generally
given as about 900 degrees C.
orangepeel
A variant of the clamshell bucket with
four or five leaves instead of the
clamshell's two. Each leaf ends in a
reinforced point. Its digging ability
is less than that of the clamshell, and its
principal use is for
underwater excavation and digging.
Carson, 1
orangepeel sampler
An apparatus consisting of four movable
jaws that converge to a point when
closed; used to obtain samples of
underwater sediment. AGI
orbicular
Adj. Describes rounded to spherical,
commonly banded, textures within
minerals or rocks; e.g., orbicular diorite.
orbicular structure
A structure developed in certain
phanerocrystalline rocks (e.g., granite
and diorite) due to the occurrence of
numerous orbicules.

orcelite
A hexagonal mineral, Ni
5-x
As
2
; rose-
bronze; at the
Tiebaghe massif, New Caledonia.
ordered solid solution
A condition when atoms in a solid
solution arrange themselves in regular
or preferential positions in the lattice,
rather than at random.
Newton, 1
order of crystallization
The apparent chronological sequence in
which crystallization of the
various minerals of an assemblage takes
place, as evidenced mainly by
textural features.
order of persistence
See:stability series


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order of reaction

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A classification of chemical reactions
based on the index of the power to
which concentration terms are raised in
the expression for the
instantaneous velocity of the reaction; i.e.,
on the apparent number of
molecules which interact. CTD
ordinary kriging
A variety of kriging which assumes that
local means are not necessarily
closely related to the population mean,
and which therefore uses only the
samples in the local neighborhood for the
estimate. Ordinary kriging is
the most commonly used method for
environmental situations.

ordinary ray
a. In a uniaxial crystal, that ray that travels
with constant velocity in
any direction within it. Anderson
b. In mineral optics, a light ray that,
because of its crystallographic
orientation, follows Snell's law,
n=sini/sinr, where n is the refractive
index, i is the angle of incidence, and r is
the angle of refraction. In
anisotropic crystals, not all light rays
follow Snell's law and are,
hence, "extraordinary rays." CF:law of
refraction
ordinate
Y-axis; the vertical scale of a graph.
ordnance bench mark
Survey station the level of which has been
officially fixed with reference
to the ordnance datum, the arbitrary mean
sea level at Newlyn in Cornwall,
England. Pryor, 3
ordnance survey
Originally, a military mapping activity;
now a precise survey maintained
by government which maps land and
building features of Great Britain in
close detail. Pryor, 3
ordonezite
A tetragonal mineral, ZnSb
2
O
6
; brown.
ore
a. The naturally occurring material from
which a mineral or minerals of
economic value can be extracted
profitably or to satisfy social or
political objectives. The term is generally
but not always used to refer
to metalliferous material, and is often
modified by the names of the
valuable constituent; e.g., iron ore.;
mineral deposit;
ore mineral. The term ores is sometimes
applied collectively to opaque accessory
minerals, such as ilmenite and magnetite,
in igneous rocks. AGI
ore band
Zone of rock rich in ore.
ore-bearing fluid
See:hydrothermal solution
ore bed
a. Metal-rich layer in a sequence of
sedimentary rocks. AGI
b. Economic aggregation of minerals
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occurring between or in rocks of
sedimentary origin.
ore bin

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a. A receptacle for ore awaiting treatment
or shipment. Fay
b. Robustly constructed steel, wooden, or
concrete structure which
receives intermittent supplies of mined ore
and can transfer them
continuously by rate-controlled
withdrawal systems (bottom gates and ore
feeders) to the treatment plant. Thus a
buffer stock is held which allows
a mine to hoist ore intermittently without
bringing milling operations to
a standstill. It characteristically receives a
weighed-in input of finely
broken ore from the final dry-crushing
section (usually between 1-in and
3/8-in (2.54-cm and 9.5-mm) maximum
particle size). The surge bin is a
much smaller one, able to receive a
dumped load of run-of-mine ore and to
transfer it at a regular rate to the crushing
system between arrivals of
further skip loads. Pryor, 3
ore blending
Method whereby a mine, or a group of
mines, served by a common mill, sends
ores of slightly varied character for
treatment and separate bins or
stockpiles are provided. From these,
regulated percentages of ores are
drawn and blended to provide a steady
and predictable feed to the mineral
dressing plant. Pryor, 3
ore block
A section of an orebody, usually
rectangular, that is used for estimates
of overall tonnage and quality.
ore blocked out
See:developed reserve
ore boat
A boat constructed esp. for transporting
iron ore on the Great Lakes.
Mersereau, 2
orebody
A continuous, well-defined mass of
material of sufficient ore content to
make extraction economically feasible.
AGI
ore boil
A reaction that occurs in an open-hearth
furnace in which the carbon
monoxide released by the oxidation of
carbon causes a violent agitation of
the metal as it escapes. Newton, 1
ore bridge
A large electric gantry-type crane which,
by means of a clamshell bucket,
stocks ore or carries it from a stockpile
into bins or a larry car on a
trestle. Fay
ore-bridge bucket
A clamshell grab bucket of 5 to 7 tons
capacity. Fay
ore car
A mine car for carrying ore or waste rock.
Weed, 2


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ore chute
An inclined passage, from 3 to 4 ft
(approx. 1 m) square, for the transfer
of ore to a lower level, car, conveyor, etc.
It may be constructed through
waste fills.

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ore cluster
A genetically related group of orebodies
that may have a common root or
source rock but that may differ
structurally or otherwise. AGI
ore control
Any tectonic, lithologic, or geochemical
features considered to have
influenced the formation and localization
of ore. AGI
ore crusher
a. A machine for breaking up masses of
ore, usually prior to passing
through stamps or rolls.
b. See:crusher man
ore delfe
a. Ore lying underground.
b. Right or claim to ore from ownership of
land in which it is found.
ore deposit
a. A body of ore.
b. A mineral deposit that has been tested
and is known to be of sufficient
size, grade, and accessibility to be
producible to yield a profit. (In
controlled economies and integrated
industries, the "profit" decision may
be based on considerations that extend far
beyond the mine itself, in some
instances relating to the overall health of a
national economy.)
ore developed
See:positive ore
ore developing
Ore exposed on two sides. First class,
blocks with one side hidden; second
class, blocks with two sides hidden; third
class, blocks with three sides
hidden.
ore dike
An injected wall-like intrusion of
magmatic ore, forced in a liquid state
across the bedding or other layered
structure of the invaded formation.
Schieferdecker
ore district
A combination of several ore deposits into
one common whole or system.
ore dressing
The cleaning of ore by the removal of
certain valueless portions, such as
by jigging, cobbing, vanning, etc.;
beneficiation; preparation.ore preparation.
Fay
ore expectant
The whole or any part of the ore below the
lowest level or beyond the
range of vision. The prospective value of a
mine beyond or below the last
visible ore, based on the fullest possible
data from the mine being
examined, and from the characteristics of
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the mining district.
ore face

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An orebody that is exposed on one side, or
shows only one face, and of
which the values can be determined only
in a prospective manner, as
deducted from the general condition of the
mine or prospect. Fay
ore-forming fluid
A gas or fluid that dissolves, receives by
fractionation, transports, and
precipitates ore minerals. A mineralizer is
typically aqueous, with
various hyperfusible gases (CO
2
, CH
4
,
H
2
S, HF),
simple ions (H
+
, HS, Cl
-
, K, Na, Ca),
complex ions
(esp. chloride complexes), and dissolved
base and precious metals.

ore genesis
The origin of ores.
ore geology
The branch of applied geology dealing
with the genetic study of ore
deposits.

oregonite
Probably Ni
2
FeAs
2
; hexagonal. From
Josephine Creek,
Josephine County, OR. Named from the
locality. Also spelled oregonit.
Hey, 2


ore grader
In metal mining, a person who directs and
regulates the storage of iron
ores of various grades in bins at shipping
docks so that the grade of ore
contained in each bin will contain the
approximate percentage of iron
guaranteed to the buyer (iron and steel
mills). DOT
ore guide
Any natural feature--such as alteration
products, geochemical variations,
local structures, or plant growth--known
to be indicative of an orebody or
mineral occurrence. AGI
ore hearth
A small, low fireplace surrounded by
three walls, with a tuyere at the
back. Three important types are called:
ore hearth, waterback ore hearth,
and Moffet ore hearth; used in smelting.
Fay
oreing down
A blocking operation in which ore is
added to an open-hearth bath to
oxidize the bath and to further reduce the
carbon. Henderson
ore in sight
a. A term frequently used to indicate two
separate factors in an estimate,
namely: (1) ore blocked out; i.e., ore
exposed on at least three sides
within reasonable distance of each other;
and (2) ore that may be
reasonably assumed to exist, though not
actually blocked out; these two
factors should in all cases be kept distinct,
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because (1) is governed by
fixed rules, while (2) is dependent upon
individual judgment and local
experience. The expression ore in sight as
commonly used in the past,
appears to possess so indefinite a meaning
as to discredit its use
completely. The terms positive ore,
probable ore, and possible ore are
suggested.
b. See:developed reserve
ore intersection
The point at which a borehole, crosscut, or
other underground opening
encounters an ore vein or deposit; also, the
thickness of the ore-bearing
deposit so traversed. Long
ore magma
A term proposed by Spurr (1923) for a
magma that may crystallize into an
ore; the sulfide, oxide, or other metallic
facies of a solidified magma.
AGI
ore microscope
See:reflected-light microscope
ore microscopy
The study of opaque ore minerals in
polished section with a
reflected-light microscope.AGI
ore mineral
The part of an ore, usually metallic, which
is economically desirable, as
contrasted with the gangue.

ore partly blocked
Said of an orebody that is only partly
developed, and the values of which
can be only approx. determined.
orepass
A vertical or inclined passage for the
downward transfer of ore; equipped
with gates or other appliances for
controlling the flow. An orepass is
driven in ore or country rock and connects
a level with the hoisting shaft
or with a lower level.
ore personal property
Ore, or other mineral product, becomes
personal property when detached
from the soil in which it is imbedded.
Ricketts
ore pipe
A long and relatively thin deposit
commonly formed at the intersection of
two planes.
ore plot
A place where dressed ore is kept. Fay
ore pocket
a. Excavation near a hoisting shaft into
which ore from stopes is moved,
preliminary to hoisting. Pryor, 3
b. Used in a phrase such as a rich pocket
of ore, to describe an unusual
concentration in the lode. Pryor, 3
ore preparation
See:ore dressing
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
ore province
A well-defined area containing ore
deposits of a particular kind; e.g.,
the porphyry copper deposits of the
Southwestern United States. Related
to, but not exactly synonymous with,
metallogenic province, which need not
contain economic ore deposits.
ore reserve
a. The term is usually restricted to ore of
which the grade and tonnage
have been established with reasonable
assurance by drilling and other
means. Nelson
b. The total tonnage and average value of
proved ore, plus the total
tonnage and value (assumed) of the
probable ore. Hoover
c. A mine's substantial asset, without
which none of the surface works are
economically viable. A body of ore that
has been proved to contain a
sufficient tonnage of amenable valuable
mineral to justify the mining
enterprise. The British Institution of
Mining and Metallurgy, which
regulates the professional standards of its
membership, considers that the
term ore reserves should be restricted to
ore of which the quantity and
grade have been established with
reasonable assurance by a responsible,
professionally qualified person.
Additional ore insufficiently developed
or tested for inclusion in ore reserves
should be clearly described in
simple terms best suited to the
circumstances; modes of mineral
occurrence
vary too widely to permit standardization
of categories. Pryor, 3
d. S. Afr. Orebodies made available for
mining through drives connected by
winzes (a connection driven down) and
raises (a connection driven up),
thus forming blocks that are accessible
from four sides. Some companies
record partially developed ore reserves in
which this making of blocks has
not been completed. Newcomers in gold
mining occasionally speak of ore
reserves when they mean the orebodies
contained in a mining area and in
copper mining this method of expression
has been accepted by large
concerns. Beerman
e. See:reserve
ore sampling
The process in which a portion (sample of
ore) is selected in such a way,
that its composition will represent the
average composition of the entire
bulk of ore. Such a selected portion is a
sample, and the art of properly
selecting such a sample is called
sampling. Newton, 1
ore separator
A cradle, frame, jigging machine, washer,
or other device or machine used
in separating the metal from broken ore,
or ore from worthless rock.
Standard, 2
ore shoot
a. An elongate pipelike, ribbonlike, or
chimneylike mass of ore within a
deposit (usually a vein), representing the
more valuable part of the
deposit.
b. Concentration of primary ore along
certain parts of a rock opening.
Bateman, 2
c. A large and visually rich aggregation of
mineral in a vein. It is a

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more or less vertical zone or chimney of
rich vein matter extending from
wall to wall, and has a definite width
laterally. Sometimes called pay
streak, although the latter applies more
specif. to placers.
d. An area of payable lode surrounded by
low values.
ore sill
A tabular sheet of magmatic ore, injected
in a liquid state along the
bedding planes of a sedimentary or other
layered formation.
ore stamp
A machine for reducing ores by stamping.
Standard, 2
ore-storage drier man
One who removes moisture from ore or
other material preparatory to
roasting or electrolytic processing, using a
gas or hot-air drier. Also
called drier operator. DOT
ore strand
Individual mass of quartz with a halo of
alteration and ore minerals, or
close assemblage of seams of such quartz
and accompanying altered ground.
AGI
ore trend
A term used on the Colorado Plateau to
indicate the extension of an
orebody along its major axis; the average
trend of ore in a particular
area, or the regional trend of
mineralization over a large area. The local
trend of individual orebodies may vary
from the regional trend of
so-called mineral belts. Ballard
ore vein
A tabular or sheetlike mass of ore
minerals occupying a fissure or a set
of fissures and later in formation than the
enclosing rock.
Schieferdecker
ore washer
A machine for washing clay and earth out
of earthy brown hematite ores.
The log washer is a common type. Fay
ore zone
A horizon in which ore minerals are
known to occur. Long
Orford process
A process for separating the copper and
nickel in the matte obtained by
Bessemerizing. The matte, which consists
of copper-nickel sulfides, is
fused with sodium sulfide, and a
separation into two layers, the top rich
in nickel and the bottom rich in copper, is
obtained. Also known as
top-and-bottom process. CTD
organ
A series of closely spaced props placed at
the borders of the chamber at
the coal face. Such an arrangement
protects the future, adjoining chamber
from caving. Stoces
organic
Being, containing, or relating to carbon
compounds, esp. in which hydrogen
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is attached to carbon whether derived
from living organisms or not.
Usually distinguished from inorganic or
mineral. CF:inorganic
Webster 3rd
organic ash

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Ash in coal derived from the
incombustible material contained in
plants.
Tomkeieff
organic colloid
Any of the depressants used in the
flotation process. They include glue,
gelatin, albumen, dried blood, casein
(proteins), tannin, licorice,
quebracho extract, and saponin (complex
polyhydroxy carboxylic acids and
glucosides). Pryor, 3
organic deposit
A rock or other deposit formed by
organisms or their remains.
organic efficiency
The ratio (normally expressed as a
percentage) between the actual yield of
a desired product and the theoretically
possible yield (based on the
reconstituted feed), both actual and
theoretical products having the same
percentage of ash. BS, 5
organic soil
A general term applied to a soil that
consists primarily of organic matter
such as peat soil and muck soil. AGI

organic sulfur
The difference between the total sulfur in
coal and the sum of the pyritic
sulfur and sulfate sulfur. BS, 1
organic test
A test in which organic matter in soil is
destroyed by oxidizing agents
and the loss measured. This test is used in
preparation of soil for a
sedimentation test, and gives an indication
of the amount of organic
matter present.
organogenic
Derived from or composed of organic
materials; e.g., a crinoidal
limestone.
organolite
Rock formed from organic substances,
esp. those of vegetable origin, such
as coal, oil, resins, and bitumens.
Tomkeieff
orichalcum
An ancient copper alloy resembling gold
in color. Hess
orient
a. To place a deflection wedge in a
borehole in such an attitude that the
concave surface is pointed in a
predetermined direction. Long
b. To place a piece of core in the same
relative plane as it occupied
below the surface.
c. To turn a map or planetable sheet in a
horizontal plane until the
meridian of the map is parallel to the
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meridian on the ground.
Seelye, 2
d. In a transit, to turn the instrument so
that the direction of the 0
degrees line of its horizontal circle is
parallel to the direction it had
in the preceding, or in the initial, setup.
Seelye, 2
e. To place a diamond in a bit mold in
such an attitude that when it is
embedded in the crown matrix one of its
hard vector planes will come in
contact with the rock to be abraded or cut
by the diamond. Long
f. The characteristic sheen and
irridescence displayed by pearl.
Anderson
g. To align an optical or crystallographic
direction of a mineral with a
rotation axis of a microscope stage.
oriental
a. Frequently used in the same sense as
precious when applied to minerals;
from an old idea that gems came
principally from the Orient; e.g.,
oriental amethyst, oriental chrysolite,
oriental emerald, and oriental
topaz, all of which are varieties of
sapphire. Fay
b. Specially bright, clear, pure, and
precious; said of gems.
Standard, 2
oriental alabaster
Calcium carbonate in the form of onyx
marble. Gibraltar stone.
Hess; CTD
oriental cat's-eye
See:cat's-eye; tiger's-eye.

oriental powder
An explosive consisting of tan bark,
sawdust, or other vegetable fiber, or
resins, such as gamboge, impregnated
with a nitrate or chlorate and mixed
with gunpowder. Standard, 2
orientation
a. Arrangement in space of the axes of a
crystal with respect to a chosen
reference or coordinate system.
ASM, 1
b. In surveying, the rotation of a map (or
instrument) until the line of
direction between any two of its points is
parallel to the corresponding
direction in nature.
c. In structural petrology, refers to the
arrangement in space of
particles (grains or atoms) of which a rock
is composed. AGI
d. The act or process of setting a diamond
in the crown of a bit in such
an attitude that one of its hard vector
planes will contact the rock and
be the surface that cuts or abrades it.
e. As used in borehole surveying and
directional drilling practice,
orientation refers to the method and
procedure used in placing an
instrument or tool, such as a deflection
wedge, in a drilled hole so that
its directional position, bearing, or
azimuth is known. Long
f. The position of important sets of planes
in a crystal in relation to
any fixed system of planes. CTD
g. The spatial relationship between
crystallographic axes and principle
optic directions in anisotropic minerals.
h. The characteristic sheen or iridescence
displayed by pearl.

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orientational twinning
See:electrical twinning
orientation survey
In geochemical prospecting, a
geochemical survey normally consisting
of a
series of preliminary experiments aimed at
determining the existence and
characteristics of anomalies associated
with mineralization. This
information is then used in selecting
adequate prospecting techniques and
in determining the factors and criteria that
have a bearing on
interpretation of the geochemical data.
Hawkes, 2
oriented
Said of a specimen or thin section that is
so marked as to show its
original position in space. AGI
oriented bit
A surface-set diamond bit with individual
stones set so as to bring the
hard vector direction or planes of the
crystal into opposition with the
rock surface to be abraded or cut.
oriented core
A core specimen that can be positioned on
the surface as it was in the
borehole prior to extraction. Such a core is
useful where the general dip
of the strata is required from one borehole.
A magnetic method may be used
to disclose the polarity the core specimen
possessed while in situ.
borehole surveying; oriented sample.
CF:core orientation
oriented core barrel
An instrument used in borehole surveying,
which marks the core to show its
position in space. Hammond
oriented diamond
A diamond inset in the crown of a bit in
such an attitude that one of its
hard vector planes will be the surface that
cuts or abrades the rock.

oriented sample
See:oriented core
oriented specimen
a. In structural petrology, a hand specimen
so marked that its exact
arrangement in space is known. Billings
b. In paleontology, a fossil whose position
is known in regards to such
features as anterior and dorsal sides,
dorsal and ventral sides, the axis
of coiling, the plane of coiling, etc. AGI
oriented survey
A borehole survey made by lining up a
reference mark on the clinometer
case with that on the drill rods, which in
turn are oriented as they are
lowered into the borehole.
orienting coupling
A rotatable coupling on a Thompson
retrievable wedge-setting assembly that
may be set and locked in a predetermined
position in reference to the
gravity-control member. This places the
deflection wedge so as to direct

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the branch borehole in the desired course.
Long
orientite
An orthorhombic mineral, Ca
2
Mn
2+

Mn
3+
2
Si
3
O
10
(OH)
4
; forms minute, brown to
black, radiating,
prismatic crystals.
orifice
a. In ventilation, a hole in a very thin
plate. Mason
b. A hole or opening, usually in a plate,
wall, or partition, through
which water flows, generally for the
purpose of control or measurement.
Seelye, 1
c. The end of a small tube, such as the
orifice of a Pitot tube,
piezometer, etc. Seelye, 1
d. An opening through which glass flows.
In a feeder, an opening in bottom
of spout formed by orifice ring. ASTM
e. Opening. Formerly applied to discs
placed in pipelines or radiator
valves to reduce the fluid flow to a desired
amount. Strock, 2
orifice meter
A form of gas or liquid flowmeter
consisting of a diaphragm in which there
is an orifice placed transversely across a
pipe; the difference in
pressure on the two sides of the
diaphragm is a measure of flow velocity.
Lowenheim
orifice of passage
Said of a fan with an orifice comparable to
the equivalent orifice of a
mine; i.e., the area in a thin plate that
requires the same pressure to
force a given volume of air through as is
required to force the same
volume through the fan. Orifice of
passage O = 0.389 Q/w.g.f., where Q =
volume of air passing in thousands cubic
feet per minute; w.g.f.= loss of
pressure in the fan in inches of water
gage. Nelson
origin
The source or ground of the existence of
anything, either as cause or as
occasion; that from which a thing is
derived or by which it is caused;
esp., that which initiates or lays the
foundation; e.g., the origin of ore
deposits. Standard, 2
original dip
The attitude of sedimentary beds
immediately after deposition.
. AGI
original hole
See:main hole
original lead
The common lead in a uranium mineral.
AGI
original mineral
See:primary mineral
ormolu
a. Gold ground for use in gilding; also
metal gilded with ground gold.
Webster 3rd
b. A brass made to imitate gold and used
in mounts for furniture and for

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other decorative purposes. Also called
mosaic gold. Webster 3rd
ornamental stone
See:gemstone

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ornansite
A stony meteorite composed of bronzite
and olivine in a friable mass of
chondri. Hess
orocline
An orogenic belt with an imposed
curvature or sharp bend, interpreted by
Carey (1958) as a result of horizontal
bending of the crust, or
deformation in plan. AGI
orogen
A belt of deformed rocks, in many places
accompanied by metamorphic and
plutonic rocks; e.g., the Appalachian
orogen or the Alpine orogen.
AGI
orogenesis
See:orogeny
orogenic
Adj. of orogeny.
orogeny
The process by which structures within
fold-belt mountainous areas were
formed, including thrusting, folding, and
faulting in the outer and higher
layers, and plastic folding, metamorphism,
and plutonism in the inner and
deeper layers. mountain building;
tectogenesis. Adj:
orogenic; orogenetic. AGI
orometer
An aneroid barometer having a second
scale that gives the approximate
elevation above sea level of the place
where the observation is made.
Webster 3rd
oronite
An enamel paint for protecting metal
surfaces from the action of hot
vapors. Fay
O'Rourke car switcher
A crossover switch that consists
essentially of a single-acting cylinder
hoist on a crossrail fastened to the roof at
right angles to the track.
While a car is being loaded, the switcher
picks up the empty car next to
the locomotive and holds it to one side. As
soon as a car is loaded the
locomotive pulls the train back past the
switcher, and the empty car is
placed at the front of the train and pushed
under the slide. Lewis
orphaned mine land
Abandoned and unreclaimed mines for
which no owner or responsible party
can be found. The reclamation and
environmental conditions of such lands
is then defaulted to the State or Federal
Government. SME, 1
orpiment
a. A yellow arsenic trisulfide, As
2
S
3
,
containing 61%
arsenic; monoclinic.
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b. A monoclinic mineral, 4[As
2
S
3
]; soft;
pearly lemon
yellow with one perfect cleavage; in
powdery foliated masses and coatings,
botryoidal or fibrous; a low-temperature
alteration of other arsenides;
associated with realgar and gold in hot
springs.
Orsat gas-analysis instrument
An instrument for analyzing flue gases.
Although outside its normal field
of application, it may be used for
analyzing mine air. Nelson
orthite
A former name for allanite, esp. when
found in slender prismatic or
acicular crystals.
ortho-
a. A combining form meaning straight; at
right angles; proper. AGI
b. In petrology, a prefix that, when used
with the name of a metamorphic
rock, indicates that it was derived from an
igneous rock, e.g.,
orthogneiss, orthoamphibolite; it may also
indicate the primary origin of
a crystalline, sedimentary rock, e.g.,
orthoquartzite as distinguished
from metaquartzite. AGI
c. A prefix to the name of a mineral
species or group to indicate
orthorhombic symmetry as opposed to
"clino" indicating monoclinic
symmetry.
orthoamphibole
The orthorhombic subgroup of
amphiboles including anthophyllite,
gedrite,
and holmquistite. CF:clinoamphibole
orthochlorite
a. A group name for distinctly crystalline
forms of chlorite (such as
clinochlore and penninite).
b. A group name for chlorites conforming
to the general formula: (R (super
2+) ,R
3+
)
6
(Si,Al)
4
O
10
(OH)
8
.
orthoclase
A monoclinic mineral, KAlSi
3
O
8
;
feldspar group; prismatic
cleavage; partly ordered, monoclinic
potassium feldspar dimorphous with
microcline, being stable at higher
temperatures; also a general term
applied to any potassium feldspar that is
or appears to be monoclinic;
e.g., sanidine, submicroscopically twinned
microcline, adularia, and
twinned analbite. It is a common rock-
forming mineral and occurs esp. in
granites, granite pegmatites, felsic igneous
rocks, and crystalline
schists, and is commonly perthitic.
orthose;
pegmatolite. CF:microcline; plagioclase;
anorthoclase.
orthoclase gabbro
A descriptive name for rocks now known
as monzonite, in which the
plagioclase is at least as calcic as
labradorite. Holmes, 2
orthoclasite
An orthoclase-bearing porphyritic
intrusive rock, such as granite or
syenite. The term is sometimes restricted
to rocks containing more than
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
90% orthoclase. Not recommended usage.
AGI
orthoclastic
Cleaving in directions at right angles to
each other. Webster 3rd

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orthodolomite
a. A primary dolomite, or one formed by
sedimentation. AGI
b. A term used by Tieje (1921) for a
dolomite rock so well-cemented that
the particles are interlocking. AGI
orthodome
A monoclinic crystal form whose faces
parallel the orthoaxis and cut the
other axes. CF:dome; clinodome. AGI
orthoferrosilite
An orthorhombic mineral, (Fe,Mg)
2
Si
2
O
6 ; pyroxene
group; now simply called ferrosilite.
CF:ferrosilite; clinoferrosilite.
orthogneiss
Applied to gneissose rocks that have been
derived from rocks of igneous
origin. CF:paragneiss
orthogonal
At right angles. Hammond
orthoguarinite
Cesaro's name for an orthorhombic form
of guarinite, through superposition
of hemitropic lamellae of the monoclinic
mineral, clinoguarinite.

orthohydrous maceral
Maceral having a normal hydrogen
content, such as vitrine.
Tomkeieff
orthokalsilite
An artificial orthorhombic high-
temperature polymorph of KAlSiO
4
.
ortholimestone
A term proposed by Brooks (1954) for
sedimentary limestone.
CF:metalimestone; orthomarble. AGI
orthomagmatic
See:orthomagmatic stage
orthomagmatic stage
Applied to the main stage of
crystallization of silicates from a typical
magma; the stage during which perhaps
90% of the magma crystallizes.
CF:pegmatitic stage
orthomarble
A crystalline limestone that will take a
polish; e.g., the Holston
orthomarble of Tennessee.
CF:metamarble; metalimestone;
ortholimestone.
orthomic feldspar
Triclinic feldspar, which by repeated
twinning (orthomimicry) simulates a
higher degree of symmetry with
rectangular cleavages; e.g., orthoclase,
anorthoclase, and cryptoclase. English

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orthophotography

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The product of a procedure that corrects
the distortions in aerial
photography due to the instability of the
camera platform, the terrain
relief, and the angle of the light rays
entering the camera lens. The
ortho instrumentation attached to a stereo
plotting instrument rectifies
the image in a transfer process so as to
reposition it in its correct
planar position. SME, 1
orthophyric
Said of the texture of the groundmass in
certain holocrystalline,
porphyritic, igneous rocks in which the
feldspar crystals have quadratic
or short, stumpy, rectangular cross
sections, rather than the lath-shaped
outline observed in trachytic texture. Also,
said of a groundmass with
this texture, or of a rock having an
orthophyric groundmass. AGI
orthopinacoid
In the monoclinic system, the form
consisting of two planes parallel to
the vertical and orthodiagonal axes.
Standard, 2
orthoprism
A monoclinic prism, the orthodiagonal
intercept of which is greater than
1. Standard, 2
orthopyroxene
The subgroup name for pyroxenes
crystallizing in the orthorhombic system,
commonly containing no calcium and
little or no aluminum; e.g., enstatite,
hypersthene, and ferrosilite.
CF:clinopyroxene

orthoquartzite
A clastic sedimentary rock that is made up
almost exclusively of quartz
sand (with or without chert), and
relatively free of or lacks a
fine-grained matrix, derived by secondary
silicification; a quartzite of
sedimentary origin, or a pure quartz
sandstone. The term generally
signifies a sandstone with more than 90%
to 95% quartz and detrital chert
grains that are well-sorted, well-rounded,
and cemented primarily with
secondary silica (sometimes with
carbonate) in optical and
crystallographic continuity with the
grains. The rock is characterized by
stable but scarce heavy minerals (zircon,
tourmaline, and magnetite), by
lack of fossils, and by prominence of
cross-beds and ripple marks. It
commonly occurs as thin but extensive
blanket deposits associated with
widespread unconformities (e.g., an
epicontinental deposit developed by an
encroaching sea), and it represents intense
chemical weathering of
original minerals other than quartz,
considerable transport and washing
action before final accumulation (the sand
may experience more than one
cycle of sedimentation), and stable
conditions of deposition (such as the
peneplanation stage of diastrophism); e.g.,
St. Peter Sandstone (Middle
Ordovician) of midwestern United States.
AGI


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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
orthorhombic
a. Any mineral crystallizing with
orthorhombic symmetry.
b. See:orthorhombic system
orthorhombic system

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In crystallography, that system of crystals
whose forms are referred to
three unequal mutually perpendicular
axes.
orthoschist
A schist derived from an igneous rock.
CF:paraschist; schist.
AGI
orthoscope
A polarizing microscope in which light is
transmitted by the crystal
parallel to the microscope axis, in contrast
to the conoscope, in which a
converging lens and Bertrand lens are
used. CF:conoscope
orthose
A name for the whole feldspar family
before it was divided into separate
species.
orthotectic
See:magmatic
orthotectic stage
See:orthomagmatic stage
orthotropic
The description applied to the elastic
properties of material, such as
timber, which has considerable variations
of strength in two or more
directions at right angles to one another.
Hammond
Orton cone
a. Pyrometric cone made in one of two
sizes: 2-1/2 in (6.4 cm) high for
industrial kiln control, and 1-1/8 in (3.2
cm) high for pyrometric cone
equivalent testing.
b. Used in the United States for heat
recording, Orton cones are similar
to Seger cones, but the same numbers do
not indicate the same
temperatures; e.g., Orton cone 14
corresponds to Seger cone 13.
Rosenthal
oryctognosy
The description and systematic
arrangement of minerals; mineralogy.

oryctologist
See:mineralogist
oryctology
See:mineralogy
Osann's classification
A purely chemical system of classification
of igneous rocks. AGI
osarizawaite
A trigonal mineral, PbCuAl
2
(SO
4
)
2

(OH)
6
;
alunite group; the aluminum analog of
beaverite; a yellow, powdery
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
secondary crust; at the Osarizawa Mine,
Akita prefecture, Japan.
oscillating beam
See:walking beam

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oscillating conveyor
A type of vibrating conveyor having a
relatively low frequency and large
amplitude of motion.
oscillating feeder
See:conveyor-type feeder
oscillating grease table
An assembly of 4 to 8 metal trays, usually
30 in (76.2 cm) wide and 8 to
15 in (20.3 to 38.1 cm) long, arranged in
series in the direction of flow.
The trays are detachably mounted in the
assembly by steps, so that the
overflow from one tray overlaps the next
tray by 1 in (2.54 cm) and is 2
to 4 in (5.1 to 10.2 cm) above it. The trays
are inclined downward in the
direction of the flow at an angle adjustable
from 14 degrees to 18 degrees.
The entire assembly is mechanically
oscillated transversely to the
direction of the flow at about 200
strokes/min with an adjustable stroke
of about 1/2 in (1.27 cm). The storage bin
and feed roller are
independently mounted and discharge a
layer 1 grain thick.
Chandler
oscillation
Independent movement through a limited
range, usually on a hinge.
Nichols, 1
oscillator plate
A thin slab of quartz which, by
mechanical vibration, controls the
frequency of a radio transmitter. Hurlbut
oscillator quartz
Flawless quartz, which can be used in the
manufacture of oscillator
plates.
oscillatory twinning
Repeated twinning in which a crystal is
made up of thin lamellae
alternately in reversed position;
polysynthetic twinning; found in some
feldspars.
oscillatory zoning
Repetitious concentric compositional
variation in minerals resulting from
cyclical changes in the chemical
environment during crystal growth; e.g.,
garnet and plagioclase.
oscillogram
A record of phenomena observed on an
oscillograph. ASM, 1
oscillograph
An instrument that renders visible, or
automatically traces, a curve
representing the time variations of various
phenomena. The recorded trace
is an oscillogram. AGI
oscilloscope
An instrument for showing visual
representations of electrical outputs
from measuring devices. Hunt
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
osmite
See:iridosmine
osmium

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The native element, Os; occurs in
magmatic deposits in mafic and
ultramafic rocks and placers derived from
them.
osmosis
The passage of a solvent through a
membrane from a dilute solution into a
more concentrated one, the membrane
being permeable to molecules of
solvent but not to molecules of solute.
AGI
osteolite
A massive, earthy mineral (apatite)
consisting of an impure, altered
phosphate.
ostracod
A minute crustacean with a bean-shaped
bivalve shell completely enclosing
the body. AGI
otavite
A trigonal mineral, CdCO
3
; calcite group;
associated with oxidized
base-metal ores.
other rock in place
As used in the Mining Law of 1872,
means any rocky substance containing
mineral matter. Ricketts

other valuable deposits
Includes nonmetalliferous as well as
metalliferous deposits.
Ricketts
otisca process
A process that uses an inert heavy liquid
with a specific gravity between
that of coal and free mineral matter to
separate coarse or fine-size coal
in a static bath or cyclone separator.
Otisca-T process
A selective agglomeration process under
development, in which ultra-fine
grinding of the feed coal to 15 mu m
releases almost all the associated
impurities prior to agglomeration with a
low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon.
The agglomerant is then recovered and
recycled.
Otto cycle
In a four-stroke internal combustion
engine two complete revolutions of
the crankshaft correspond with the
working cycle-inlet stroke (suction
downstroke of piston in cylinder);
compression upstroke; explosion at peak
of compression followed by expansion of
hot exploded gases on driving
downstroke; rising exhaust stroke to
complete the cycle. Pryor, 3
Ouachita stone
See:novaculite
oued
See:wadi
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
outburst

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The name applied to the violent evolution
of combustible gases (usually
together with large quantities of coal dust)
from a working face. The
occurrence is violent and may overwhelm
the workings and fill the entire
district with gaseous mixtures. Roadways
advancing into virgin and
stressed areas of coal are particularly
prone to outbursts in certain
seams and faults often intersect in the
area. Roberts, 1
outby
Nearer to the shaft, and therefore away
from the face, toward the pit
bottom or surface; toward the mine
entrance. The opposite of inby. Also
called outbyeside.
outcrop
a. The part of a rock formation that
appears at the surface of the ground.
Webster 3rd
b. A term used in connection with a vein
or lode as an essential part of
the definition of apex. It does not
necessarily imply the visible
presentation of the mineral on the surface
of the earth, but includes
those deposits that are so near to the
surface as to be found easily by
digging. Fay
c. The part of a geologic formation or
structure that appears at the
surface of the Earth; also, bedrock that is
covered only by surficial
deposits such as alluvium. CF:exposure
outcropping. AGI
d. To appear exposed and visible at the
Earth's surface; to crop out.
AGI
outcrop map
A special type of geologic map that
represents only actual outcrops. Areas
without exposures are left blank. Stokes
outcropping
See:outcrop
outcrop water
Rain and surface water that seeps
downward through outcropping porous
and
fissured rock, fault planes, old shafts, or
surface drifts. AGI
outdoor stroke
That stroke of a Cornish pumping engine
by which the water is forced
upward by the weight of the descending
pump rods, etc.
outer continental shelf
All submerged lands lying seaward and
outside of the area of lands beneath
navigable waters as defined in Section 2
of the Submerged Lands Act
(Public Law 31, 83rd Congress, 1st
Session), and of which the subsoil and
seabed appertain to the United States and
are subject to its jurisdiction
and control. Abbrev. OCS.
outer core
The outer or upper zone of the Earth's
core, extending from a depth of
2,900 km to 5,100 km, and including the
transition zone; it is equivalent
to the E layer and the F layer. It is inferred
to be liquid because it
does not transmit shear waves. Its density
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
ranges from 9 to 11 g/cm (super
3) . The outer core is the source of the
principal geomagnetic field.
CF:inner core
outer gage

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Syn. for outside diameter. Long
outer stone
A diamond set on the outside wall of a bit
crown. Also called reamer;
reamer stone.
outfall
a. Eng. A seam cropping out at a lower
level.
b. The mouth of a stream or the outlet of a
lake; esp. the narrow end of a
watercourse or the lower part of any body
of water where it drops away
into a larger body. AGI
c. The vent or end of a drain, pipe, sewer,
ditch, or other conduit that
carries waste water, sewage, storm runoff,
or other effluent into a
stream, lake, or ocean. AGI
outlay
a. The act of laying out or expending.
Webster 3rd
b. Something that is laid out; expenditure.
Webster 3rd
c. The cost of equipping a mine and
placing it on a producing basis.
Fay
outlier
a. An isolated mass or detached group of
rocks surrounded by older rocks;
e.g., an isolated hill or butte. CF:inlier
b. Ore or favorable geologic indications
distant from the main ore zone of
a district.
out of gage
a. Bits and reaming shells having set
inside or outside diameters greater
or lesser than those specified as standard.
Long
b. A borehole the inside diameter of which
is undersize or oversize.
Long
out-over
See:outby
output
a. The quantity of coal or mineral raised
from a mine and expressed as
being so many tons per shift, per week, or
per year. Nelson
b. The power or product from a plant or
prime mover in the specific form
and for the specific purpose required..
Nelson
c. Amount delivered; e.g., volume of a
liquid discharged by a pump; volume
of air discharged by a compressor;
horsepower delivered by a motor.
Long
d. Current or signal delivered by any
circuit or device. NCB
e. The terminal or other point at which a
current or a signal may be
delivered. NCB
output device
Machine that prints information computed
from its memory or store.
Pryor, 3

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output shaft
A shaft that transmits power from a
transmission or clutch.
Nichols, 1
outrigger

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An outward extension of a frame that is
supported by a jack or block. Used
to increase stability. Nichols, 2
outside angling
See:angling
outside clearance
One-half the total difference between the
outside diameter of any piece of
downhole equipment and the inside
diameter of the borehole. Long
outside face
The peripheral portion or that part of a bit
crown, roller bit cutter, or
any cutting edge of a bit in contact with
the walls of a borehole while
drilling. Long
outside foreman
In bituminous coal mining, a person who
supervises all operations at the
surface of a mine. DOT
outside upset
The act or process of thickening a length
of tubing at its ends by
increasing its outside diameter without
changing the inside diameter; a
length of tubing or drill rod so processed.
Long
outside wall
That part of a bit crown, bit shank,
reaming shell, core barrel, drill
rod, casing, or other piece of downhole
equipment that when in use, comes
in contact with the wall of a borehole.
Long
outside work
Drilling operations conducted on the
surface, as opposed to drilling done
in underground or enclosed workplaces.
Long
outslope
The face of the spoil or embankment
sloping downward from the highest
elevation to the toe.
outstation
A location which provides local
monitoring and control, and provides a
communications interface between a
sensor and the trunk connected to a
central station computer. Also called field
data station. SME, 1
outtake
The passage by which the ventilating
current is taken out of the mine; the
upcast. The return air course. An outlet.
Fay
oval socket
A fishing tool used to recover broken drill
rods from a borehole.
Long

133
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
oven

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A chamber in which substances are
artificially heated for the purposes of
baking, roasting, annealing, etc.; specif.:
(1) a kiln, such as a coke
oven; and (2) a leer, which is used in
glassmaking. Standard, 2
overaging
Aging at a higher temperature, or for a
longer time, or both, than
required for critical dispersion, thus
causing particle agglomeration of
the precipitating phase and, as a result,
loss of strength and hardness.

overall concentration
The ratio of pithead output in tons (P) to
length of main haulage roads in
yards (L) or tons per yard of main haulage
roads; i.e., P/L.

overall drilling time
The sum of the times required for actual
rock drilling, setting up and
withdrawal, moving drills from hole to
hole and machine delays. The
overall drilling time is a better basis for
estimating drilling efficiency
than penetration speed alone. Nelson
overall efficiency
a. Of an air compressor, the product of the
compression efficiency and the
mechanical efficiency. Fay
b. Ratio of power output of an engine to
the power input; the measure of
the difference between indicated and
brake horsepower. Brantly, 2
overall fan efficiency
The ratio of the horsepower in the air to
the horsepower absorbed by the
driving motor of the fan. BS, 8
overall reduction ratio
With reference to a crusher, mean size of
feed/mean size of product.

overall ventilation efficiency
The ratio between the air horsepower and
the indicated horsepower of a
driving unit. The percentage is expressed
by air horsepower x
100/indicated hp of driving unit.
Measurements are taken of the air
pressure and volume in the fan drift, and
the power absorbed by the
driving unit.
Nelson
over-and-under conveyor
Two endless chains or other linkage
between which carriers are mounted and
controlled, so that the carriers remain in
an upright and horizontal
position throughout the complete cycle of
the conveyor.
overarching weight
The pressure of the rocks over active mine
workings. It is the roof weight
that acts on the packs and the solid coal in
the working area.
Nelson
overbreak
Excessive breakage of rock beyond the
desired excavation limit.
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overbreaking
See:overhand stoping
overburden

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a. Designates material of any nature,
consolidated or unconsolidated, that
overlies a deposit of useful materials, ores,
or coal--esp. those deposits
that are mined from the surface by open
cuts. Stokes
b. Loose soil, sand, gravel, etc. that lies
above the bedrock. Also called
burden, capping, cover, drift, mantle,
surface.:baring; burden;
top. Stokes
overburden bit
A special diamond-set bit, similar to a set
casing shoe, used to drill
casing through overburden composed of
sand, gravel, boulders, etc.
Long
overburden drilling
a. A technique developed in Sweden that
involves the sinking, by
percussive-rotary drilling, of a drill casing
through the overburden to
where it seats in the underlying rock. A
rotary percussion drill hole is
then continued to the desired depth in the
rock. While the casing is being
sunk through the overburden it is coupled
to the drill rod and rotates and
reciprocates with it. The rock bit on the
end of the drill rod projects
about an inch beyond the end of the ring
bit with which the casing is
fitted and acts as a pilot bit for the casing
bit. Woodruff
b. A drilling method whereby drilling is
carried out through subsoil and
boulders or underwater to and through
bedrock. Eng. Min. J., 2
overcast
a. An enclosed airway that permits an air
current to pass over another one
without interruption.
b. To place the overburden removed from
coal in surface mines in an area
from which the coal has been mined.
c. Pushed forward, so as to overlie other
rocks, such as in thrust faults
.
overcasting
A procedure used in certain mining
activities including strip mining and
in some heavy construction work such as
channel excavation. Overcasting
may be performed in a simple operation
consisting of digging out the
material, lifting it from one position,
moving it over, and dumping it in
the spoil position where it remains, for
practical purposes, indefinitely.
The mechanics of the operation are called
"simple overcasting."
Woodruff
overcharging
Adding material in excess of the capacity
of the equipment used for
processing.
overconsolidated soil deposit
A soil deposit that has been subjected to
an effective pressure greater
than the present overburden pressure.
ASCE

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overcrossing
See:air crossing; overcast.
overcurrent relay

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Relay used to trip circuit breakers when
an abnormal current of two to
three times the normal flow is detected in
a circuit. Relays are adaptable
to transmission lines, buses, feeder
circuits, transformers, and motors.
Coal Age, 3
overcut
a. A machine cut made along the top or
near the top of a coal seam;
sometimes used in thick seams or a seam
with sticky coal. By releasing the
coal along the roof, its mining becomes
easier.
turret coal cutter. Nelson
b. The process of producing a larger size
hole than the outside diameter
of a bit and/or reaming shell used, due to
the eccentric rotational
movements of the bit, core barrel, or drill
stem. Long
overcutting machine
Coal-cutting machine that is an adaptation
of a shortwall machine,
designed to make the cut, or kerf, at
desired place in the coal seam some
distance above the floor. The main
difference between an overcutting
machine and an ordinary shortwall
machine is that the cutter bar in the
overcutting machine is mounted at the top
of the machine instead of at the
bottom.

overdense medium
Medium of specific gravity greater than
that in the separating bath;
usually produced in the medium recovery
system and used to maintain the
desired specific gravity in the bath. BS, 5
overdrilling
The act or process of drilling a run or
length of borehole greater than
the core-capacity length of the core barrel,
resulting in loss of the
core. Long
overdrive
The act of inducing a velocity higher than
the steady state velocity in a
column of explosive material upon
detonation by the use of a powerful
primer or booster; it is a temporary
phenomenon and the explosive quickly
assumes its steady state velocity.
overfired
A term related to the condition of a
ceramic product which has been heated
to a temperature in excess of that required
to produce proper
vitrification.
overfiring
Heating ceramic materials or ware above
the temperature required to
produce the necessary degree of
vitrification. Usually results in
bloating, deformation, or blistering of the
ware.


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overflow stand
A standpipe in which water rises and
overflows at the hydraulic gradeline.
Seelye, 1
overgate

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See:air crossing; overcast.
overgrinding
Comminution of ore to a smaller particle
size than is required for
effective liberation of values before
concentrating treatment. Opposite of
undergrinding. Pryor, 3
overhand cut-and-fill
In this method, two level drives are first
connected, the lower and upper
one by a raise, from the bottom of which
mining is begun. The work
proceeds upwards, filling the mined-out
room, but in the filling, chutes
are left through which the broken ore falls.
In inclined seams the chutes,
also inclined, have to be timbered. The
lower-level drive is protected
either by timbering or vaulting, or by a
fairly strong pillar of vein
fillings. Stoping in the different cuts
always proceeds upwards, but as a
whole it proceeds between the two level
drives in a horizontal direction.
Overhand cut-and-fill, esp. in mining
irregular orebodies of greater size,
is also called back stoping. Stoces
overhand stope
a. Stope in which the ore above the point
of entry to the stope is
attacked, so that severed ore tends to
gravitate toward discharge chutes
and the stope is self-draining. Pryor, 3
b. An overhand stope is made by working
upward from a level into the ore
above. McKinstry
overhand stoping
a. In this method, which is widely used in
highly inclined deposits, the
ore is blasted from a series of ascending
stepped benches. Both horizontal
and vertical holes may be employed.
Horizontal breast holes are usually
more efficient and safer than vertical
upper holes, although the latter
are still used in narrow stopes in steeply
inclined orebodies.
McAdam, 2
b. The working of a block of ore from a
lower level to a level above. In a
restricted way overhand stoping can be
applied to open or waste-filled
stopes that are excavated in a series of
horizontal slices either
sequentially or simultaneously from the
bottom of a block to its top.
Stull timbering or the use of pillars
characterize the method. Filling is
used in many instances. Modifications are
known as backfilling method;
back stoping; block system; block system
of stoping and filling; breast
stoping; combined side and longwall
stoping; crosscut method of working;
cross stoping; Delprat method; drywall
method; filling system; filling-up
method; flatback stoping; longwall
stoping; open cut system; open stope
and filling; open-stope method; open-
stope, timbering with pigsties, and
filling; overhand stoping on waste;
resuing; rock filling; room-and-pillar
with waste filling; sawtooth back stoping;
side stoping;
slicing-and-filling system; stoping and
filling; stoping in horizontal
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
layers; transverse with filling.;
Delprat method; overbreaking. CF:back-
filling system; chimney work;
underhand stoping.
overhand stoping and milling system

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See:combined overhand and underhand
stoping
overhand stoping on waste
See:overhand stoping
overhand stoping with shrinkage and
delayed filling
See:shrinkage stoping
overhand vertical slice
See:square-set stoping
overhang
a. Cliff overhang. AGI
b. A part of the mass of a salt dome that
projects out from the top of the
dome much like the cap of a mushroom.
AGI
overhaul
a. Describes a condition when a journey
travels towards a haulage engine
at a faster rate than the rope, which then
becomes slack and liable to
foul the drum. Also called overrun. Nelson
b. The transportation of excavated
material beyond certain specified
limits. Seelye, 1
c. In many highway contracts, a
movement of dirt far enough so that
payment, in addition to excavation pay, is
made for its haulage.
Nichols, 1
d. Applied to inspection, cleaning, and
repairing of machines or plant.
Nelson
overhead cableway
A type of equipment for the removal of
soil or rock. It consists of a
strong overhead cable, usually attached to
towers at either end, on which
a car or traveler may run back and forth.
From this car a pan or bucket
may be lowered to the surface,
subsequently raised and locked to the car,
and transported to any position on the
cable where it is desired to dump
its contents.
overhead conveyor
See:trolley conveyor
overhead monorail
This system is popular for use in mines
since it can be suspended from the
roadway supports as the face advances
and can carry supplies over
equipment installed in the roadway;
transport is by means of endless,
main-and-tail, or main-rope winches.
They are generally slow-moving and
can carry light loads into and around
many places inaccessible to other
forms of transport.
overhead-rope monorail
In this system, the loads are carried by
bogies running on a taut wire
rope instead of steel joists or flat-
bottomed rails.


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overhead shovel
A tractor loader that digs at one end,
swings the bucket overhead, and
dumps at the other end. Nichols, 1
overhead traveling crane

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A crane that traverses the whole width of
a workshop along the rails on
which it runs. Hammond
overhead trolley conveyor
See:trolley conveyor
overlap
a. A general term referring to the
extension of marine, lacustrine, or
terrestrial strata beyond underlying rocks
whose edges are thereby
concealed or overlapped, and to the
unconformity that commonly
accompanies
such a relation; esp. the relationship
among conformable strata such that
each successively younger stratum
extends beyond the boundaries of the
stratum lying immediately beneath.
CF:onlap
b. The area common to two successive
aerial or space photographs or images
along the same flight strip, expressed as a
percentage of the photo area.
AGI
c. The portion of a borehole that must be
redrilled after caving of the
hole, cementing a section of the hole, or
bypassing unrecoverable
material. Long
d. A reversed fault or thrust. BS, 11
e. The lineal portion of a branch hole that
nearly parallels the parent
hole. Long
overlap auxiliary ventilation
To combine the forcing and exhausting
systems, it is not necessary to
provide two ducts, one forcing and one
exhausting, throughout the length
of the heading. An arrangement that
serves the same purpose is the overlap
system. In this system a main exhausting
duct is used within a convenient
distance of the face, often about 100 ft
(30.5 m). Some of the intake air
in the heading, before reaching the end of
this duct, enters a short
length of tubing and is blown onto the
face. The advantages of both
systems are thus obtained. Precautions
must be taken against recirculation
of air by the forcing unit, to prevent
concentration of dust, and in
collieries, combustible gases, at the face.
The two ducts must overlap by
a minimum distance which, in practice, is
usually taken as 30 ft (9.1 m).
Roberts, 1
overlap fault
a. See:thrust fault
b. A fault structure in which the displaced
strata are doubled back upon
themselves. AGI
overlay
a. Scot. The material above the rock in a
quarry.
Fay
b. Graphic data on a transparent or
translucent sheet to be superimpossed
on another sheet (such as a map or
photograph) to show details not
appearing, or requiring special emphasis,
on the original. Also, the
medium or sheet containing an overlay.
AGI
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
overlay tracing

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A tracing on which the workings in a
seam are shown. A series of such
tracings allows the workings in several
seams to be seen in their correct
horizontal relationship. Also called
layover tracing (undesirable usage).
BS, 7
overload
a. In general, a load or weight in excess of
the designed capacity. The
term may be applied to mechanical and
electrical engineering plants, to
loads on buildings and structures, and to
excess loads on haulage ropes
and engines. Nelson
b. To apply an excessive pressure, by
stretching beyond the yield point,
to a drill string and bit. CF:crowd
overloader
A loading machine of the power-shovel
type for quarry and opencast
operations. It may be either pneumatic-
tired or continuous-tracked. It
need not turn from the face to the truck if
the latter can be spotted
parallel to the face. The bucket is filled,
the machine retracted, and the
bucket swung over to the discharge point;
used chiefly in sand and gravel
pits. Nelson
overmining
S. Afr. Mining a grade of ore above the
average grade of the ore reserves.
This practice has the effect of leaving the
lower grade ore in the
reserves. The opposite is undermining.
Beerman
overpoled copper
In refining blister copper by reducing its
oxides through stirring a
molten bath of metal with a green timber
pole, continuation of this
process until the desirable characteristic
fracture of tough-pitch refined
metal is lost. Some reoxidation then
becomes necessary.

overprint
The superposition of a new set of
structural features on an older set.
AGI
override
A royalty or percentage of the gross
income from production deducted from
the working interest. Wheeler, R.R.
overriding royalty
The term applied to a royalty reserved in a
sublease or assignment over
and above that reserved in the original
lease. Ricketts
overrope
A winding or hoisting rope. Fay
overrope haulage
Usually applied to endless rope haulage in
which the rope is carried on
top of the mine cars, which may be either
clipped or lashed to the rope.

overrun
See:overhaul
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
overrun brake
A special brake fitted to a towed vehicle
that operates as soon as the
towing vehicle slows down. Hammond
overrunning clutch

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A coupling that transmits rotation in only
one direction, and disconnects
when the torque is reversed. Nichols, 1
oversaturated rock
A rock that contains silica in excess of
that necessary to form saturated
minerals from the bases present.
CF:saturated rock
overshot
A fishing tool for recovering lost drill pipe
or casing.
Inst. Petrol.
overside
Discharging over the side; e.g., by a
dredge. Standard, 2
oversize
a. In reference to a mixture of material
screened or classified into two
products of definite size limits, the larger
is the oversize and the
smaller the undersize.
b. In quarry or opencast blasting, that size
of rock or ore which is too
large to handle without secondary
blasting. Nelson
oversize control screen
A screen used to prevent the entry into a
machine of large particles that
might interfere with its operation..
BS, 5
oversize core
a. Core cut by a thin-wall bit, as opposed
to a standard-diameter core.
Long
b. A core the diameter of which is greater
than a standard size.
Long
oversize coupling
a. See:swelled coupling
b. Sometimes used in Canada as a
synonym for reaming shell. Long
oversize hole
A borehole the diameter of which is
excessive because of the whipping
action or eccentric rotation of the drill
string and bit. Long
oversize rod
See:drill collar; guide rod.
overspringing
See:springing
overstressed area
In strata control, describes an area where
the force is concentrated on
pillars. This type of area is said to be
overstressed or superstressed.
This superstressing is limited by the
strength of the seam or pillar.
CF:destressed area


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Overstrom table
Similar to a Wilfley table but of diamond
shape (rhomboid), thus
eliminating the waste corners. Liddell
over-the-road hauling

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Hauling over public highways, usually by
a dump truck. Various
restrictions, such as weight, width of
vehicle, safety features, guard
against spillage, etc. must be considered in
the type equipment used.
CF:off-the-road hauling
overthrust
A low-angle thrust fault of large scale,
with displacement generally
measured in kilometers. CF:underthrust
AGI
overthrust block
See:overthrust nappe
overthrust fault
See:overthrust
overthrust nappe
The body of rock that forms the hanging
wall of a large-scale overthrust;
a thrust nappe.;
overthrust slice. AGI
overthrust plane
See:thrust plane
overthrust sheet
See:overthrust nappe
overthrust slice
See:overthrust nappe
overtime
The period beyond the normal shift time
when a worker, on request by the
management, performs emergency tasks
that are necessary for safety or
efficient operation of the oncoming shift.
Nelson
overtopping
Flow of water over the top of a dam or
embankment. Nichols, 1
overtravel
See:overwind
overtub system
An endless-rope system in which the rope
runs over the tubs or cars in the
center of the rails. This system is
generally adopted on undulating roads,
where the tension in a heavily loaded rope
would cause the rope to lift in
swilleys and derail tubs. It is also
generally adopted in highly inclined
roads, as the lashing chain, often adopted
with this method of haulage,
obtains a good positive grip on the rope
and is easier to detach than a
clip. The rope is kept from rubbing on
roof supports by holding-down
pulleys: six or eight small pulleys are
mounted in circular cheeks,
allowing chains or clips to be
accommodated in the spaces between the
pulleys; or large diameter pulleys may be
used, of the hat or mushroom
shape, often starred to provide recesses for
chains and clips. Similar
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
large pulleys direct the rope around
curves. CF:undertub system
Sinclair, 5
overturned

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Said of a fold, or the limb of a fold, that
has tilted beyond the
perpendicular. The sequence of strata thus
appears reversed.
. AGI
overturning skip
A type of skip commonly used at metal
mines, but not as often at coal
mines, because of increased breakage.
This skip consists of a rectangular
receptacle for the material and a
suspending frame of bail to an upper
crosspiece of which is attached a
suspension gear connecting the rope to
the skip. Three guide shoes are generally
provided at each side of the
bail to keep it vertical. The skip body
turns about a horizontal shaft at
the lower end of the bail. Two rollers on
the upper part are mounted on a
shaft and cause the skip to tilt at an angle
of 35 degrees at the tipping
point in the headgear, where rollers run
onto the curved guides. To
prevent shocks in the case of an overwind
the skips are fitted with
overwind guides which glide along rollers
fitted to the headgear above the
tipping point. Sinclair, 5
overventilation
Too much air in the mine workings. Fay
overvoltage
The difference between the actual
electrode potential, when appreciable
electrolysis begins, and the reversible
electrode potential.
ASM, 1
overvoltage relay
Relay that serves primarily the same
purpose as an overcurrent relay
except that it is connected in the line by a
potential transformer which
measures the voltage across the line.
When an overvoltage exists the relay
operates and opens the circuit breaker.
Coal Age, 3
overwind
a. To hoist a cage into or over the top of a
headframe. Fay
b. In hoisting through a mine shaft, failure
to bring a cage or skip
smoothly to rest at the proper unloading
point at the surface. If severe,
it can lead to a serious accident unless the
special preventive devices
function effectively. Overwind can also
cause a cage to be lowered into
the sump at the bottom of the shaft, also
with serious consequences.
Pryor, 3
overwinder
One of the best known overwinder
prevention devices consists of two
vertical-screwed spindles, each carrying
two traveling nuts and chain
driven from the drum shaft so as to rotate
in opposite directions. The
nuts are prevented from rotating by
projections engaging with a fixed
plate and therefore travel up and down
according to the movement of the
cages. The upper nut takes care of
overwinding and the lower nut of
overspeeding. Mason
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overwinding

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a. A term applied to a continued pull on
the hoisting rope of a cage,
after the cage has reached the top of the
shaft. The result of this
carelessness, or accident, is a broken
hoisting rope and all the danger
that implies. Stauffer
b. A rope or cable wound and attached so
that it stretches from the top of
a drum to the load. Nichols, 1
overwind switch
A switch that may be used on winders, or
haulages, to cause the power to
cut off from the driving motor, or engine,
and the brakes to be applied.
Such a switch may be: (1) situated in the
headgear and operated by the
conveyance, (2) mounted on the automatic
contrivance, or (3) operated by
the depth or distance indicator. BS, 13
ovulite
See:oolith
Owen process
A flotation process involving the violent
agitation of the pulp in cold
water to which a small percentage of
eucalyptus oil, about 62.5 g, is
added. Fay
Owen's borehole surveying instrument
A clockwork photographic apparatus that
records clinometer and compass
readings on sensitized paper. It is used
during borehole surveying.
Hammond

Owen's jet dust counter
An instrument similar to the konimeter but
differing in that the air to be
sampled undergoes humidification prior to
being blown through the jet. The
velocity of impingement is about 200 to
300 m/s and the jet is rectangular
instead of circular. The prior
humidification of the air causes
condensation of moisture upon the dust
particles by super saturation due
to the pressure drop at the jet, and so
assists in the deposition and
retention of the particles on the slide. The
Bausch and Lomb dust counter
is the American counterpart of this
instrument. Osborne
oxacalcite
See:whewellite
oxalite
See:humboldtine
oxammite
An orthorhombic mineral, (NH
4
)
2
C
2
O
4

.H (sub
2) O ; transparent; yellowish-white; forms
lamellar and pulverent masses
in guano.
oxialyphite
A variety of aliphite hydrocarbon
containing oxygen; light-yellow; soft.
Tomkeieff
oxidate
Sediment composed of the oxides and
hydroxides of iron and manganese,
crystallized from aqueous solution. It is
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
one of Goldschmidt's groupings
of sediments or analogues of
differentiation stages in rock analysis.
AGI
oxidation

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a. The firing of a kiln in such a manner
that combustion is complete and
in consequence the burning gases are
amply supplied with oxygen, which
causes metals in clay and glazes to give
their oxide colors.
ACSG, 1
b. Combination with oxygen; increase in
content of a molecular compound;
increase in valency of the electropositive
part of compound, or decrease
in valency of the electronegative part.
Pryor, 3
c. A reaction in which there is an increase
in valence resulting from a
loss of electrons. CF:reduction
d. In fuel practice, the combination of
oxygen with a substance, with or
without the production of food. Francis, 2
oxidation of coal
The absorption of oxygen from the air by
coal, particularly in the crushed
state; this engenders heat which can result
in fire. Ventilation, while
dispersing the heat generated, supports
oxidation that increases rapidly
with a rise in temperature. Fresh air
should not gain access to the coal.

oxide
A compound of oxygen with another
element. CTD

oxide discoloration
Discoloration of a metal surface caused by
oxidation during thermal
treatment. Light Metal Age
oxide mineral
A mineral formed by the union of an
element with oxygen; e.g., corundum,
hematite, magnetite, and cassiterite. Leet,
1
oxide of iron
An iron ore with oxygen as its main
impurity; also iron rust.
Mersereau, 2
oxidized deposit
A deposit that has resulted from surficial
oxidation. Bateman, 2
oxidized ore
Metalliferous minerals altered by
weathering and the action of surface
waters, and converted, partly or wholly,
into oxides, carbonates, or
sulfates. These compounds are
characteristic of metalliferous deposits at
the surface and often to a considerable
depth.
Nelson
oxidized zone
The portion of an orebody near the surface
that: (1) has been leached by
percolating water carrying oxygen, carbon
dioxide, or other gases; or (2)
in which sulfide minerals have been
partially dissolved and redeposited at
depth, the residual portion changing to
oxides, carbonates, and sulfates.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
CF:gossan; sulfide zone.

oxidizer

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A material that readily yields oxygen or
other oxidizing substances needed
for an explosive reaction to take place;
solid oxidizers common in
industrial explosives are ammonium
nitrate and sodium nitrate.
oxidizing flame
In blowpiping, the outer, least visible, and
less intense part of the
flame, from which oxygen may be added
to the compound being tested.

oxidizing fusion
An oxidation process used for fire refining
bismuth, gold, and silver; the
crude metals are melted down with
oxidizing fluxes, so that the impurities
are oxidized during the melting period and
become part of the slag.
Newton, 1
oxidizing smelting
See:pyritic smelting
oxonite
An explosive prepared by dissolving
picric acid in nitric acid.
Fay
oxyacetylene
A mixture of oxygen, O
2
, and acetylene
gas, C
2
H
2
,
in such proportions as to produce the
hottest flame known for practical
use. Oxyacetylene welding and cutting is
used in almost every metalworking
industry. Crispin
oxyacetylene cutter
An appliance for cutting metals by means
of a flame obtained from
acetylene and compressed oxygen, which
are stored in separate steel
cylinders. Oxyhydrogen and oxycoal gas
flames are also used.
Nelson
oxychloride cement
A plastic cement formed by mixing finely
ground caustic magnesite with a
solution of magnesium chloride. AGI
oxygen
A nonmetallic element, normally
colorless, odorless, tasteless,
nonflammable diatomic gas. Symbol, O.
Occurs uncombined in the air to the
extent of about 21% by volume and is
combined in water, in most rocks and
minerals, and in a great variety of organic
compounds. Oxygen is very
reactive and capable of combining with
most elements. Essential for
respiration in all plants and animals and
for practically all combustion.
Oxygen enrichment of steel blast furnaces
accounts for the greatest use of
the gas. Used in manufacturing ammonia,
methanol, and ethylene oxide.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 3
oxygen balance
The amount of oxygen in an explosive
mixture, expressed in weight percent,
liberated as a result of complete
conversion of explosive material to CO
146
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2
, H
2
O, SO
2
, Al
2
O
3
, and other
non-toxic gases; referred to as positive
oxygen balance; negative oxygen
balance is a deficient amount of oxygen
leading to incomplete oxidation of
explosive materials resulting in the
possible formation of toxic gases,
such as CO and NO.
oxygen-Bessemer
A steelmaking process in which the air
blown through the bottom tuyeres is
enriched with oxygen. If oxygen alone is
used, tuyere wear is excessive.
Oxygen plus steam or oxygen plus carbon
dioxide can be used. Also called
oxy-Thomas.
oxygen consumption
A person working hard requires about 10
ft
3
/min (283 L/min) of
air to supply adequate oxygen. Hammond
oxygen deficiency
See:anoxia
oxygen-deficient atmosphere
A concentration of oxygen in the
atmosphere equal to or less than 19.5% by
volume. OSHA
oxygen-enriched atmosphere
An atmosphere containing more than
23.5% oxygen by volume. OSHA
oxygen-flash smelting process
Employed as an autogeneous matte
smelting process for smelting
copper-nickel concentrate. Newton, 1
oxygen-free copper
Electrolytic copper free from cuprous
oxide; produced without the use of
residual metallic or metalloidal
deoxidizers. ASM, 1
oxygen impingement process
A process used in steel making in which
pure oxygen is blown down onto the
bath in a converterlike vessel. Osborne
oxygen index
Volumetric ratio of oxygen to the total
gases in a mixture.
Van Dolah
oxygen lance
A device made up of a welding oxygen
bottle and a length of rubber hose
attached to a valve which is fitted to a
steel pipe, so that when the tip
of the lance is ignited it can be used to
melt the solidified metal out of
the iron tap hole in a blast furnace.
oxygen process
A process for making steel in which
oxygen is blown upon or through molten
pig iron, whereby most of the carbon and
impurities are removed by
oxidation. Harbison-Walker
oxygen steel
The use of oxygen instead of air to
convert molten pig iron into steel.
The oxygen is used in different ways in
different furnaces, but the
fastest ones utilize the direct oxidation
effects of a relatively pure
(99.5%) oxygen.
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oxyhornblende
A hornblende with (OH+F+Cl) less than
1.0. Also called basaltic
hornblende.
oxyhydrogen
Of, relating to, or utilizing a mixture of
oxygen and hydrogen.
Webster 3rd
ozarkite
A white, massive variety of thomsonite,
from Arkansas. Fay
ozocerite
A mineral paraffin wax, of dark yellow,
brown, or black color with a
melting point of 55 to 110 degrees C and
sp gr, 0.85 to 0.95. Is soluble
in gasoline, benzene, and turpentine and is
found near the Caspian Sea
region and in Utah as narrow seams in
sandstone. Also called mineral wax;
fossil wax; native paraffin; earth wax.
Also spelled ozokerite.

CF:hatchettine; hatchettite. CTD
An allotropic, triatomic form of oxygen,
O
3
; a faintly blue,
irritating gas with a characteristic pungent
odor, but at -112 degrees C
it condenses to a blue magnetic liquid. It
occurs in minute quantities in
the air near the Earth's surface and in
larger quantities in the
stratosphere as a product of the action of
ultraviolet light of short
wavelengths on ordinary oxygen. Ozone is
generated usually in dilute form
by a silent electric discharge in oxygen or
air. It decomposes to oxygen
(as when heated) and it is a stronger
oxidizing agent than oxygen. Used
chiefly in disinfection and in
deodorization (such as in water
purification and in air conditioning), in
oxidation and bleaching (such as
in the treatment of industrial wastes), and
in ozonolysis (such as in the
manufacture of azelaic acid from oleic
acid). Webster 3rd
ozonizer
Electrical apparatus that converts
atmospheric oxygen to ozone; used in
sterilizing water for drinking purposes and
for purifying air.
Pryor, 3
ozone

To Go At beginning the Dictionary

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P

pachnolite
A monoclinic mineral, NaCaAlF
6
.H
2
O ;
white; distinct
cleavage; dimorphous with thomsenolite;
an alteration of cryolite.
Pachuca tank
A cylindrical tank with a conical bottom.
It contains a pipe that is
coaxial with the leaching tank and open at
both ends; compressed air is
introduced at the lower end of this pipe,
which behaves as an air lift.
The density of the pulp within the pipe is
less than that of the pulp
surrounding it because of the column of
air bubbles contained in the pipe,
and the pressure of the denser pulp causes
the pulp in the central pipe to
rise and overflow, thus circulating the
entire charge.
.
Newton, 1
Pacific suite
One of two large groups of igneous rocks,
characterized by calcic and
calc-alkalic rocks. Harker (1909) divided
all Tertiary and Holocene
igneous rocks of the world into two main
groups, the Atlantic suite and
the Pacific suite. Because there is such a
wide variation in tectonic
environments and associated rock types in
the areas of Harker's Atlantic
and Pacific suites, the terms are now
seldom used to indicate kindred rock
types. CF:Mediterranean suite
pacite
An iron arsenosulfide near arsenopyrite in
composition.
pack
a. A pillar, constructed from loose stones
and dirt, built in the waste
area or roadside to support the roof.
solid stowing; strip packing. Nelson
b. A pack built on a longwall face
between the gate-side packs is called
an intermediate pack. SMRB
c. Waste rock or timber support used for a
roof over underground workings
or used to fill excavations. Also called fill.
Pryor, 3
d. To cause the speedy subsidence of ore
in the process of washing by
beating a keeve or tub with a hammer.
pack builder
a. Person who builds packs or pack walls.
b. In anthracite and bituminous coal
mining, a worker who: (1) fills
worked-out rooms, from which coal has
been mined, with rock, slate, or
other waste to prevent caving of walls and
roofs; (2) builds rough walls
and columns of loose stone, heavy boards,

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timber, or coal along
haulageways and passageways and in
rooms where coal is being mined, to
prevent caving. Also called packer.
waller. DOT
pack cavity system

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See:methane drainage
pack drawer
In anthracite and bituminous coal mining,
a laborer who draws (tears down)
stone or timber packs (pillars constructed
by pack builders in the working
place to support the roof during extraction
of coal) to permit the roof to
cave behind as the mining of the coal
recedes toward the entrance of the
working area. DOT
packer
a. A short expansible-retractable device
deliberately set in a cased or
uncased well bore to prevent upward or
downward fluid movement; generally
for temporary use. AGI
b. A miner employed in stowing or
packing the waste area. Also called
gobber. Nelson
packfong
Chinese. A silver-white alloy of copper,
zinc, and nickel; German silver.
pack hardening
Case carburizing, using a solid carburized
medium, followed by a hardening
treatment. CTD
pack hole
The space adjacent to a gate end at the
face and between the face end of a
gate-side pack and the coal face into
which packs will be inserted when
the gate is ripped or dinted. TIME
packing
a. Occurs in crushing plants when the
material in the chamber is so
compacted as to be nearly without voids.
It occurs when free downward
movement is inhibited. South Australia
b. The filling of a waste area with stones
and dirt.
c. The method of giving support to a roof
by the insertion of waste
material placed or built into space from
which coal or ore has been
extracted. TIME
d. The spacing or density pattern of the
mineral grains in a rock.
CF:fabric
e. See:blocking
f. With gyratories, packing copy refers to
an accumulation of sticky fines
on the diaphragm. South Australia
packing density
The bulk density of a granular material,
when packed under specified
conditions. It is commonly determined,
particularly for foundry sands.
packing factor
Ratio of true volume to bulk volume. Van
Vlack
packing gland
An explosion-proof entrance for
conductors through the wall of an
explosion-proof enclosure, to provide
compressed packing completely
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surrounding the wire or cable, for not less
than 1/2 in (1.27 cm) measured
along the length of the cable.
packsand

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A very fine-grained sandstone that is so
loosely consolidated by a little
calcareous cement as to be readily cut by a
spade. AGI
pack wall
A dry-stone wall built along the side of a
roadway, or in the waste area,
of a coal or metal mine. The wall helps to
support the roof and also to
retain the packing material and prevent it
spreading into the roadway.
Nelson
pad
a. Ground-contact part of a crawler-type
track. Nichols, 1
b. See:wallplate
c. The refractory brickwork below the
molten iron at the base of a blast
furnace. Dodd
paddle
a. Numbered wooden marker which
shovelers put in the cans of ore that they
load. Hess
b. A straight iron tool for stirring ore in a
furnace. Standard, 2
c. A bat or pallet, as used in tempering
clay. Standard, 2
d. A scoop for stirring and mixing, as used
in glassmaking.
Standard, 2
paddle conveyor
See:paddle-type mixing conveyor
paddle loader
A belt loader equipped with chain-driven
paddles that move loose material
to the belt. Nichols, 1
paddle mixer
A form of worm conveyor having two
noncontinuous spirals that form
paddles; the shafts are contrarotating and
the spirals opposite.

paddle-type mixing conveyor
A type of conveyor consisting of one or
more parallel paddle conveyor
screws.; paddle conveyor.
paddle washer
A type of conveyor consisting of one or
two inclined parallel paddle
conveyor screws in a conveyor trough
having a receiving tank and an
overflow weir at the lower end and a
discharge opening at the upper end.
paddle-wheel fan
A centrifugal fan with radial blades.
Strock, 2
paddy
A borehole drill bit having cutters that
expand on pressure. Also called
expansion bit; paddy bit. Long
paddy bit
See:paddy

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paddy lamp
A portable battery-operated lamp attached
to the front or rear of a
personnel train. BS, 13
padlock sheave

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a. The bucket sheave on a dipper or hoe
shovel. Nichols, 1
b. A sheave set connecting inner and outer
boom lines. Nichols, 1
page
a. A small wooden wedge used in securing
the timbering for excavations.
Hammond
b. In brickmaking, a track carrying the
pallets bearing newly molded
bricks. Standard, 2
pagodite
Ordinary massive pinite in its amorphous
compact texture and other
physical characters, but containing more
silica. The Chinese carve the
soft stone into miniature pagodas and
images.;
lardite; pinite. CTD
Pahrump
A provincial series of the Precambrian in
California.
paint
a. A term used in the western United
States for an earthy, pulverulent
variety of cinnabar.
b. A film of molybdenite in fractures and
veinlets.

paint gold
A very thin coating of gold on minerals.
painting
The painting of the mine roof with a coal-
tar paint that seals the bottom
strata of the roof to prevent air from
entering the crevices of the roof.
Kentucky
paint mill
A machine for grinding mineral paints.
Fay
paint rock
A soft, incompetent, fine-grained mass of
quartz, pyrolusite, and kaolin
with subangular fragments of chert,
hematite, and goethite.
Woodruff
paint-rock ore
See:natural ore
pair
A party of co-workers; a gang. Also
spelled pare. Webster 2nd; Fay
pair production
The transformation of a high-energy
gamma ray into a pair of particles (an
electron and a positron) during its passage
through matter. Lyman
palagonite
Devitrified basaltic glass.

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palasome
The host rock or mineral in a replacement
deposit.
pale brick

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Brick that is underfired. Fay
paleo-
a. A combining form denoting great age or
remoteness in regard to time
(Paleozoic), or involving ancient
conditions (paleoclimate). Sometimes
given as pale- (palevent). Also spelled:
palaeo; palaio-. AGI
b. A prefix indicating pre-Tertiary origin,
and generally altered
character, of a rock to the name of which
it is added, such as
paleopicrite; by some the prefix has been
applied to pre-Carboniferous
rocks or features, such as the
PaleoAtlantic Ocean. AGI
paleobotany
The study of plants of past geological ages
through the investigation of
fossils. CF:paleontology; palynology.
paleoclimatology
The branch of science that treats of
climatological conditions during the
history of the Earth.
paleocurrent
A current, generally of water, that
influenced sedimentation or other
processes or conditions in the geologic
past.

paleoecology
The science of the relationship between
ancient organisms and their
environments. AGI
paleogeography
a. The study and description of the
physical geography of the geologic
past, such as the historical reconstruction
of the pattern of the Earth's
surface or of a given area at a particular
time in the geologic past, or
the study of the successive changes of
surface relief during geologic
time.
b. The study of the relative positions of
land masses as part of tectonic
reconstructions of Earth history.
paleogeologic map
A map that shows the areal geology of an
ancient surface at some time in
the geologic past; esp. such a map of the
surface immediately below an
unconformity, showing the geology as it
existed at the time the surface of
unconformity was completed but before
the overlapping strata were
deposited. Paleogeologic maps were
introduced by Levorsen (1933).
AGI
paleolithologic map
A paleogeologic map that shows
lithologic variations at some buried
horizon or within some restricted zone at a
particular time in the
geologic past. AGI
paleomagnetism
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Faint magnetic polarization of rocks that
may have been preserved since
the accumulation of sediment or the
solidification of magma whose magnetic
particles were oriented with respect to the
Earth's magnetic field as it
existed at that time and place. AGI

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paleontological facies
a. The paleontological aspect of a
particular sedimentary lithology; e.g.,
nummulitic facies, crinoid facies, etc.
Schieferdecker
b. Sedimentary facies differentiated on the
basis of fossils. AGI
paleontologist
Person who studies the fossilized remains
of animals and/or plants.
AGI
paleontology
A science that deals with the life of past
geological periods, based on
the study of fossil remains of plants and
animals, and gives information
esp. about the phylogeny and relationships
of modern animals and plants
and about the chronology of the history of
the Earth. CF:paleobotany;
paleoclimatology; paleogeography.
Webster 3rd
paleozoology
That branch of paleontology dealing with
the study of fossil animals, both
invertebrate and vertebrate. AGI
palimpsest
Said of a structure or texture of
metamorphic rocks in which remnants of
some pre-existing structure or texture are
preserved.
palingeness
Formation of a new magma by the melting
of pre-existing magmatic rock in
situ. Considered incorrectly by some
workers as a syn. of anatexis. Adj:
palingenic. AGI
palladinite
A poorly defined ocherous coating on
palladian gold, probably PdO.
palladium
A soft, ductile, steel-white metallic
element of the platinum group
metals. Symbol, Pd. Found along with
platinum and other metals of the
platinum group in placer deposits; also
found associated with
nickel-copper deposits. Used as a catalyst,
in dentistry, watchmaking,
surgical instruments, and electrical
contacts.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 3
palladium amalgam
A former name for potarite.
palladium gold
Same as porpezite, or gold, containing
palladium up to 10%.
pallas iron
See:pallasite


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pallasite

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a. Any ultramafic rock, whether of
meteoric or terrestrial origin, that
contains approx. 60% iron if meteoric, or
more iron oxides than silica if
terrestrial. AGI
b. A stony-iron meteorite composed
essentially of large single glassy
crystals of olivine embedded in a network
of nickel-iron. Pallasites are
believed to have been formed at the
interface of the stony mantle and
metal core of a layered planetoid.
palleting
A light platform in the bottom of powder
magazines to preserve the powder
from dampness. Fay
pallet molding
A method of forming bricks in sanded
molds, from which they are dumped on
a board called a pallet. Standard, 2
pallet-type conveyor
A series of flat or shaped wheelless
carriers propelled by and attached to
one or more endless chains or other
linkage.
Palo-Travis analyser
A sedimentation apparatus for
determining particle size, based upon the
settling of powder through a long
sedimentation tube filled with liquid.
The instrument consists of the
sedimentation tube, a smaller reservoir at
the top joined to the tube through a large
bore stopcock, and a calibrated
capillary mounted concentrically at the
bottom of the tube.
Osborne
paludal
Pertaining to swamps or marshes, and to
organic, clay, or other material
deposited in a swamp environment.
CF:palustrine
paludification
Process of formation of a peat bog. This
requires a steady growth of new
peat-forming plants in phase with a steady
general sinking of the
depression in which this occurs. Pryor, 3
palustrine
Pertaining to material deposited in a
swamp or marsh environment.
CF:paludal
palygorskite
a. A monoclinic and orthorhombic
mineral, (OH)
2
(Mg,Al)
4

(Si,Al)
8
O
20
.8H
2
O ; fibrous; in desert
soils.
b. A general name for lightweight fibrous
clay minerals showing
significant substitution of aluminum for
magnesium; characterized by
distinctive rodlike shapes under an
electron microscope.
palynology
a. A branch of science concerned with the
study of pollen of seed plants
and spores of other embryophytic plants,
whether living or fossil,
including their dispersal and applications
in stratigraphy and
paleoecology. AGI
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
b. The study of the fossilized spores and
pollen grains of the plants,
esp. those whose remains contributed to
the formation of coal seams.
CF:paleobotany; paleontology. Nelson
pan

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a. A shallow steel or porcelain dish in
which drillers or samplers wash
drill sludge to a gravity concentrate and
separate the particles of heavy
minerals from the lighter-density rock
powder to ascertain if the rocks
traversed by the borehole contain minerals
of value.
Long
b. Hardpan.
c. Fireclay or underclay of coal seams.
d. A trough or section of a pan conveyor
or shaker conveyor.
Nelson
e. The framework of a belt or chain
conveyor.
Mason
f. A circular steel dish from 10 to 16 in
(25 to 40 cm) in diameter at the
top, from 2 to 2-1/2 in (5.1 to 6.4 cm)
deep, and with sides sloping at 35
degrees to 40 degrees to the horizontal,
used for testing and working
placer deposits.
CF:dish
g. A carrying scraper.
panabase
See:tetrahedrite
panabasite
A former name for tetrahedrite.
pan amalgamation
See pan-amalgamation process.
pan-amalgamation process
Method of recovering silver and gold from
their ores, in which a cast iron
pan or barrel is used for contacting a
slurry of the crushed ore with
salt, copper sulfate, and mercury; the
released silver and gold form an
amalgam with the mercury.
Pan-American jig
Mineral jig developed for treatment of
alluvial sands. Pryor, 3
pancake
a. See:ribbon
b. Any of concrete discs that are stacked
to form concrete columns for
stope support. They are cast at the surface
and are usually 30 in (76.2
cm) diameter by 4 in (10.2 cm) thick with
reinforcement from wire rope.
Higham
panclastite
An explosive composed of liquid nitrogen
tetroxide mixed with carbon
disulfide or other liquid combustible, in
the proportion of three volumes
of the former to two of the combustible.
Fay
pan conveyor
a. A conveyor comprising one or more
endless chains or other linkage to
which usually overlapping or interlocking
pans are attached to form a
series of shallow, open-topped containers.
Some pan conveyors have been
known also as apron conveyors.
b. Jigging conveyor; a trough down which
coal slides after mining and
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loading in dipping seams, with motion
being aided by a shaking action.

c. A trough conveyor or gravity conveyor.
Nelson
pandermite

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a. See:priceite
b. A name for firm, compact,
porcelainlike masses of colemanite.
pan-edge
a. A runner mill for grinding or mixing
granular material.
b. Steel supporting plates on which
furnace bottom refractories are
placed.
panel
a. A large rectangular block or pillar of
coal.
b. A method of working whereby the
workings of a mine are divided into
sections, each surrounded by solid strata
and coal with only necessary
roads through the coal barrier. Also
spelled pannel. Mason
c. The working of coal seams in separate
panels or districts; e.g., single
unit panel.
d. Rectangle of lode ore that is defined by
means of levels and winzes and
then considered to be proved as regards
volume for valuation purposes.
Pryor, 3
e. A group of breasts or rooms separated
from the other workings by large
pillars. Fay
f. A small portion of coal left uncut.
Webster 3rd

panel barrier
The pillar of coal left between the
adjacent panels. These pillars are
often worked on the retreat after the coal
in the panels has been
extracted. In the panel system of bord-
and-pillar mining, the panel
barrier may be 22 yd (20 m) (minimum)
wide and about 300 yd (274 m) apart.
In longwall panel mining, the barriers may
be made of sufficient width for
extraction by a conveyor face on the
retreat. Also called panel pillar.
panel slicing
a. In stoping, the process of mining out a
panel either from above, below,
or one side as described by a qualifying
term. Pryor, 3
b. See:top slicing and cover caving
panel working
a. Working laid out in districts or panels,
which are then extracted as
single units. The panel system of working
may be adopted with
pillar-and-stall and longwall methods.
b. A system of working coal seams in
which the colliery is divided up into
large squares or panels isolated or
surrounded by solid ribs of coal of
which a separate set of breasts and pillars
is worked, and the ventilation
is kept distinct; i.e., every panel has its
own circulation, the air of
one not passing into the adjoining one, but
being carried direct to the
main return airway. Zern
pan feeder
See:conveyor-type feeder
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pan-feeder operator
See:mill feeder
panhead

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A head to a rivet or screw having the
shape of a truncated cone.
Hammond
panidiomorphic
A textural term for rocks in which all or
almost all of the mineral
constituents are idiomorphic or euhedral.
panman
a. A worker who places in position and
tends the operation of underground
trough conveyors for the transportation of
coal or other minerals. These
conveyors are built in sections, and the
principal task of the panman is
to move the sections from one position to
another. Hess
b. One engaged in dismantling or building
conveyors. Also called panner.
Mason
panning
A technique of prospecting for heavy
metals, such as gold, by washing
placer or crushed vein material in a pan.
The lighter fractions are washed
away, leaving the heavy metals behind in
the pan.AGI
pantellerite
A peralkaline rhyolite or quartz trachyte
with normative quartz exceeding
10%. It is more mafic than comendite.
AGI
pantograph
a. A type of drawing instrument consisting
of rods linked together in the
form of a parallelogram, used for copying
a drawing to any required scale.
Hammond
b. The hinged diamond-shaped structure
mounted on the roof of an electric
locomotive to collect electric power from
an overhead wire.
Hammond
pan-type car
Doorless car of two-way, side-dump
design; built in capacities from 4 to
10 yd
3
(3.1 to 7.6 m
3
). The car body is
reversible and
may be dumped to either side. Dumping is
accomplished by means of an
external hoist at the dumping point. Pit
and Quarry
Panzer conveyor
See:armored flexible conveyor
Panzer-Forderer snaking conveyor
A very strong, armored conveyor that is
moved forward behind a coal plow
by means of a traveling wedge pulled
along by the plow or by means of
jacks or compressed-air-operated rams
attached at intervals to the
conveyor structure. Sinclair, 5
papa
a. A bluish white, massive New Zealand
clay like pipe clay; used for
whitening fireplaces. When hard, it is
called papa rock. Etymol:
Polynesian.
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b. Sp. A nugget of gold or silver.
c. A nodule of mineral.
papagoite
A monoclinic mineral, CaCuAlSi
2
O
6

(OH)
3
; forms blue
crystals; secondary; at Ajo, Pima County,
AZ.
paper clay
A fine-grained, white, kaolinic clay with
high retention and suspending
properties, high reflectance, and a very
low content of free silica. It is
used for coating or filling paper. AGI
paper coal
a. Coal in which cuticular matter may be
prominent. AGI
b. A variety of brown coal deposited in
thin layers like sheets of paper.
Fay
paper shale
A shale that easily separates on
weathering into thin layers or laminae
suggesting sheets of paper; it is often
highly carbonaceous. AGI
paper spar
A crystallized variety of calcite found in
thin lamellae or paperlike
plates. Standard, 2
para-
a. A prefix applied to the names of
metamorpic rocks that have been
derived from sediments; e.g., paragneiss.
Stokes
b. Prefix meaning beside or nearby.
c. Indicating a polymorph.
d. Indicating a schist or gneiss derived
from a sedimentary protolith.
e. A matrix-rich clastic sedimentary rock.
f. In chemistry, a prefix indicating: (1) an
isomeric or polymeric
modification; such as paracyanogen,
paraldehyde, etc.; (2) a modification
or a similar compound that is not
necessarily isomeric or polymeric; such
as, paramorphine; (3) a benzene
diderivative in which the substituted
atoms or radicals are directly opposite
each other on the benzene
ring--i.e., occupying the positions 1 and 4-
-such as paraxylene; or (4) an
inactive isomer produced by a
combination of its dextro- and levo-
modifications--such as, paratartaric acid.
A Greek prefix meaning beside.
Abbrev., p-.
g. A Greek prefix meaning beside. In the
name of a metamorphic rock, such
as paragneiss, it means derived from an
original sediment.
Webster 3rd
parabola
The shape taken by the curve of a bending
moment diagram for a uniformly
distributed load on a beam simply
supported. Hammond
parabutlerite
An orthorhombic mineral, Fe
3+
(SO
4

)(OH).2H
2
O ;
dimorphous with butlerite: orange; an
alteration product of copiapite.
paracelsian
A monoclinic mineral, BaAl
2
Si
2
O
8
;
feldspar group;
pale yellow; dimorphous with celsian; at

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Candoglia, Italy.

parachrosis
Discoloration in minerals from exposure
to weather. Standard, 2

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paraconformity
An unconformity at which strata are
parallel and the contact is a simple
bedding plane. AGI
paraconglomerate
A term proposed by Pettijohn (1957) for a
conglomerate that is not a
product of normal aqueous flow, but is
deposited by such agents as
subaqueous turbidity slides and glacier
ice; it contains more matrix than
gravel-sized fragments (pebbles may form
less than 10% of the rock).
Examples include tillites, pebbly
mudstones, and relatively structureless
clay or shale bodies in which pebbles or
cobbles are randomly distributed.

paracoquimbite
A trigonal mineral, Fe
3+
2
(SO
4
)
3
.9H (sub
2) O ; dimorphous with coquimbite; pale
violet; astringent tasting;
secondary; in oxidized iron sulfide
deposits.
paradamite
A triclinic mineral, Zn
2
(AsO
4
)(OH) ;
rare; dimorphous with
adamite and isomorphous with tarbuttite;
transparent; vitreous; pale
yellow; forms sheaflike aggregates and
striated equant crystals; at the
Ojuela Mine, Durango, Mexico.
paraffin shale
See:oil shale
paragenesis
A characteristic association or occurrence
of minerals or mineral
assemblages in ore deposits, connoting
contemporaneous formation.
CF:mineral sequence
paragenetic
a. Pertaining to paragenesis. AGI
b. Pertaining to the genetic relations of
sediments in laterally
continuous and equivalent facies. AGI
paragneiss
In petrology, a gneiss formed by the
metamorphism of a sedimentary rock.
CF:orthogneiss
Paragon
Trade name for a nonrotating rope of 12
by 6 over 3 by 24 strand
construction. Hammond
paragonite
A monoclinic mineral, NaAl
2
(AlSi
3
)O
10

(OH)
2
;
mica group; pseudohexagonal with basal
cleavage; forms fine-grained,
massive, scaly aggregates; occurs in
metamorphic rocks and in soils; not
common as it is incompatible with
potassium feldspar (albite plus
muscovite is more stable); rarely
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identified because of its similarity to
muscovite.
paragonite schist
A variety of schist in which paragonite
supplants muscovite or biotite.

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paraguanajuatite
A trigonal mineral, Bi
2
(Se,S)
3
;
paramorphous after
orthorhombic guanajuatite.
parahilgardite
A mineral trimorphous with monoclinic
hilgardite and triclinic hilgardite.
:hilgardite
parahopeite
A colorless hydrous zinc phosphate, Zn
3

(PO
4
)
2
.4H
2
O , triclinic. Minute tabular or prismatic
crystals; fan-shaped
aggregates. From Broken Hill, Northern
Rhodesia; Salmo, BC.
English
parajamesonite
An orthorhombic mineral, Pb
4
FeSb
6
S
14
;
dimorphous
with jamesonite; metallic; black;
distinguished by its X-ray pattern.
paralaurionite
A monoclinic mineral, PbCl(OH);
dimorphous with laurionite; soft; forms
white pseudo-orthorhombic prismatic
crystals; a secondary mineral in lead
deposits.

paralic
Said of deposits laid down on the
landward side of a coast, in shallow
fresh water subject to marine invasions.
Thus, marine and nonmarine
sediments are interbedded; as exemplified
in the lower part of the Coal
Measures, the nonmarine (paralic)
predominate, with relatively thin marine
bands. CF:limnic
paralic coal basin
A coal basin that originated near the sea--
as opposed to a limnic coal
basin. AGI
parallax
a. In survey work, incorrect reading of a
graduation on an instrument if
the observer's eye is not truly normal to
the graduated plate.
Pryor, 3
b. The change in bearing or apparent
position of an object produced by a
change in the observer's position. NCB
c. The apparent displacement, or change
in position, of the crosshairs of
a focusing telescope with reference to the
image of an object, as the eye
is moved from side to side, when the
focus of the eyepiece or objective is
imperfect. Seelye, 2
parallel blasting circuit
An electric blasting circuit in which the
leg wires of each detonator are
connected across the firing line directly or
in parallel through bus
wires.
Atlas

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parallel circuit firing

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A method of connecting together a
number of detonators that are to be
fired electrically in one blast. The electric
detonators are connected to
two common points. Each detonator offers
a path for the electric current,
independent of all the other detonators in
the circuit, and therefore
calls for a higher amperage than a series
circuit in which there is but
one path. Nelson
parallel cut
Group of parallel holes, not all charged
with explosive, that creates the
initial cavity to which the loaded holes
break in blasting a development
round. Pryor, 3
parallel displacement fault
A fault along which all straight lines on
opposite sides of the fault and
outside the dislocated zone that were
parallel before the displacement are
parallel afterward. AGI
parallel drum
A cylindrical form of drum on which the
haulage or winding rope is coiled.
The drum roll may be plain or grooved.
For deep winds, multilayering of
rope is often used to reduce the drum size
required. Also, for deep
winding (3,000 ft or 915 m or more), a
balance rope is almost essential
with a parallel drum.
parallel duplex mine cable
See:portable parallel duplex mine cable
parallel entry
Usually an intake airway parallel to the
haulageway. USBM, 1
parallel extinction
In mineral optics, refers to crystal edges or
cleavage traces parallel to
the optic directions of the mineral.
CF:extinction
parallel firing
The firing of detonators in a round of
shots by dividing the total supply
current between the individual detonators.
CF:series firing
BS, 12
parallel flow
Flow in the same direction of two or more
streams within a stream system.
parallel fold
A fold in which beds maintain the same
thicknesses throughout.
CF:similar fold; supratenuous fold.
parallel growth
Two or more crystals with corresponding
faces parallel. Fay
parallel lines
Lines that lie in the same plane and are
equally distant from each other
at all points. The term is ordinarily applied
to straight lines.
Jones, 2

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parallelogram
Quadrilateral that has opposite sides
parallel and opposite angles equal.
Jones, 2
parallel ripple mark
A ripple mark with a relatively straight
crest and an asymmetric profile;
specif. a current ripple mark. AGI
parallel series
Two or more series of electric blasting
caps arranged in parallel.

parallel series circuit
A method of connecting together a
number of detonators to be fired
electrically in one blast. The circuit
consists of a number of series
circuits connected in parallel.
Nelson
parallel unconformity
See:disconformity
parallel wire method
An electrical prospecting method using
equipotential lines or curves in
prospecting for orebodies. In the parallel
wire method, two bare copper
wires about 3,000 ft (915 m) long, placed
about 2,000 ft (610 m) or more
apart, are used as electrodes. Current is
supplied from the generator, and
the electrodes are connected to the ground
at 100 ft (30 m) intervals by
iron grounding pins. Equipotential lines
are located by two electrodes or
wooden rods, to one end of which are
fastened metal spikes about 6 to 7 in
(15 to 18 cm) long. The electrodes are
connected by some 150 ft (46 m) of
wire that runs down the rods to the spikes.
If a head telephone is placed
in the circuit, the absence of sound in the
telephone indicates that the
two electrodes are at the same potential.
By this method, the
equipotential lines can be traced. Lewis
paramagnetic
Having a small positive magnetic
susceptibility. A paramagnetic mineral
such as olivine, pyroxene, or biotite
contains magnetic ions that tend to
align along an applied magnetic field but
do not have a spontaneous
magnetic order. CF:diamagnetic
paramagnetism
a. The magnetism of a paramagnetic
substance. The property by which the
north pole of a magnet that is magnetized
by induction is repelled to 180
degrees by the north pole of the inducing
magnet. Standard, 2
b. The property possessed by a substance
of producing a higher
concentration of magnetic lines of force
within itself than in the
surrounding magnetic field when it is
placed in such a field.
Miall
c. A property of many substances, related
to ferromagnetism, by virtue of
which, when placed in a nonuniform
magnetic field, they tend to move
toward the strongest part. Permanent
magnetism is practically absent and
the susceptibility, which is much less than
that of iron, is constant at
any given temperature, but in most
substances it is nearly inversely

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proportional to the absolute temperature.
CF:ferrimagnetism;
diamagnetism. Holmes, 1
paramelaconite

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A tetragonal mineral, Cu
+
2
Cu
2+
2

O
3
; purplish black; at Bisbee, AZ.
parameter
a. A constant or variable in a
mathematical expression that
distinguishes
various specific situations.
b. In crystallography, one of the three
non-coplanar vectors which
describe a lattice.
paramontroseite
An orthorhombic mineral, VO
2
; forms by
loss of hydrogen and iron
from montroseite in an initial stage of
oxidation of uranium-vanadium
deposits.
paramorph
A pseudomorph with the same
composition as the original crystal, caused
by
a phase transformation; e.g., calcite with
aragonite morphology.
CF:pseudomorph
paramorphism
a. The alteration of one mineral into
another without change of
composition, such as augite into
hornblende in uralitization. Fay
b. With metamorphism, it describes such
thorough changes in a rock that
its old components are destroyed and new
ones are built up.

paramoudra
Large flint nodule.
pararammelsbergite
An orthorhombic mineral, NiAs
2
;
loellingite group; trimorphous
with rammelsbergite and krutovite;
metallic tin-white; commonly massive.
pararealgar
A monoclinic mineral, AsS ; trimorphous
with realgar and alpha-AsS;
powdery; bright yellow to orange-brown;
easily mistaken for orpiment.
paraschist
A schist derived from a sedimentary rock.
schist.
paraschoepite
An orthorhombic mineral, UO
3
.(2-x)H
2
O
; bright yellow; a
dehydration product of schoepite.
Formerly called schoepite III.

parasymplesite
A monoclinic mineral, Fe
2+
3
(AsO
4
)
2
.8H
2
O ; vivianite group; dimorphous with
symplesite and isomorphous
with koettigite; bluish green.
paratacamite
A trigonal mineral, Cu
2
(OH)
3
Cl ; forms
twinned
rhombohedra; massive or powdery; green
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
to green-black; a secondary mineral
in copper deposits.
paratellurite

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A tetragonal mineral, TeO
2
; rutile group;
soft; waxy; gray-white;
dimorphous with tellurite; at Cananea,
Mexico.
paratomous
Having planes of cleavage inclined to the
axis; also, abounding with
facets of cleavage. Standard, 2
parautochthonous granite
A mobilized portion of an autochthonous
granite that has moved higher in
the crust or, more usually, into tectonic
domains of lower pressure. It
shows variable marginal relations, in some
places migmatitic in others
characterized by a thermal aureole.
Schieferdecker
paravauxite
A triclinic mineral, FeAl
2
(PO
4

)
2
(OH)
2
.8H
2
O ; colorless;
forms small prismatic crystals; at
Llallagua, Bolivia.
parbigite
See:messelite
pargasite
A monoclinic mineral, NaCa
2
(Mg,Fe)
4

Al(Si
6
Al (sub
2) )O
22
(OH)
2
; amphibole group;
prismatic cleavage; occurs
in dolomitic marbles and in skarns.
Parian marble
One of the most famous of ancient
statuary marbles; from the island of
Paros, Greece.
parisite
A trigonal mineral, 6[(Ce,La,Nd)
2
CaCO
3

)
3
F
2

] ; vitreous to resinous; forms acute
hexagonal bipyramids; in veins, such
as the emerald deposits of Columbia; also
in alkalic pegmatites. Named for
J.J. Paris.
parkerite
A monoclinic mineral, Ni
3
(Bi,Pb)
2
S
2
;
metallic;
bronze; has three cleavages; in a
magmatic sulfide deposit, Insizwa, South
Africa.
Parkerizing
Treatment of steel in hot aqueous solution
of free phosphoric acid and
manganese dihydrogen phosphate, other
salts sometimes being used as
accelerators. A fine-grained insoluble film
of ferric phosphate is formed
in a few minutes, which is corrosion
resistant. Pryor, 3
Parker process
A method for producing low-temperature
coke in which each retort is a
monobloc iron casting 9 ft (2.7 m) high,
containing 12 tubes, which taper
from 4-1/2 in (11.4 cm) at the top to 5-1/4
in (13.3 cm) at the bottom. A
battery contains 36 retorts in 2 rows of 18.
Retorts and combustion
chambers are arranged alternately, so that
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each retort is located in a
radiation chamber formed by the walls of
adjacent combustion chambers. The
retorts are heated only by radiation from
these walls, so that there is no
overheating and the inside temperature of
the retorts can be maintained
accurately at 1,112 degrees F (600 degrees
C). A cooling chamber is fitted
below each pair of retorts, of a size
sufficient to hold the coke from
both. The pairs of retorts are charged and
discharged every 4 h.

Parkes process
A process used to recover precious metals
from lead. It is based on the
principle that if 1% to 2% of zinc is stirred
into molten lead, a compound
of zinc with gold and silver separates out
and can be skimmed off.
ASM, 1
parmalee wrench
A wrench that has a smooth segmented
sleeve that when tightly clamped
around the tube of a core barrel, will not
mar or distort the thin tube
when the core barrel is taken apart. Long
parral agitator
An agitator using a number of small
airlifts disposed about a circular,
flat-bottomed tank in such a way as to
impart a circular swirling motion
to the pulp. Liddell
Parr formula
The simplest method for determining the
amount of mineral matter present
in a coal is to determine the ash and sulfur
contents and to make
corrections for the changes taking place in
these during combustion. The
Parr formula for doing this is: total
inorganic matter=moisture+1.08
ash+0.55 sulfur, where moisture, ash, and
sulfur represent the percentages
of these substances found by analysis of
the coal. Francis, 1
Parrish arm
Long arm made of a flexible board for the
suspension of a shaker screen.
Zern
Parrish shaker
A screening shaker with flexible wooden
hangers and flexible drive arms;
used for sizing anthracite. Mitchell
Parr's classification of coal
A classification system based on the
proximate analysis and calorific
value of ash-free, dry coal. The heating
value of raw coal is obtained,
and from these data a table is drawn up, at
one end of which are the
celluloses and woods of about 7,000
Btu/lb (16.3 MJ/kg). These data are
then plotted against the percentage
volatile matter in unit coal.
Hess
parsonsite
A triclinic mineral, Pb
2
(UO
2
)(PO
4
)
2
.2H
2
O ; forms pale citron-yellow crusts,
powders, and tiny laths;
nonfluorescent; radioactive; a secondary
mineral in uraniferous pegmatites
and other uranium deposits.


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part
In founding, a section of a mold or flask
specif. distinguished (in a
three-part flask) as top part, middle part,
and bottom part.
Standard, 2
part 90 miner
A miner employed at an underground coal
mine or at a surface work area of
an underground coal mine who has
exercised the option under the old
section 203b program (36 FR 20601,
October 27, 1971), or under 90.3 (Part
90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of
option) of this part to work
in an area of a mine where the average
concentration of respirable dust in
the mine atmosphere during each shift to
which that miner is exposed is
continuously maintained at or below 1.0
mg/m
3
of air, and who has
not waived these rights. CFR, 1
part-face blast
Either of two stages of blasts when the
height of the rock face is too
great to blast in one operation. McAdam, 2
partially fixed
An end support to a beam or a column that
cannot develop the full fixing
moment. Hammond
partial melting
a. Melting of part of a rock; because a
rock is composed of different
minerals, each with its own melting
behavior, melting does not take place
at one temperature (as for ice at 0 degrees
C) but takes place over a
range of temperatures; melting starts at the
solidus temperature and
continues, nonlinearly, as the temperature
increases to the liquidus
temperature when the rock is totally
molten. Fowler
b. A situation in which only certain
minerals in a rock are melted, due to
their lower melting temperature.
partial pressure
a. That part of the total pressure of a
mixture of gases contributed by
one of the constituents. Strock, 2
b. See:Dalton's law
partial pyritic smelting
Blast furnace smelting of copper ores in
which some of the heat is
provided by oxidation of iron sulfide and
some by combustion of coke.

partial roasting
Roasting carried out to eliminate some but
not all of the sulfur in an
ore. CTD
partial subsidence
Any amount of subsidence that is less than
full subsidence; such as with
solid or strip packing. Nelson
particle
A general term, used without restriction as
to shape, composition, or
internal structure, for a separable or
distinct unit in a rock; e.g., a
sediment particle, such as a fragment or a
grain, usually consisting of a
mineral. AGI

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particle diameter
The length of a straight line through the
center of a sedimentary particle
considered as a sphere; a common
expression of particle size.


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particle mean size
See:particle size
particle size
The general dimensions (such as average
diameter or volume) of the
particles in a sediment or rock, or of the
grains of a particular mineral
that make up a sediment or rock, based on
the premise that the particles
are spheres or that the measurements
made can be expressed as diameters of
equivalent spheres. It is commonly
measured by sieving, by calculating
settling velocities, or by determining areas
of microscopic images.

particle-size analysis
Determination of the statistical
proportions or distribution of particles
of defined size fractions of a soil,
sediment, or rock; specif. mechanical
analysis.
particle-size distribution
The percentage, usually by weight and
sometimes by number or count, of
particles in each size fraction into which a
powdered sample of a soil,
sediment, or rock has been classified--
such as the percentage of sand
retained on each sieve in a given size
range. It is the result of a
particle-size analysis.;
size-frequency distribution. AGI
particle-size reduction
The process of crushing or grinding
material to reduce the particle size.
BS, 2
particle sorting
Separation of solid particles, in a fluid
(air, water, etc.), because of
different densities or masses. Bennett
particle velocity
A measure of the intensity of ground
vibration generated from a blasting
event, specif. the time rate of change of
the amplitude of ground
displacement, given in inches (or
millimeters) per second.
particulate
Refers to particles collected by filtration
from ambient air.
SME, 1
parting
a. A lamina or very thin sedimentary layer
separating thicker strata of a
different type; e.g., a thin layer of shale or
slate in a coal bed, or a
shale break in sandstone. Strata tend to
separate readily at partings.
CF:band
b. A small joint in coal or rock, or a layer
of rock in a coal seam.

c. The physical property of some
specimens of mineral species to break
along specific crystallographic planes
because of twinning or chemical
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alteration along them; e.g., rhombohedral
parting in corundum.
CF:cleavage; fracture.
d. Cutting simultaneously along two
parallel lines or along two lines
which balance each other in the matter of
side thrust.
e. The final process after cupellation to
remove the silver from bullion
bead.
f. A side track or turnout in a haulage road
on which empty or loaded cars
are collected for distribution to points for
loading or for haulage to the
surface or to the shaft or slope bottom for
hoisting.
parting and connection man
In bituminous coal mining, a laborer who
directs the movement of mine cars
from a parting (a side track). Also called
connection man; parting boy.
parting cleaner
In bituminous coal mining, one who only
picks out seam partings (layers of
rock) in the coal working face prior to
blasting, using a long-handled
pick.
parting density
Density maintained in the bath in dense
media separation. Pryor, 4
parting flask
A flask used to separate gold and silver,
such as by quartation, in
assaying procedures.
parting glass
See:parting flask
parting liquid
Any of several liquids--such as
tetrabromethane, ethylene dibromide,
pentachlorethane, and trichlorethylene--
that are used in the DuPont
mineral separation process.
parting powder
A powder made from chalk, bone meal, or
similar nonsiliceous material,
suitably waterproofed, which is applied to
a pattern to ensure a clean
strip from the molding sand. Osborne
parting slate
A term applied to a thin layer of slate
between two seams of coal.
Fay
partition curve
A curve indicating, for each specific
gravity (or size) fraction, the
percentage that is contained in one of the
products of the separation;
e.g., the reject.
partition density
The density corresponding to 50%
recovery as read from a partition curve.

partition factor
The percentage of a specific gravity (or
size) fraction recovered in one
of the products of the separation; e.g., the
reject.


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partitioning method

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A resistivity method in which a special
electrode configuration is used,
consisting of five electrodes, instead of
the usual number of four, to
provide a check on the observations.
Schieferdecker
partition size
The separation size corresponding to 50%
recovery as read from a size
partition curve. BS, 5
partly filled stope
See:square-set stoping
parts of line
Separate strands of the same rope or cable
used to connect two sets of
sheaves. Nichols, 1
part-swing shovel
A power shovel in which the upper works
can rotate through only part of a
circle. Nichols, 1
party chief
In seismic prospecting, the person who
supervises the personnel of the
crew and generally is in charge of
interpretation of the data.
Dobrin
party foreman
In seismic prospecting, the person who
supervises the work of a field
party. Subordinate to a nonresident party
chief who is responsible for the
interpretation of the data. AGI
party manager
a. In seismic prospecting, this person's
function is to handle the
operational phases of the work,
particularly those involving logistics and
access in difficult or remote areas, giving
the party chief more time for
interpretation of the data. Dobrin
b. In gravity and magnetic prospecting,
the person in charge of the
operations of a field party. AGI
Pasadenian orogeny
Mid-Pleistocene diastrophism. AGI
Pascal's law
The component of the pressure in a fluid
in equilbrium that is due to
forces externally applied is uniform
throughout the fluid.
Webster 3rd
pascoite
A monoclinic mineral, Ca
3
V
10
O
28
.17H
2

O ;
forms yellow-orange to dark red-orange
crusts and tiny laths; a secondary
vanadium mineral in uranium-vanadium
deposits of the Colorado Plateau, and
at Minasragra, Peru.
pass
a. An inclined opening in a mine, a raise
or a winze, through which coal
or ore is delivered from a higher to a
lower level. At the lower end, the
pass is normally provided with a chute or
hydraulic gate through which the
material is discharged into cars or trams.
Nelson
b. A raise or winze for workers to travel in
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
from one level to another.
Zern
c. The running of a sample through a
sample divider.
d. In surface mining, a complete excavator
cycle in removing overburden.
BCI

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passage
a. A cavern opening or underground
tunnel having greater length than
height or width; large enough for human
entrance and larger by comparison
than a lead. AGI
b. See:pass
passby
a. The double-track part of any single-
track system of transport.
Mason
b. A siding in which cars pass one another
underground; a turnout.
Zern
passing boss
See:motor boss
passing point
a. On haulage roads, the point at which the
loaded trams going outby pass
the empty trams going inby. Nelson
b. In shafts, the point at which the loaded
ascending cage or skip passes
the empty descending cage or skip. Nelson
passing track
A sidetrack with switches at both ends.
Kentucky

passivation
The changing of the chemically active
surface of a metal to a much less
reactive state. CF:activation
passivator
A type of inhibitor that changes the
electrode potential of a metal,
causing it to become more cathodic or
electropositive.
passive coefficient of earth pressure
The maximum ratio of the major principal
stress to the minor principal
stress. This is applicable where the soil
has been compressed sufficiently
to develop an upper limiting value of the
major principal stress.
ASCE
passive earth pressure
The maximum value of lateral earth
pressure exerted by soil on a
structure, occurring when the soil is
compressed laterally, causing its
internal shearing resistance along a
potential failure surface to be
completely mobilized; the maximum
resistance of a vertical earth face to
deformation by a horizontal force.
CF:active earth pressure
AGI
passive fault
Fault not liable to further movement.
CF:active fault
Carson, 2


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passive metal

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A metal on which an oxide film that
prevents further attack on the metal
is readily formed. When a metal other
than a noble metal has a high
resistance to corrosion, it is because of
passivity; e.g., chromium,
nickel aluminum, tin, and various alloys.
CTD
passive state of plastic equilibrium
Plastic equilibrium obtained by a
compression of a mass. ASCE
passive transducer
A transducer whose output waves are
independent of any sources of power
controlled by the actuating waves. Hy
passivity
a. A metal that is normally active
according to its position in the
electromotive-force series is said to be
passive whenever its
electrochemical behavior is that of a less
active metal.
b. A metal is passive when it is relatively
resistant to corrosion in an
environment in which a large decrease in
free energy is associated with
the corrosion reaction.
c. A condition in which a piece of metal,
because of an impervious
covering of oxide or other compound, has
a potential much more positive
than the metal in the active state. ASM, 1
pass pipe
An iron pipe connecting the water at the
back of one set of tubbing with
that of another, or a pipe only in
communication with one tub and open to
the interior of a shaft. Fay
paste
a. The claylike matrix of a dirty
sandstone; e.g., the microcrystalline
matrix of a graywacke, consisting of
quartz, feldspar, clay minerals,
chlorite, sericite, and biotite. AGI
b. The mineral substance in which other
minerals are embedded; groundmass
(as of a porphyry). Webster 2nd
c. An imitation gemstone made from a
certain type of lead glass; loosely
applied to all glass imitation gemstones.
Anderson
d. A white clay body.
e. In magnetic particle suspension, finely
divided ferromagnetic particles
in paste form used in the wet method.
f. A slurry of sulfur and water, usually
containing 30% to 50% of finely
divided elemental sulfur.
g. Material of which a porcelain body is
formed. Hard paste (pite dure),
composed of china stone and china clay, is
true porcelain. Soft paste
(pite tendre), composed of glass or frit
with white, is artificial
porcelain.
h. Comparatively concentrated dispersion
(greater than 10% by volume) of
fine-solid or semisolid particles in a
liquid; often shows elastic or
plastic behavior. Bennett
paste fill
a. A class of backfills that has low water
content; high densities (> or
=75% by lot); and consistency, transport,
and deposition properties
different from those of traditional low-
concentration slurries or other
types of high-concentration backfill. Aref
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b. Paste fill (high pulp density) that does
not settle out of suspension
at zero flow density and does not produce
free water when placed in a
stope. Uncemented paste fill can generally
be mobilized reasonably easily
by pumping if left standing in a pipe for
many hours.
paste pumping
The transport and placement of high-
concentration, low-slump material by
positive displacement through pipelines
by pumps, similar to those used
for concrete pumping.
pasting
The operation of mudcapping or plaster
shooting whereby rock is blasted
without drilling. An explosive is placed on
top of the rock and covered by
a cap of mud or similar material.
patch
a. A mine village, usually built and owned
by a coal company.
patchy
Distributed in an irregular manner, as
when ore occurs in bunches or
sporadically. Fay
pat coal
Scot. The bottom, or lowest, coal sunk
through in a shaft. Fay
patent
A document that conveys title to the
ground, and no further assessment
work need be done; however, taxes must
be paid. The procedure of obtaining
a patent is divided into five steps: (1) a
mineral surveyor is paid to
make a patent survey, to adjust boundaries
and correct errors, in which
case an amended location should be made;
(2) at least $500 worth of
improvement must have been made per
claim; (3) the presence of valuable
mineral must be proven beyond
reasonable doubt; (4) the matter is taken
up
with the local land office, and the proper
notices must be published in
the papers for a specified time; and (5) the
purchase price of the land is
paid and the patent is received. Lewis
patent ax
A type of surfacing machine employed to
remove irregularities from the
surface of blocks of stone.
patented claim
A claim to which a patent has been
secured from the U.S. Government, in
compliance with the laws relating to such
claims.
patented rope
Galvanized steel rope. Pryor, 3
patent survey
An accurate survey of a mineral claim by
a U.S. deputy surveyor as
required by law to secure a patent (title) to
the claim. Fay
Patera process
A metallurgical process consisting of a
chloridizing roasting, leaching

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with water to remove base metals (some
silver is dissolved and must be
recovered), leaching with sodium
hyposulfite for silver, and the
precipitation of silver by sodium sulfide.
The process was first carried
out by von Patera at Joachimstal
(Jachymov), Czech Republic.
Liddell; Fay
paternoster pump
A chain pump; named from fancied
resemblance of the disks and endless
chain to a rosary. Standard, 2
pathfinder
In geochemical exploration, a relatively
mobile element or gas that occurs
in close association with an element or
commodity being sought, but can be
more easily found because it forms a
broader halo or can be detected more
readily by analytical methods. A
pathfinder serves to lead investigators
to a deposit of a desired substance. Often
called indicator element, but
this latter term is restricted by some
authors to elements that are
important components of the ores being
sought. AGI
path of percolation
See:line of creep
patina
Strictly, the green film formed on copper
and bronze after long exposure
to the atmosphere. By extension, the term
is applied to a film of any sort
formed on wood, marble, chert, or other
material after weathering or long
exposure.
patinated chert
Chert nodules with weathered or case-
hardened surface layers. AGI
patio
a. Mex. Cloth used by miners.
b. Sp. Place where minerals are
concentrated. The patio floor is one on
which silver and/or gold ore is
amalgamated.
arrastre. Pryor, 3
patio process
The patio process, dating back to the 16th
century, was a crude chemical
method for the recovery of silver by
amalgamation in low heaps with the
aid of salt and copper sulfate (magistral).
Liddell
patronite
A monoclinic mineral, VS
4
(?) ; synthetic
VS
4
is soft,
gray-black, fine-grained; impure material
constitutes an important ore
mineral in the vanadium deposit at
Minasragra, Peru.
pattern
a. As applied to diamond bits, the design
formed by spacing and
distributing the diamonds in conformance
with a predetermined geometric
arrangement on the crown of a bit.;
eccentric pattern. Long
b. The system followed in spacing
boreholes, pattern shooting. Long


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pattern molder
One who makes sand molds for castings; a
molder. Standard, 2
pattern shooting

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In seismic prospecting, the use of a
number of energy sources arranged in
a definite geometric pattern. AGI
Patterson agitator
An agitator of the Pachuca-tank type in
which air is replaced by a
solution or water, under pressure from a
centrifugal pump.

Pattinson process
A process for separating silver from lead
in which the molten lead is
slowly cooled, so that crystals poorer in
silver solifidy out and are
removed, leaving the melt richer in silver.
ASM, 1
Pattinson's pots
A series of pots for separating silver and
lead by making use of the fact
that the melting point of their alloys rises
as the percentage of silver
increases. Standard, 2
Paulin altimeter
This instrument measures barometric
pressure and is quite accurate for a
portable instrument. It can be used for
finding the difference in pressure
between points at various elevations
without checking the setting of the
pointer, or it can be checked against a
mercury barometer and then used as
a portable barometer. It is useful in
making a survey of the drop in
ventilation pressure throughout a mine.
paulingite
An isometric mineral, (K
2
,Ca,Na
2
,Ba)
5

[Al
10

Si
32
O
84
].34-44H
2
O ; zeolite group;
forms rhombic
dodecahedra; at the Columbia River Rock
Island Dam, Wenatchee, WA.
Pauling's rules
Generalizations about coordination
polyhedra and the ways they fit
together in stable ionic crystal structures:
(1) A coordination polyhedron
of anions forms about each cation. (2)
Electronic neutrality is maintained
over short atomic distances. (3)
Coordination polyhedra tend not to share
edges or faces. (4) Highly charged cations
minimize sharing of polyhedral
elements.
pavement
a. A layer immediately underlying coal or
any other workable material.
Arkell
b. The floor of a mine.
c. Any construction superimposed on a
subgrade to reduce loading stresses
and to protect it against the abrasive
effects of traffic and weather.
Nelson
d. See:base rock
e. A bare rock surface that suggests a
paved road in smoothness, hardness,
horizontally, surface extent, or close
packing of its units; e.g., boulder
pavement, glacial pavement, desert
pavement, limestone pavement, erosion
pavement. AGI
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pavilion
Any of the undersides and corners of a
brilliant-cut gem; they lie between
the girdle and the collet. Hess
paving breaker
An air hammer that does not rotate its
steel. Nichols, 1
paving sand
A type of commercial sand with
applications divided into three general
classes: concrete pavements, asphaltic
pavements, and grouting.
pavonite
A monoclinic mineral, (Ag,Cu)(Bi,Pb)
3
S
5

; at the Porvenir
Mine, Bolivia. The synthetic phase, AgBi
3

S
5
, has the same
X-ray pattern.
pawl
A tooth or set of teeth designed to lock
against a ratchet.
Nichols, 1
paxite
A monoclinic mineral, CuAs
2
; pseudo-
orthorhombic; forms
intergrowths with novakite, koutekite, and
arsenic; in Bohemia, Czech
Republic.

pay dirt
a. Gravel. Of alluvial deposits, sand rich
enough to be excavated and
treated to recover its valuable contents.
Pryor, 3
b. S. Afr. The same as payable ore, but in
an alluvial deposit. Also
called pay rock.
c. Earth, rock, etc., that yields a profit to a
miner. Webster 3rd
pay formation
A layer or deposit of soil or rock whose
value is sufficient to justify
excavation. Nichols, 1
pay gravel
a. Gravel containing sufficient heavy
mineral to make it profitable to
work. Nelson
b. In placer mining, a rich strip or lead of
auriferous gravel.

pay limit
S. Afr. Grade below which the mining of
ore is considered to become
unpayable. There has been much
discussion about mining below the pay
limit
for technical reasons, as a result of
taxation, or to conserve natural
resources. Beerman
pay load
a. In any winding or haulage system, the
pay load is the weight of coal,
ore, or mineral handled as distinct from
dirt, stone, or gangue.
Nelson
b. The mineral raised up the shaft from an
underground mine.
Sinclair, 5


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pay material
The mineral to be recovered. Austin
pay ore

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Rock that, at current cost of discovery,
development, and exploitation,
can be mined, concentrated and/or smelted
profitably at the ruling market
value of products. Ore below this value or
cut (the threshhold value) is
unpay.
pay out
To slacken or to let out rope.
pay rock
See:pay ore
pay shoot
A portion of a deposit composed of pay
ore; generally a dipping band
within a more continuous vein.
pay streak
a. The area of economic concentration of
gold in a placer deposit.
Bateman, 2
b. The part of a vein or area of a placer
deposit that carries the
profitable or pay ore.. CF:pay ore
peachblossom ore
See:erythrite
pea coal
In anthracite only, coal small enough to
pass through a mesh 3/4 to 1/2 in
(1.9 to 1.3 cm) square, but too large to
pass through a 3/8-in (9.5-mm)
mesh. When buckwheat coal is made, the
size marketed as pea is sometimes
larger than the above; known also as No. 6
coal.
peacock coal
Iridescent coal, the iridescence of which is
due to a thin film of some
substance deposited on the surface of the
coal along minute cracks.
Arkell
peacock ore
Informal name for an iridescent copper
mineral having a lustrous,
tarnished surface exhibiting variegated
colors, such as chalcopyrite and
esp. bornite. Also called peacock copper.
pea gravel
Clean gravel, the particles of which are
similar in size to that of peas.
AGI
pea grit
The term pea grit has been used for a
coarse pisolitic limestone. Such
usage should be discontinued; it is
erroneous. The term grit should be
reserved for a coarse-grained sandstone
composed of angular particles.
Rice, 1
pea iron ore
A variety of pisolitic limonite or "bean
ore" occurring in small, rounded
grains or masses.

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peak load
Maximum permitted power draft from an
electric supply main.
Pryor, 3
peak loading

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The maximum number of tons of a
specified material to be carried by a
conveyor per minute in a specified period
of time. NEMA, 2
peak particle velocity
The maximum rate of change of ground
displacement with time.
peak stope
Flat stope advanced (overhand if deposit
is inclined) in slanted steps,
each flat forming a separate working
place. Pryor, 3
pea ore
a. Eng. Rounded grains of hydrated
peroxide of iron, or silicate of iron,
commonly found in cavities of Jurassic
limestone.
b. A variety of pisolitic limonite or bean
ore occurring in small, rounded
grains or masses.
pearceite
A monoclinic mineral, Ag
16
As
2
S
11
,
having copper as
an apparent necessary minor component;
forms pseudorhombohedral tabular
crystals or may be massive; metallic
black; brittle; in low-to
moderate-temperature silver and base-
metal ores.
pearl
A dense spherical calcareous concretion,
usually white or light-colored,
consisting of occasional layers of
conchiolin and predominant nacrous
layers of aragonite (or rarely calcite);
deposited concentrically about a
foreign particle within or beneath the
mantle of various marine and
freshwater mollusks; occurs either free
from or attached to the shell.
pearl ash
Potassium carbonate, K
2
CO
3
; esp., an
impure product
obtained by partial purification of potash
from wood ashes.
Webster 3rd
pearlite
The lamellar mixture of ferrite and
cementite in the microstructure of
slowly cooled iron-carbon base alloys
occurring normally as a principal
constituent of both steel and cast iron.
Webster 3rd
pearlite iron
a. In general, pearlite iron is gray cast iron
consisting of graphite in a
matrix of pearlite; i.e., without free ferrite.
CTD
b. In particular, pearlite iron is a German
proprietary name denoting an
iron of low silicon content, which is
caused to solidify gray by the use
of heated molds. CTD
pearl mica
See:margarite
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pearl opal
See:cacholong
pearl sinter
A variety of opal.
Fay
pearl spar
Dolomite occurring in rhombohedrons
having a pearly luster.
.
pearlstone
See:perlite
pearly
Applied to minerals having a luster like a
pearl; e.g., talc, brucite, and
stilbite.
peastone
See:pisolite
peat
There are two types of peat, low moor
(Flachmoor) and high moor (Hochmoor)
peat. Low moor peat is the most common
starting material in coal genesis.
It therefore constitutes a caustobiolith of
low diagenetic degree. Peat is
formed in marshes and swamps from the
dead, and partly decomposed remains
of the marsh vegetation. Stagnant ground
water is necessary for peat
formation to protect the residual plant
material from decay. Peat has a
yellowish brown to brownish black color,
is generally of the fibrous
consistency, and can be either plastic or
friable; in its natural state it
can be cut; further, it has a very high
moisture content (above 75%,
generally above 90%). It can be
distinguished from brown coal by the fact
that the greater part of its moisture content
can be squeezed out by
pressure (e.g., in the hand). Peat also
contains more plant material in a
reasonably good state of preservation than
brown coal. Individual plant
elements, such as roots, stems, leaves, and
seeds, can commonly be seen in
it with the unaided eye. Failing that,
treatment of peat with dilute
alkali will make visible many of these
plant tissues. Further, peat is
richer in cellulose than brown coal
(reaction with Fehling's solution).
Unlike brown coal, peat still contains
cellulose, protected by lignin or
cutin, which gives a reaction with
chlorzinc iodide. Correspondingly, peat
shows under the microscope tissues that
have not undergone either
lignification, suberinization, or
cutinization; this is not the case in
brown coal. The reflectance of peat is low
(about 0.3%). Microscopic
examination is best undertaken with
transmitted light. IHCP
peat bed
An accumulation of peat. Fay
peat blasting
A method enabling a road to be built
across peat deposits. Hard filling is
first dumped over the route to a height
equal to the ascertained depth of
the peat, into which blasting charges are
inserted. By the action of
blasting, the peat is displaced outwards
and the hard fillings sink into

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place and can then be consolidated.
Hammond
peat bog
A bog containing peat; an accumulation of
peat. Webster 3rd

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peat hag
A pit or quag formed by digging out peat.
Standard, 2
peat machine
A machine for grinding and briquetting
peat. Webster 3rd
peatman
A digger or seller of peat. Webster 3rd
peat moss
Any moss from which peat has formed or
may form. Webster 3rd
peat press
A machine for making bricks of peat fuel.
Standard, 2
peat spade
A spade with an L-shaped blade for
cutting out peat in blocks.
Webster 3rd
peat-to-anthracite theory
The theory that there were progressive
stages in the conversion of
vegetable matter into the various grades of
coal of the Carboniferous
system. Thus, peat forms at an early stage
in coal formation and lignite
at an intermediate stage, and by further
compression and alteration,
bituminous and anthracite coals were
formed.
Nelson
pebble
a. A general term for a small, roundish,
esp. waterworn stone; specif. a
rock fragment larger than a granule and
smaller than a cobble, having a
diameter in the range of 4 to 64 mm (-2 to
-6 phi units, or a size between
that of a small pea and that of a tennis
ball), being somewhat rounded or
otherwise modified by abrasion in the
course of transport. In Great
Britain, the range of 10 to 50 mm has been
used. The term has been used to
include fragments of cobble size; it is
frequently used in the plural as a
syn. of "gravel".
b. Transparent and colorless quartz
crystal, such as Brazilian pebble.
Webster 3rd
c. Grinding media for ball or semi-
autogeneous mills. As a rule, these are
either hard-flint pebbles or hard-burned,
white porcelain balls.
pebble armor
A concentration of pebbles coating a
desert area. The pebbles are usually
the residual product of wind erosion and
are closely fitted together so as
to cover the surface in the manner of a
mosaic. Also called desert
pavement.
pebble dike
a. A clastic dike composed largely of
pebbles. AGI
b. A tabular body containing sedimentary
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fragments in an igneous matrix,
as from the Tintic district in Utah; e.g.,
one whose fragments were broken
from underlying rocks by gaseous or
aqueous fluids of magmatic origin and
injected upward into country rock,
becoming rounded owing to the milling
and/or corrosive action of the
hydrothermal fluids. AGI
pebble gravel
An unconsolidated deposit consisting
mainly of pebbles. AGI
pebble jack
Sphalerite in small crystals or pebblelike
grains not attached to rock,
but found in clay in wall rock cavities.
pebble mill
Horizontally mounted cylindrical mill,
charged with flints or selected
lumps of ore or rock. Usually long and
high discharge.

pebble phosphate
A secondary phosphorite of either residual
or transported origin,
consisting of pellets, pebbles, and nodules
of phosphatic material mixed
with sand and clay, such as occurs in
Florida; e.g., land-pebble phosphate
and river-pebble phosphate.
pebble powder
A gunpowder or black powder pressed
and cut into large cubical grains so
as to make it slow burning. Webster 3rd

pebblestone
See:pebble
pecopteris
A fernlike tree of the coal forest, with
small ovate pinnules that are
attached to the pinnate axis by their whole
breadth. Nelson
Pecos ore
a. A gossan containing lead and silver.
Fay
b. Tasmania. A yellowish, earthy mixture
of oxides of iron, lead, and
antimony containing silver; mostly
massicot. Fay
pectolite
A triclinic mineral, NaCa
2
Si
3
O
8
(OH) ;
isomorphous
with serandite; forms compact masses or
fibers; commonly associated with
zeolites in cavities and veins in mafic
rocks.
pedalfer
Soil enriched in alumina and iron in
regions of high temperature and humid
climate that are marked by forest cover.
CF:pedocal
pedestal
A relatively slender neck or column of
rock capped by a wider mass of rock
and produced by undercutting as a result
of wind abrasion (as in the
Southwestern United States.) or by
differential weathering.

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pedestal boulder
a. A class of blocks perched on pedestals
of limestone. AGI
b. Isolated masses or rock above and
resting on a smaller base or
pedestal.

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pedestal rock
An isolated, residual or erosional mass of
rock supported by or balanced
on a pedestal. The term is also applied to
the entire feature.

pedestrian-controlled dumper
A small dumper controlled by a person
walking alongside it.

pediment
A broad, gently sloping rock-floored
erosion surface or plain of low
relief, typically developed by running
water in an arid or semiarid region
at the base of an abrupt and receding
mountain front or plateau
escarpment; underlain by bedrock that
may be bare, but is more often
partly mantled with a thin discontinuous
veneer of alluvium derived from
the upland masses and in transit across the
surface. AGI
pedimentation
The process of pediment formation.
pediment pass
A narrow, flat, rock-floored tongue
extending upslope from the main
pediment and penetrating a mountain
sufficiently to meet another pediment
slope extending into the mountain from
the other side.
pedion
A crystal form consisting of a single
crystal face.
pediplane
Broad, rock-cut, thinly alluviated surface
formed by the coalescence of
adjacent pediments and desert domes.
pedis possessio
The actual possession of a piece of
mineral land to the extent needed to
give the locator room to work and to
prevent probable breaches of the
peace, but not necessarily to the extent of
a mining claim.
pedocal
Soil enriched in calcium carbonate,
accumulating in regions of low
temperature, low rainfall, and prairie
vegetation. CF:pedalfer
pedogenesis
The formation of soil from parent
material.
pedogeochemical prospecting
Synonymous with geochemical soil
survey. Hawkes, 1
pedology
The science that treats soils, their origin,
character, and utilization.
AGI
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pedometer
A pocket-size instrument that registers the
number of steps taken by the
person carrying it. AGI
pedosphere

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The part of the Earth in which soil-
forming processes occur.
peeler
a. One of a set of blades that picks up and
channels water moved outward
by the impeller of a centrifugal pump.
Nichols, 1
b. An iron implement with a flattened end
and ring handle, which is used
by a baller in placing blooms, ingots, etc.,
in a reheating furnace.
Standard, 2
c. See:calk
Peerless explosive
High explosive; used in mines. Bennett
peg
a. A surveyor's mark.
b. To mark out a miner's claim at the four
corners by pegs bearing the
claimant's name. Sometimes used as "peg
out." Webster 3rd; Fay
peg adjustment
The adjustment of a spirit-leveling
instrument of the dumpy-level type in
which the line of collimation is made
parallel with the axis of the spirit
level by means of two stable marks (pegs)
the length of one instrument
sight apart. AGI
pegleg
An abrupt change or sharp bend in the
course of a borehole. Also called
dogleg. Long
pegmatite
An exceptionally coarse-grained igneous
rock, with interlocking crystals,
usually found as irregular dikes, lenses, or
veins, esp. at the margins of
batholiths. Most grains are 1 cm or more
in diameter. Although pegmatites
having gross compositions similar to other
rock types are known, their
composition is generally that of granite;
the composition may be simple or
complex and may include rare minerals
rich in such elements as lithium,
boron, fluorine, niobium, tantalum,
uranium, and rare earths. Pegmatites
represent the last and most hydrous
portion of a magma to crystallize and
hence contain high concentrations of
minerals present only in trace
amounts in granitic rocks. Adj:
pegmatitic.

pegmatitic
a. Said of the texture of an exceptionally
coarsely crystalline igneous
rock. AGI
b. Occurring in, pertaining to, or
composed of pegmatite.

pegmatitic stage
a. A final stage in the normal sequence of
crystallization of a magma at
which the residual fluid is sufficiently
enriched in volatile materials to
permit the formation of coarse-grained
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rocks (pegmatite) more or less
equivalent in composition to the parent
rock. CF:orthomagmatic stage
AGI
b. The late stages of magma
crystallization in S-type, 2-mica granites.

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pegmatitization
The process of formation of, introduction
of, or replacement by pegmatite.
pegmatoid
See:pegmatitic
pegmatolite
See:orthoclase
peg point
A pointed bar in a slide clamp. Used to
brace a machine during work.
Nichols, 2
peg structure
A structure characterized by tiny peg-
shaped cavities, some with intricate
profiles, penetrating the interior of
crystals; typical of melilite.
AGI
Pehrson-Prentice process
A method of producing steel direct from
ore. Osborne
Peirce-Smith converter
A cylindrical-type converter having a
basic (magnesite) lining; used for
treating copper. Newton, 1

Peirce-Smith process
A basic converting process for copper
matte in a magnesite-lined
converter. The iron of the matte is fluxed
by silica added before the
process begins. Liddell
Peissenberg ram
See:ram scraper.
PEL
See:permissible exposure limit
pelagic deposit or sediment
Deposit found in deep water far from
shore and may be predominantly either
organic or inorganic in origin. Such
deposits are light colored, reddish
or brown, fine grained, and generally
contain some skeletal remains of
plankton organisms. Those that contain
less than about 30% of organic
remains are called red clay; those that
contain more than about 30% of
organic remains are known as oozes. Hunt
pelagochthonous
A term applied to coal deposits formed
from submerged forests and
driftwood. Tomkeieff
Pelatan-Clerici process
A continuous process of dissolving silver
or gold in cyanide solution and
simultaneously precipitating the precious
metals with mercury in the same
vessel, with an electrical current assisting
precipitation.
Liddell
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
peldon
An English term for a very hard, smooth
compact sandstone with conchoidal
fracture that occurs in coal measures.
Pele's hair

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A natural spun glass formed by blowing-
out during quiet fountaining of
fluid lava, cascading lava falls, or
turbulent flows, sometimes in
association with Pele's tear pyroclast. A
single strand, with a diameter
of less than 1/2 mm, may be as long as 2
m. Etymol: Pele, Hawaiian goddess
of fire. AGI
Pele's tears
Small, solidified drops of volcanic glass
behind which trail pendants of
Pele's hair. They may be tear shaped,
spherical, or nearly cylindrical.
Etymol: Pele, Hawaiian goddess of fire.
AGI
pelite
a. A sediment or sedimentary rock
composed of the finest detritus (clay-
or mud-size particles); e.g., a mudstone, or
a calcareous sediment
composed of clay and minute particles of
quartz. The term is equivalent to
the Latin-derived term lutite. AGI
b. A fine-grained sedimentary rock
composed of more or less hydrated
aluminum silicates with which are
mingled small particles of various other
minerals; an aluminous sediment. Etymol:
Greek pelos, clay mud.
AGI

pelitic
a. Pertaining to or characteristic of pelite;
esp. said of a sedimentary
rock composed of clay, such as a pelitic
tuff representing a consolidated
volcanic ash consisting of clay-size
particles. AGI
b. Said of a metamorphic rock derived
from a pelite; e.g., a pelitic
hornfels or a pelitic schist, derived by
metamorphism of an argillaceous
or a fine-grained aluminous sediment. AGI
pelitic gneiss
A gneiss derived from the metamorphism
of argillaceous sediments.
pelitic hornfels
A fine-grained, nonfissile metamorphic
rock derived from an argillaceous
sediment.
pelitic schist
A schistose metamorphic rock derived
from an argillaceous sediment.

pelletizing
A method in which finely divided material
is rolled in a drum or on an
inclined disk, so that the particles cling
together and roll up into
small, spherical pellets. The addition of a
binder may be required to
produce a pellet of acceptable mechanical
strength. Newton, 1
Pelletol
A waterproof, free-running blasting agent.
Pelletol is a high explosive,
185
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
but is not considered cap sensitive and
normally cannot be initiated with
a cap, except under perfect confinement in
small-diameter boreholes.
Du Pont, 1
pellet powder

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Black powder pressed into cylindrical
pellets 2 in (5.1 cm) in length and
varying from 1-1/4 to 2 in (3.2 to 5.1 cm)
in diameter. Each pellet has a
3/8-in (9.5-mm) hole through its center to
permit fuse insertion.
Carson, 1
pellet texture
A concretionary texture characterized by
minute pellets of colloidal or
replacement origin and closely resembling
oolites. Schieferdecker
pell-mell structure
Coarse deposits of waterworn materials in
which there is an absence of
bedding. AGI
pelter
A worker employed in a coal mine to take
down pelt (shaly stone) from the
roof of a narrow seam, to make enough
height for a coal cutting machine.
CTD
Pelton wheel
An impulse water turbine with buckets
bolted to its periphery, which are
struck by a high velocity jet of water. This
turbine is most efficient
under a head of from 900 to 1,000 ft (274
to 305 m) or more.

pelyte
See:pelite
pena
A large stone or boulder. Etymol: Spanish,
"rock."
penalty
a. In connection with a contract for
purchase of mineral concentrates by a
custom smelter, a deduction from an
agreed price for failure to reach an
agreed assay value or to eliminate
specified contaminants; charged at so
much per unit of mineral or metal
concerned. Pryor, 3
b. In a construction contract, a penalty
clause is one that imposes a
penalty for failure to complete work to
agreed time, specification, etc.
Pryor, 3
Penang tin
Pig tin of about 99.95% purity, obtained
from the Penang Mines in
Malaysia. Bennett
Penberthy anoloader
A simple powder loader with a high air
velocity that is used in Canada in
underground work for charging holes with
a depth of up to 14 ft (4 m).
pencil-core bit
The very-thick-wall, medium-round nose
bit that cuts a pencil-size core.
The bit is essentially a noncoring bit, and
in most instances no attempt
is made to recover the very-small-
diameter core as a sample.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pencil-coring crown
See:pencil-core bit
pencil ganister

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A variety of ganister characterized by fine
carbonaceous streaks or
markings; so called from the likeness of
these to pencil lines. The
carbonaceous traces are often
recognizable as roots and rootlets of
plants. AGI
penciling
Reduction in the fire face area of the
brick, in which slag erosion at the
joints is pronounced.
pencil mark
Aust. A thin bed of dark slate, about the
thickness of the lead of a
carpenter's pencil, that is parallel to the
indicator.
indicator
pencil ore
Hard, fibrous masses of hematite that can
be split up into thin rods.
CMD
pencil stone
A compact pyrophyllite used for making
slate pencils. Webster 3rd
pencil structure
A very pronounced lineation, such as that
produced by intersecting bedding
and cleavage planes in slate.

pendant
See:roof pendant
pendletonite
See:karpatite
pendulum
In mechanized mining, the arm that
extends between the fulcrum jack and
the swivel or angle trough or turn. Jones,
1
pendulum buffer
In Vermont, large wooden blocks covered
with felt pads that are propelled
back and forth by means of a crank and
pitman. Used for polishing
monumental stone.
pendulum mill
See:Griffin mill; Huntington mill.
penecontemporaneous structure
Small folds and faults that form in
sediments shortly after they are
deposited, in igneous rocks as they
solidify, and in metamorphic rocks as
they recrystallize.
peneplanation
The subaerial degradation of a region
approx. to base level, forming a
peneplain.
penetrating pulley
A pulley around which a wire cable runs
in cutting marble. Its thickness
is less than the diameter of the wire and
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
consequently, it can follow the
wire as the latter cuts into the stone.
penetration feed
See:feed rate
penetration log
The penetration speed of a drill related to
the size of the hole and bit,
mud pressure, speed of rotation, weight on
bit, etc. From the results,
which are plotted as penetration curves,
the thickness of coal and dirt
bands in the borehole can be determined
with reasonable accuracy.
Nelson
penetration macadam
Screened gravel or crushed stone
aggregate, bound by bituminous grouting,
the binder being introduced after
compaction of the aggregate.
Nelson
penetration per blow
The distance a drive-type soil sampler,
casing, drivepipe, pile, or
penetrometer is driven into the formation
being tested by each blow
delivered by a specific-size drivehammer
allowed to fall a specific
distance. Long
penetration rate
The actual rate of penetration of drilling
tools.
penetration resistance
a. The number of blows of a hammer of
specified weight falling a given
distance required to produce a given
penetration into soil of a pile,
casing, or sampling tube. Also called
standard penetration resistance;
proctor penetration resistance. ASCE
b. The unit load required to maintain
constant rate of penetration into
soil by a probe or instrument. ASCE
c. The unit load required to produce a
specified penetration into soil at
a specified rate by a probe or instrument.
For a proctor needle, the
specified penetration is 2-1/2 in (6.35 cm)
and the rate is 1/2 in/s (1.27
cm/s). ASCE
penetration resistance curve
The curve showing the relationship
between the penetration resistance and
the water content. Also called proctor
penetration curve. ASCE
penetration speed
The speed at which a drill can cut through
rock or other material.
penetration test
A test to determine the relative densities
of noncohesive soils, sands, or
silts; e.g., the standard penetration test that
determines the number of
blows required by a standard weight,
when dropped from a standard height
(30 in or 76.2 cm per blow), to drive a
standard sampling spoon a standard
penetration (12 in or 30.5 cm); or the
dynamic penetration test, which
determines the relative densities of
successive layers by recording the
penetration per blow or a specified
number of blows.


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penetration twin
A twin crystal in which two parts
interpenetrate with each other and share
a common volume.
penetrometer

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An instrument to assess the strength of a
coal seam, its relative
workability, and the influence of roof
pressure.;
coal penetrometer. Nelson
pennant flag
Unproductive grit and sandstone between
the Lower and Upper Coal Measures,
South Wales and Bristol, England,
coalfield. Largely quarried for paving
and building. Also called pennan grit;
pennant stone. Arkell
pennantite
A monoclinic mineral, Mn
5
Al(Si
3
Al)O
10

(OH)
8
;
chlorite group; excellent cleavage with
flexible laminae; commonly
associated with manganese deposits.
pennine
A pseudotrigonal variety of clinochlore.
Pennine system
Eng. The original and typical series of
Carboniferous rocks, comprising
the Upper Old Red Sandstone, the
Mountain limestone, the Millstone grit,
and the Coal Measures. Standard, 2
penning
See:cribbing
penning gate
Regulating device used to govern the draft
of water from a dam; may
incorporate arrangements for holding back
sediment or floating detritus.
Pryor, 3
penninite
A green crystallized chlorite from the
Penninic Alps. Composition
essentially the same as that of clinochlore,
(Mg,Fe
2+
)
5

Al(Si
3
Al)O
10
(OH)
8
.
Fay
Pennsylvanian
A period of the Paleozoic Era (after the
Mississippian and before the
Permian), thought to have covered the
span of time between 320 million
years and 280 million years ago; also, the
corresponding system of rocks.
It is named after the state of Pennsylvania
in which rocks of this age are
widespread and yield much coal. It is the
approximate equivalent of the
Upper Carboniferous of European usage.
AGI
pennyweight
One-twentieth troy ounce (1.56 g). Used
in the United States and in
England for the valuation of gold, silver,
and jewels. Abbrev.: dwt; pwt.
Standard, 2
penroseite
An isometric mineral, (Ni,Co,Cu)Se
2
;
pyrite group; cubic cleavage;
forms radiating columnar masses; occurs
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
in Bolivian mines near
Colquechaca. Formerly called blockite.
penstock

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a. A sluice or gate for restraining,
deviating, or otherwise regulating
the flow of water, sewage, etc.; a
floodgate. Webster 3rd
b. The barrel of a wooden pump.
c. A closed conduit for supplying water
under pressure to a water wheel or
turbine. Seelye, 1
pentagon
A polygon having five sides. Jones, 2
pentahydrite
A triclinic mineral, MgSO
4
.5H
2
O ;
chalcanthite group;
highly soluble. Formerly called allenite.
pentahydroborite
A triclinic mineral, CaB
2
O(OH)
6
.2H
2
O ;
colorless;
forms small anhedra at a skarn in the Ural
Mountains, Russia.
pentasol xanthate
Collector agent use in flotation, in which
the hydrocarbon group is crude
and unfractionated amyl alcohol. Symbol,
Z-6. Pryor, 3
pentavalent
a. Having a valence of five. Webster 3rd
b. Having five valences. Webster 3rd;
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 2

Pentelic marble
One of the most famous of ancient
statuary marbles; from Mount Pentelicus,
Greece.
penthrit
See:penthrite
penthrite
Pentaerythritol tetranite. Used as an
explosive.;
niperyth. Bennett
pentice
a. A rock pillar left, or a heavy timber
bulkhead placed, in the bottom of
a two-or-more-compartment-deep shaft
through which to sink it further. A
small, auxilliary steam or air hoist,
dumping apparatus, and pocket or bin
are installed above the pentice; through an
opening in it, sinking by
short lifts is carried on while the shaft is in
use above the pentice.
Practiced in the Michigan copper country.
Hess
b. A cover, protection, or roof over a
sinking shaft. The cover contains a
trapdoor through which the rope and bowk
pass.
Nelson
c. In shaft sinking, a solid rock pillar left
in the bottom of the shaft
for overhead protection of miners while
the shaft is being extended by
sinking.
pentlandite
a. An isometric mineral, (Fe,Ni)
9
S
8
;
octahedral parting;
metallic; pale bronze-yellow;
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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nonmagnetic; generally associated with
pyrrhotite, less commonly associated with
chalcopyrite in magmatic sulfide
deposits; the principal sulfide ore of
nickel.
b. The mineral group argentopentlandite,
cobalt pentlandite, geffroyite,
manganese-shadlunite, pentlandite, and
shadlunite.
pentolite
A mixture of PETN and TNT used
primarily for boosters and cast primers;
military grade pentolite is usually 50% of
each ingredient by weight;
commercial pentolite often has a lower
PETN content.
pentrough
The trough in which the penstock of a
water wheel is placed. Fay
peon
a. The movable vertical post of an
arrastre.
b. A prop, post, or stall.
c. Mex. Helper; a common laborer.
pepper-and-salt texture
Said of disseminated ores, esp. with dark
grains in a light matrix.
AGI
peptization
a. Liquefaction of a gel; deflocculation
and dispersion of solids in a
pulp; conversion of a substance to its
colloidal state by subdivision.
Pryor, 3
b. A dispersion due to the addition of
electrolytes or other chemical
substances. Brantly, 1
peptize
To bring into colloidal solution; to convert
into a solution.
peralkaline
Said of igneous rocks in which the
molecular proportion of alumina is less
than that of soda and potash combined.
peraluminous
Said of igneous rocks in which the
molecular proportion of alumina exceeds
that of soda, potash, and lime combined.
percentage extraction
The proportion of a coal seam that is
removed from a mine. The remainder
may represent coal in pillars or coal that is
too thin or inferior to mine
or is lost in mining. Shallow coal mines
working under townships,
reservoirs, etc., may extract only about
50% of the entire seam, the
remainder being left as pillars to protect
the surface. Under favorable
conditions, longwall conveyor mining
may extract from 80% to 95% of the
entire seam. With pillar methods of
working, the extraction ranges from
50% to 90%, depending on local
conditions. Nelson
percentage ore
N.S.W. In most cases, understood to be
the percentage of the metallic
element present in the ore. New South
Wales
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
percentage subsidence
The measured amount of subsidence
expressed as a percentage of the
thickness of coal extracted.
percentage support
The percentage of the total wall area of a
mine that will actually be
covered by supports. Spalding
perch
a. Any of various units of measure for
stonework, (including 24-3/4 ft
3
(0.70 m
3
) representing a pile 1 rod (5.0
m) long by 1
ft (0.3 m) by 1-1/2 ft (0.46 m); or 16-1/2
ft
3
(0.47 m
3

); or 25 ft
3
(0.71 m
3
). Webster 3rd
b. A measure of length equal to 5-1/2 yd
or 16-1/2 ft (5.0 m); a rod, or
pole; also, a square rod (25.3 m
2
).
Webster 2nd
perched ground water
Unconfined ground water separated from
an underlying main body of ground
water by an unsaturated zone. AGI
perched water
See:perched ground water
perched water table
The water table of a body of perched
ground water.
See:vertical sand drain
percolation
a. In the leaching treatment of minerals, a
process whereby a solvent
flows gently upward or downward
through a bed of ore-bearing material
sufficiently coarse textured to permit this
flow.

b. Slow laminar movement of water
through small openings within a porous
material. Also used as a syn. of
infiltration. Flow in large openings such
as caves is not included. CF:infiltration
percolation leaching
The selective removal of the metal values
from a mineral by causing a
suitable solvent or leaching agent to seep
into and through a mass or pile
of material containing the desired mineral.
percolation rate
The rate, expressed as either velocity or
volume, at which water
percolates through a porous medium. AGI
percussion bit
A rock-drilling tool with chisellike cutting
edges, which when driven by
impacts against a rock surface, drills a
hole by a chipping action.
Long
percussion cap
See:detonator; primer.
percussion drill
a. Drill in which the drilling bit falls with
force onto rock. Also, a
pneumatic drill in which a piston delivers
hammer blows rapidly on the
drill shank.
Pryor, 3
b. Sometimes limited to large blasthole

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drills of the percussion type.
Nichols, 1
percussion drilling
Act of using a percussion drill.

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percussion figure
A pattern of radiating lines produced on a
section of a crystal by a blow
from a sharp point.
percussion machine
See:percussion drill
percussion powder
Powder so composed as to ignite by a
slight percussion; fulminating
powder. Fay
percussion sieve
An apparatus in which material is sorted
according to size. It consists
essentially of superimposed, oppositely
inclined sieves, both mechanically
agitated by vertical lever and having water
sluices.
percussion system
Applicable to drill machines and/or the
methods used to drill boreholes by
the chipping action of impacts delivered to
a chisel-edged bit.
percussion table
Early form of shaking table.concussion
table; shaking table.
Pryor, 3

percussive boring
A system of boring using solid or hollow
rods or ropes; may be used for
exploratory drilling and for blasting
purposes.:boring
Nelson
percussive drill
A pneumatic drill that is used widely in
mining for exploration and for
blasting purposes.
percussive drilling
a. A method of drilling whereby repeated
blows are applied by the bit,
which is repositioned by intermittent
rotation. BS, 12
b. A form of drilling in which the rock is
penetrated by the repeated
impact of a reciprocating drill tool.
Fraenkel
percussive machine
Any of several types of machine,
including heading machines, air picks,
and the numerous types of percussive
drills. Mason
perfect-discharge elevator
In the so-called perfect-discharge elevator,
there is an extra set of
traction or sprocket wheels on the
discharge side, so set that they bend
the chains back under the head wheels. As
a consequence, the discharging
chute may be placed directly under the
buckets. This elevator will also
handle material that packs, and both types
of gravity-discharge elevators
may be run much slower than the
centrifugal type. Pit and Quarry
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
perfect frame

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A structural frame that is stable under
loads imposed upon it from any
direction, but which would become
unstable if one of its members were
removed or one of its fixed ends became
hinged. Hammond
performance curve
Any curve used to show the relationship
between properties of coal and
results of a specific treatment. BS, 5
perhydrous maceral
Maceral having a high hydrogen content,
such as exinite and resinite.
Tomkeieff
peri-
A prefix meaning around or beyond. AGI
periblain
A kind of provitrain in which the cellular
structure is derived from
cortical material. CF:suberain; xylain. AGI
periblinite
a. The micropetrological constituent, or
marceral, of periblain. It
consists of cortical tissue almost jellified
in bulk, but still showing
indications of cell structure under a
microscope. AGI
b. A distinction of telinite based on
botanical origin (cortical tissue).
CF:suberinite


periclase
a. An isometric mineral, MgO; cubic
cleavage; colorless to yellow or
brown; may be strongly colored by
inclusions; occurs in high-temperature
metamorphic rocks derived from
dolomite.
b. The mineral group bunsenite,
manganosite, monteponite, periclase, and
wuestite.
periclasite
See:periclase
periclinal
Said of strata and structures that dip
radially outward from, or inward
toward, a center, to form a dome or a
basin. CF:quaquaversal;
centroclinal. AGI
pericline
a. A general term for a fold in which the
dip of the beds has a central
orientation; beds dipping away from a
center form a dome, and beds dipping
toward a center form a basin. The term is
generally British in usage.
dome; quaquaversal. AGI
b. A variety of albite elongated in the
direction of the b-axis and often
twinned with this as the twinning axis. It
occurs in veins as large
milky-white opaque crystals. Pericline is
probably an albitized
oligoclase. AGI
pericline twin
A twin crystal, in the monoclinic system,
whose twinning axis is the
orthoaxis of the crystal. Fay
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
peridot

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a. A transparent to translucent green gem
variety of forsterite in the
olivine group. Also spelled peridote. b. A
yellowish-green or greenish-yellow
variety of tourmaline, approaching
olivine in color. It is used as a
semiprecious stone.
peridote
See:peridot
peridotite
A general term for a coarse-grained
plutonic rock composed chiefly of
olivine with or without other mafic
minerals such as pyroxenes,
amphiboles, or micas, and containing little
or no feldspar. Accessory
minerals of the spinel group are
commonly present. Peridotite is
commonly
altered to serpentinite. AGI
peridot of Ceylon
See:Ceylonese peridot; peridot.
perimeter blasting
A method of blasting in tunnels, drifts,
and raises, designed to minimize
overbreak and leave clean-cut solid walls.
Holes in the outside row are
loaded with very light, continuous
explosive charges and are fired
simultaneously, so that they shear from
one hole to the other.
Nelson


perimeter of airway
In mine ventilation, the linear distance in
feet of the airway perimeter
rubbing surface at right angles to the
direction of the airstream.
perimorph
A crystal of one species enclosing one of
another species.
Webster 3rd
period
a. The geochronologic unit lower in rank
than era and higher than epoch,
during which the rocks of the
corresponding system were formed. It is
the
fundamental unit of the worldwide
geologic time scale. AGI
b. A term used informally to designate a
length of geologic time; e.g.,
glacial period. AGI
c. The interval of time required for the
completion of a cyclic motion or
recurring event, such as the time between
two consecutive like phases of
the tide or a current. AGI
d. The duration of one complete cycle of a
periodic function; the
reciprocal of the frequency of such a
function. The independent variable
is limited to time. ASM, 1
e. The elements between an alkali metal
and the rare gas of next highest
atomic number, inclusive, occupying one
(a short period) horizontal row or
two (a long period) horizontal rows in the
periodic table. CTD
f. The time required for the power level of
a reactor to change by the
factor 2.718, which is known as e. Lyman

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periodic law
The physical and chemical properties of
the elements depend on the
structure of their atoms and are for the
most part periodic functions of
the atomic number.
periodic reverse
Pertains to periodic change in the
direction of flow of the current in
electrolysis. It applies to the process and
also to the machine that
controls the time for both directions.
Symbol, PR. ASM, 1
periodic table
An arrangement of elements based on the
periodic law and proposed in
various forms that are usually either short
with only short periods (as in
Mendeleev's original table) or long with
long as well as short periods (as
in most modern tables).
peripheral fault
A fault along the perimeter of a
geologically elevated or depressed
region. AGI
peripheral speed
The distance a given point on the
perimeter of a rotating circular object
travels, expressed in feet or meters per
second; sometimes incorrectly
called lineal travel by some drillers.
peripheral-turbine pump
This pump--sometimes called a
regenerative pump--is classified with
centrifugal pumps, but is designed to
develop several times the head
obtained from a centrifugal pump having
the same-diameter impeller and the
same speed. The maximum head
developed does not have the same relation
to
the impeller diameter and speed of the
centrifugal pump; it involves size
and spacing of the impeller vanes, fluid
channels, and other factors.
Pit and Quarry
peripheral ventilation
A mine ventilation system in which the
upcast shaft for taking air out of
a mine is situated at the limits of the
mining field or away from the
downcast shaft. Also called transverse or
one-way ventilation.

peritectic
Said of an isothermal reversible reaction
in a crystallizing melt or magma
in which a liquid phase reacts with a solid
phase to produce another solid
phase on cooling. ASM, 1
perlite
a. A siliceous volcanic glass having
numerous concentric spherical cracks
that give rise to an onion-skin structure.
Most perlite has a higher water
content than obsidian. When perlite is
heated to the softening point, it
expands, or pops to form a light fluffy
material similar to pumice. It is
used as lightweight aggregate in concrete,
as insulation for liquid fuels,
and in potting soils.
b. A pearly volcanic glass.


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perlitic

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a. Said of the texture of a glassy igneous
rock that has cracked owing to
contraction during cooling, the cracks
forming small spheruloids. It is
generally confined to natural glass, but
occasionally found in quartz and
other noncleavable minerals and as a relict
structure in devitrified
rocks. AGI
b. Pertaining to or characteristic of perlite.
AGI
permafrost
A permanently frozen layer of soil or
subsoil, or even bedrock, which
occurs to variable depths below the Earth's
surface in arctic or subarctic
regions. It underlies about one-fifth of the
world's land area.
permafrost drilling
a. Boreholes drilled in subsoil and rocks in
which the contained water is
permanently frozen. Long
b. Holes drilled into perenially frozen
ground that may be superficial
unconsolidated material, bedrock, and ice.
When no ice is present, it is
called dry permafrost.
permalloy
An iron-nickel alloy with high magnetic
permeability. Nelson
permanent adjustment
The adjustment of a surveying instrument
that is made infrequently and not
at each setup.

permanent expansion
Increase in bulk volume as a result of
decrease in specific gravity.
permanent hardness
Hardness of water that cannot be removed
by boiling. Opposite of temporary
hardness.
permanent hard water
Hard water that cannot be softened by
boiling; water containing magnesium
sulfate or calcium sulfate. Bennett
permanent magnetism
Magnetic property of a substance
maintained without external excitation.
Pryor, 3
permanent monument
A monument of a lasting character for
marking a mining claim. It may be a
mountain, hill, ridge, hogback, butte,
canyon, gulch, river, stream,
waterfall, cascade, lake, inlet, bay, arm of
the sea, stake, post,
monument of stone or boulders, shafts,
drifts, tunnels, open cuts, or
well-known adjoining patented claims.
Fay
permanent pump
A permanent main pump is one on which
a mine depends for the final
disposal of its drainage. As it is usually
not moved during the life of
the mine, its location, installation, and
design require careful
consideration. A permanent main pump
may discharge on the surface, into an
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underground sump, or into some other
part of a mine.
permanent set
The amount of permanent deformation of
a material that has been stressed
beyond its elastic limit. AGI
permanent shaft support
After a shaft has been sunk to a certain
depth, the final or permanent
lining is inserted. This may consist of:
brick walling; concrete blocks
shaped to the curvature of the shaft;
concrete lining put in liquid form
behind shuttering; brick coffering; and
cast-iron tubbing. The permanent
lining is generally built up in sections,
during which operation the
temporary lining (such as skeleton
tubbing) is removed. Concrete is now
widely used as a permanent shaft support.;
lining; steel rectangular shaft supports.
Nelson
permanent way
The completed assembly of rails, sleepers,
fixings, and ballast forming
the finished track for a railway. Hammond
permanganate
A salt of permanganic acid of the type,
MnO
4
; dark purple; good
oxidizing agent; often used as a
disinfectant. Enam. Dict.
permeability
a. The permeability (or perviousness) of
rock is its capacity for
transmitting a fluid. Degree of
permeability depends upon the size and
shape of the pores, the size and shape of
their interconnections, and the
extent of the latter. It is measured by the
rate at which a fluid of
standard viscosity can move a given
distance through a given interval of
time. The unit of permeability is the
darcy.;
coefficient of permeability. AGI
b. In geophysics, the ratio of the magnetic
induction to the magnetic
intensity in the same region. In
paramagnetic matter, the permeability is
nearly independent of the magnetic
intensity; in a vacuum, it is strictly
so. But in ferromagnetic matter, the
relationship is definite only under
fully specified conditions. AGI
c. See:coefficient of permeability
d. In magnetism, a general term used to
express various relationships
between magnetic induction and
magnetizing forces. These relationships
are
either absolute permeability, which is the
quotient of a change in
magnetic induction divided by the
corresponding change in magnetizing
force, or specific (relative) permeability,
the ratio of the absolute
permeability to the permeability of free
space. ASM, 1
e. In founding, the characteristics of
molding materials which permit
gases to pass through them. Permeability
number is deteremined by a
standard test. ASM, 1
f. In powder metallurgy, a property
measured as the rate of passage under
specified conditions of a liquid or gas
through a compact. ASM, 1
permeable
Pertaining to a rock or soil having a
texture that permits passage of

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liquids or gases under the pressure
ordinarily found in earth materials.

permeameter

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An instrument for measuring
permeability. AGI
permineralization
A process of fossilization wherein the
original hard parts of an animal
have additional mineral material deposited
in their pore spaces.
AGI
permissible
a. Means completely assembled and
conforming in every respect with the
design formally approved by the U.S.
Mine Safety and Health Administration
for use in gassy and dusty mines.
b. A machine or explosive is said to be
permissible when it has been
approved by the U.S. Mine Safety and
Health Administration for use
underground under prescribed conditions.
All flameproof machinery is not
permissible, but all permissible machinery
is flameproof.
permissible blasting device
Any device, other than explosives, for
breaking down coal that is approved
by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health
Administration.
permissible blasting unit
An electrical device for firing blasts,
approved by the U.S. Mine Safety
and Health Administration.
permissible dustiness
See:dust-free conditions
permissible explosive
Explosive that has been tested for safety
in handling and approved for use
in mines by the U.S. Mine Safety and
Health Administration.
permissible exposure limit
An exposure limit published and enforced
by the U.S. Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) as a
legal standard. NSC, 2
permissible hydraulic fluid
Any of several commercially available,
fire-resistant fluids that are
water-in-oil emulsions and can be
substituted for flammable hydraulic
fluids by users of large machinery,
whether the equipment is operated
underground or on the surface.
permissible lamp
Any electric or flame safety lamp that is
similar in all respects to a
lamp tested and approved by the U.S.
Mine Safety and Health
Administration. Hess
permissible machine
Any drill, mining machine, loading
machine, conveyor, or locomotive that
is similar in all respects to machines tested
and approved by the U.S.
Mine Safety and Health Administration
for use in gassy mines.

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permissible mine equipment

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Equipment that is formally approved by
the U.S. Mine Safety and Health
Administration after having passed the
inspections, the explosion tests,
and other requirements specified by the
Administration. (All equipment so
approved must carry the official approval
plate required as identification
for permissible equipment.)
permissible mine locomotive
See:electric permissible mine locomotive
permissible motor
A motor the same in all respects as a
sample motor that has passed certain
tests made by the U.S. Mine Safety and
Health Administration and installed
and used in accordance with the
conditions prescribed by the
Administration.
permissible velocity
The highest velocity at which water may
be carried safely in a canal or
other conduit; the highest velocity
throughout a substantial length of a
conduit that will not scour. Seelye, 1
permit man
A member of a geophysical field party
whose duty is to obtain permission
from landowners for the party to work on
their lands, or from public
officials for the party to work along
highways. AGI
permitted
See:permitted explosive; permitted light.
permitted explosive
a. Explosive that has passed the Buxton
tests and has been placed on the
British list of authorized explosives,
implying that they are reasonably
safe to manufacture, handle, transport, and
use in safety-lamp mines. Upon
detonation, a permitted explosive: (1)
gives off the minimum possible
quantity of noxious gases, and (2)
produces a flame of the lowest possible
temperature and shortest possible
duration, to lessen the risk of
combustible gases ignition. The explosive
contains cooling agents, such as
sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate.
The first British list of
permitted explosives was published in
1899. Nelson
b. A permitted explosive is one that has
been approved for use in coal
mines where there is any possible risk of
igniting combustible gases or
coal dust. In Great Britain, an explosive is
approved by the Minister of
Power and placed on the Permitted List
after it has passed the official
gallery tests prescribed for the particular
class of explosives to which
it belongs. These tests are carried out at
the Safety in Mines Research
Establishment's Testing Station at Buxton.
McAdam, 2
c. Permitted explosives are divided into
four groups: P.1., normal
permitted explosives; P.2., sheathed
explosives; P.3., eq.s. explosive;
P.4., permitted explosives that have
passed additional and more stringent
tests. BS, 12
d. The term "permissible explosive" is
used in the United States.


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permitted light
Locked safety lamp or any other means of
lighting, the use of which below
ground in British coal mines is authorized
by Regulations under the Act.

permitting process
A process in which an applicant files
forms to a regulatory agency with
required narratives, maps, mine plans,
etc., to ensure in advance of
mining that the proposed operation will be
in compliance with the
applicable environmental standards. SME,
1
Permocarboniferous
Strata not differentiated between the
Permian and Carboniferous systems,
particularly in regions where there is no
conspicuous stratigraphic break
and fossils are transitional. AGI
Permotriassic
Strata not differentiated between the
Permian and Triassic systems,
particularly in regions where the boundary
occurs within a nonmarine, red
beds succession. AGI
Perosa process
A process by which beryllium is extracted
from beryl.
perovskite
a. An orthorhombic mineral, CaTiO
3
;
may have Ca replaced by rare
earths and Ti replaced by niobium and
tantalum; pseudocubic; massive or in
cubic crystals; yellow, brown, or grayish
black; occurs in
silica-deficient metamorphic and igneous
environments such as skarns; also
occurs in mafic and alkaline igneous
rocks. Also spelled perofskite.
b. The mineral group latrappite, loparite,
leushite, and perovskite.
perpend
a. A header extending through a wall so
that one end appears on each side
of it; a perpendstone border, bondstone,
throughstone; through binder.
Also called parping; perpender; perpent.
Fay
b. A vertical joint, such as in a brick wall.
Standard, 2
perpendicular separation
The separation of a fault as measured at
right angles to the fault plane.
AGI
perpendicular slip
The component of the slip of a fault that is
measured perpendicular to the
trace of the fault on any intersecting
surface. AGI
perpendicular throw
The distance between the two parts of a
disrupted bed, dike, vein, or of
any recognizable surface, measured
perpendicular to the bedding plane or
surface in question. It is measured in a
vertical plane at right angles to
the strike of the disrupted surface.



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persilicic
A term proposed by Clarke (1908) to
replace acidic.
CF:subsilicic; mediosilicic. AGI
persistent

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Continuous; orebodies are often persistent
in depth and metal contents.
von Bernewitz
personnel proximity survey
A survey of radiation conditions at
positions occupied by personnel
working near apparatus emitting
radioactivity. NCB
persorption
Deep sorption of gas by liquid. Pryor, 3
persuader
A common term for crowbar, lever, or
some such article used as a manual
aid in moving heavy objects. Crispin
perthite
A variety of alkali feldspar consisting of
parallel or subparallel
intergrowths in which the potassium-rich
phase (commonly microcline)
appears to be the host from which the
sodium-rich phase (commonly albite)
exsolved; such exsolved areas may be
visible to the naked eye, typically
forming strings, lamellae, blebs, films, or
irregular veinlets; where
texture is invisible to the eye but can be
resolved with a microscope, it
is microperthite. CF:antiperthite;
cryptoperthite; microperthite.
perthorite
A deep-seated igneous rock consisting of
alkali feldspar with less than 3%
dark minerals. Feldspar, both orthoclase
and albite, may be perthitically
intergrown as cryptoperthite or as
anorthoclase. Hess
pervious
See:permeable
petalite
A monoclinic mineral, LiAlSi
4
O
10
;
perfect cleavage;
vitreous; resembles spodumene; a source
of lithium salts; in granite
pegmatites.
petaloid
Resembling a flower petal in form,
appearance, or texture. Applied to the
structure seen in minerals that split into
pieces with a smooth polished
concave-convex surface that fit into one
another somewhat like the petals
of an unopened flower bud. Webster 3rd;
Fay
petcock
A small drain valve. Nichols, 1
peter
To fail gradually in size, quantity, or
quality; e.g., the mine has
petered out. Also called peter out. Fay


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petering out
The gradual thinning of a vein until it
disappears.
Statistical Research Bureau
Petersen grab

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In the Petersen (or van Veen) type of grab,
two semicircular buckets of
varying sizes are hinged along a central
axis. The buckets are held apart
for lowering from a ship to the bottom by
some form of catch. On striking
the bottom, this is released so that on
hoisting, the buckets move around
on their axis, take a bite out of the
sediment, and come together to form
a closed container. With this
configuration, the rate at which the grab
hits the bottom affects the bite, and when
the ship is drifting, a poor
sample may be obtained if the grab does
not hit the bottom vertically.

PETN
Abbrev. for pentaerythritol tetranitrate.
Bennett
petralite
An explosive compounded of ammonium
carbonate, nitrated wood or charcoal,
and saltpeter. Standard, 2
petrifaction
A process of fossilization whereby
organic matter is converted into a
stony substance by the infiltration of water
containing dissolved
inorganic matter (e.g., calcium carbonate,
silica), which replaces the
original organic materials, sometimes
retaining the structure.

petrification
See:petrifaction
petrified moss
See:tufa
petrified rose
An aggregate or cluster of tabular crystals
of barite, forming chiefly in
sandstone, enclosing sandy grains within
the crystals; sand cemented by
barite with the crystal form of the latter.

petrified wood
See:silicified wood
petro-
Combining form meaning stone or rock.
petrochemical
Any of several materials and compounds
present in, or derived from,
natural gas or crude petroleum by physical
refining or by chemical
reaction. Bennett
petrochemistry
a. The study of the chemical composition
of rocks. AGI
b. The study of the chemistry of petroleum
and its products. AGI


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petrofabrics

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The study of spatial relations, esp. on a
microscale, of the
structural-textural units that comprise a
rock, including a study of the
movements that produced these elements.
The units may be rock fragments,
mineral grains, or cleavages.
petrogenesis
A branch of petrology that deals with the
origin of rocks.
CF:genesis
petrogenic element
An element that is characteristically
concentrated in ordinary rock types
as opposed to ore deposits.
CF:metallogenic element
petrogeny
See:petrogenesis
petrographer
Person who is versed in or engaged in
petrography, or the study of rocks.
Fay
petrographic
Pertaining to the study of rocks. Stokes
petrographic microscope
A microscope specially fitted with optical,
esp. polarizers, and
mechanical accessories for identifying and
studying the properties of
minerals in granular form or in thin
section.
petrographic province
A natural region within which some or all
of the igneous rocks present
certain well-marked peculiarities in their
mineralogical and chemical
composition, structure, texture, etc., that
set them apart from rocks of
other petrographic provinces.
Consanguineous, comagmatic.

petrography
A general term for the science dealing
with the description and
systematical classification of rocks, based
on observations in the field,
on hand specimens, and on thin sections.
Petrography is thus wider in its
scope than lithology, but more restricted
than petrology, which implies
interpretation as well as description.
Holmes, 2
petroleum coke
Cokelike material found in cavities of
igneous rocks intrusive into
carbonaceous sediments. Tomkeieff
petroleum ether
A mixture of hydrocarbons boiling from
40 to 60 degrees C; a mixture of
low-boiling liquid alkanes. Handbook of
Chemistry and Physics, 1
petroleum-oil cannel coal
See:oil shale
petrology
A general term for the study, by all
available methods, of the natural
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history of rocks, including their origins,
present conditions,
alterations, and decay. Petrology
comprises petrography on the one hand,
and petrogenesis on the other, and
properly considered, its subject matter
includes ore deposits and mineral deposits
in general, as well as rocks in
the more limited sense in which that term
is generally understood.
Holmes, 2
petrolo-shale
See:oil shale
petrophysics
Study of the physical properties of rock.
AGI
petrotectonics
See:structural petrology
petrous
Said of a material that resembles stone in
its hardness; e.g., petrous
phosphates. Little used. AGI
petuntze
See:china stone
petzite
An isometric mineral, Ag
3
AuTe
2
;
metallic; steel gray to
iron black; massive; sp gr, 8.7 to 9.02; in
gold-bearing telluride veins;
may be a significant source of gold and
silver.

pH
The negative logarithm (base 10) of the
hydrogen-ion activity. It denotes
the degree of acidity or of basicity of a
solution. At 25 degrees C, 7 is
the neutral value. Acidity increases with
decreasing values below 7, and
basicity increases with increasing values
above 7. ASM, 1
phacellite
See:kaliophilite
phacolith
A concordant intrusive in the crest of an
anticline and trough of a
syncline; in cross section, it has the shape
of a doubly convex lens. Adj:
phacolithic.
phanerite
An igneous rock having the grains of its
essential minerals large enough
to be seen macroscopically. AGI
phaneritic
Said of the texture of an igneous rock in
which the individual components
are distinguishable with the unaided eye,
i.e., megascopically
crystalline. Also, said of a rock having
such texture.
Phanerozoic
That part of geologic time represented by
rocks in which the evidence of
life is abundant, i.e. Cambrian and later
time.

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phantom crystal

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A crystal or mineral aggregate within
which an earlier stage of
crystallization or growth is outlined by
dust, tiny inclusions, or
bubbles; e.g., a trigonal scalenohedron of
calcite coated with hematite
and overgrown with a clear calcite
rhombohedron in crystallographic
continuity.
phantom horizon
a. In seismic reflection prospecting, a line
drawn on seismic sections so
that it is parallel to nearby dip segments
thought to indicate structural
attitude. It is used where actual events are
not continuous enough to be
used alone. AGI
b. Horizon on a reflection profile that is
obtained by averaging the dips
of the reflections within a band, thus
indicating the trend of the dip,
but not necessarily coinciding with an
actual boundary plane.
Schieferdecker
pharmacolite
A monoclinic mineral, CaHAsO
4
.2H
2
O ;
white to gray; forms
silky fibers; occurs in the oxidized parts of
arsenical deposits.

pharmacosiderite
An isometric mineral, KFe
4
(AsO
4
)
3

(OH)
4

.6-7H
2
O; crystallizes in cubes or
tetrahedra with cubic cleavage;
rarely massive; occurs widely as an
oxidation product of arsenical ores.

phase
a. The sum of all those portions of a
material system that are identical
in chemical composition and physical
state. CTD
b. A homogeneous, physically distinct
portion of matter in a heterogeneous
system. AGI
c. An interval in the development of a
given process; esp. a chapter in
the history of the igneous activity of a
region, such as the volcanic
phase and major and minor intrusive
phases. AGI
d. A lithologic facies, esp. on a small
scale, such as a minor variety
within a dominant or normal facies, or a
facies of short duration or local
occurrence; e.g., a marine phase or a
fluviatile phase. AGI
phase angle
An angle expressing phase or phase
difference. Webster 3rd
phase-balance relay
Relay that protects an electrical system
from faults occurring in any
phase of a three-phase system. Quite often
a fault current will not be
large enough to trip the overcurrent relay,
but will operate the
phase-balance mechanism. Coal Age, 3
phase control
The process of varying the point within
the cycle at which anode
conduction is permitted to begin. Coal
Age, 1

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phase converter
A machine for converting an alternating
current into an alternating
current of a different number of phases
and the same frequency.
Webster 3rd

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phase diagram
A graph designed to show the boundaries
of the fields of stability of the
various phases of a system. The
coordinates are usually two or more of the
intensive variables temperature, pressure,
and composition, but are not
restricted to these.
phase disengagement
In solvent extraction or liquid-liquid
extraction procedures, allowing the
mixture of aqueous liquor and organic
solution phases to separate for
individual recovery and further treatment.
phase disengagement rate
In solvent extraction technology, the rate
of disengagement of phases
(aqueous and organic carrier).
phase displacement
The angle by which the amount of
difference of phase between two
alternating-current magnitudes is
expressed. Standard, 2
phase equilibria
The study and determination of stable
phases present under various
conditions of pressure, temperature, and
composition according to the
Gibbs phase rule; used in the study of
mineral genesis.
CF:crystallogeny
phase inversion
In the Convertol process, replacement of
the film of water covering a coal
particle by a film of oil. BS, 5
phasemeter
A device for measuring the difference in
phase of two alternating currents
or electromotive forces. Webster 3rd
phase rule
The statement that for any system in
equilibrium, the number of degrees of
freedom is two greater than the difference
between the number of
components and the number of phases. It
may be symbolically stated as F =
(C-P) + 2.
phase shifter
A device employed to alter the phase of a
wave. NCB
phase system
Any portion of the universe that can be
isolated completely and
arbitrarily from the rest for consideration
of the changes that may occur
within it under varied conditions. In a
closed system, energy may cross
the system boundary, but matter may not.
In an open system, both energy
and matter may enter or leave as required.
An equilibrium system is closed
with all phases in their lowest energy
states. The variance (degrees of
freedom) of an equilibrium system is its
number of components minus its
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
number of phases plus two. A steady-state
system is open with all phases
in their lowest energy states while matter
streams through it. Systems may
be described by the number of their
components; e.g., unary for one
component, binary for two, ternary for
three, etc. They are commonly
defined in terms of their components; e.g.,
the system CaO-MgO-SiO
2

-H
2
O is a quaternary system.
phase transformation
The inversion of one crystalline
assemblage of components from one
symmetry to another; e.g., calcite to
aragonite.
phenacite
See:phenakite
phenakite
A trigonal mineral, Be
2
SiO
4
; colorless to
yellow, red, or
brown; a minor gemstone sparsely found
in granite pegmatites. It is
sometimes confused with quartz. Not to
be confused with fenaksite.

phengite
a. A variety of muscovite having high
silica.
b. A transparent or translucent stone
(probably crystalline gypsum) used
by the ancients for windows.
phenhydrous
a. Applied to certain conditions under
which coal was formed, namely those
of open waters into which the plant debris
was swept from the adjoining
land. Tomkeieff
b. Refers to vegetable matter deposited
under water in contrast to that
laid down on a wet substratum.
CF:crypthydrous
phenocryst
A term for large crystals or mineral grains
floating in the matrix or
groundmass of a porphyry.
phenocrystalline
See:phaneritic
phenol
A soluble, crystalline acidic compound;
C
6
H
5
OH ; has a
characteristic odor. It is present in coal tar
and in wood tar. It is a
powerful caustic poison and in a dilute
solution, a useful disinfectant.
Used chiefly in making resins and
plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals
(such as aspirin).; carbolic acid.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 2
phi grade scale
A logarithmic transformation of the
Wentworth grade scale in which the
negative logarithm to the base 2 of the
particle diameter (in millimeters)
is substituted for the diameter value
(Krumbein, 1934); it has integers
for the class limits, increasing from -5 for
32 mm to +10 for 1/1,024 mm.
The scale was developed specif. as a
statistical device to permit the
direct application of conventional
statistical practices to sedimentary
data.

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Philadelphia rod
A leveling rod in which the hundredths of
feet, or eighths of inches, are
marked by alternate bars of color the
width of the measurement.
Nichols, 1

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phillipite
A compact, blue, hydrated copper and iron
sulfate, Fe
2
Cu(SO (sub
4) )
4
.12H
2
O , produced by
decomposition of chalcopyrite.
Standard, 2
phillipsite
A monoclinic mineral, (K,Na,Ca)
1-2

(Si,Al)
8
O
16
.6H
2
O ; zeolite group; commonly occurs in
complex twinned crystals; in
basalt amydules, in pelagic red clays, in
palagonite tuffs, in alkaline
saline lakes from silicic vitric volcanic
ash, in alkaline soils, and
around hot springs in Roman baths.
Phleger corer
Designed to obtain cores up to about 4 ft
(1.2 m) in length, the Phleger
corer is utilized where only the upper
layers of the sea bottom are to be
analyzed. Hunt
phloem
In coal, the outer conducting part of the
central cylinder or vascular
tissues. It consists primarily of sieve tubes
and companion cells, phloem
fibers or bark fibers, stone cells, and
parenchymatous cells. Hess

phlogopite
A monoclinic mineral, K
2
Mg
6
(Si
6
Al
2
O
(sub
20) )(F,OH)
4
; a magnesium-rich end-
member of the biotite crystal
solution series; mica group;
pseudohexagonal with perfect basal
cleavage;
occurs in crystalline limestones as a
product of dedolomitization, in
potassium-rich ultramafic rocks, as an
alteration mineral in sulfur-rich
hydrothermal assemblages, and in
kimberlites.;
amber mica; brown mica.
pH modifier
Proper functioning of a cationic or anionic
flotation reagent is dependent
on the close control of pH. Modifying
agents used are soda ash, sodium
hydroxide, sodium silicate, sodium
phosphates, lime, sulfuric acid, and
hydrofluoric acid. Fuerstenau
pholerite
A claylike mineral closely related to or
identical with kaolinite.
Fay
pholidoide
The group of aluminous glauconites
grading into normal (ferruginous)
glauconite and occurring in sedimentary
rocks. Includes skolite and
bravaisite. Distinct from pholidolite of
Nordenskiold.
phonolite
The extrusive equivalent of nepheline
syenite. The principal mineral is
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soda orthoclase or sanidine. Other major
minerals are nepheline and
aegirine diopside, usually with other
feldspathoidal minerals such as
sodalite or haueyne. Accessories include
apatite and sphene. Phonolite is
an important ore progenitor, as at Cripple
Creek, CO.
phosgenite
A tetragonal mineral, 4[Pb
2
(CO
3
)Cl
2
] ;
forms
stubby crystals; may be massive;
adamantine; sp gr, 6.13; a
secondary mineral in lead deposits and
from action of seawater on lead
slags and artifacts; commonly associated
with cerussite and anglesite.

phosphalite
Phosphorite that occurs as beds of small
concretions resting on clay
surfaces or scattered in sands and
limestone. AGI
phosphate
a. n. Any mineral containing essential
tetrahedral phosphate, (PO
4

)
3-
, structural entities; e.g., apatite,
amblygonite, or
monazite.
b. A mineral commodity supplying
phosphorus, usually for agricultural or
chemical purposes. The source materials
for phosphate are marine
phosphorite and, less commonly, guano
and apatite-rich igneous rocks.
c. Adj., phosphatic. Pertaining to or
containing phosphates or phosphoric
acid; said esp. of a sedimentary rock
containing phosphatic minerals, such
as phosphatic limestone produced by
secondary enrichment of phosphatic
material, or a phosphatic shale
representing mixtures of primary and
secondary phosphate and clay minerals.
CF:vanadate
phosphate lands
In mining law, a leased area for phosphate
lands may not exceed 2,560
acres (1,034 ha). A certain expenditure for
mine development and
operations is required. A royalty of not
less than 2% of the gross value
of the output must be paid, and an annual
rental, similar to that for coal
lands, is imposed. Lewis
phosphate of lime
See:apatite
phosphate rock
Any rock that contains one or more
phosphatic minerals of sufficient
purity and quantity to permit its
commercial use as a source of phosphatic
compounds or elemental phosphorus.
About 90% of the world's production is
sedimentary phosphate rock, or
phosphorite; the remainder is igneous rock
rich in apatite.
phosphatic nodule
Black to brown, rounded mass, variable in
size from a few millimeters to
30 or more centimeters. Usually consists
of coprolites, corals, shells,
and bones, more or less enveloped in
crusts of collophane. Found in many
horizons of marine origin. Also covering
the ocean floors at many
locations around the world. AGI
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
phosphide
A compound that is a combination of
phosphorus with a metal; e.g.,
schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)
3
P .
phosphochalcite
See:pseudomalachite
phosphophyllite
A monoclinic mineral, Zn
2
(Fe,Mn)(PO
4

)
2
4H
2
O ; forms tabular crystals with
perfect cleavage; vitreous; colorless to
pale blue-green; a secondary mineral from
pegmatites; possibly in some
oxidized base-metal deposits.
phosphor
Any material that has been prepared
artificially and has the property of
luminescence, regardless of whether it
exhibits phosphorescence.
CCD, 2; Lee
phosphorate
a. To combine or to impregnate with
phosphorus; as phosphorated oil.

b. To make phosphorescent. Standard, 2
phosphor bronze
An elastic, hard and tough alloy,
composed of 80% to 95% copper, 5% to
15%
tin, with phosphorus up to 2.5%. Nelson
phosphorescence
a. Luminescence in which the stimulated
substance continues to emit light
after the external stimulus has ceased;
also, the light so produced. The
duration of the emission is temperature-
dependent, and has a
characteristic rate of decay.
CF:fluorescence; luminescence.
Webster 3rd
b. A misnomer for the property of
emitting light without sensible heat;
luminescence. Although light is produced
by a biochemical reaction
involving phosphorus, bioluminescence is
the preferred term. Hy
phosphoric acid
A clear, colorless, sparkling liquid or a
transparent orthorhombic
crystal; H
3
PO
4
(orthophosphoric acid),
depending on the
concentration and the temperature. At
ordinary atmospheric temperature (20
degrees C), the 50% and 75% acids are
mobile liquids, the 85% acid is
syrupy, and the 100% acid is in crystals;
specific gravity, 1.834 (at 18
degrees C); melting point, 42.35 degrees
C; boiling point, 260 degrees C;
soluble in water and in alcohol; and very
corrosive to ferrous metals and
alloys. CCD, 2; Handbook of Chemistry
and Physics, 2
phosphorite
A sedimentary rock with a high enough
content of phosphate minerals to be
of economic interest. Most commonly it is
a bedded primary or reworked
secondary marine rock composed of
microcrystalline carbonate fluorapatite
in the form of laminae; pellets; oolites;
nodules; skeletal, shell, and
bone fragments; and guano. Aluminum
and iron phosphate minerals
(wavellite, millisite) are usually of

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
secondary formation.
bone phosphate; pebble phosphate. AGI
phosphorize
See:phosphorate

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phosphorized copper
A general term applied to copper
deoxidized with phosphorus. The most
commonly used deoxidized copper. ASM,
1
phosphorochalcite
See:pseudomalachite
phosphorogen
A substance that promotes
phosphorescence in a mineral or other
compound.
Hess
phosphorus
A nonmetallic element of the nitrogen
group. Symbol, P. Never found free
in nature, but is widely distributed in
combination with minerals. An
important source is phosphate rock, which
contains the mineral apatite.
Ignites spontaneously, and is very
poisonous; must be kept under water.
Used in safety matches, pyrotechnics,
pesticides, incendiary shells, smoke
bombs, tracer bullets, and fertilizers.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 3
phosphorus copper
Copper that contains about 15%
phosphorus. Used chiefly as a deoxidizer
for molten metals. Henderson
phosphorus steel
Steel in which phosphorus is the principal
hardening element. Fay
phosphosiderite
A monoclinic mineral, Fe
3+
PO
4
.2H
2
O ;
iron may be
replaced by aluminum; dimorphous with
strengite; isomorphous with
metavariscite; forms tabular crystals or
reniform crusts; vitreous; occurs
in a wide variety of settings where iron
and phosphate are in proximity.
Formerly called metastrengite,
clinostrengite.
phosphuranylite
An orthorhombic mineral, Ca(UO
2
)
3
(PO
4

)
2

(OH)
2
.6H
2
O ; radioactive; deep yellow;
earthy or as crusts
or tiny scales; associated with autunite and
other secondary uranium
minerals, esp. in pegmatites.
photicite
Described as altered rhodonite; carbonated
rhodonite. Dana, 1
photoelasticity
A property of certain transparent
substances that enables the presence of
strain to be detected by examination in
polarized light. If models of
complicated engineering structures are
made of such a substance, the
stress distribution in the structure may be
resolved.

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photoelectric cell
Broadly, any device in which the
incidence of light causes a change in the
electrical state. Nelson
photofluorography

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The photography of images produced on a
fluorescent screen by X-rays.
Varieties include photoradiography,
photoroentgenography, miniature
radiography. ASM, 1
photogeology
The identification, recording, and study of
geologic features and
structures by means of photography;
specif. the geologic interpretation of
aerial and space photographs and images
and the presentation of the
information so obtained. It includes the
interpretation of
second-generation photographs obtained
by photographing images recorded on
television-type tubes (the images
recording wavelengths outside the
visible spectrum). AGI
photogeomorphology
Study of earth forms as revealed by aerial
photographs.
photogrammetry
The art and science of obtaining reliable
measurements from photographic
images. Methods utilize horizontal,
vertical, and oblique views, with or
without the aid of the stereoscopic
principle and with or without
computer-based image processing and
analysis.

photographic borehole survey
A method of checking verticality and/or
orientation of a long borehole. A
compact camera inserted at a known depth
takes a photograph of a magnetic
needle and/or a clinometer. Instruments
have been developed by Oehman,
Owen, and Wright. Pryor, 3
photographic interpretation
See:photointerpretation
photographic-paper recorder
A small device for registering
photographically the passage of flame.
This
must not be confused with the
photographing of the flame on the
manometer
record. Rice, 2
photointerpretation
The extraction of information from aerial
photographs and images for a
particular purpose, such as mapping the
geologic features of an area.

photolithotroph
Autotrophic microorganism that derives
energy to do metabolic work by
converting radiant energy into chemical
energy and assimilates carbon as
CO
2
, HCO
3
-
, or CO
3
2-
(photosynthesis).
photomagnetic borehole surveying
A method of borehole surveying,
consisting essentially of a timing clock,
batteries and light bulb, a floating light-
transparent compass, an
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
inclination unit, and a photographic film
for recording both the position
of the compass and the crosshairs of the
inclinometer. The instrument is
enclosed in a nonmagnetic casing.
Nelson

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photometric method
A dust-sampling method in which samples
of dust are collected on filter
paper and then placed in a photometer.
The instrument shows the intensity
of a beam of light after it has passed
through the paper, and the fall in
intensity is a direct measure of the dust
concentration. With dark dust,
such as in coal mines, a rough indication
of the dustiness may be obtained
by comparison of the depth of tone with a
graded series of samples that
have been calibrated against some other
instrument. There are two methods
of collecting samples for photometric
estimation: (1) by passing the air
through a filter paper, as for gravimetric
estimation; or (2) by
impingement, as in the konimeter.
Spalding
photomicrograph
A photographic enlargement of a
microscopic image such as a petrologic
thin section; a type of micrograph. Less-
preferred Webster 3rd
photomultiplier
A sensitive detector of light in which the
initial electron current,
derived from photoelectric emission, is
amplified by successive stages of
secondary electron emission. NCB

photon
A discrete quantity of electromagnetic
energy. Photons have momentum but
no mass or electrical charge. Lyman
photosensitive
Term applied to minerals (e.g.,
chlorargyrite, utenbogaardite) that are
visibly injured by light.
photostat printing
A method of reproducing a drawing on
opaque paper by printing from a
photographic negative, which enables the
original drawing to be enlarged
or reduced. Hammond
phototheodolite
A ground-surveying instrument used in
terrestrial photogrammetry,
combining the functions of a theodolite
and a camera mounted on the same
tripod. AGI
phototropism
The reversible change in color of a
substance produced by the formation of
an isomeric modification when exposed to
radiant energy (such as light).
Webster 3rd
phragmites peat
Peat composed of reed grass and other
grasses. Tomkeieff
phreatic
Pertaining to ground water. AGI

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
phreatic explosion

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A volcanic eruption or explosion of steam,
mud, or other material that is
not incandescent; it is caused by the
heating and consequent expansion of
ground water due to an underlying
igneous heat source. AGI
phreatic gas
Any of the vapors and gases of
atmospheric or oceanic origin which,
coming
into contact with ascending magma, may
provide the motive force for
volcanic eruptions. CTD
phreatic line
See:line of seepage
phreatic surface
See:water table
phreatic water
A term that originally was applied only to
water that occurs in the upper
part of the zone of saturation under water-
table conditions (syn. of
unconfined ground water, or well water),
but has come to be applied to all
water in the zone of saturation, thus
making it an exact syn. of ground
water. AGI
pH regulator
Substance used in flotation processes to
control the hydrogen-ion
concentration.

phthanite
Siliceous shale. The term is used esp. by
European geologists. Also
spelled phtanite. AGI
phthisis
Miner's occupational disease, a form of
lung consumption associated with
or aggravated by work in dusty
surroundings, such as badly ventilated
underground workings.
phyllic alteration
Hydrothermal alteration typically
resulting from removal of sodium,
calcium, and magnesium from calc-alkalic
rocks, with pervasive replacement
of silicates, muting the original rock
texture. It is a common style of
alteration in porphyry base-metal systems
around a central zone of
potassic alteration.
phyllite
a. A metamorphic rock, intermediate in
grade between slate and mica
schist. Minute crystals of sericite and
chlorite impart a silky sheen to
the surfaces of cleavage (or schistosity).
Phyllites commonly exhibit
corrugated cleavage surfaces. CF:illite;
phyllonite. AGI
b. A general term for minerals with a
layered crystal structure.
AGI
c. A general term used by some French
authors for the scaly minerals, such
as micas, chlorites, clays, and
vermiculites.

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
phyllite-mylonite
See:phyllonite
phyllitic cleavage

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Rock cleavage in which flakes are
produced that are barely visible to the
unaided eye. It is coarser than slaty
cleavage and finer than schistose
cleavage. Leet, 1
phyllonite
A rock that macroscopically resembles
phyllite but that is formed by
mechanical degradation (mylonization) of
initially coarser rocks (e.g.,
graywacke, granite, or gneiss). Silky films
of recrystallized mica or
chlorite, smeared out along schistosity
surfaces, and formation by
dislocation metamorphism are
characteristic.

phyllonitization
The processes of mylonitization and
recrystallization to produce a
phyllonite. AGI
phylloretin
Crystalline hydrocarbon similar to
fichtelite and extracted along with
fichtelite from fossil pine wood. Tomkeieff
phyllovitrinite
Vitrain in which the plant remains are
discernible under a microscope.
Tomkeieff

phyre
A suffix used in naming rocks that are
porphyritic, such as vitrophyre,
orthophyre, or granophyre.
physical depletion
The exhaustion of a mine or a petroleum
reservoir by extracting the
minerals. Williams
physical geology
A broad division of geology that concerns
itself with the processes and
forces involved in the inorganic evolution
of the Earth and its
morphology, and with its constituent
minerals, rocks, magmas, and core
materials. CF:historical geology
physical mineralogy
That branch of mineralogy which treats of
the physical properties of
minerals. CF:chemical mineralogy
physical oceanography
That marine science which treats of the
Earth's water mass as a fluid and
studies its physical properties of motion,
density, temperature, etc.
physical shock
A state of collapse that interferes with the
normal heart action,
respiration, and circulation. This condition
is probably due to
derangement or lack of proper balance
within the sympathetic nervous
system and may be caused by any number
of things, such as serious injury,
loss of blood, severe burns, fright, and
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
many others. It is important to
look for shock when rendering first aid
since it may cause death even when
the injury is less serious. Kentucky
physics
The science, or group of sciences, that
treats of the phenomena associated
with matter in general, esp. in its relations
to energy, and of the laws
governing these phenomena, excluding
the special laws peculiar to living
matter (biology) or to special kinds of
matter (chemistry). Physics treats
of the constitution and properties of
matter, mechanics, acoustics, heat,
optics, electricity, and magnetism. More
generally, it includes all the
physical sciences. Standard, 2
physiographic province
A region of which all parts are similar in
geologic structure and which
has consequently had a unified
geomorphic history; a region whose
pattern
of relief features or landforms differs
significantly from that of
adjacent regions. AGI
phyteral
The term was introduced by G. H. Cady in
1942, to designate plant forms or
fossils in coal as distinguished from the
material of which the fossils
may be composed. Phyterals are identified
in general botanical terms that
are usually morphological, such as spore
coat, sporangium, cuticle, resin,
wax, wood substance, bark, etc. The initial
composition of the phyterals
differed; these or other differences
produced during diagenesis may or may
not be perpetuated by and during
carbonification (coalification).
Phyterals are recognized with increasing
difficulty in high rank coals. In
contrast to macerals which represent a
purely petrographical concept, the
concept phyteral demands strict
correlation with certain organs of the
initial plant material. IHCP
phytogenous rock
Rock formed from plant remains.
Tomkeieff
phytolith
A rock formed by plant activity or
composed chiefly of plant remains. The
term was applied by Grabau to a large
group including coal, peat,
lignites, some types of reef limestones,
and oolites. AGI
phytoplankton
The plant life division of plankton,
including diatoms and algae.
Unattached plants that are at the mercy of
the currents. Hy
piano wire screen
A screen formed by piano wires stretched
tightly, lengthwise, on a frame 2
to 3 ft (0.61 to 0.91 m) wide and 4 to 8 ft
(1.2 to 2.4 m) high. The
screen is set up at an angle of about 45
degrees and crushed material is
fed to it from above. The mesh size varies
from about 4 to 16. Because
there are no cross wires, and because the
taut wires can vibrate, there is
less tendency for blinding, but some
elongated particles inevitably pass
the screen. Dodd

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217
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picacho
A peak or sharply pointed hill or
mountain; commonly a volcanic rock. The
term is used in desert regions of the
Southwestern United States.
pick
a. Steel cutting point used on a coal-cutter
chain.
b. A miner's steel or iron digging tool with
sharp points at each end. It
weighs from 3 to 6 lb (1.4 to 1.7 kg) and
has a wood handle, fitted to the
center or head, from 2 to 3 ft (0.6 to 0.9
m) in length.

c. To dress the sides of a shaft or other
excavation.
d. To remove shale, dirt, etc., from coal.
e. To select good ore out of a heap.
f. In seismic prospecting, any selected
event on a seismic record.
AGI
pick-a-back conveyor
A short conveyor which takes the coal
from, and advances with, a face
power loader or continuous miner. It
delivers the coal onto a gate
conveyor over which it runs on a bogey.

pick-and-shovel miner
See:pick miner
Pickard core barrel
A double-tube core barrel in X-group
sizes. The distinguishing feature of
the Pickard barrel is that when blocked,
the inner barrel slides upward
into the head, closing the water ports and
stopping the flow of the
circulating liquid; no additional drilling
can be done without irreparably
damaging the bit until the barrel is pulled
and the blocked inner tube is
cleared. Long
pick boy
In bituminous coal mining, a person who
carries sharpened picks or bits
for coal-cutting machines to the machine
operator in underground working
places. Also called pick carrier. DOT
pick breaker
A breaker developed as the mechanical
equivalent of the miner's pick. In
the modern type, the picks are mounted on
alternating arms, the primary
and secondary picks being at different
spacings so that breaking is
performed in two stages. The breaker and
plate belt are usually supplied
as a standard unit driven from a common
motor. Nelson
pick carrier
See:pick boy
picker
a. An employee who picks or discards
slate and other foreign matter from
coal in an anthracite breaker or at a
picking table, or one who removes
high-grade ore, iron, or scrap wood from
ore as it passes on a conveyor
belt to crushers. BCI; DOT
b. A mechanical arrangement for
removing slate from coal.
c. A miner's needle, used for picking out
the tamping of a charge that has
failed to explode.

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pickeringite

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A monoclinic mineral, MgAl
2
(SO
4
)
4

.22H
2
O ;
hallotrichite group; forms acicular crystals
and tufts; astringent taste;
a product of surficial acid sulfate attack on
aluminous rocks in mines and
arid regions.
picket
a. A sighting hub.
b. A short ranging rod about 6 ft (1.8 m)
long. An iron rod, pointed at
one end, and usually painted alternately
red and white at 1-foot (30.5-cm)
intervals; used by surveyors as a line of
sight.
CTD; Fay
picking
a. Operation performed between mine and
mill in which waste rock, wood,
detritus, steel (tramp iron), or any
specially separated mineral is
removed from the run-of-mine ore
material by hand sorting. Usually done
during transit of material on belt
conveyors, preferably after very large
lumps and smalls have been screened off
and the ore to be picked has been
sufficiently washed to display a true
surface. Also done on a picking
table, a rotating circular disc around
which hand sorters stand or sit to
remove part of the ore fed radially from a
central point. Picking can also
be mechanized. Pryor, 3
b. The falling of particles from a mine
roof about to collapse.
c. Extracting over a prolonged period an
undue proportion of the richest
ore from a mine, thus lowering the
average grade of the remaining ore
reserves; "picking the eyes out" of a mine.
d. Rough sorting of ore. Webster 2nd
picking belt
A continuous conveyor (e.g., in the form
of a rubber belt or of a steel
apron, steelplate, or link construction) on
which raw coal or ore is
spread so that selected ingredients may be
removed manually.
BS, 5
picking chute
A chute along which workers are stationed
to pick slate from coal.

picking conveyor
See:picking belt
picking out eyes
Mining in which only the high-grade spots
are taken out. Hoover
picking table
A flat, or slightly inclined, platform on
which the coal or ore is run to
be picked free from slate or gangue.
picking conveyor.
pick lacing
The pattern to which the picks are set in a
cutter chain. In this respect,
it may be a balanced or an unbalanced
cutter chain. Pick lacing is
important as it has a bearing on the
stability of the machine, on dust
formation, and even on dangerous
sparking. Nelson
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pickle
a. An acid dip used to remove oxides or
other compounds from the surface
of a metal by chemical action. Lowenheim
b. To use such an acid dip.

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pickling
The process of removing scale or oxide
from metal objects by immersion in
an acid bath to obtain a chemically clean
surface prior to galvanizing or
painting. Hammond
pick machine
Coal-cutting machine which acts
percussively, and cuts with a large chisel
fixed at the end of a piston reciprocated by
compressed air in much the
same way as a rock drill is operated. Kiser
pick mine
A mine in which coal is cut with picks.
Kiser
pick miner
In anthracite and bituminous coal mining,
a person who: (1) uses hand
tools to extract coal in underground
workings; (2) cuts out a channel
under the bottom of the working face of
coal (undercutting) with a pick,
working several feet back into the seam;
(3) breaks down a coalface with a
pick; (4) bores holes with an augerlike
drill for blasting, and inserts
and sets off explosives in holes to break
down coal; (5) shovels coal into
cars and pushes them to a haulageway.
Also called hand cutter; hand miner;
hand pick miner; pick-and-shovel miner.
DOT
pick money
An earlier practice whereby miners paid a
blacksmith for sharpening their
picks. Nelson
pickrose hoist
A small haulage engine used for pulling
light loads over short distances;
used at junctions, loading points, and
haulage transfer points.
Nelson
pick tongs
Tongs for handling hot metal. Webster 3rd
pickup
a. Syn. for lift, as applied to hoisting drill
rods from a borehole.
Long
b. An angular crosscut, through which
coal is hauled from one entry to
another.
c. See:geophone; detector.
d. Transfer of metal from tools to a part,
or from a part to tools, during
a forming operation. ASM, 1
e. In Alaska, a gold nugget picked up
during mining operations prior to
sluicing.
pickup test
A laboratory procedure used in
investigating the floatability of minerals.
A few grains, sized between 60 and 120
mesh, are placed, after suitable
surface cleansing, under water in an
observation cell which is controlled
for pH, reagent concentration,
temperature, and conditioning time. An air
bubble is pressed down on the particles
and then raised; the degree and
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
tenacity with which they cling to it are
observed. Pryor, 3
pickwork
Cutting coal with a pick, as in driving
headings. Fay

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picky poke bar
A steel bar, usually of 7/8-in (2.22-cm)
stock and about 4 ft (1.2 m)
long, with each end sharpened, bent out at
an angle of 45 degrees , the
bends being 3 to 6 in (7.6 to 15.2 cm)
from each end. Hess
picotite
A former name for chromian spinel,
(Mg,Fe)(Al,Cr)
2
O
4
.
picral
An etching reagent consisting of a 2% to
5% solution of picric acid in
ethyl alcohol. It may be used for plain
carbon and low-alloy steels.
Osborne
picric acid
A yellow crystalline compound, C
6
H
3
N
3

O
7
,
obtained variously, such as by the action
of nitric acid on phenol. It is
used in dyeing and is an ingredient in
certain explosives. Also called
carbazotic acid; chrysolepic acid;
trinitrophenic acid.
Standard, 2
picrite basalt
Olivine-rich basalt, as formed by the
settling of olivine in thick flows
and sills. Commonly contains 50% or
more olivine. AGI
picrochromite
Magnesium chromite, MgCr
2
O
4
; melting
point, 2,250 degrees
C; sp gr, 4.41. This spinel can be
synthesized by heating a mixture of the
two oxides at 1,600 degrees C; it is
formed (usually with other spinels in
solid solution) in fired chrome-magnesite
refractories. Picrochromite is
highly refractory but when heated at 2,000
degrees C, the Cr
2
O
3
slowly volatilizes.
picrolite
An asbestiform antigorite serpentine.
picromerite
a. A monoclinic mineral, K
2
Mg(SO
4
)
2

.6H
2
O ;
forms highly soluble masses or crusts
around fumaroles; also a rare,
advanced desiccation constituent of
marine evaporites. Formerly called
schoenite.
b. A mineral group including
boussingaultite, cyanochroite, mohrite,
nickel-boussingaultite, and picromerite.
picture
A screen to shelter workers from falling
water. Zern
Pidgeon process
A process for the production of
magnesium by the reduction of
magnesium
oxide with ferrosilicon. ASM, 1
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pie
A local term for an intermediate pack
without supporting walls.
TIME
piecemeal stoping

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A process by which magma eats into its
roof by engulfing relatively small
isolated blocks, which presumably sink to
depth where they are
assimilated.
piece weight
See:effective piece weight
piecework
The performance of underground work on
the basis of an agreement between a
miner and the mine manager. Payment
may be made by the yard of advance of
a heading or tunnel or per ton or cubic
yard of coal or ore removed. In
ripping work, payment may be made by
the yard advance of excavation to a
specified width and height; strip packing
may be built at a certain sum
per yard advance or cubic yard of filling.;
yardage. Nelson
piedmont
Adj. Lying or formed at the base of a
mountain or mountain range; e.g., a
piedmont terrace or a piedmont pediment.-
--n. An area, plain, slope,
glacier, or other feature at the base of a
mountain; e.g., a foothill or a
bajada. In the United States, the Piedmont
is a plateau extending from New
Jersey to Alabama and lying east of the
Appalachian Mountains. Etymol:
from Piemonte, a region of NW Italy at
the foot of the Alps. AGI
piedmont alluvial plain
See:bajada
piedmontite
See:piemontite
piedmont plain
See:bajada
piedmont scarp
A small fault scarp at the foot of a
mountain range and essentially
parallel to the range. AGI
piel
An iron wedge for piercing stone.
Standard, 2
piemontite
A monoclinic mineral, Ca
2
(Al,Mn,Fe)
3

(OH)O(Si
2
O
7
)(SiO
4
) ; epidote group; less
common than epidote; occurs
in a variety of environments: low-grade
regional metamorphic rocks,
manganese deposits, and some
intermediate to silicic volcanic rocks,
perhaps due to metasomatism.
piedmontite.
CF:withamite
pier
A rectangular or sometimes circular form
of column, constructed usually of
concrete, hard brickwork, or masonry, and
designed to support heavy
222
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
concentrated loads from arches or a bridge
superstructure. Hammond
pier cap

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The upper or bearing part of a bridge pier;
usually made of concrete or
hard stone; designed to distribute
concentrated loads evenly over the area
of the pier. Hammond
piercement
Salt plug that rises and penetrates rock
formations to shallow depths.
Wheeler, R.R.
piercement dome
See:diapir
piercement fold
See:diapir
piercer
A blasting needle.
piercing
A prospecting method used in soft soil
free from stones, in which small
drivepipes are used to secure samples of
underlying material or to
determine the thickness of the soil. Lewis
pier dam
Dam or jetty to influence current. CF:weir
pietra della raja
It. A fine-grained Permian sandstone
suitable for sawing and finishing.
Hess
piezocrystallization
Crystallization of a magma under
pressure, such as pressure associated
with orogeny. AGI
piezoelectric axis
One of the directions in a crystal in which
either tension or compression
will cause the crystal to develop
piezoelectric charges. Gaynor
piezoelectric detector
A type of detector that depends upon the
piezoelectric effect by which an
electric charge is produced on the faces of
a properly cut crystal of
certain materials, particularly quartz and
Rochelle salt, when the crystal
is strained. The detector is constructed
from a pile of such crystals with
intervening metal foil to collect the
charge. An inertia mass is mounted
on the top of the crystal stack that is
included in an electronic circuit.
AGI
piezoelectricity
The property exhibited by some
asymmetrical crystalline materials which
when subjected to strain in suitable
directions develop electric
polarization proportional to the strain.
Inverse piezoelectricity is the
effect in which mechanical strain is
produced in certain asymmetrical
crystalline materials when subjected to an
external electric field; the
strain is proportional to the electric field.
Quartz is an industrially
important example. Hunt

223
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
piezometer

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An instrument for measuring pressure
head; usually consisting of a small
pipe tapped into the side of a closed or
open conduit and flush with the
inside; connected with a pressure gage,
mercury, water column, or other
device for indicating head.
piezometric surface
See:potentiometric surface
pig
a. A crude casting of metal convenient for
storage, transportation, or
melting; esp. one of standard size and
shape for marketing run directly
from the smelting furnace. CF:ingot
b. A mold or channel in a pig bed.
Webster 3rd
c. A heavily shielded container (usually
lead) used to ship or to store
radioactive materials.
d. An air manifold having a number of
pipes which distribute compressed
air coming through a single large line.
Nichols, 1
pig and ore process
Modification of the open-hearth process
of steel manufacture with pig iron
and iron ore as the charge. Bennett
pig and scrap process
Modification of the open-hearth process
of steel manufacture with pig iron
and steel as the charge. Bennett


pig bed
A series of molds for iron pigs, made in a
bed of sand. Connected to each
other and to the taphole of the blast
furnace by channels, along which the
molten metal runs. CTD
pig caster
Person who pours molten metal into hand
ladles, and from ladles into molds
to form ingots. DOT
pigeonhole
a. A room driven directly into a coal seam
from the edge of a strip pit.
b. Any small poorly equipped coal mine.
c. A hole in the shaft house floor through
which the bucket or skip is
raised or lowered. Hess
d. An opening left at the meeting of two
sections of arch work, permitting
the workers to close the arch and to come
out. The pigeonhole itself is
closed from below. Stauffer
pigeonhole checker
An arrangement of checkerbrick such that
each course of brick is laid in
spaced parallel rows with the brick end to
end; each alternate course
above and below has its parallel rows at
right angles to the intervening
course. ARI
pigeonite
A monoclinic mineral,
(Mg,Fe,Ca)(Mg,Fe)Si
2
O
6
; pyroxene
group; crystallographically distinct from
augite; occurs only in quickly
chilled lavas. CF:augite
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pig foot

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a. An iron clamp shaped like a pig's foot
used to attach the jack to the
feed chain of a continuous electric coal
cutter. Fay
b. A pipe jack with a pig foot at one end.
Fay
Piggot corer
A device for sampling bottom sediments.
A core barrel is driven into
unconsolidated material by an explosive
charge. AGI
piggyback conveyor
See:long piggyback conveyor
pig handler
A laborer who removes metal pigs from
molds manually and stamps heat
numbers on pigs with hammer and punch.
DOT
pig lead
Commercial lead in large oblong masses
or pigs.
pigment mineral
A mineral having economic value as a
coloring agent. The most important
are the red and yellow ochers and brown
sienna, which consists of iron
oxides with some impurities, and the
brown umbers in which manganese oxide
is also present. When the iron-oxide
content is high the term oxide is
used in preference to ocher. AGI; Nelson

pig metal
Metal, such as brass or copper, in its first
rough casting.
Standard, 2
pigotite
A salt of alumina and organic acid, 4Al
2

O
3
.C
12
H
10
O
8
.27H
2
O ; formed on the surface of
granite under
the influence of wet vegetation. Tomkeieff
pigsticker
A person delegated to the duty of
punching or knocking pig iron out of
chills or molds at a blast-furnace or pig-
casting machine. Fay
pigsty
Timber support used in stopes to hold up
the roof, consisting of a square
frame of chocked round timbers and filled
with waste rock.

pigsty timbering
Hollow pillars built up of logs laid
crosswise for supporting heavy
weights.
pig tailer
A laborer who helps a pusher to push
loaded mine cars over long distances
and up inclines where mechanical or mule
haulage is not used. Also called
helper-up. DOT


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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pike
A term used in England for any summit or
top of a mountain or hill, esp.
one that is peaked or pointed. Also, a
mountain or hill having a peaked
summit. AGI

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Pike process
A method for the direct production of
steel by passing reducing gases over
iron oxide ore, carburizing the reduced
ore, and alloying it in an
electric furnace. Thus, a reducing gas,
heated to 900 degrees C is passed
over iron oxide ore to produce metallic
iron and spent gas. The
carburized, partially reduced metal is
melted, reduced, and alloyed in the
electric furnace. Osborne
piking
See:cobbing
pilarite
An aluminous variety of chrysocolla.
Standard, 2
pile
a. A timber, steel, or reinforced concrete
plate or post that is driven
into the ground to carry a vertical load
(bearing pile) or a horizontal
load from earth or water pressure (sheet
pile). Nelson
b. A spiked or sharped-edged plank,
beam, or even pipe or girder that is
forced forward or downward (sinking)
into running ground with a view to
support. Mason
c. A stack of ore or stones. Gordon
d. A prop of timber. Gordon
e. Long thick laths, etc., answering in
shafts in loose or quick ground,
the same purpose as spills in levels, piles
being driven vertically.
pile dam
A dam made by driving piles and filling
the interstices with stones. The
surfaces are usually protected with
planking.
pile drawer
See:pile extractor
pile driver
a. A machine for driving down piles;
usually consisting of a high frame
with appliances for raising and dropping a
pile hammer or for supporting
and guiding a steam or air hammer. Also
called pile engine.
Webster 3rd
b. An operator of a pile driver. Webster
3rd
pile extractor
A sheet piling extractor that works on the
same principle as the
piledriving hammer, except that the force
of the blow is upward rather
than down. Carson, 1
pile group
A number of piles driven or cast in situ,
will sustain a much heavier load
than a single pile can carry, esp. when
connected by a pile cap.
Hammond

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pilehammer
This may be a drophammer, a steam
hammer, or a diesel hammer of which the
last two are completely automatic. Steam
hammers are also able to operate
on compressed air.

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pile head
The top of a precast concrete pile,
protected during driving by packing
under a pile helmet and sometimes by a
timber dolly. The top of a timber
pile is protected by a driving band.
Hammond
pile helmet
A cast-steel cap covering and protecting
the head of a concrete pile
during driving.
pile sinking
A method of sinking a circular or
rectangular shaft through 20 to 30 ft
(6.1 to 9.1 m) of sand or mud at the
surface. It cannot be used for
greater depths as each ring of piles
reduces the inside dimensions of the
shaft.
piling
A structure or group of piles.
pill
A loosely rolled cylinder of burlap and
1/4-in-mesh (0.6-cm-mesh) hardware
cloth pushed down into a borehole ahead
of a string of drill rods to the
point where a large crevice or small cavity
has been encountered. At this
point the cylinder tends to unroll partially,
forming a mat that acts as a
barrier against which other hole-plugging
agents may collect and help seal
off the opening. Long
pillar
a. A column of coal or ore left to support
the overlying strata or hanging
wall in a mine, generally resulting in a
"room and pillar" array. Pillars
are normally left permanently to support
the surface or to keep old
workings water tight. Coal pillars, such as
those in pillar-and-stall
mining, are extracted at a later period.
b. A block of ore entirely surrounded by
stoping, left intentionally for
purposes for ground control or on account
of low value. Spalding
c. A column of rock remaining after
solution of the surrounding rock.

pillar-and-breast
A system of coal mining in which the
working places are rectangular rooms
usually five or ten times as long as they
are broad, opened on the upper
side of the gangway. The breasts usually
from 5 to 12 yd (4.6 to 11.0 m)
wide, vary with the character of the roof.
The rooms or breasts are
separated by pillars of solid coal (broken
by small cross headings driven
for ventilation) from 5 to 10 yd (4.6 to 9.1
m) or 12 yd (11 m) wide. The
pillar is really a solid wall of coal
separating the working places. When
the object is to obtain all the coal that can
be recovered as quickly as
possible, the pillars are left thin; but where
this plan is likely to
induce a crush or squeeze that may
seriously injure the mine, larger
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pillars are left and after the mine has been
worked out, the pillars are
"robbed" by mining from them until the
roof comes down and prevents
further working. In the steeply inclined
seams of the anthracite regions
the pillar-and-breast system is employed
by working the bed in "lifts".
Also called pillar-and-stall; post-and-stall;
bord-and-pillar.
Fay
pillar-and-chamber
A pillar method of working often adopted
in extracting a proportion of
thick deposits of salt or gypsum. The
method may be adopted where the
value of the mineral in the pillars is less
than the cost of setting
artificial supports. Nelson
pillar-and-room
A system of mining whereby solid blocks
of coal are left on either side of
miner's working places to support the roof
until first-mining has been
completed, when the pillar coal is then
recovered.

pillar-and-stall
a. A system of working coal and other
minerals where the first stage of
excavation is accomplished with the roof
sustained by coal or ore.
b. One of the earliest methods of working
coal seams in Great Britain. It
is employed in thick seams and where
valuable surface buildings require
protection from damage by subsidence. A
number of narrow roadways are
driven in the coal seam to a predetermined
boundary. There are two sets of
roadways, driven at right angles to each
other, and thus the seam is
divided into a large number of square or
rectangular pillars. These
pillars are extracted at a later period. The
driving of the narrow
roadways is termed working the whole
while pillar working is known as
working the broken. The width of the
roadways and their distance apart are
governed by the thickness and nature of
the coal seam and the type of roof
and floor. The main headings are driven
forward and connected at intervals
by crosscuts or stentons for ventilation
and as a second exit. The bords
are driven off the main headings at fixed
distances apart, and are
connected at intervals by walls. The width
of the main headings,
crosscuts, and bords varies from 3 to 5 yd
(2.7 to 4.6 m). The bords are
driven from 15 to 60 yd (13.7 to 54.9 m)
apart. The walls are about 2 to 3
yd (1.8 to 2.7 m) wide and driven at
similar or greater intervals
according to the size of pillars to be
formed. Modern pillar-and-stall
mining is highly mechanized.;
mechanized heading development;
stenton. Also called bord-and-pillar.
Nelson
pillar boss
In bituminous coal mining, a person who
supervises the work of robbers in
removing pillars of coal that were left to
support the roof of working
places during mining operations.
pillar burst
Failure of remnants, promontories, as well
as pillars, by crushing.
Spalding

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pillar caving
Removal of ore from a series of stopes or
rooms, leaving pillars between.
Eventually the pillars are forced or
allowed to cave under the weight of
the roof.

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pillar coal
Coal secured in pillar robbing. Fay
pillar drive
A wide irregular drift or entry, in firm dry
ground, in which the roof is
supported by pillars of natural earth or by
artificial pillars of stone,
without using timber. Fay
pillar extraction
The recovery or working away of the
pillars of coal that were left during
the first operation of working in the pillar-
and-stall method. Also called
pillar mining.
Nelson
pillaring back
The operation of extracting coal pillars, on
the retreating system, in a
pillar method of working. Nelson
pillar line
a. The line along which pillars are being
mined.
b. Air currents which have definitely
coursed through an inaccessible
abandoned panel or area or which have
ventilated a pillar line or a
pillared area, regardless of the methane
content or absence of methane in
such air.
pillar man
A person who builds stone packs in mine
workings.

pillar methods of working
Methods of working coal seams, which
have been given different names in
different coalfields, such as stoop-and-
room in Scotland; bord-and-pillar
in Durham, England; and single and
double stalls in South Wales. There are
many modifications of pillar mining, but
in general, there are two stages:
(1) the driving of narrow roadways and
thus forming a number of coal
pillars, and (2) the extraction of the
pillars--often on the retreating
system. Pillar methods of mining are
widely used in the United States,
while the longwall method is favored in
Great Britain. Pillar methods also
are used for working stratified deposits of
ironstone, rock salt, slate,
and other layered minerals. Nelson
pillar mining system
Any of several systems, including the
room-and-pillar system, the block
system, and the bord-and-pillar system.
Woodruff
pillar recovery
Mining of pillars during retreat mining to
increase the overall recovery
of the reserve.
pillar road
a. Roadway formed in coal pillars. Nelson
b. Working road or incline in pillars
229
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
having a range of longwall faces on
either side.
pillar robbing

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a. The systematic removal of the coal
pillars or ore between rooms or
chambers to regulate the subsidence of the
roof. Also called pillar
drawing. Fay
b. The removal of ore pillars in sublevel
stoping or slicing.
c. Formerly, in pillar-and-stall mining, the
coal pillars left were too
small, and miners were satisfied to gain
some coal by robbing the pillars,
usually from middle portions, the
remaining coal being too dangerous to
extract. Nelson
pillar split
An opening or crosscut driven through a
pillar in the course of
extraction.
pillar strength
The formula for pillar strength can be
expressed as follows: S = C (L/T)
1/2
where the coefficient, C, is directly
dependent upon friction,
L is the least pillar width, and T is the
thickness. Coal Age, 3
pillar working
Working coal in much the same manner as
with the pillar-and-stall system.
pillow
A rock texture characterized by piles of
lobate, pillow-shaped masses;
individual pillows range up to several
meters across; typical of basalt
that has erupted under an appreciable
depth of water.
pillow block
A metal-cased rubber block that allows
limited motion to a support or
thrust member. Nichols, 1
pillow lava
A general term for lava that exhibits
pillow structure, mostly basalts and
andesites that erupted and flowed under
water. The ocean floor sodium-rich
basalts known as spilites are commonly
pillowed.
pillow structure
A structure, observed in certain extrusive
igneous rocks, that is
characterized by discontinuous pillow-
shaped masses ranging in size from a
few centimeters to a meter or more in
greatest dimension (commonly between
30 cm and 60 cm). The pillows are close-
fitting, the concavities of one
matching the convexities of another. The
spaces between the pillows are
few and are filled either with material of
the same composition as the
pillows, with clastic sediments, or with
scoriaceous material. Grain sizes
within the pillows tend to decrease toward
the exterior. Pillow structures
are considered to be the result of
subaqueous extrusion, as evidenced by
their association with sedimentary
deposits, usually of deep-sea origin.

pilot
a. A cylindrical steel bar extending
through and about 8 in (20 cm) beyond
230
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English

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the face of a reaming bit. It acts as a guide
that follows the original
unreamed part of the borehole and hence
forces the reaming bit to follow
and be concentric with the smaller-
diameter, unreamed portion of the
original borehole.
Long b. A cylindrical diamond-set plug, of
somewhat smaller diameter than the
bit proper, set in the center and projecting
beyond the main face of a
noncoring bit.
pilotaxitic
Said of the texture of the groundmass of a
holocrystalline igneous rock in
which lath-shaped microlites (typically
plagioclase) are arranged in a
glass-free mesostasis and are generally
interwoven in irregular unoriented
fashion. CF:trachytic
pilot bit
A noncoring bit with a cylindrical
diamond-set plug of somewhat smaller
diameter than the bit proper set in the
center and projecting beyond the
main face of the bit.
pilot bob
The weight attached to a shaft plumbline
for the purpose of lowering the
line down the shaft. BS, 7
pilot burner
A small burner kept lighted to rekindle the
principal burner when desired
(as in a flash boiler). The light so
maintained is called a pilot light or
pilot flame. Webster 3rd; Fay

pilot drill
A small drill used to start a hole in order
to insure a larger drill
running true to center. Crispin
pilot hole
a. A small hole drilled ahead of a full-
sized, or larger borehole.
Long
b. A borehole drilled in advance of mine
workings to locate water-bearing
fissures or formations. Long
c. A small tunnel driven ahead of, and
subsequently enlarged to the
diameter required in the following full-
size tunnel. Long
pilot-hole cover
See:cover
pilot lamp
A small electric bulb that lights when
power is turned on in a circuit.
Hammond
pilot method
The method of excavating a tunnel by
driving a small tunnel ahead, and
then enlarging its dimensions.
pilot plant
A small-scale processing plant in which
representative tonnages of ore can
be tested under conditions which
foreshadow (or imitate) those of the
full-scale operation proposed for a given
ore. Pryor, 4

231
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pilot reamer
An assemblage of a pilot, a pilot reaming
bit, and a reaming barrel.

pilot reaming bit

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A box-threaded, diamond-set, annular-
shaped bit designed to be coupled to
a pilot and used to ream a borehole to a
specific casing size.

pilot sampling
The taking of preliminary samples of a
mineral deposit to study its mode
of occurrence and its detailed structure.
Nelson
pilot sequence
Sequence control by means of a pilot
cable is effected by means of a
low-voltage supply from one contactor
panel to the next, or by means of a
line voltage pilot cable. Each contactor
has an auxiliary contact that
controls the supply to the next contactor.
In the low-voltage system, the
secondary of each potential transformer is
earthed at the preceding panel
through an auxiliary switch which closes
with the contactor. Until these
secondary potential transformer circuits
are completed, by closing the
auxiliary contact, the next conveyor
cannot start.

pilot shaft
See:pilot tunnel

pilot tunnel
A small tunnel or shaft excavated in the
center, and in advance of the
main drivage, to gain information about
the ground and create a free face,
thus simplifying the blasting operations.
lson
pilot valve
a. A small balanced valve, operated by a
governor or by hand, which
controls a supply of oil under pressure to
the piston of a servometer or
relay connected to a large control valve,
which it is desired to operate.
Also called relay valve. CTD
b. In a compressor, an automatic valve
that regulates air pressure.
Nichols, 1
pilot wedge
A half-cylinder member, about 5 in (12.7
cm) long, coupled to the lower
end of a Hall-Rowe deflection wedge, by
means of which the deflection
wedge may be oriented in a specific
manner in reference to a matching
half-cylinder surface on the upper end of
the wedge (drive wedge). This is
driven into the wooden plug placed about
8 ft (2.4 m) below the point in a
borehole where a deflection is to be made.
Also called wedge pilot.
Long
Pilz furnace
A circular or octagonal shaft furnace,
maintaining or increasing its
diameter toward the top, and having
several tuyeres; used in smelting lead
ores. Fay
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pimelite
A massive or earthy, apple-green, nickel-
bearing phyllosilicate; probably
willemseite or kerolite having disordered
stacking; (Ni,Mg)
6
Si
8
O
20
(OH)
4
.

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pimple metal
Crude copper matte of about 78% copper,
obtained from the smelting of
sulfide copper ores. Bennett
pin
See:wedge rock
pinacoid
An open crystal form consisting of two
parallel faces. AGI
pinch
a. A marked thinning or squeezing of a
rock layer; e.g., a coming-together
of the walls of a vein, or of the roof and
floor of a coal seam, so that
the ore or coal is more or less completely
displaced.nip
CF:make; want. Standard, 2
b. A thin place or a narrow part of, an
orebody; the part of a mineral
zone that almost disappears before it
widens out in another place to form
an extensive orebody. AGI
c. The binding action caused when
drillhole walls close in before casing
is emplaced, resulting from failure of soft
or plastic formations.
Long


pinchbar
A kind of crowbar with a short projection
and a heel or fulcrum at the
end; a pinch. Used to pry forward heavy
objects. Standard, 2
pinched
Where a vein narrows, as if the walls had
been squeezed in. Where the
walls meet, the vein is said to be pinched
out.
pinch.
pinching out
Where a lode or stratum narrows down
and disappears.pinch
BCI
pinch out
To taper or narrow progressively to
extinction; to thin out. AGI
pinder concentrator
A revolving table on which are tapering
spiral copper cleats on a linoleum
cover. The tailings are washed over the
riffles and off the edge, while
the concentrates are delivered at the end
of the riffles. Liddell
pineapple
a. A cast roller, designed to keep the
haulage rope centered between rail
tracks. Spiral grooves on the sides return a
straying rope to the central
grooves. Works in one direction only.
Pryor, 3
b. See:line oiler

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pine tar

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Very viscous; dark brown to black; liquid
or semisolid; strong
characteristic odor; sharp taste; translucent
in thin layers; hardens with
aging; sp gr, 1.03 to 1.07; boiling point,
ranges from 240 to 400 degrees
C; soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform,
acetone, glacial acetic acid,
fixed and volatile oils, and sodium
hydroxide; and insoluble in water.
Chief constituents are complex phenols;
also present are turpentine,
rosin, toluene, xylene, and other
hydrocarbons. Used in flotation.
CCD, 2
ping
An acoustic pulse signal projected by an
echo-ranging transducer.
Hy
pinguite
A former name for nontronite.
pinion
Smaller of a pair of toothed wheels, e.g.,
the pinion geared to the driven
crown wheel of a ball mill. Pryor, 3
pinion gear
A drive gear that is smaller than the gear it
turns. Nichols, 1
pinite
A compact, fine-grained, generally impure
mica near muscovite in
composition; dull-gray, green, or brown;
derived from the alteration of
other minerals, esp. cordierite, nepheline,
scapolite, spodumene, and
feldspar.
pinnacle
a. Any high tower or spire-shaped pillar of
rock, alone or cresting a
summit. A tall, slender, pointed mass;
esp., a lofty peak. AGI
b. A sharp pyramid or cone-shaped rock
under water or showing above it.
AGI
c. In alluvial mining, a spine or pillar in
limestone bedrock of an
irregular and serrated type, in which it is
difficult for dredge buckets
to work. Pryor, 3
pinned coupling
A drill-rod coupling that has been
permanently attached to the body of the
rod by a metal dowel (or pin) driven into a
small hole drilled at the
point in the rod where the coupling is
screwed into the body of the rod.
Long
pinnel
a. Boulder clay, from Cumberland,
Northumberland, and Lancashire,
England,
and North Wales. Arkell
b. Coarse gravel or sandstone
conglomerate. Arkell
pin puller
A laborer who removes studs from
aluminum reduction pots by operating a
motor-driven hydraulic jack. DOT


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pintadoite

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a. A vanadium ore. Osborne
b. A mineral, Ca
2
V
2
O
7
.9H
2
O ; green;
forms
water-soluble efflorescences; associated
with uranium-vanadium deposits of
the Colorado Plateau.
pin thread
A thread on the outside surface of a
cylindrical or tubular member.

pin timbering
A roof support method following two
basic principles: (1) that of drilling
holes vertically or at an angle into the roof
and anchoring roof bolts
into a strong firm structure above the
lower weak layers, thereby
suspending the weak roof on bolts from
the strong roof above; and (2) the
binding of several layers of weak strata
into a beam strong enough to
support its weight across the working
place. The advantage of pin
timbering is that support can be provided
at the face without posts being
in the way of equipment and more
freedom is provided for shuttle cars and
other equipment in tramming.
Kentucky
pintle
A vertical pin fastened at the bottom that
serves as a center of rotation.
Nichols, 1
pintle hook
A towing device consisting of a fixed
lower jaw, a hinged and lockable
upper jaw, and a socket between them to
hold a tow ring.
Nichols, 1
pin-to-box
The currently accepted term for a
coupling, one end of which is threaded
on the outside (pin) and the opposite end
threaded on the inside (box).
Formerly designated as a male-to-female
coupling. Long
pin-to-pin
The currently accepted term for a
coupling, both ends of which are
threaded on the outside. Formerly
designated as a male-to-male coupling.
Long
pin-type slat conveyor
Two or more endless chains to which
crossbars are attached at spaced
intervals, each having affixed to it a series
of pointed rods extending in
a vertical plane on which work is carried.
Used principally in spraying or
washing operations where the least
amount of area of the product is
contacted.
pion
An elementary particle; the contraction of
pi-meson. The mass of a charged
pion is about 273 times that of an electron.
An electrically neutral pion
has a mass 264 times that of an electron.
pioneer bench
The first bench in a quarry which is
blasted out. It is usually at the top
of the rock to be quarried.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pioneer road
A primitive, temporary road built along
the route of a job, to provide
means for moving equipment and
workers. Nichols, 1

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pioneer wave
U.K. The advance vibration set up by a
coal dust explosion.

piotine
See:saponite
pipe
a. A cylindrical, more or less vertical
orebody.
shoot; stock. AGI
b. A vertical conduit through the Earth's
crust; e.g., a kimberlite pipe
of South Africa, through which magmatic
materials have passed. It is
usually filled with volcanic breccia and
fragments of older rock. As a
zone of high permeability, it is commonly
mineralized. AGI
c. A tubular cavity from several
centimeters to a few meters in depth,
formed esp. in calcareous rocks, and often
filled with sand and gravel;
e.g., a vertical joint or sinkhole in chalk,
enlarged by solution of the
carbonate material and filled with clastic
material.
pipe bit
A bit designed for attachment to standard
coupled pipe for use in securing
the pipe in bedrock. Can be set with
diamonds or other abrasive materials.
Long
pipe clamp
a. A device similar to a casing clamp, used
in the same manner on pipe as
a casing clamp is used on casing.
b. A pipe wrench constructed like a
parmalee wrench. Long
pipe clay
a. Originally a clay suitable for making
tobacco pipes, but the term is
now used to include any white-burning
plastic clay. Nelson
b. A mass of fine clay, generally of
lenticular form, found embedded in or
below a placer gravel bank.
pipe coil
A device which measures only the density
of the magnetic components of a
slurry. This electromagnetic sensing unit
is mounted on a section of
rubber or stainless-steel pipe which is
installed as a section of the
slurry-carrying pipeline. All components
are exterior to the pipe, and
there is no obstruction to flow. The pipe
coil is used widely in magnetic
taconite and heavy-media plants. By
combining this device with other
instruments, it is possible to continuously
measure the ore-to-media
ratio. Nelson
pipe coupling
An internally threaded, short, sleevelike
member of ordinary steel used to
join lengths of pipe. Sometimes
incorrectly called pipe collar; pipe
sleeve. Long

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pipe cutter
A tool for cutting wrought iron or steel
pipes. The curved end which
partly encircles the pipe carries one or
more cutting disks.
Crispin
piped air
Air conducted to workings or a tunnel
face through air pipes.

pipe drivehead
a. A drivehead that is coupled to a pipe.

b. Extra thick walled pipe or casing
coupling against which the blow of a
drive block is delivered when driving or
sinking drivepipe or casing.
Long
c. An oversize rod or casing coupling on
which the blows of a drive block
are delivered when casing is being driven
or an attempt is being made to
jar loose stuck casing or a drill-rod string.
Long
d. Incorrectly used as a synonym for drive
shoe; drive hammer.
Long
pipe elevator
A device similar to a casing elevator, used
to raise and lower
outside-coupled pipe in a borehole. Long
pipe factor
a. Correction made when drilling running
ground, alluvial gravels, and
sands. The volume actually extracted over
a measured depth is compared
with that which would be obtained over
the true drill pipe area and
distance, any discrepancy being due to
inrush of sands or forcing out of
sand by the pumping action during
drilling. Pryor, 3
b. The assumed cross-sectional area of a
length of borehole when
estimating the in situ volume of a core
sample. Also called pipe constant.
Nelson
pipe fitting
A general term referring to any of the ells,
tees, various branch
connectors, etc., used in connecting pipes.
Crispin
pipe friction
The drag created on the outside of a pipe
being driven into overburden
material, which presses and rubs against
the outside surface of the pipe
and its couplings.
pipe grab
A clutch for catching and raising a well
pipe. Standard, 2
pipe jack
An iron pipe with a clamp or pigfoot on
one end and a curved point on the
other. It is wedged between the floor and
roof of a mine room to hold the
feed chain of a continuous electric coal
mining machine. Fay
pipeline transport
Long distance pipeline used for hydraulic
transport of coal, gilsonite,
copper concentrates and similar materials.


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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pipeman

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a. A person engaged in laying or repairing
pipelines. Also called
pipefitter. BS, 10
b. Mine worker who repairs, lengthens,
and maintains the pipelines for air
and water in mines. Stoces
c. A worker in charge of a pipe, esp. in
hydraulic mining.
Webster 2nd
pipe prover
An apparatus for testing the tightness of a
pipeline or system, usually by
hydraulic pressure. Standard, 2
piper
Sometimes applied to a blower of gas in
coal mines. Nelson
pipe sampler
A device for sampling a pile of ore,
consisting simply of a small iron
pipe that is driven into the pile and which,
when withdrawn, brings a core
of ore with it.
pipe sampling
Sampling by means of a drivepipe in
accumulations of crushed residues or
of material where the larger pieces are not
usually greater than 2 in (5.1
cm). The advancing end of the pipe is
generally sharpened to provide a
cutting edge, and sometimes contracted in
diameter so that material once
entered will not readily fall out when the
pipe is lifted. Also called gun
sampling.

pipestone
See:catlinite
pipette analysis
The size analysis of fine-grained sediment
made by removing samples from a
suspension with a pipette. AGI
pipette method
A method for the determination of particle
size.

piping
a. In hydraulic mining, discharging water
from nozzles at auriferous
gravel.
b. The act or process of driving standpipe,
drivepipe, or casing into and
through overburden. Long
c. Erosion by percolating water in a layer
of subsoil, resulting in caving
and in the formation of narrow conduits,
tunnels, or pipes through which
soluble or granular soil material is
removed; esp. the movement of
material, from the permeable foundation
of a dam or levee, by the flow or
seepage of water along underground
passages.
AGI
d. The flow of water under or around a
structure built on permeable
foundations that will remove material
from beneath the structure.
Nelson
e. The tubular depression caused by
contraction during cooling, on the top
of iron and steel ingots.

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
piracy
Stream piracy.
pirssonite

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An orthorhombic mineral, Na
2
Ca(CO
3
)
2

.2H
2
O;
forms colorless to white short prisms or
tablets; in nonmarine
evaporites, particularly the Green River
oil shales in Wyoming, and Borax
Lake, CA.
pisanite
A blue to green cuproan melanterite
(Fe,Cu)SO
4
.7H
2
O .
pisolite
a. A sedimentary rock, usually a
limestone, made up chiefly of pisoliths
cemented together; a coarse-grained
oolite.
b. A term often used for a pisolith, or one
of the spherical particles of
a pisolite.---Etymol: Greek pisos, pea.
CF:oolite
c. An individual unit in a mass of
accretionary lapilli. AGI
pisolith
One of the small, round or ellipsoidal
accretionary bodies in a
sedimentary rock, resembling a pea in size
and shape, and constituting one
of the grains that make up a pisolite. It is
often formed of calcium
carbonate, and some are thought to have
been produced by a biochemical
algal-encrustation process. A pisolith is
larger and less regular in form
than an oolith, although it has the same
concentric and radial internal
structure. The term is sometimes used to
refer to the rock made up of
pisoliths. CF:oolith
pisolitic tuff
An indurated pyroclastic deposit
composed chiefly of accretionary lapilli
or pisolites. AGI
pistacite
A pistachio-green ferric-iron-rich variety
of epidote. Also spelled
pistazite.
pistol pipe
In metalworking, the tuyere of a hot-blast
furnace. Fay
piston
The working part of a pump, hydraulic
cylinder, or engine that moves back
and forth in the cylinder; it is generally
equipped with one or several
rings or cups to control the passage of
fluid. It ejects the fluid from
the cylinder, as in a pump, or receives
force from the fluid, which causes
a reciprocating motion, as in an engine.
Long
piston corer
An oceanographic corer containing a
piston inside the cylinder which
reduces friction by creating suction. There
are several varieties,
including the Ewing corer, the Mackereth
sampler, and the Kullenberg
corer.

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
piston drive-sampler
See:piston sampler
piston sampler
A drive sampler equipped with either a
free or a retractable-type piston
that retreats up into the barrel of the
sampler in contact with the top of
the soil sample as the sampler is pressed
into the formation being
sampled. CF:drive sampler
piston speed
Total feet or meters of travel of a piston in
1 min. Nichols, 1
piston-type sampler
See:piston sampler
piston-type washbox
See:plunger-type washbox
pit
a. Depression produced in a metal surface
by nonuniform electrodeposition
or by corrsion. Lowenheim
b. Excavation to hold quantities of water
and drilling fluids.
Wheeler, R.R.
c. So. Wales. Long, open-air fire for
converting coal into coke for
blast-furnace purposes. Fay
d. A mine, quarry, or excavation worked
by the open-cut method to obtain
material of value.
e. The shaft of a mine; a shaft mine; a trial
pit. Nelson
f. The underground portion of a colliery,
including all workings. Used in
many combinations, as pit car, pit clothes,
etc.
g. In hydraulic mining, the excavation in
which piping is carried forward.
h. Commonly, a coal mine, but not usually
called so by workers, except in
reference to surface mining where the
workings may be known as a strip
pit. BCI
i. See:abyss
pit ash
Ash in coal derived from the dirt bands,
adjoining shales or cleat
minerals. Tomkeieff
pit bank
a. Eng. The raised ground or platforms
upon which the coal is sorted and
screened at the surface.
b. Scot. The surface of the ground at the
mouth of a pit, or shaft.
pit bar
One of the wooden props bracing the sides
of a pit. Standard, 2
pit boss
A mine foreman who is in direct charge of
workers in a specific portion of
a pit or mine. Also called shift boss.
pit bottom
The bottom of a shaft and all the
equipment and roadways around it.

pit brow
The pithead, and in particular, the mouth
of the shaft. The edge or brow
of a pit.

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pit cage
The structure used in mine shafts for
transport purposes.

pit-car loader
A short, electrically powered, lightweight
elevating conveyor designed for
use in working places, to facilitate the
loading of large cars or to aid
in shoveling long distances. The loader
shovels into the hopper end and
the conveyor carries the coal to the car.
Jones, 1
pit-car-loader operator
In bituminous coal mining, a person who
operates a machine to load coal in
mine (pit) cars. DOT
pit-car repairer
See:mine-car repairman
pitch
a. The angle between the horizontal and
any linear feature, such as an ore
shoot or lineation, measured in the plane
containing the linear feature.

b. The angle between the horizontal and
an axial line passing through the
highest or lowest points of a given stratum
in an anticline or syncline.
c. Loosely, the grade, rise, or incline of a
seam or bed.
d. A vein-form deposit that follows
dipping joint planes. This usage is
confined largely to the Upper Mississippi
Valley lead-zinc deposits.
e. The slope of a roof, in inches (or
centimeters), of vertical rise per
horizontal foot (or meter).
f. The distance between tooth centers, as
in a gear wheel, or the number
of teeth per unit of diameter. The grade of
an incline or the rise of a coal seam. BCI
h. The solid or semisolid residue from the
partial evaporation of tar.
Strictly, pitch is a bitumen with
extraneous matter, such as free carbon,
residual coke, etc. Nelson
i. The angular inclination of an ore shoot
with respect to the surface,
measured in the direction of the strike.
Nelson
j. Of a lode, angle of deviation from the
vertical taken by a section of
ore having some special characteristic,
such as enhanced value.
Pryor, 3
k. The angle that a directional feature, for
example, slickensides, in a
plane makes with a horizontal line within
the plane. BS, 11
l. In dredging, the distance between the
center of any pin and that of the
pin in the next adjacent bucket. Fay
m. See:dip
n. The slope of a surface or tooth relative
to its direction of movement.
Nichols, 1
o. In a roller or silent chain, the space
between pins, measured center to
center. Nichols, 1
p. The amount of advance of a single-
thread screw in one turn, expressed
in lineal distance along or parallel to the
axis, or in turns per unit of
length. Standard, 2
q. The distance between corresponding
points on adjacent projections
produced on work by a cutting tool.
pitch arm

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241
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One of the rods, usually adjustable, which
determine the digging angle of
a blade or bucket. Nichols, 2
pitchblende

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The massive variety of uraninite, UO
(2+x
) ;
radioactive; black to
dark brown; the most important ore of
uranium; occurs widely in
hydrothermal veins and the disseminated
uranium-vanadium deposits of the
Colorado Plateau type.
pitch circle
The circle passing through the chain joint
centers when the chain is
wrapped on the sprocket. Jackson, 1
pitch diameter
The diameter of a circle that passes
through the points of average contact
between the teeth of two gears running in
mesh, or between the teeth of a
sprocket and the roller of its companion
chain, or between a male and a
female thread that are engaged. Brantly, 2
pitcher
One who picks over dumps for pieces of
ore. Webster 3rd
pitching bar
A kind of pick used, esp. by miners, in
beginning a hole.
Webster 2nd
pitching chisel
A chisel used for making an edge on the
face of a stone. Also called
pitching tool. Webster 3rd
pitching seam
A highly inclined seam. In coal mining,
called edge coal. Nelson
pitch length
The length of an ore shoot in its greatest
dimension.
pitch line
a. The line on which the pitch of gear
teeth is measured; an ideal line,
in a toothed gear or rack, bearing such a
relation to a corresponding line
in another gear with which the former
works that the two lines will have a
common velocity, as in rolling contact.
Webster 3rd
b. The line along which the pitch of a rack
is marked out, corresponding
to the pitch circle of a spur wheel. CTD
pitch off
A quarry worker's term for trimming an
edge of a block of stone with a
hammer and set. Fay
pitch ore
See:pitchblende; pitchy copper ore.
pitchstone
A dark, resinous volcanic glass.
pitchwork
In coal mining, work done on shares.
Standard, 2
pitch working
Mine working in a steeply inclined seam.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pitchy
adj. Resembling the appearance or
properties of pitch.
pitchy copper ore

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a. A dark, pitchlike oxide of copper.
b. A mixture of chrysocolla and limonite.
pitchy iron ore
a. An old syn. for pitticite. See:pitticite
b. See:triplite
pit efficiency
In order to allow for the friction of the
skips on the guides and between
the air and the skips in the shaft and for
other small losses, it is usual
to divide the total static torque at any
point of the wind by 0.9 for a
new shaft with rope guides, or 0.85 for an
old shaft with rigid guides.
This factor is generally referred to as pit
efficiency.
Sinclair, 5
pit eye
Bottom of a pit shaft from which the sky
is visible. Pryor, 3
pit-eye pillar
A barrier of coal left around a shaft to
protect it from caving.
Fay
pit foreman
In bituminous coal mining, a foreman who
is in immediate charge of all
mining operations in a strip mine.
pit frame
a. The framework carrying the pit pulley.
Fay
b. The framework in a coal mine shaft.
Standard, 2
pit guide
An iron column that guides the cage in a
mine shaft. Standard, 2
pit hand
In the iron and steel industry, a general
term applied to workers who
perform varied duties around the
processing furnaces. DOT
pithead
a. Landing stage at the top of a shaft.
Pryor, 3
b. The top of a mine shaft including the
buildings, roads, tracks, plant,
and machines around it.
pithead output
The total tonnage of raw coal produced at
a colliery, as distinct from
saleable output. It is the tonnage of coal as
weighed before it enters the
coal-preparation plant.
pit lamp
An open lamp worn on a miner's cap, as
distinguished from a safety lamp.
pit limit
Either the vertical or lateral extent to
which the mining of a mineral
deposit by open pitting may be
economically carried. The cost of
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
removing overburden or waste material
versus the minable value of the ore so
exposed is usually the factor controlling
the limits of a pit.
pitman
a. The worker who regularly examines the
condition of mine infrastructure.
Nelson
b. A connecting rod, such as in the Blake
type of jaw crusher; the
vertical member linking the eccentric
shaft with the toggles between the
frame and the lower end.
pitman arm
An arm having a limited movement
around a pivot. Nichols, 1
pitmen
Workers employed in shaft sinking or
shaft inspection and repair.
pit mining
Surface mining in which the material
mined is removed from below the
surrounding land surface.
pitotmeter
An instrument that consists essentially of
two pitot tubes one of which is
turned upstream and the other downstream
and that is used to record
autographically the velocity of a flowing
liquid or gas.

Pitot-static tube
When the Pitot tube and static tube are
combined, they form the
Pitot-static tube, and as such they can be
used as an anemometer. The
tubes are usually arranged concentrically.
When they are connected to the
opposite sides of a manometer, the
dynamic or velocity pressure will be
measured directly. Roberts, 1
Pitot tube
Consists of two concentric tubes bent in
an L shape. In operation, the
instrument is pointed in the direction of
air flow: the inner tube, open
at the end directed upstream, measures
total head, and the outer tube,
perforated with small openings transverse
to the air flow, records static
head. Each tube is connected to a leg of a
manometer, when reading
velocity head. Hartman, 1
pit pony
A pony used for packing or haulage in a
mine. Webster 3rd
pit prop
a. A piece of timber used as a temporary
support for a mine roof.
Zern
b. Length of timber used as a roof support
in longwall mining. Modern
variants include expandable steel props
which can be hydraulically or
mechanically lengthened; used in
stratified deposits. Pryor, 3
pit quarry
An openpit quarry sunk below ground
level. Access is gained by stairs,
ladders, or mechanical hoists, and material
is conveyed from the quarry by
inclined tracks, trucks, derricks, or

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cableway hoists. These pits may
reach depths of several hundred feet. A
drainage scheme will in most cases
be necessary, as the pit will form a natural
sump for both surface and
subsoil water. This type of quarry is often
used for gravel or soft rock
that can be extracted by some form of
digging.

pit room
a. The number of working places, or the
length of a longwall face,
available in a mine for coal production.
Nelson
b. The extent of the opening in a mine; pit
space. Fay
pit rope
Eng. Winding rope; a hoisting rope. Fay
pit sampling
a. Use of small untimbered pits to gain
access to shallow alluvial
deposits or ore dumps for purpose of
testing or valuation.
Pryor, 3
b. Sampling shallow deposits by means of
trial pits, usually about 2 to 3
ft (0.6 to 0.9 m) in diameter. In reasonably
dry ground, depths of 50 ft
(15.2 m) or more may be reached. Pit
sampling is often used to assist site
investigations as it provides the maximum
of information regarding the
nature of deposits and bedrock.
pit sand
a. Sand usually composed of grains that
are relatively angular; it often
contains clay and organic matter. When
washed and screened it is a good
sand for general purposes. Zern
b. Sand from a pit, as distinct from river
or sea sand. Arkell
pit shale
The name given to the shale from a drift
opened in the side of the ravine
at a level 62 ft (18.9 m) below that of the
Pittsburgh coal seam.
Rice, 2
pit slope
The angle at which the wall of an open pit
or cut stands as measured along
an imaginary plane extended along the
crests of the berms or from the
slope crest to its toe.
pittasphalt
An old name give to viscid bitumen.

pitticite
The mineral amorphous, hydrous, ferric
arsenate sulfate. It is brown to
yellow and red; earthy; occurs as crusts
and botryoidal layers; a common
oxidation product of arsenical ores. Also
spelled pittizite.

pitting
a. The act of digging or sinking a pit. Fay
b. Testing an alluvial deposit by the
systematic sinking of small shafts,
the material recovered being subsequently
tested. The practice is confined
to shallow depths; i.e., down to about 50 ft
(15.2 m) in fairly dry soft
ground. Nelson
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Pittsburgh bed
The Pittsburgh coal which outcrops
prominently in the vicinity of
Pittsburgh and extends under a large area
of western Pennsylvania,
northern West Virginia, northwestern
Maryland, and eastern Ohio. It
belongs in the Carboniferous system,
Pennsylvanian series, at the base of
the Monongahela formation. Rice, 2
pit water
Water from the underground workings of
a mine. BS, 5
pit wood
The various kinds of timber used at a
mine, mainly as supports.
Nelson
pitwork
Cornish pumps and other engineering
appliances in and near a mine shaft.
Pryor, 3
pivot
A nonrotating axle or hinge pin.
pivoted-bucket carrier
The highest type of combined elevator and
conveyor. It consists of two
long-pitch roller chains joined by
crossbars on which are hung the buckets
in such a way that they can be completely
turned over.
pivoted-bucket conveyor
A type of conveyor using pivoted buckets
attached between two endless
chains that operate in suitable guides or
casing in horizontal, vertical,
inclined or a combination of these paths
over drive-corner and takeup
terminals. The buckets remain in the
carrying position until they are
tipped or inverted to discharge.
pivot shaft
A tractor dead axle, or any fixed shaft that
acts as a hinge pin.
Nichols, 1
pivot tube
A hollow hinge pin. Nichols, 1
place
a. See:in situ
b. The part of a mine in which a miner
works by contract is known as his
"place" or "working place."
c. A point at which the cutting of coal is
being carried on.
placer
A deposit of sand or gravel that contains
particles of gold, ilmenite,
gemstones, or other heavy minerals of
value. The common types are stream
gravels and beach sands.; beach placer.
placer claim
a. A mining claim located upon gravel or
ground whose mineral contents are
extracted by the use of water, by sluicing,
hydraulicking, etc. The unit
claim is 1,320 ft
2
(122.6 m
2
) and contains
10 acres (4.1 ha).
b. Ground with defined boundaries that
contains mineral in the earth,

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sand, or gravel; ground that includes
valuable deposits not fixed in the
rock.
c. The maximum size of a placer claim is
20 acres (8.1 ha). Association
claims of two or more persons may be
located up to an area of 160 acres
(64.8 ha) for eight persons. Placer claims
must have a discovery. They
should be staked, a location notice posted,
and recorded in the same
manner as for lode claims, stating the
mineral for which the location in
made. Lewis
placer digging
a. The action of mining by placer
methods. Craigie
b. A place at which placer mining is or
may be carried on. Craigie
placer gold
Gold occurring in more or less coarse
grains or flakes and obtainable by
washing the sand, gravel, etc., in which it
is found. Also called alluvial
gold.
placer ground
Ground where placer mining can be done;
i.e., where valuable minerals can
be obtained by digging up the earth and
washing it for the valued mineral.
Craigie
placer location
A location of a tract of land for mineral-
bearing or other valuable
deposits upon or within it that are not
found within lodes or veins in
rock in place; a claim of a tract of land for
the sake of the loose
deposits on or near its surface. Ricketts
placer mine
a. A deposit of sand, gravel, or talus from
which some valuable mineral is
extracted. Hess
b. See:placer mining
placer mining
a. The extraction of heavy mineral from a
placer deposit by concentration
in running water. It includes ground
sluicing, panning, shoveling gravel
into a sluice, scraping by power scraper
and excavation by dragline,
dredge or other mechanized equipment.
Nelson
b. Extracting the gold or other mineral
from placers, wherever
situated--in dry channels and in channels
temporarily filled with water.
The mineral may be found in deep
channels, in navigable streams, or in
estuaries or creeks and rivers where the
sea ebbs and flows.
Ricketts
c. That form of mining in which the
surficial detritus is washed for gold
or other valuable minerals. When water
under pressure is employed to break
down the gravel, the term hydraulic
mining is generally employed. There
are deposits of detrital material containing
gold which lie too deep to be
profitably extracted by surface mining,
and which must be worked by
drifting beneath the overlying barren
material. The term "drift mining" is
applied to the operations necessary to
extract such auriferous material.

d. The extraction and concentration of
heavy metals or minerals from
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placer deposits by various methods,
generally using running water.
CF:alluvial mining; hydraulic mining;
drift mining. AGI
placodine

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See:maucherite
plaffeiite
A fossil resin found in Switzerland.
Tomkeieff
plagihedral
See:plagiohedral
plagioclase
a. Any of a group of feldspars containing
a mixture of sodium and calcium
feldspars, distinguished by their extinction
angles; crystal; triclinic;
Mohs hardness, 6; and sp gr, 2.6 to 2.7.
Bennett
b. A series of triclinic feldspars of general
formula: (Na,Ca)Al(Si,Al)Si
2
O
6
; at high temperatures it forms a
complete crystal
solution series from albite, NaAlSi
3
O
8
, to
anorthite, An,
CaAl
2
Si
2
O
8
; the series is arbitrarily
subdivided
and named according to increasing mole
fraction of the An component:
albite (An 0% to 10%), oligoclase (An
10% to 30%), andesine (An 30% to
50%), labradorite (An 50% to 70%),
bytownite (An 70% to 90%), and
anorthite (An 90% to 100%). The Al:Si
ratio ranges with increasing An
content from 1:3 to 1:1. Plagioclase
feldspars are common rock-forming
minerals, have characteristic polysynthetic
twinning, and commonly display
zoning. The term was originally applied to
all feldspars having an oblique
angle between the two main cleavages.
CF:alkali feldspar; orthoclase.

plagioclase rhyolite
A porphyritic extrusive rock with
phenocrysts of plagioclase and quartz in
a groundmass of orthoclase and quartz.
Also called plagioliparite.

plagioclastic
Having the cleavage of plagioclase;
breaking obliquely.
Standard, 2
plagiohedral
Having an oblique spiral arrangement of
faces; specif., being a group of
the isometric system characterized by 13
axes of symmetry but no center or
planes. Also spelled plagihedral. Webster
3rd
plagionite
A monoclinic mineral, Pb
5
Sb
8
S
17
;
metallic black to
lead-gray; forms stubby tablets; an
uncommon associate of other lead
sulfosalts in hydrothermal veins.
plain
a. An extent of level, or nearly level, land;
a region not noticeably
diversified with mountains, hills, or
valleys. Fay
b. A flat, gently sloping or nearly level
region of the sea floor.
Hunt
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c. Archaic. Relatively free of gaseous
inclusions. ASTM
plain clinometer

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A clinometer having only its upper end
threaded to fit drill rods. Also
called end clinometer. Long
plain concrete
Concrete with no reinforcement.
Hammond
plain detonator
A detonator for use with a safety fuse. It
consists of an aluminum tube
closed at one end and partly filled with a
sensitive initiating explosive.
The tube is only partially filled because a
plain detonator is always used
in conjunction with a safety fuse, and the
empty space enables the fuse to
be inserted into the tube until it comes into
contact with the detonating
composition. The safety fuse is then
secured in position by indenting the
detonator tube, this process being known
as crimping. The combination of
safety fuse and plain detonator is called a
capped fuse.
BS, 12; McAdam, 2
plain pilot
A pilot in the surface of which no cutting
points, such as diamonds or
slugs, are inset.
plaiting
A texture seen in some schists that results
from the intersection of
relict bedding planes with well developed
cleavage planes. AGI
plan
a. A map showing features--such as mine
workings, geological structures,
and outside improvements--on a
horizontal plane.

b. A scheme or project for mine
development.
Nelson
c. The system on which a colliery is
worked, such as longwall,
room-and-pillar, etc. Zern
planar
Lying or arranged as a plane or in planes,
usually implying more or less
parallelism, as in bedding or cleavage. It
is a two-dimensional
arrangement, in contrast to the one-
dimensional linear arrangement.
AGI
planar cross-bedding
a. Cross-bedding in which the lower
bounding surfaces are planar surfaces
of erosion. It results from beveling and
subsequent deposition.
AGI
b. Cross-bedding characterized by planar
foreset beds. AGI
planar element
A fabric element having two dimensions
that are much greater than the
third; e.g., bedding, cleavage, and
schistosity. CF:linear element
AGI
planar flow structure
See:platy flow structure
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
planar gliding
Uniform slippage along plane surfaces.
AGI
planar structure

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See:platy flow structure
planation
The widening of valleys through lateral
corrasion by streams after they
reach grade and begin to meander and
form floodplains. Also, by the
extension, the reduction of divides and the
merging of valley plains to
form a peneplain; peneplanation.
plane
a. Any roadway, generally inclined but not
necessarily so, along which ore
or workers are conveyed by mechanical
means from one bed to another or to
a lower elevation in the same bed.;
slope. Nelson
b. A road on the natural floor of a seam.
Mason
c. A two-dimensional form that is without
curvature; ideally, a perfectly
flat or smooth surface. In geology the term
is applied to such features as
a bedding plane or a planation surface.
Adj: planar.
d. In crystallography, a plane of symmetry
dividing a crystal structure
into two mirror images.
e. A level surface bounded by straight
lines, such as the faces of
crystals. Gordon
plane course
Scot. In the direction facing the joint
planes.
plane engineer
See:slope engineer
plane fault
A fault with a surface that is planar rather
than curved.
plane figure
A plane surface bounded either by straight
lines or curved lines or by a
combination of straight and curved lines.
Jones, 2
plane group
The 17 possible combinations of
symmetry elements which may coexist in
2
dimensions. CF:space group
plane man
See:incline man
plane of saturation
See:water table
plane of stretching
A low-angle gravity (normal) fault
resulting from stretching of the
solidified top of an igneous intrusion.
plane of symmetry
Any plane which divides a crystal, crystal
structure, or crystal symmetry
such that each side is a mirror reflection of
the other. Represented as m
or 2 and graphically as a solid or heavy
line.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
plane or rectangular coordinate
Either of two perpendicular distances of a
point from a pair of
rectangular coordinate axes. Seelye, 2
plane-polarized light

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Light with its electric vector confined to a
plane.
planer
a. First developed as a fixed-blade device
for continuous longwall mining
of narrow seams of friable coal, this
machine is pulled along the coal
face, planing a narrow cut. Vibrating-
blade planers were designed later in
an attempt to apply the technique to
harder coal; they have also been
experimented with in the phosphate mines
in western Montana and northern
Idaho.
b. A machine provided with a cutting tool
having lateral and vertical
adjustment that is widely used in stone
trimming. Both sides and tops of
blocks may be planed to desired
dimensions. Some planers may be
adjusted to cut curved forms.
planerite
A triclinic mineral, Al
6
(PO
4
)
2
(PO
3
OH)
(sub 2) (OH)
8
.4H
2
O ; turquoise group.
plane schistosity
A type of schistosity characterized by the
arrangement of tabular and
prismatic grains in parallel planes.


plane shear
One of four types of slope failure. Plane
shear failure results when a
natural plane of weakness, such as a fault,
a shear zone, or bedding plane
exists within a slope and has a direction
such as to provide a
preferential path for failure. Large intact
portions of the slope rock may
slide along this plane surface. Woodruff
plane strain
A state of strain in which all
displacements that arise from deformation
are parallel to one plane, and the
longitudinal strain is zero in one
principal direction. AGI
plane stress
A state of stress in which one of the
principal stresses is zero.
plane surveying
Ordinary field and topographic surveying
in which Earth curvature is
disregarded and all measurements are
made or reduced parallel to a plane
representing the surface of the Earth. The
accuracy and precision of
results obtained by plane surveying may
decrease as the area surveyed
increases in size. CF:geodetic surveying
plane table
a. An instrument for plotting the lines of a
survey directly from the
observations; consisting essentially of a
drawing board mounted on a
tripod and fitted with a ruler that is
pointed at the object observed,
usually with the aid of a sighting device,
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
such as a telescope.
Webster 3rd
b. An inclined ore-dressing table.
Standard, 2
planetary geared drum

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A drum containing planetary gearing that
is used to control the motion of
the rope drums on certain types of mining
machines. In planetary gearing,
which is used when a large ratio of speed
reduction with only a few
operating gears is required, some or all of
the gear wheels in the train
of mechanism have a motion about an axis
and a revolution about the same
axis. Jones, 1
planetary lap
A type of machine lap employing a
number of geared workholders that rotate
with an epicyclic motion between two
stationary lapping plates. The
crystals being lapped, when contained in
pentagonal holes in the
workholder, have an imposed rotatory
motion. Also known as the
Hunt-Hoffman lap or Bendix lap. Am.
Mineral., 2
planetary mill
Mill used for making very large
reductions on slabs by one pass through
the mill. The mill consists of two large
plain rolls, each surrounded by
many small work rolls. Osborne
planetary set gear
A gearset consisting of an inner (sun)
gear, an outer ring with internal
teeth, and two or more small (planet)
gears meshed with both the sun and
the ring. Nichols, 1
plane tender
See:slope engineer
planet gearing
Gearing in which one gear wheel revolves
around another. Mason
planimeter
An instrument for measuring the area of
any plane figure by passing a
tracer around its boundary line. Webster
3rd
planimetric analysis
Analysis of patterns in a fabric diagram
based on distribution of points
and areal comparisons. AGI
planimetric map
A map that presents only the relative
horizontal positions of natural or
cultural features, by lines and symbols. It
is distinguished from a
topographic map by the omission of relief
in measurable form.

planimetry
a. The measurement of plane surfaces;
e.g., the determination of
horizontal distances, angles, and areas on
a map. AGI
b. The plan details of a map; the natural
and cultural features of a
region (excluding relief) as shown on a
map. AGI
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
planisher
A device for flattening thin sections cut
for microscopic examination.
Standard, 2
plank timbering

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The lining of a shaft with rectangular
plank frames.

plankton
The whole community of rifting small
plants and animals in layers of the
water. This term is frequently used to
describe all life forms, regardless
of size, which have no means of
significant self-locomotion. This
community can be divided into the
phytoplankton (plants) and the
zooplankton (animals). Hy
plankton bloom
The rapid growth and multiplication of
plankton, usually plant forms,
producing an obvious change in the
physical appearance of the sea surface,
such as coloration or slicks. Also called
sea bloom; florescence.
Hy
planktonic
Relating to the chiefly simple types of
floating and surface-dwelling
forms of organisms of the ocean waters.
Schieferdecker
plank tubbing
The lining of a shaft with planks, spiked
on the inside of curbs.

planning
The predesign of the detailed layout, main
roadways, and workings of a
mine or group of mines. The scheme
usually involves the introduction of
mechanical equipment for the working
and transport of the coal or mineral.
The selection of mining methods and
machines properly adapted to the local
conditions is part of planning. Nelson
planning engineer
A mining engineer responsible for mine
planning. The engineer is attached
to the planning department of a large mine
or a group of smaller mines and
is qualified by training, experience, and
technical qualifications to
envisage new development work and
coordinate the ideas of other experts
such as a mechanization engineer,
ventilation engineer, mining geologist,
etc. Nelson
planometric projection
Pictorial view of an object showing it in
plan with oblique lines showing
the front, side, and thickness.
planosol
A great soil group in the 1938
classification system; an intrazonal,
hydromorphic group of soils having a
leached surface layer above a
definite clay pan or hardpan. These soils
develop on nearly flat upland
surfaces under grass or trees in a humid to
subhumid climate. AGI


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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
plant

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a. The shaft or slope, tunnels, engine
houses, railways, machinery,
workshops, etc., of a colliery or other
mine.
b. To place gold or any valuable ore in the
ground, in a mine, or the like
to give a false impression of the richness
of the property. To salt, as to
plant gold with a shotgun.
c. In mining, the mechanical installations,
machines, and their housings.
Earthworks are sometimes loosely
included. Pryor, 3
d. Used to include the machinery,
derricks, railway, cars, etc., employed
in tunnel work. Stauffer
plant mix
The process of soil stabilization in which
the soil is carried to a
stationary mixer, returned to the site after
mixing and then spread.
CF:mix-in-place
plant-mixed concrete
Concrete that is mixed at a central mixing
plant and delivered to a site
in special equipment designed to prevent
its segregation. Hammond
plant-mix method
A method of preparing aggregates for
bituminous surfaces in which
aggregates and bitumen are combined in a
plant situated at the road or at
a relatively long distance from the road.
Also known as the premixed
method. Pit and Quarry

plant scrap
Scrap metal produced in the plant itself;
e.g., sprues and gates in a
foundry or defective ingots and hot tops in
a steel mill. Also called home
scrap. Newton, 1
plasma
a. Gas comprising equal amounts of
positively and negatively charged
particles; a fourth state of matter (solid,
liquid, gas, plasma) capable
of conducting magnetic force. Pryor, 3
b. A bright-, leek-, to emerald-green
subtranslucent variety of
cryptocrystalline (chalcedonic) quartz.
The green color is attributed to
chlorite. CF:bloodstone; heliotrope.
c. That part of a soil which can be or has
been moved, reorganized, and/or
concentrated by soil-forming processes.
plasma jet
a. A jet formed by passing a high-speed
current of nitrogen or a mixture
of nitrogen and hydrogen over a tungsten
electrode placed in a specially
designed narrow orifice in a cutting torch.
An arc is struck between this
electrode and the earthed nozzle of the
torch, which is cooled by a water
jacket. When a plasma jet is used to cut
rock, two separate zones of
action can be expected. Min. Miner. Eng.,
1
b. Ionized gas produced by passing an
inert gas through a high-intensity
arc, causing temperatures up to tens of
thousands degrees centigrade.
Harbison-Walker

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plastering
See:mudcapping
plaster mill
A machine consisting of a roller or set of
rollers for grinding lime or
gypsum to powder. Fay
plaster pit
Derb. A gypsum mine.
plaster shooting
a. A surface blasting method used when
no rock drill is available or is
not necessary. It consists of placing a
charge of gelignite, primed with
safety fuse and detonator, in close contact
with the rock or boulder and
covering it completely with stiff damp
clay. The charges vary from 8 to 16
oz/yd
3
(297 to 593 g/m
3
) of rock.;
snakeholing. Nelson
b. A form of secondary blasting in which
the explosive is detonated in
contact with the rock without the use of a
shothole.
. BS, 12
plaster stone
See:gypsum
plastic
Said of a body in which strain produces
continuous, permanent deformation
without rupture. CF:elastic
plastic and semiplastic explosive
Any of several explosives used for
commercial purposes. The consistency is
such that the explosive can be shaped by
moderate pressure to fill a drill
hole. The difference between plastic and
semiplastic form is primarily
dependent on the difference in equipment
which has been found necessary in
manufacturing cartridges of the explosive.
The viscosity of the plastic
type makes it possible to produce
cartridges by a process of extrusion
through tubes. Fraenkel
plastic clay
Any clay, but chiefly kaolinite, which,
when mixed with water, is easily
shaped and retains this shape until fired.
plastic deformation
a. Permanent deformation of the shape or
volume of a substance, without
rupture. It is mainly accompanied by
crystal gliding and/or
recrystallization.
AGI
b. Deformation by one or both of two
grain-scale mechanisms: slip, and
twinning. This is a metallurgical
definition, increasingly used by
geologists. Sometimes called crystal
plasticity. AGI
c. Rheological term for deformation
characterized by a yield stress, which
must be exceeded before flow begins. AGI
d. An elastic deformation of brittle
minerals--such as olivine under
mantle conditions, or quartz, during
metamorphism; deformation occurs
along well-defined crystallographic planes
in specific directions, which
may be preserved as thin deformation
lamellae or as deformation twinning.
It may be annealed out by
recrystallization. CF:elastic deformation
e. Irreversible deformation of metallic

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minerals, such as gold or copper.

plastic design

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The design of steel or reinforced-concrete
structural frames which is
based on the assumption that plastic
hinges form at points of maximum
bending moment. plastic modulus.
Hammond
plastic explosive
See:plastic and semiplastic explosive
plastic firebrick
A common term for both high duty and
super-duty fire clay plastic
refractories.
plastic flow
See:plastic deformation
plastic fracture
The breakage of a solid material under
load when being permanently
deformed. Hammond
plastic igniter cord
A corklike device for lighting a safety
fuse. When the cord is ignited an
intense flame passes along its length at a
uniform rate and ignites the
blackpowder core of an ordinary safety
fuse. Two types are made: the fast
has a nominal burning speed of 1 s/ft (3.3
s/m); the other is about 10
times as slow. Nelson

plasticity
The property of a material that enables it
to undergo permanent
deformation without appreciable volume
change, elastic rebound, or
rupture.
plastic soil; plastic state; plasticity index.
ASCE
plasticity index
The water-content range of a material at
which it is plastic, defined
numerically as the liquid limit minus the
plastic limit.
CF:Atterberg limits; plastic limit.
plasticizer
A material, usually organic, capable of
imparting plastic properties to
nonplastics or improving the plasticity of
ceramic mixtures.

plastic limit
a. The water-content boundary beyond
which a soil can be rolled into a
thread approx. 3 mm in diameter without
crumbling, i.e., beyond which it
is plastic.
b. The water content of a soil or clay
material corresponding to an
arbitrarily defined boundary between a
plastic and a semisolid state.
CF:Atterberg limits; plasticity index.
plastic modulus
A factor used in the plastic design of steel
structures. It is a constant
for each particular shape of section.
Hammond
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
plastic soil
a. A soil that can be rolled into 1/8-in
(1.6-mm) diameter strings without
crumbling. Nichols, 1
b. A soft, rubbery soil. Nichols, 1
c. A soil that exhibits plasticity. ASCE
plastic solid
A solid that undergoes change of shape
continuously and indefinitely after
the stress applied to it passes its elastic
limit.
plastic state
The range of consistency within which a
soil exhibits plastic properties.
plastic strain
In rocks, which are composed of many
crystals commonly belonging to
several mineral species, the term applies
to any permanent deformation
throughout which the rock maintains
essential cohesion and strength
regardless of the extent to which local
microfracturing and displacement
of individual grains may have entered into
the process.
plastic tamping rod
A tamping rod or stemmer, of a rigid
nature, made from plastic possessing
suitable dielectric properties. A plastic
conducive to the building up of
heavy charges of static electricity is
unsuitable. Nelson
plastic tooling
Dies, jigs, and fixtures for metal forming,
boring, assembly, and
checking; made at a saving of time and
labor, of laminated and cast
components, and cemented into highly
stable industrial tools, chiefly with
epoxy and some with polyester resins.
Epoxies are strong adhesive resins,
particularly useful because of their low
shrinkage factor. Polyesters have
a cost advantage and are easy to handle.
Crispin
plastic yield
The term commonly applied to plastic
deformation. Hammond
plastic zone
In explosion-formed-crater nomenclature,
this zone differs from the
rupture zone by having less fracturing and
only small permanent
deformations. There is no distinct
boundary between the rupture and
plastic zones. Min. Miner. Eng., 2
Plast-Sponge
High-quality iron powder made by
reduction of iron oxide; used in powder
metallurgy. Bennett
plat
a. The map of a survey in horizontal
projection, such as of a mine,
townsite, etc.
b. A diagram drawn to scale showing land
boundaries and subdivisions,
together with all data essential to the
description of the several units.
A plat differs from a map in that it does
not show additional cultural,
drainage, and relief features. Seelye, 2
c. A platform, floor, or surface in or about

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a mine used esp. for loading
and unloading ore, etc. Webster 3rd
plate
a. A flat iron or steel sheet laid around a
mine-shaft collar, at the
shaft bottom, or at any level station, to
enable mine cars and other
equipment to be easily turned and moved
about. Also, a cast-iron plate
with a circular ridge on which mine rail
cars are turned at the junction
of roads.
b. A horizontal timber laid on a floor or
sloping wall to receive a
framework of timbers.
c. A torsionally rigid thin segment of the
Earth's lithosphere, which may
be assumed to move horizontally and
adjoins other lithosopheric plates
along zones of seismic activity.
plate amalgamation
Use of copper or copper-alloy plates
coated with enough mercury to form a
soft adherent film, in order to trap gold
from crushed ore pulp as it
flows over the plates. The resulting
amalgam, containing up to 40%
metallic gold, is periodically scraped off
and more mercury is added to
the film. Pryor, 3
plate-and-frame filter
A filter press consisting of plates with a
gridiron surface alternating
with hollow frames, all of which are held
by means of lugs, on the press
framework. The corners of both frames
and plates are cored to make
continuous passages for pulp and solution;
the filter cloth is placed over
the plates. The pulp passageway connects
with the large, square opening in
the frame; the solution and passageways
connect with the gridiron surface
of the plate. The Dehne and the Merrill
are well-known types.
Liddell
plate apron feeder
An automatic arrangement by which coal
or ore is fed forward on steel
plates forming segments linked together in
an endless chain.
plateau
Broadly, any comparatively flat area of
great extent and elevation;
specif. an extensive land region
considerably elevated (more than 150 to
300 m in altitude) above the adjacent
country or above sea level; it is
commonly limited on at least one side by
an abrupt descent, has a flat or
nearly smooth surface but is often
dissected by deep valleys and
surmounted by high hills or mountains,
and has a large part of its total
surface at or near the summit level. A
plateau is usually higher and has
more noticeable relief than a plain (it
often represents an elevated
plain), and it is usually higher and more
extensive than a mesa; it may be
tectonic, residual, or volcanic in origin.
CF:mesa
plateau basalt
A term applied to those basaltic lavas that
occur as vast composite
accumulations of horizontal or
subhorizontal flows, which, erupted in
rapid succession over great areas, have at
times flooded sectors of the
Earth's surface on a regional scale. They

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258
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are generally believed to be the
product of fissure eruptions. CF:shield
basalt
AGI
plateau gravel
A sheet, spread, or patch of surficial
gravel, often compacted, occupying
a flat area on a hilltop, plateau, or other
high region at a height above
that normally occupied by a stream-
terrace gravel. It may represent a
formerly extensive deposit that has been
raised by earth movements and
largely removed by erosion. AGI
plate bearing test
A method by which the load bearing
capacity of a soil may be estimated.

plate cleaner
A device for cleaning raw coal which uses
the difference in the
coefficient of resilience or friction
between clean coal and an inclined
plate, commonly of steel, and that
between refuse and the plate to allow
the clean coal to jump over a gap while
the refuse falls through.
BS, 5
plate conveyor
A conveyor in which the carrying medium
is a series of steel plates, each
in the form of a short trough, joined
together with a slight overlap to
form an articulated band. The plates are
attached either to one center
chain or to two side chains. The chains
connect rollers running on an
angle-iron framework and transmit the
drive from the driveheads that can
be installed at intermediate points as well
as at the head or tail ends. A
plate conveyor can negotiate bends down
to about 20 ft (6.1 m) radius;
available in widths 400, 540, and 640 mm
with running speeds from 3 to 4
ft/s (0.9 to 1.2 m/s) with a carrying
capacity from 100 to 400 st/h (90.7
to 362.8 t/h).
plate coordinate
In photographic mapping, either of two
rectangular coordinates measured on
a photograph with reference to the
principal point as origin.
Seelye, 2
plated crystal
A crystal with a conductive surface film
of gold, silver, aluminum, or
other metal produced by cathode
sputtering, evaporation, or chemical
methods. The films, to which lead wires
may be soldered, take the place of
the conventional clamped metal
electrodes. Am. Mineral., 2
plate feeder
The mechanical plate feeder is a device
for feeding material at a fixed
and uniform rate. It is generally applied at
the tail end of a conveyor or
elevator which feeds a plant, but may be
applied to feeding any other
single unit. It relieves the pressure and
drag, with the consequent
unnecessary wear on the belt, which is
ordinarily experienced if feeding
from a hopper directly to a belt. It not only
cuts maintenance costs by
eliminating uneven wear, but increased
output can be obtained by steady

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feeding. This type of feeder also handles
wet aggregate.
.
Pit and Quarry; ACSG, 2
plate former

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Used for lining shafts, winzes, and rises;
usually constructed of
comparatively thin steel sheeting,
stiffened around the edges with angles.
Plates should be of such size that they can
be conveniently handled in the
skips or buckets used for sinking.
Spalding
plate girder
A built-up riveted or welded steel girder,
having a deep vertical web
plate, with a pair of angles riveted along
each edge to act as compression
and tension flanges. For heavier loads,
flange plates are riveted or
welded to the angles. Hammond
plate roll
A smooth roll for making sheet iron or
plate iron, as distinguished from
iron having grooves for rolling rails,
beams, etc. Standard, 2
plate tectonics
A theory of global tectonics in which the
lithosphere is divided into a
number of plates whose pattern of
horizontal movement is that of
torsionally rigid bodies that interact with
one another at their
boundaries, causing seismic and tectonic
activity along these boundaries.
AGI

plate tongs
Tongs for grasping and handling iron or
steel plates. Standard, 2
platform
a. The place on top of a breaker where the
freshly mined coal is weighed
by a weigh boss just before it is dumped
into the machinery.
Korson
b. A wooden floor on the side of a
gangway at the bottom of an inclined
seam, to which the coal runs by gravity,
and from which it is shoveled
into mine cars.
c. A plank or mesh steel-covered level
area at the base of a drill tripod
or derrick, used as a working space in
front of a drill machine around the
collar of the borehole. Sometimes the
platform is large enough to act as a
foundation and anchor for the drill
machine. Long
d. A scaffold. Fay
e. A wood mat used in sets to support
machinery on soft ground. Also
called pontoon. Nichols, 1
f. An operator's station on a large
machine, particularly on rollers.
Nichols, 1
g. In the breaker, a flat or slightly inclined
floor covered with iron
plates onto which coal is run from the
main screen bars and cleaned by
platform workers. Korson
h. Also a similar floored area in the tripod
or derrick on which a laborer
stands while working in a tripod or
derrick.



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platform gantry
A gantry constructed for carrying a portal
crane or a similar structure.
Hammond
platform hoist
A power-driven hoist, having a lifting
capacity ranging from 200 lb (90.7
kg) to about 2-1/2 st (2.27 t), which can be
raised on a loading platform
up to 200 ft (61 m) high. Hammond
platina
a. Twisted silver wire. Standard, 2
b. Crude native platinum. AGI
platinic gold
Said to be a native alloy containing 84.6%
gold, 2.9% silver, 0.2% iron,
0.9% copper, and the remainder 11.4%
platinum. Hess
platiniridium
An isometric mineral, (Ir,Pt) , with Ir 50%
to 80% (atomic) of Ir + Pt;
forms silver-white grains having sp gr,
22.6 to 22.8; Mohs
hardness, 6 to 7.
platinize
To coat or combine with platinum, esp. by
electroplating.
Standard, 2
platinum
a. An isometric mineral, native platinum
4[Pt] with variable Pd, Ir, Fe,
Ni; malleable; ductile; metallic; sp gr,
21.45; corrosion resistant;
occurs in ultramafic rocks, quartz veins,
and in placers.
b. A malleable and ductile silvery-white
metal, when pure. Symbol: Pt.
Occurs native, accompanied by small
quantities of iridium, osmium,
palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium. Used
in jewelry, wire, vessels for
laboratory use, and in many valuable
instruments including thermocouple
elements. Handbook of Chemistry and
Physics, 3
platinum-group metal
(PGM). Any of the minerals native
platinum, osmium, iridium, palladium,
rhodium, ruthenium, and their alloys, such
as osmiridium (Ir,Os) ,
ruthenosmiridium (Ir,Os,Ru) ,
rutheniridosmine (Os,Ir,Ru) , and
platiniridium (Ir,Pt) . Other alloys of PGM
are exemplified by
stanopalliadinite, (Pd,Cu)
3
Sn
2
(?) ; and
potarite, PdHg .
Other sources of PGM are sperrylite,
PtAs
2
; cooperite, (Pt,Pd,Ni)S;
stibiopalladinite, Pd
5
Sb
2
; braggite,
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S ;
vysotskite, (Pd,Ni)S ; ruthenarsenite,
(Ru,Ni)As ; cuproiridsite; CuIr
2
S
4
; cuprorhodsit, CuRh
2
S
4
; malanite,
Cu(Pt,Ir)
2
S
4
; and dayingite, CuCoPtS
4
.
Varietal
terms include plyxene and ferroplatinum
for iron alloys and cuproplatinum
for copper alloys.
platinum sponge
Metallic platinum in a gray, porous,
spongy form; obtained by reducing
ammonium chloroplatinate, which
occludes large volumes of oxygen,
hydrogen, and other gases. Webster 3rd

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261
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platting
Brick laid flatwise on top of a kiln to keep
in the heat. Fay
plattman
In bituminous coal mining, a
colloquialism of English origin for a
pusher
who pushes loaded mine cars onto a cage
from a platt (an enlarged
underground opening at the shaft where
cars are gathered prior to
hoisting). DOT
plattnerite
a. A tetragonal mineral, PbO
2
; rutile
group; dimorphous with
scrutinyite; iron black; occurs in lead
mines.
b. Erroneous spelling of planerite.
platy flow structure
An igneous rock structure of tabular
sheets suggesting stratification. It
is formed by contraction during cooling;
the structure is parallel to the
surface of cooling and is commonly
accentuated by weathering.
platynite
A trigonal mineral, PbBi
2
(Se,S)
3
metallic;
iron-black; forms thin plates like graphite;
at Falun, Sweden. Also spelled platinite.
playa
a. A term used in southwestern United
States for a dry, vegetation-free,
flat area at the lowest part of an undrained
desert basin, underlain by
stratified clay, silt, or sand, and commonly
by soluble salts. The term is
also applied to the basin containing an
expanse of playa, which may be
marked by ephemeral lakes.
c. A small, generally sandy land area at
the mouth of a stream or along
the shore of a bay. Etymol: Spanish,
beach, shore, coast. AGI
playa basin
See:bolson
playa lake
A shallow, intermittent lake in an arid or
semiarid region, covering or
occupying a playa in the wet season but
drying up in summer; an ephemeral
lake that upon evaporation leaves or forms
a playa.
AGI
play of color
A pseudochromatic optical effect resulting
in flashes of colored light
from certain minerals, such as fire opal
and labradorite, as they are
turned in white light. Periodic spacings of
phases with slightly differing
refractive indices act as optical diffraction
gratings in these minerals.
CF:fire; opalescence; pseudochromatism.
plenargyrite
See:matildite
plenum
a. A system of ventilation in which air is
forced into an inclosed space,
such as a room or a caisson, so that the
outward pressure of air in the
space is slightly greater than the inward

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262
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pressure from the outside, and
thus leakage is outward instead of inward.
b. A mode of ventilating a mine or a
heading by forcing fresh air into it.
c. Use of compressed air to hold soil from
slumping into an excavation.
Nichols, 1
pleochroic
See:pleochroism
pleochroic halo
a. A minute zone of color or darkening
surrounding and produced by a
radioactive mineral crystal or inclusion.
AGI
b. Any of the concentrically colored
aureoles in minerals--e.g., micas,
fluorite, and cordierite--centered by
minute grains of minerals containing
radioactive elements, such as zircon and
monazite. This discoloration
results from crystal structural radiation
damage from alpha decay.
pleochroism
a. The property of exhibiting different
colors in different directions by
transmitted polarized light. AGI
b. More precisely, the property of
absorbing differently, light that
vibrates in different directions in passing
through a crystal. If the
crystal is uniaxial the change of color is
called dichroism; if the
crystal is biaxial, the change of color is
called pleochroism. AGI
c. The property of birefringent crystals
(minerals) to absorb various
wavelengths of light differentially
depending on the vibration direction
of the light within the crystal. Thus a
mineral displaying pleochroism
shows various colors or tints when it is
traversed by plane polarized
light and the orientation of the crystal is
varied with respect to the
plane of polarization. It is a common and
diagnostic property of many
minerals, and is easily observed under the
petrographic microscope or a
dichroscope. AGI
d. The capacity of strongly anisotropic
minerals to change absorption
colors with changing electric vector in
plane-polarized light; e.g., as
seen with a polarized-light microscope.
Uniaxial minerals may be dichroic
and biaxial ones trichroic. Qualitative
pleochroism is change of intensity
in the same color; quantitative
pleochroism shows change of color with
change of orientation. Adj: pleochroic.
CF:dichroism; trichroism.

pleomorphism
See:polymorphism
pleonaste
See:ceylonite
plessite
A fine grained intergrowth of kamacite
and taenite.
pliable armored cable
A flexible cable having collective armor
comprising stranded groups of
fine, galvanized, steel wires. BS, 13
pliable support
A support composed of elastic materials
that either yields to the roof

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263
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pressure, or permits the subsidence of the
roof without the support being
completely destroyed and losing its
significance. Stoces
plication
Intense, small-scale folding. Adj: plicated.
CF:crenulation
AGI
ploat
Eng. To dress down or remove loose stone
from the roof or sides.
SMRB
plombierite
A mineral, Ca
5
H
2
Si
6
O
18
.6H
2
O(?) .
plot mark
A mark made in a bit mold, bit die, or
blank bit where a pip or hole is
drilled to receive or to encompass a
diamond. Long
plotting instrument
A large drawing machine by means of
which stereoscopic pairs of vertical
photographs can be viewed in conjunction
with their ground control points
and mechanically translated into accurate
maps. Hammond

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plotting scale
A scale used for setting off the lengths of
lines in surveying.
plow
a. In coal mining, a cutter loader with
knives or blades, which is pulled
along the longwall face by a powerful
chain. The broken coal is loaded
onto an armored flexible conveyor which,
with the aid of hydraulic rams,
holds the plow up to the coal face and
causes the knives to bite into the
coal as they are pulled along. The plow is
a continuous mining machine.
b. Applied to V-shaped belt scrapers that
are attached to the belt
conveyor frame and which press against
the return belt. They are intended
to remove coal or other material that
might stick to the return belt and
be crushed as the belt passes over the
driving rolls or the return pulley.
Jones, 1
plow cut
See:V-cut
plow deflector
a. A steel plate attached to the end of a
cutter loader for deflecting cut
coal onto the face conveyor. Nelson
b. A device for removing or diverting the
dust and dirt off a belt
conveyor and thus prevent it being carried
back along the return belt.
Nelson
plow steel
A high-tensile steel used in the
manufacture of hoisting ropes.
plow-type machine
Plows may be divided into two classes:
(1) machines that peel the coal to
a depth of from 1 to 12 in (2.54 to 30.5
cm) by knives of various designs
and the cut coal is then loaded onto a
heavy type scraper chain conveyor;
264
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
and (2) machines that peel a thin slice up
to 2 in (5.1 cm) in thickness,
by knives attached to each end of a steel
box, and the coal is dragged
along the face inside the box. From the
aspect of speed of travel, plows
may be divided into: (1) slow-moving
types of 10 to 20 ft/min (3.0 to 6.1
m/min), which remove a thicker slice; and
(2) fast-moving types at about
80 ft/min (24.4 m/min), which take a
relatively thin slice.
plucking
a. Describes the sudden jerking or
plucking on heavy endless-rope haulage
when the rope again takes the load,
following rope coils. Instead of
slipping smoothly sideways, the rope
tends to stick until the pressure of
oncoming coils overcomes the friction;
these slip suddenly, producing a
momentary slackening followed by a
sudden jerk or pluck as the rope again
takes the load. This may loosen chains or
clips and cause derailments and
runaway sets. Sinclair, 5
b. The disruption of blocks of rock by a
glacier or stream.
Standard, 2
plug
a. A watertight seal in a shaft formed by
removing the lining and
inserting a concrete dam, or by placing a
plug of clay over ordinary
debris used to fill the shaft up to the
location of the plug.
BS, 10
b. See:hoisting plug
c. A steel cylinder placed inside the
annular opening in a coring bit to
convert it for use as a noncoring bit. The
face of the plug may or may not
be provided with serrations, inset
diamonds, or other types of cutting
edges. Long
d. See:block
e. See:cartridge
f. A cylindrical piece of wood or an
expandable metal apparatus placed in
a borehole to act as a base into which the
drive wedge of a borehole
deflection device is driven.
g. Small wooden pin driven into a hole in
the rock roof of a tunnel. The
axis of the tunnel is marked on such plugs
by tacks, or by small iron
hooks from which a plummet lamp may
be suspended for sighting upon.
Stauffer
h. To plug a well by cementing a block
inside casing or capping the well
with a metal plate. Wheeler, R.R.
i. Any block installed within casing to
prevent movement of fluids.
Wheeler, R.R.
j. A steel wedge used in quarrying
dimension stone.
See:plug-and-feather method
k. A vertical, pipelike body of magma that
represents the conduit to a
former volcanic vent. CF:neck
plug-and-feather hole
A hole drilled for the purpose of splitting
a block of stone. These holes
are usually in rows. The plug is a slightly
wedge-shaped piece of iron
driven between two L-shaped irons, or
feathers, inserted in the hole.
Stauffer
plug-and-feather method
A method used in quarrying to reduce
large masses of stone to smaller
size. By using a hammer drill, a row of
shallow holes is made along the

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line where a break is desired. The feathers
consist of two iron strips
flat on one side for contact with the
wedge, and curved on the other to
fit the wall of the drill hole. They are
placed in the hole and the plug
(a steel wedge) is placed between them.
They are sledged lightly in
succession until a fracture appears.
Wherever possible, such fractures are
made parallel with the rift of the stone.

plug bit
a. A diamond bit that grinds out the full
width of a hole.
b. A noncoring diamond-set bit that can be
in the form of a bullnose bit,
pilot bit, or concave bit. Also called
bullnose bit; concave bit; noncore
bit; pilot bit. BS, 9
plug box
Eng. A wooden water pipe used in
coffering.
plug drill
A stonecutter's percussion drill. Webster
3rd
plugged
a. A borehole that has been filled or
capped with a long plug, or in which
a plug has been inserted. Long
b. Cracks or openings in the rocks in the
walls of a borehole that have
been filled or sealed with cement or other
substances. Long
c. A borehole that has been drilled with a
plug or noncoring bit.
Long
d. A blocked core barrel or bit. Long
e. A coring bit in which a plug has been
inserted.
Long
plugged bit
a. See:noncoring bit
b. A core bit, the annular opening of
which is tightly closed or blocked
by a piece or the impacted fragments of a
core. Long
plugged crib
A curb supporting the walling in a shaft
and is itself supported on plugs
or bolts driven into the ground around the
shaft. The crib may be removed
when the walling from below is carried up
to it.
plugging
a. The stopping of the flow of water into a
shaft by plugs of clay.
Zern
b. The material used, the act, or the
process of inserting a plug in a
borehole to fill it or the cracks and
openings in the borehole sidewalls.
Long
c. The act or process of drilling a borehole
with a noncoring bit.
Long
d. The practice of filling holes and cavities
in castings with porous
silicate mixture (cast iron filler) before the
application of cover coats.
The filler must be firmly forced into the
casting holes, since any
entrapped air beneath the filler will
expand during firing and force the
material out causing blowholes. Enam.
Dict.
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plughole

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a. A passageway that is left open, while
working on an explosion-proof
stopping, for the purpose of maintaining
the ventilation of the fire area
at or as near the normal quantity as
possible, to prevent any increase in
the combustible gases content in the air.
After the stopping is completed,
this hole is plugged up with sandbags in
order to completely seal off the
mine area. The plughole is generally a
tapered passageway of about 3.5 ft
(1.1 m) square at the inby side of the
stopping and 2.5 ft (0.76 m) square
at the outby side. McAdam, 1
b. See:block hole
plughole stopping
A stopping in which the floor and the
sidewalls of the passage are built
of sandbags, and the roof may be the roof
of the roadway or covering
boards used between the webs of steel
arches, or preferably, corrugated
steel sheeting used as lagging behind steel
arches. The plughole or
passage is generally tapered from the inby
end from 3 to 3.5 ft (0.9 to
1.1 m) square to 2.5 ft (0.76 m) square so
that, in the event of an
explosion, the plug of sandbags in the
passage is subjected to a wedging
action assisting to retain the plug in place.
The plughole may be placed
in the most convenient position and
although this is often at the top, it
is sometimes placed to the side and
reasonably near the floor.
Sinclair, 1
plugman
See:pumping engineer
plug shot
Scot. A small charge exploded in a hole to
break up a stone of moderate
size.
plug valve
A valve or cock opened or closed by the
turning of a plug, usually conical
in shape. Not to be confused with needle
valve or globe valve.
Long
plum
a. A large random-shaped stone dropped
into a large-scale mass of concrete
to economize on the volume of the
concrete. Hammond
b. An old form of plumb. Fay
plumb
a. See:vertical
b. See:plumb bob; plumbline.
c. To carry a survey into a mine through a
shaft by means of heavily
weighted fine wires hung vertically in the
shaft. The line of sight
passing through the wires at the surface is
thus transferred to the mine
workings. An important piece of work: in
mine shafts, and in transferring
courses or bearings from one level to
another. Fay
plumbago
a. A special quality of powdered graphite
used to coat molds, and in a
mixture with clay, to make crucibles.
c. Impure graphite or graphitic rock.
d. Minerals resembling graphite; e.g.,
molybdenite.
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plumbago crucible
Highly refractory crucible composed of a
mixture of about equal parts of
refractory clay and graphite. Osborne
plumb bob
a. A small weight or bob, hanging at the
end of a cord, which under the
action of gravity is oriented in a vertical
direction. Also called a
plummet. CTD
b. A pointed weight hung from a string.
Used for vertical alignment.
Nichols, 1

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plumber's dope
A soft sealing compound for pipe threads.
Nichols, 1
plumbic
Of, pertaining to, or containing lead, esp.
in its higher valence.
CF:plumbous
plumbiferous
Containing lead. Webster 3rd
plumbing
Transferring a point at one level to a point
vertically below or above it
by means of a weight (plumb bob or
plummet) suspended at the end of a
string or wire (plumbline).; string survey.
Nelson
plumbline
A device used to produce a vertical line
between a survey instrument and
the reference point over (or sometimes
under, in underground work) which
it is set. Special plumblines are used in a
vertical shaft to transfer a
fixed or an azimuth angle from the surface
to underground workings for the
purpose of orientation. Also known as
plumb bob; plummet.

plumbocalcite
A variety of calcite containing a small
amount of lead carbonate.
plumboferrite
A trigonal mineral, PbFe
4
O
7
; black; at
Jakobsberg, Sweden.
plumbogummite
A trigonal mineral, PbAl
3
(PO
4
)
2
(OH)
5

.H
2
O ; crandallite group; forms yellow to
brown encrustations; in
Cumberland, United Kingdom.
plumbojarosite
A trigonal mineral, PbFe
6
(SO
4
)
4
(OH)
12
;
alunite group; forms minute brown tabular
crystals with rhombohedral
cleavage.
plumbomicrolite
An isometric mineral, (Pb,Ca,U)
2
Ta
2
O
6

(OH);
pyrochlore group. It occurs in greenish-
yellow and orange masses and
octahedra from Kivu, Zaire.


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plumbous
Of, pertaining to, or containing lead, esp.
in its lower valence.
CF:plumbic
plumb pneumatic jig

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Mineral concentrator in which air is
pulsed upward through a porous deck
by means of a rotary valve. Pryor, 3
plumb post
One of the vertical posts at the side of a
tunnel resting on sills and
carrying the wallplates; collectively, they
support the tunnel roof by
means of centering. Stauffer
plumites
A feathery variety of jamesonite.
plummet
See:plumbline
plumose
Having a feathery appearance. Fay
plumose antimony
A feather-ore variety of jamesonite or
boulangerite; also called feather
ore. Also spelled plumites, plumosite.
plumose mica
A feathery variety of muscovite.
plumosite
A feathery variety of jamesonite or
boulangerite.
plump
Corn. A corruption of the word pump.
plum-pudding stone
See:puddingstone
plunge
a. The vertical angle between a horizontal
plane and the line of maximum
elongation of an orebody.
b. The inclination of a fold axis or other
linear structure, measured in
the vertical plane. CF:apparent plunge;
dip. AGI
c. To set the horizontal cross wire of a
theodolite in the direction of a
grade when establishing a grade between
two points of known level.
AGI
d. To reverse the direction of the telescope
of a theodolite by rotating
it 180 degrees about its horizontal axis.
plunger
a. In blasting, a rod designed for thrusting
into a drill hole and
ascertaining the position of a cartridge.
Standard, 2
b. The piston of a force pump. Fay
c. A piston and its attached rod. Long
plunger bucket
A pump piston without a valve. Also
called plunger lift.
Webster 3rd
plunger case
The pump barrel, or cylinder, in which a
solid piston or plunger works.
Also called pole case. Fay
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plunger jig washer

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A washer in which water is forced upward
and then downward through a
screen by the action of a plunger in an
adjoining compartment. Although
these machines are still in use, the term
"jig washer" is now applied to
the fixed-screen, air-pulse jig, which is
directly descended from the
first Baum washer used in 1892.
Nelson
plunger lift
Scot. A pump and attached column of
pipes, that raises water by means of a
ram or piston. Fay
plunger press
A press in which the pressure is applied
by a plunger, with a
reciprocating motion, to charges of feed
contained in molds in a vertical
or horizontal table. BS, 5
plunger pump
a. Reciprocating pump used for moving
water or pulp, in which a solid
piston displaces the fluid. Pryor, 3
b. A displacement-type pump may be of
various types, such as: (1) the
triplex pump, a vertical or horizontal,
single-acting plunger type for
small heads with three single-acting
cylinders in the pump frame driven by
a motor mounted on the outside of the
frame and connected to the
crankshaft of the pump through gearing;
(2) the quadruplex or quintuplex
pump, a pump having four or five
cylinders; and (3) the duplex pump, a
crank-and-flywheel type for high heads,
with double-acting plungers.
Lewis
plunger-type washbox
A washbox in which pulsating motion is
produced by the reciprocating
movement of a plunger or piston.
plus distance
Fractional part of 100 ft or m used in
designating the location of a point
on a survey line--such as, 4+47.2,
meaning 47.2 ft or m beyond Station 4;
or 447.2 ft or m from the initial point,
measured along a specified line.
Seelye, 2
plush copper ore
See:chalcotrichite; cuprite.
plus mesh
The portion of a powder sample retained
on a screen of stated size.
Osborne
plus sight
See:backsight
pluton
A body of medium- to coarse-grained
igneous rock that formed beneath the
surface by crystallization of a magma.
plutonic
a. Pertaining to igneous rocks formed at
great depths. CF:hypabyssal
AGI
b. Pertaining to rocks formed by any
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
process at great depth.
. AGI
plutonic metamorphism

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Deep-seated regional metamorphism at
high temperatures and pressures,
often accompanied by strong deformation;
batholithic intrusion with
accompanying metasomatism, infiltration,
and injection (or, alternatively,
differential fusion or anatexis) is
characteristic.
CF:injection metamorphism
plutonic ore deposit
Collectively, the major group of ore
deposits of magmatic origin that have
been formed under abyssal conditions.
Schieferdecker
plutonic rock
Igneous rock formed deep within the
Earth under the influence of high heat
and pressure, hypogene rocks;
distinguished from eruptive rock formed
at
the surface. Hess
plutonic series
A series of different igneous rocks that
evolved from the same original
magma through various differentiation
stages.
plutonism
a. The obsolete belief that all of the rocks
of the Earth solidified from
an original molten mass. CF:neptunism
b. A general term for the phenomena
associated with the formation of
plutons. AGI
pluviometer
See:rain gage
ply
a. U.K. A thin band of shale lying
immediately over a coal seam.
b. U.K. A rib or successive ribs; e.g., of
clayband with very thin
partings.
c. Limy ply; a limestone bed; Edinburgh,
U.K.
pneumatic
Set in motion or operated by compressed
air. Nelson
pneumatic blowpipe
A long, 3/4-in-diameter (1.9-cm-diameter)
metal pipe, connected to an air
supply; used to blow out dust and
chippings from vertical blast holes at
quarries. The blowpipe is generally used
for holes exceeding about 12 ft
(3.66 m) deep. A stream of water is
sometimes used instead of an air jet.
Nelson
pneumatic caisson
Closed casing in which air pressure is
maintained equal to the pressures
of the water and soils on the outside. The
deeper the caisson, the higher
the pressure that must be maintained.
Carson, 1
pneumatic cartridge loader
A cartridge loader widely used for
underwater blasting, for blasting
without removing the overburden, and for
long-hole blasting. It is also
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being used increasingly for tunneling and
other sorts of rock blasting.
Langefors
pneumatic cleaning

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Mineral cleaning by machines that utilize
air currents as the primary
separating medium. The air machines can
generally be divided into three
types: (1) pneumatic jigs, in which the air
current is pulsated; (2)
pneumatic tables, in which the refuse is
diverted from the direction of
flow of the clean mineral by a system of
riffles fixed to the deck; and
(3) pneumatic launders, in which the
products are flowing in the same
direction, and the clean mineral is
skimmed off the top of the bed and/or
the refuse is extracted from the bottom in
successive stages.
Mitchell
pneumatic concentrator
Gravity jig, shaking table, or other device
in which suitably ground
minerals are separated by gravity during
their exposure to a continuous or
pulsating current of air. Pryor, 3
pneumatic conveying
Use of compressed air to move fairly fine
aggregates laterally and/or
vertically. Pryor, 3
pneumatic conveyor
a. A pipe or tube through which granular
material is transported by
airblast. It is used for pulverized coal,
crushed rock (pneumatic
stowing), cement, etc. The term could also
be applied to a conveyor
operated by compressed air. Nelson
b. An arrangement of tubes or ducts
through which bulk material or objects
are conveyed in a pressure and/or vacuum
system.
pneumatic drill
Compressed-air drill worked by
reciprocating piston, hammer action, or
turbo drive. Pryor, 3
pneumatic drill leg
See:air-leg support
pneumatic filling
A filling method in which compressed air
is utilized to blow filling
material into a mined-out stope. Stoces
pneumatic flotation cell
Machine in which the air used to generate
a mineralized froth is blown
into the cell, either through a porous
septum at or near the bottom, or by
pipes that bring low-pressure air to that
region. Pryor, 3
pneumatic friction clutch
This clutch transmits power through
friction shoes carried on the tube of
cord and rubber construction. The
pneumatic clutch is self-adjusting for
wear owing to the natural resilience of the
rubber tube. Disengagement is
complete and automatic when the air
under pressure is released. The clutch
is controlled by finger pressure on a valve.
The valve can be installed at
the place most convenient for the
operator. Pit and Quarry
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pneumatic hammer
A hammer that uses compressed air for
producing the impacting blow.
pneumatic hoist

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A device for hoisting; operated by
compressed air. Standard, 2
pneumatic injection
A method for fighting underground coal
fires. This air-blowing technique
involves the injection of an incombustible
mineral, like rock wool or dry
sand, through 6-in (15.2-cm) boreholes
drilled from the surface to
intersect underground passageways in the
mines.
pneumatic jig
a. Air jig used in desert countries for
concentrating ore.
Pryor, 3
b. A jigging machine in which an airblast
performs the work of separation
of minerals. Standard, 2
c. See:Kirkup table; plunger jig washer.
pneumatic lighting
a. Underground lighting produced by a
compressed-air turbomotor driving a
small dynamo. Pryor, 3
b. The use of compressed air to generate
electric light.
pneumatic method
In flotation, a method in which gas is
introduced under slight pressure
near the bottom of the flotation vessel, the
device used for introduction
being either a submerged pipe or a porous
cloth, frit, or rubber surface
forming the wall of a wind box. Gaudin, 2
pneumatic mortar
Mortar applied to a surface with a cement
gun in the same manner as
gunite. Such mortar has a cube crushing
strength of 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa)
at 7 days and of 6,000 psi (41.4 MPa) at
28 days, with a water-cement
ratio of 0.45. Hammond
pneumatic pick
A compressed-air-operated hand tool used
to excavate coal, ore, and rock,
with a punching action. Without the pick
steel, its length is about 18 in
(46 cm) and weight about 24 lb (10.8 kg).
It delivers about 2,500
blows/min. The latest type is the water-
controlled pick, so designed that
the air valve is operated by water pressure.
The water assists in
suppressing the dust made during cutting.
Nelson
pneumatic ram
A ram fed by a compressed-air pipeline.
The piston is about 8 in (20 cm)
in diameter, giving an area of 50 in
2
(323
cm
2
) and
exerts a pushing force of up to 4,000 lb
(1,800 kg). Nelson
pneumatic riveter
A compressed-air tool used for driving
rivets.
Hammond
pneumatic rod puller
An air-driven rod puller.
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pneumatics

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The branch of physics that deals with the
mechanical properties of gases,
such as their pressure, elasticity, density,
and also of pneumatic
mechanisms; sometimes it includes
acoustics. Standard, 2
pneumatic shaft sinking
a. Shaft sinking with the aid of a drop
shaft fitted with an air-tight
deck to form a working chamber.
b. The caisson-sinking process now
largely obsolescent in mining practice.
Nelson
pneumatic stowing
A system of filling mined cavities in
which crushed rock is carried along
a pipeline by compressed air and
discharged at high velocity into the
space to be packed, the intense projection
ensuring a very high density of packed
material. For stowing shallow workings--
up to 200 yd (183 m) in
depth--the stowing plant may be installed
on the surface. The air pressure
is about 60 psi (414 kPa). For deeper
workings, the plant may be installed
underground, and the crushed rock taken
down from the surface. The stowing
pipes are about 5 to 6 in (approx. 13 to 15
cm) in diameter. The system is
often employed if important surface
structures require protection. The
material used is from old dirt heaps,
screen dirt, and washery rejects.
The material is crushed to -2-1/2 in (-6.35
cm) and preferably without the
-1/2-in (-1.27-cm) material.;
crusher stower; hydraulic stowing; low-
pressure air stower.
Nelson
pneumatic table
An appliance for the dry cleaning of ore or
coal. It consists of a
perforated deck, with vertical ribs or
riffles, which is reciprocated; the
motion keeps the bed of raw coal
sufficiently mobile for the blast of air
from below to effect a process of
stratification (or layering). The coal
rises to the surface, with dirt at the base
and a central layer of
middlings.; Kirkup table;
Vee table; air table. Nelson
pneumatic tamper
Essentially a long-stroke piston with a
mushroom-shaped foot about 4 in
(10 cm) in diameter. It operates on
compressed air, which is used to lift
the piston and footpiece; their combined
weight, in falling, supplies the
impact. Carson, 1
pneumatic tool
Tool operated by air pressure. Crispin
pneumatic transport
System composed of: a compressor, which
provides airflow; a feeder, which
meters the flow of material into a pipeline;
and the pipeline-- for
transporting coarse, dry, noncohesive
material. SME, 1
pneumatic water barrel
A special type of water barrel for
removing water from a shaft sinking. By
means of a hose connection to an air pump
at the surface, a partial vacuum
is created inside the barrel and the water
lifts the valve and fills the
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barrel. The hose is then detached and the
barrel is hoisted to the surface
and discharged. Also called vacuum tank.
Nelson
pneumatogenic

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Said of a rock or mineral deposit formed
by a gaseous agent.
CF:hydatogenic; hydatopneumatogenic;
pneumatolytic. AGI
pneumatolysis
Alteration of a rock or crystallization of
minerals by gaseous emanations
derived from solidifying magma. Adj:
pneumatolytic. AGI
pneumatolytic
A term used in different connotations by
various authors and perhaps best
abandoned. It has been used to describe:
(1) the surface effects of gases
near volcanoes; (2) contact-metamorphic
effects surrounding deep-seated
intrusives; (3) that stage in igneous
differentiation between pegmatitic
and hydrothermal, which is supposed to
be characterized by gas-crystal
equilibria; and (4) very loosely, any
deposit containing minerals or
elements commonly formed in
pneumatolysis, such as tourmaline, topaz,
fluorite, lithium, and tin, and hence
presumed to have formed from a gas
phase. CF:pneumatogenic
pneumatolytic metamorphism
Contact metamorphism in which the
composition of a rock has been altered
by introduced gaseous magmatic material.

pneumatolytic stage
That stage in the cooling of a magma
during which the solid and gaseous
phases are in equilibrium. AGI
pneumo-
A combining form taken from the Greek
meaning lung, and used in connection
with the terminology of geologic
processes and effects involving gases and
vapors. Stokes
pneumoconiosis
A disease of the lungs caused by habitual
inhalation of irritant mineral
or metallic particles. It occurs in any
workplaces where dust is
prevalent, such as mines, quarries,
foundries, and potteries. Also called
miner's asthma; miner's consumption;
miner's lung. Also spelled
pneumonoconiosis; pneumonokoniosis.
CF:anthracosis; silicosis.

pneumokoniosis
See:pneumoconiosis
pocket
a. A localized enrichment; a crevice in
bedrock containing gold; a rich
patch of gold in a reef.
b. A rich deposit of mineral, but not a
vein.
c. A bin, of a capacity equal to the skip,
used at the shaft bottom of an
underground mine for quick and accurate
skip loading.
shaft pocket; measuring chute. Nelson
d. A receptacle, from which coal, ore, or
waste is loaded into wagons or
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cars. Fay
e. A ganister quarryman's local term for
masses of rock, 30 to 50 ft (9.1
to 15.2 m) in width, that are worked out
and loaded, leaving buttresses of
untouched rock between them to support
the upper masses. Fay
f. A hole or depression in the wearing
course of a roadway. Fay
g. A local accumulation of gas. Hudson
h. A bulge, sop, or belly in a lode or bed.
Arkell
i. A cavity, whether filled with air, water,
mineral, or gravel.
Arkell
j. In pegmatites, the central openings lined
with crystals, including
those of gem species. Sinkankas
pocket-and-fender method
In pillar extraction, a method in which
lifts are mined in the same way as
in the open-end method, except that a
fender of coal or a series of small
coal stumps is left adjacent to the gob as
the lift is advanced. After the
lift is completed, the fender or stumps of
coal are blasted, and sometimes
part of this coal is recovered. Woodruff
pocket-and-stump method
A method of mining pillars in which a
narrow pillar of coal, called the
stump, is left along the goaf (worked-out
space) to support the roof while
driving the pocket. This coal acts as a
protection for the miners. When
the pocket has been completed, the stump
is worked back, then another
pocket is driven, and so on. Lewis


pocket compass
A magnetic needle enclosed in a
nonmagnetic case, the needle being free to
swing over a graduated face or dial. The
compass is useful for
experimental purposes or for direction-
finding in desolate parts of the
countryside, or during darkness and foggy
weather. Morris
pocket conveyor
A continuous series of pockets, formed of
a flexible material festooned
between crossrods, carried by two endless
chains or other linkage that
operate in horizontal, vertical and inclined
paths.
pocket hunter
California. A miner or prospector who
searches for small gold deposits
which occur on the surface in the gold-
bearing areas of the State.
Fay
pocket of gas
A small accumulation of methane in a
roof cavity, where it is beyond the
reach of the ventilating air current.;
combustible gases layer; hurdle sheet.
Nelson
pocket transit
See:Brunton compass
pod
A rudely cylindrical orebody that
decreases at the ends like a cigar or a
potato.
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
Podsol
See:Podzol
Podzol

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A great soil group in the 1938
classification system; a group of zonal
soils having an organic mat and a very
thin organic-mineral layer
overlying a gray, leached A2 horizon and
a dark brown, illuvial B horizon
enriched in iron oxide, alumina, and
organic matter. It develops under
coniferous or mixed forests or under
heath, in a cool to temperate moist
climate. Also spelled Podsol. Spelled
"podzol" when used as the soil type
belonging to the Podzol group. Etymol:
Russian podsol, ash soil.
AGI
podzolization
The process by which a soil becomes
more acid owing to depletion of bases,
and develops surface layers that are
leached of clay and develop illuvial
B horizons; the development of a podzol.
Also spelled: podsolization.
AGI
poecilitic
The original spelling of poikilitic. Now
obsolete in American usage, it is
still the most accepted European spelling.
AGI
Poetsch process
a. The original freezing process of shaft
sinking developed by F. H.
Poetsch in 1883.b. A process in which
brine at subzero temperature is circulated
through
boreholes to freeze running water through
which a shaft or tunnel is to be
driven during development of a
waterlogged mine. Pryor, 3
poicilitic
See:poikilitic
poidometer
An automatic weighing device for use on
belt conveyors. The device feeds
the material from a hopper in a uniform
stream onto a short independent
belt conveyor and from there onto the
main belt or bin. The weight of
material on the measuring belt actuates a
scale beam that raises or lowers
a gate controlling the rate of flow from the
feed hopper to a certain
predetermined load per foot of measuring
belt. A meter records the travel
of measuring belt, and this figure
multiplied by the weight per foot of
belt, as fixed by the scale beam
adjustment, gives the weight of material
handled in any given period.
poikilit
See:bornite
poikilitic
A rock texture in which numerous grains
of various minerals in random
orientation are completely enclosed within
a large, optically continuous
crystal of different composition. Also
spelled poicilitic. CF:ophitic
poikilitic texture
See:poikilitic
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
poikiloblastic

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a. Said of a metamorphic texture in which
small grains of one constituent
lie within larger metacrysts. Modern usage
favors this meaning.

b. Said of a metamorphic texture due to
the development, during
recrystallization, of a new mineral around
numerous relicts of the
original minerals, thus simulating the
poikilitic texture of igneous
rocks. CF:helicitic
point
a. A predetermined direction for driving a
roadway underground. The point
is fixed by roof plugs in the roadway.
spad.
Nelson
b. One one-hundredth (0.01) part of a
carat. When less than one carat, the
weight of a diamond is usually expressed
in points; e.g., 20 points equals
1/5 carat. Chandler
c. A pipe through which steam or hot
water is brought into contact with
frozen gravel to thaw it for mining or
dredging.
d. See:well point
e. In quarrying, a type of wedge that
tapers to a narrow, thin edge.
f. The end or bottom of a borehole, as
distinguished from the mouth or
collar. Fay
g. A tool used in trimming and smoothing
rough stone surfaces.
Webster 3rd
h. Either of a pair of tapered rails at a
turnout that can be adjusted to
direct a set of mine cars from a straight
rail track to another track
branching off at an angle..
Nelson
point agate
See:point chalcedony
point chalcedony
White or gray cryptocrystalline quartz
flecked with tiny spots of iron
oxide, giving the whole surface a uniform
soft red color.

point defect
A deviation from ideal crystal structure
about a point location; e.g.,
interstitial, atom missing (Schottky), or
combined (Frenkel).
CF:crystal defect; Frenkel defect;
Schottky defect.
point driver
In metal mining, a person who drives
steam or water points (specially made
pipes with a chisel bit at one end) into the
frozen ground of a placer
deposit in advance of dredging operations,
to thaw the ground so that it
can be worked by the dredge for recovery
of gold.
DOT
pointed box
A box, in the form of an inverted pyramid
or wedge, in which minerals,
after crushing and sizing, are separated in
a current of water.
point group
One of 32 geometrically possible arrays of
symmetry elements intersecting
at a point. These symmetry elements are
axes of rotation, both proper and
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
improper (1 = i, 2 = m). All minerals
having the symmetry of one point
group belong to the same crystal class.
CF:symmetry; crystal class;
space group.
point kriging

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Estimating the value of a point from a set
of nearby sample values using
kriging. The kriged estimate for a point
will usually be quite similar to
the kriged estimate for a relatively small
block centered on the point,
but the computed kriging standard
deviation will be higher. When a kriged
point happens to coincide with a sampled
location, the kriged estimate
will equal the sample value.
point of attack
See:portal
point of compound curvature
The point of tangency common to two
curves of different radii, the curves
lying on the same side of the common
tangent. Abbrev., P.C.C.
Seelye, 2
point of curvature
The point where the alignment changes
from a straight line or tangent to a
circular curve; i.e., the point where the
curve leaves the first tangent.
Abbrev., P.C. Seelye, 2
point of frog
The intersection gagelines of the main
track and a turnout. Kiser

point of intersection
a. The point where intersecting lines cross
one another. Jones, 2
b. The point where the two tangents to a
circular curve intersect.
Abbrev., P.I. Also called vertex. Seelye, 2
point of recalescence
See:recalescence
point of switch
That point in the track where a car passes
from the main line onto the
rails of a turnout. Kiser
point of tangency
The point where the alignment changes
from a circular curve to a straight
line or tangent; i.e., the point where the
curve joins the second tangent.
Abbrev., P.T. Seelye, 2
point plotting
In seismology, a procedure in reflection
interpretation in which depth
points are computed and plotted for each
seismogram trace separately.
Schieferdecker
point source
A single point from which light emanates;
e.g., the sun or a lamp
filament, or their reflections. In the case of
multiple reflections, each
is a point source.
poise
a. The unit of absolute viscosity, equal to
one dyne-second per square
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centimeter. Named from the physicist
Poiseuille. AGI
b. The second unit of fluid viscosity, often
expressed in centimeters or
grams.
Poiseuille's law

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A statement in physics that the velocity of
flow of a liquid through a
capillary tube varies directly as the
pressure and the fourth power of the
diameter of the tube and inversely as the
length of the tube and the
coefficient of viscosity.
poisoning
a. In ion-exchange terminology, loading
of resin sites with unwanted ions,
thereby eliminating them as locations for
loading.
b. Fouling of an organic solvent used in
stripping pregnant leach liquor.
Pryor, 3
Poisson's ratio
The ratio of the lateral unit strain to the
longitudinal unit strain in a
body that has been stressed longitudinally
within its elastic limit. It is
one of the elastic constants. Symbol:
sigma .

poker man
A laborer who removes blue powder and
ash residue from retorts after
molten zinc has been tapped. Also called
scraper. DOT


polar
a. Lacking a center of symmetry, with the
result that crystals are
acentric in their crystal forms and physical
properties; i.e.,
electrostatic or magnetic properties are
equal and opposite at the
opposite ends of these crystals; e.g.,
tourmalines. Ant. nonpolar.
b. An optical device, such as nicol prism
or polarizing filter, for the
production of plane-polarized light.; Nicol
prism.
Polar Ajax
A high-strength, high-density,
nitroglycerin gelatin explosive, supplied
in both unsheathed and sheathed forms.
polar curve
A graph showing the distribution of light
in a flame safety lamp obtained
by plotting the values obtained at intervals
of 10 degrees around a full
circle. Mason
polar explosive
Explosive containing an antifreeze
ingredient and distinguished by the
prefix polar. Polar and nonpolar
explosives of equal grade possess similar
characteristics. Explosives that contain
nitroglycerin tend to freeze when
stored at low temperatures for lengthy
periods.

polariscope
An optical device consisting of two
polarizers with a space between for a
crystal or rock under study.
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polarity

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In crystallography, the property of having
differing types of termination
at the two ends of a prismatic crystal. May
be reflected in pyroelectric
properties, conduction of electric current,
etc.
polarizability
The property of an ion or atom to deform
so as to create a dipole from the
displacement of its electron cloud.
polarization
a. The difference between the equilibrium
value of the potential of an
electrode and the value attained when an
appreciable current flows through
a system. Schlain
b. In electrolysis, the condition in the
vicinity of an electrode, such
that the potential necessary to get a
desired reaction is increased beyond
the reversible electrode potential. ASM, 1
c. The production of dipoles or higher-
order multipoles in a medium.
AGI
d. The polarity or potential near an
electrode. AGI
e. In seismology, the direction of particle
motion of shear (S) waves in a
plane perpendicular to the direction of
propagation. AGI
f. A process of filtration or reflection by
which ordinary light is
converted to plane-polarized light in
which the electric vector of a light
ray is confined to a single plane.
polarized light
Light with its electric vector restricted to a
plane or to an elliptically
or circularly helical path as a result of
filtration, reflection, or
interaction with a crystal structure.
polarizer
In a polarized-light microscope, the
polarizing filter or Nicol prism
(polar) located below the sample
stage.analyzer.
polarizing prism
A prism of an anisotropic crystal,
commonly calcite, cut and cemented
together so as to permit passage of one of
the doubly refracted light rays
while reflecting the other out of the train
of a microscope.

polar moment of inertia
The second moment of area about an axis
perpendicular to its plane is
known as the polar moment of inertia of a
plane section.

Polaroid
A sheet of cellulose impregnated with
optically aligned crystals of
quinine iodosulfate, which permit passage
of light with its electric
vector in one plane while absorbing all
other impinging light. It is a
cheap substitute for Nicol prisms in
modern polarized-light microscopes.
Polar Viking
A typical nitroglycerin powder explosive,
which is now supplied only in
the sheathed form. McAdam, 2
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polder
Dutch. Low fertile land, as in The
Netherlands and Belgium, reclaimed from
the sea by systems of dikes and
embankments.

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pole
a. Either of the two regions of a
permanent magnet or an electromagnet
where most of the lines of induction enter
or leave. A point toward which
a freely suspended ferromagnetic rod
aligns itself.
b. The negative or positive electrical pole
in a circuit.
pole chain
A surveyor's chain.
pole figure
A stereographic projection representing
the statistical average
distribution of poles of a specific
crystalline plane in a polycrystalline
metal, with reference to an external
system of axes. In an isotropic
metal; i.e., in one having a completely
random distribution of
orientations, the pole density is
stereographically uniform; preferred
orientation is shown by an increased
density of poles in certain areas.
ASM, 1
poleman
See:locomotive brakeman
pole piece
A specially shaped piece of magnetic
material forming an extension to a
magnet; e.g., the salient poles of a
generator or motor. CTD
pole strength
In measurement of magnetic strength, the
number of unit poles in the
measured field. One unit pole is the
strength in a vacuum required to
exert 1 dyn in a 1-cm gap between poles.
Pryor, 3
polianite
A steel-gray dioxide of manganese, MnO
2

, crystallizing in the
tetragonal system. It is distinguished from
pyrolusite by its hardness and
anhydrous character. CMD; Dana, 4
poling
a. The act or process of temporarily
protecting the face of a level,
drift, cut, etc., by driving poles or planks
along the sides of the yet
unbroken ground. Used esp. for holding
up soft ground.

b. A step in the fire refining of copper to
reduce the oxygen content to
tolerable limits by covering the bath with
coal or coke and thrusting
greenwood poles below the surface. There
is a vigorous release of reducing
gases that combine with the oxygen
contained in the metal. If the final
oxygen content is too high, the metal is
underpoled; if too low,
overpoled; and if just right, tough pitch.
ASM, 1; CTD
poling back
Carrying out excavation behind timbering
already in place. Hammond
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poling board

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a. A forepoling board, driven horizontally
ahead to support the roof when
tunneling through running ground.
b. In trenching, either of a pair of side
boards wedged apart.
Pryor, 3
polirschiefer
Tripoli slate. Also called polishing slate.
Dana, 1
polish
An attribute of surface texture of a rock,
characterized by high luster
and strong reflected light, produced by
agents, such as desert or glacial
polish, or by artificial grinding and
smoothing; e.g., marble or granite.
AGI
polished section
A slice of rock or mineral that has been
highly polished for examination
by reflected-light or electron microbeam
techniques, a procedure mostly
applied to opaque minerals..
polishing
Removing the last traces of suspended
matter from solutions by passing
them through a filter coated with
diatomaceous earth or similar material.
polishing cask
A barrel in which grained gunpowder is
tumbled with graphite to glaze it.
Standard, 2

polishing mill
A lap of metal, leather, or wood used by
lapidaries in polishing gems.
Fay
polled stone
Som. Stone hewn into shape and faced
ready for building. Building stone
with one side rough faced, as opposed to
hammer-and-punch dressed.
Arkell
pollen peat
Peat rich in pollen grains. Tomkeieff
poll pick
A pick with a head for breaking away hard
partings in coal seams or
knocking down rock already seamed by
blasting.
Fay
pollucite
An isometric mineral, (Cs, Na)
2
Al
2
Si
4

O
12
.H
2
O ; zeolite group; forms a series with
analcime; colorless; occurs
in granite pegmatites; a source of cesium
and a minor gemstone.
poly-
A prefix signifying many. Used in many
mineral names, such as polybasite,
polycrase, polyhalite, and polyaugite.
CCD, 2; Spencer, 5
polyargyrite
A mixture of argentite and tetrahedrite.
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polybasite

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A monoclinic mineral (Ag,Cu)
16
Sb
2
S
11
;
forms a
series with pearcite; pseudohexagonal;
soft; metallic; gray to black; sp
gr, 6.0 to 6.2; in low-temperature veins; a
source of silver.
polychroilite
Altered cordierite. Dana, 1
polychroism
See:pleochroism
polychroite
See:cordierite
polycrase
An orthorhombic mineral,
(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Ti,Nb,Ta)
2
O
6
;
black; in granite pegmatites. Formerly
spelled polykras.
polycrystal
A mineral specimen composed of an
assemblage of individual crystals of
various crystallographic orientations.
syntaxy.
polycrystalline
An aggregate of crystals of the same
species.
polydymite
An isometric mineral, NiNi
2
S
4
; linnaeite
group; easily
confused with violarite.
polygenetic
a. Resulting from more than one process
of formation, derived from more
than one source, or originating or
developing at various places and times;
e.g., said of a mountain range resulting
from several orogenic episodes.
AGI
b. Consisting of more than one type of
material, or having a heterogeneous
composition; e.g., said of a conglomerate
composed of materials from
several different sources. CF:monogenetic
polygon
A plane figure bounded by straight lines.
Jones, 2
polygonal
A two-dimensional form having more
than four regular straight sides.
polygonal method
An ore-reserve computation method in
which an assumption is made that the
area of influence of each drill hole extends
halfway to the neighboring
drill holes. Therefore, thickness and grade
must vary uniformly in
opposite directions and in such cases
errors tend to be compensating.
Where the thickness and grade vary in the
same direction, the errors will
accumulate and cause erroneous results.
Krumlauf
polyhalite
A triclinic mineral, K
2
Ca
2
Mg(SO
4
)
4
.2H
(sub
2) O ; bitter tasting; varicolored; occurs in
284
Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
salt deposits in Texas, New
Mexico, and Germany.
polykras
See:polycrase

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polymer
a. A compound formed by the union of
two or more molecules of the same
simple substance. Standard, 2
b. In the plural use, compounds identical
in composition but which vary in
molecular weight, such as ethylene
(ethene), Ch
2
:Ch
2
;
propylene (propene), CH
3
CH:CH
2
; and
butylene (butene), CH
3
CH
2
CH:CH
2
. Standard, 2
polymerization
Union of two or more molecules of given
structure to form a new compound
with the same elemental proportions but
with different properties and a
higher molecular weight. Pryor, 3
polymerize
To chemically combine small molecules
into larger molecules; to undergo
polymerization.
polymetallic sulfide
A sulfide deposit rich in copper, zinc,
lead, silver, or gold, which forms
as a result of hydrothermal activity in the
vicinity of mid-ocean
spreading centers or tectonically active
basins. The first discovery of
these deposits was from the French
submersible Cyana, in 1979, during a
joint international biological investigation
of thermal springs on the
deep seabed. The term derives from the
French "sulfides polymetalliques."
polymignite
An orthorhombic mineral,
(Ca,Fe,Y,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta,Zr)O
4
;
radioactive;
in syenites and granite pegmatites. Also
spelled polymignyte.
polymorphism
The characteristic of a chemical
compound to crystallize in more than one
crystal class; e.g.: (1) kyanite, andalusite,
and sillimanite; (2) quartz,
tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, and
stishovite. Allotropy refers specif.
to chemical elements crystallizing in more
than one class; e.g., graphite,
diamond, chaoite, and lonsdaleite.
Polymorphism limited to two or three
crystal classes is dimorphism or
trimorphism, respectively. Individual
species are polymorphs (dimorphs,
trimorphs). Polytypism refers to
variable stacking of identical layer
structures in different crystal
classes. Adj: polymorphic (dimorphic,
trimorphic). Adv: polymorphous
(dimorphous, trimorphous). isomorphism;
isotypy; polysyngony.
polynigritite
Variety of nigritite found in a finely
dispersed state in argillaceous
rocks. CF:keronigritite; humonigritite.
Tomkeieff
polynite
A montmorillonoid clay mineral in soils.
Spencer, 6
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
polyphase
In electricity, having or producing two or
more phases, such as a
polyphase current.
polysomatic

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Having a texture consisting of numerous
small grains; said of minerals.
Standard, 2
polysomatism
Minerals having a texture of many small
grains.
polysyngony
A condition where two or more minerals
have the same composition, but
different crystal classes owing to changed
bond angles; e.g., alpha and
beta quartz. CF:polytypy; polytropy;
polymorphism.
polysynthetic twinning
a. Two systems of lamellar twinning at an
angle with one another.
b. Successive twinning of three or more
individuals, according to the same
twin law, with parallel composition
planes; commonly revealed by visibly
striated cleavage planes; e.g., albite
twinning in plagioclase feldspar.
CF:cyclic twinning; twin laminae.
polythionic acid
Any of several acids in a series related to
sulfurous and thiosulfuric
acid. Pryor, 3

polytropy
A condition in which there is no change in
the geometrical symmetry of the
crystal structure of two related minerals,
but a change to permit a
variant in the resultant mineral; e.g.,
orthoclase microcline.

polytypism
a. A condition in micas and similar clay
minerals in which they show
growth spirals which are due to lamellae
of different orientations.
AGI
b. One-dimensional polymorphism
resulting from alternate stacking of
identical layers; e.g., kaolinite, nacrite,
and dickite.
polytypy
A condition in which the space lattice of
two related minerals is
completely altered to a new type. This is
illustrated by the
quartz-tridymite relationship.Hess
polyvinyl butyral
A resin, with a plasticizer. Provides the
interlayer in standard laminated
glass made from either polished plate
glass or window glass. Lee
polyxene
A variety of native platinum alloyed with
iron.
Poncelet wheel
A kind of undershot waterwheel suitable
for falls of less than 6 ft (1.8
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
m), having the buckets curved so that the
water presses on them without
impact.
Ponsard furnace

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A furnace in which the escaping
combustion gases, passing through tubular
flues, heat the incoming air continuously
through the flue walls.
Fay
pontil
An iron rod used in glassmaking to carry
and manipulate hot bottles, etc.;
has a projection at the end, varying in
shape according to the character
of the ware carried. Also called snap;
pontee; ponto; ponty; puntee;
puntil; punty. Standard, 2
pontoon
a. A float supporting part of a structure,
such as a bridge.
Nichols, 1
b. A wood platform used to support
machinery on soft ground.
Nichols, 1
pony set
A small timber set or frame incorporated
in the main sets of a haulage
level to accommodate an ore chute or
other equipment from above or below.
Nelson
pool
a. To undercut or undermine material,
such as coal, esp. in excavating.
Webster 3rd
b. A continuous area of porous
sedimentary rock that yields petroleum or
gas on drilling. Webster 3rd
pool washing screen
A screen that is divided into alternate
transverse screen cloth panels and
metal plate pool sections. Water is
directed to the pools, setting up a
swirling motion that agitates fines into
suspension.

poor fumes
Toxic or irritating chemicals produced by
an explosion. Nichols, 1
poorly sorted
See:nongraded sediment
pop
a. A short, secondary drill hole blasted to
reduce larger pieces of rock
or to trim a working face. Also called
pophole; pop shot.

b. Explosion in sealed area of a mine.
Manometers may record a sudden
pressure rise due to such an explosion.
Sinclair, 1
pop a boulder
To place and explode a stick of dynamite
on a boulder so as to break it
for easy removal from a mine. Fay
pophole
A secondary drill hole.pop

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
pophole blasting
Breaking down large pieces of asbestos by
means of short blastholes
judiciously placed. Sinclair, 7
pop-off valve

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A pressure-relief valve. Long
poppet
a. A pulley frame or the headgear over a
shaft. A headframe.
b. A valve that lifts bodily from its seat
instead of being hinged.
.
poppet head
a. The top of a derrick where the pulley is
situated. Gordon
b. See:headgear
poppet valve
A valve shaped like a mushroom, resting
on a circular seat, and opened by
raising the stem.. Nichols, 1
popping
The drilling, charging, and firing of a hole
in the center of a boulder at
quarry and open-cast mines. The hole is
charged at the rate of 2 to 3 oz
(57 to 85 g) of explosive per yd
3
(74.2 to
111.3 g/m
3
)
of rock. The charge is pushed to the
bottom of the hole and then filled
with sand or soil. Also called pop
shooting.
Nelson

poppy stone
Red orbicular jasper from California;
popular for cutting en cabochon.
pop-shooting
A method of drilling a hole just beyond
the center of a boulder to be
broken so that the charge is centrally
situated. Stemming is used.
Pop-shooting is economical in explosives,
but drilling is required. It is
somewhat difficult to control the throw of
broken material, but there is
little noise to cause annoyance to nearby
property owners.

pop shot
a. In mining, a shot fired for trimming
purposes. BS, 12
b. In quarrying, a method of secondary
blasting. BS, 12
c. A shot by which a boulder in a mine is
broken up by placing a stick of
dynamite on top of the boulder and
exploding it. Ricketts
d. In blasting, an explosion of the charge
that simply blows out the
tamping.
pop valve
A pressure-relief valve. Long
porcelain clay
A clay suitable for use in the manufacture
of porcelain; specif. kaolin.
AGI
porcelain earth
See:kaolinite
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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
porcelain jasper
A hard, naturally baked, impure clay or
porcellanite that, because of its
red color, was long considered a variety of
jasper.


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porcelain oven
A firing kiln used in baking porcelain. Fay
porcelaneous
Resembling unglazed porcelain; e.g., said
of a rock consisting of chert
and carbonate impurities or of clay and
opaline silica. Also spelled:
porcellaneous; porcelanous. AGI
porcellanite
A dense siliceous rock having the texture,
dull luster, hardness,
conchoidal fracture, and general
appearance of unglazed porcelain; it is
less hard, dense, and vitreous than chert.
The term has been used for: an
impure chert, in part argillaceous; an
indurated or baked clay or shale
often found in the roof or floor of a
burned-out coal seam; and a
fine-grained, acidic tuff compacted by
secondary silica. Etymol: Italian
porcellana, porcelain. Also spelled:
porcelanite; porcelainite.
AGI
pore
A space in rock or soil not occupied by
solid mineral matter.


pore space
The open spaces or voids in a rock taken
collectively.

pore-space filling
The deposition of minerals in the voids of
rocks or between the grains of
loose sediment. Nelson
pore water
a. In soil technology, free water present in
a soil. Normally under
hydrostatic pressure. The shear strength of
adjacent soil depends on this
pore pressure, which reduces frictional
resistance and soil stability.
b. Subsurface water in the voids of a rock.
pore-water pressure
See:neutral stress
porosimeter
An instrument used to determine the
porosity of a rock sample by comparing
the bulk volume of the sample with the
aggregate volume of the pore spaces
between the grains. Porosimeters are of
various designs, some using
liquids and some using gases, at known
pressures, to find the volume of
openings. AGI
porosity
a. The ratio, P, expressed as a percentage
of the volume, Vp, of the pore
space in a rock to the volume, Vr, of the
rock, the latter volume
including rock material plus the pore
space; P = 100 Vp/Vr.
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Holmes, 2
b. The amount of void space in a reservoir
usually expressed as percent
voids per bulk volume. Absolute porosity
refers to the total amount of
pore space in a reservoir, regardless of
whether or not that space is
accessible to fluid penetration. Effective
porosity refers to the amount
of connected pore spaces; i.e., the space
available to fluid penetration.

porosity coefficient
Evolved by Professor H. Briggs in 1931 to
express the conductance of a
waste to air leakage, per foot length of the
roadway per foot width of the
leakage zone. Roberts, 1
porous
Containing voids, pores, cells, interstices,
and other openings, which may
or may not interconnect.
porous ground
Any assemblage of rock material that, as a
result of fracturing, faulting,
mode of deposition, etc., contains a high
percentage of voids, pores, and
other openings. Long
porous-pot electrode
Nonpolarizable electrode consisting of a
metal bar immersed in a saturated
electrolytic solution which is contained in
a porous pot.
Schieferdecker


porpezite
A native alloy of argentiferous gold with
palladium, the palladium content
varying up to 10%. From Porpez, Brazil.
porphyrite
An obsolete term synonymous with
porphyry. The term was originally used to
distinguish porphyries that contain
plagioclase phenocrysts from those
that contain alkali feldspar phenocrysts.
AGI
porphyritic
a. Said of the texture of an igneous rock in
which larger crystals
(phenocrysts) are set in a finer-grained
groundmass, which may be
crystalline or glassy or both. Also, said of
a rock with such texture, or
of the mineral forming the phenocrysts.
AGI
b. Pertaining to or resembling porphyry.
AGI
porphyritic obsidian
Volcanic glass having microcrystalline
phenocrysts.
porphyritic texture
See:porphyritic
porphyroblast
A pseudoporphyritic crystal in a rock
produced by metamorphic
recrystallization. Adj: porphyroblastic.;
pseudophenocryst. AGI

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Dictionary Technical: Technical English-English
porphyroblastic

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a. Pertaining to the texture of a
recrystallized metamorphic rock having
large idioblasts of minerals possessing
high form energy (e.g., garnet,
andalusite) in a finer-grained
crystalloblastic matrix. AGI
b. See:pseudoporphyritic
porphyroclast
A rock fragment contained in mylonite.
porphyroclastic structure
See:mortar structure
porphyrogranulitic
Said of the texture of a diabase porphyry
having phenocrysts of
plagioclase and augite in a ground mass of
plagioclase laths and augite.
porphyroid
Said of or pertaining to a blastoporphyritic
or sometimes porphyroblastic
metamorphic rock of igneous origin, or a
feldspathic metasedimentary rock
having the appearance of a porphyry. It
occurs in the lower grades of
regional metamorphism. AGI
porphyry
An igneous rock of any composition that
contains conspicuous phenocrysts
in a fine-grained groundmass; a
porphyritic igneous rock. The term (from
a
Greek word for a purple dye) was first
applied to a purple-red rock
quarried in Egypt and characterized by
phenocrysts of alkali feldspar. The
rock name descriptive of the groundmass
composition usually precedes the
term; e.g., diorite porphyry. Obsolete .
AGI
porphyry copper deposit
A large body of rock, typically porphyry,
that contains disseminated
chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals.
Such deposits are mined in bulk
on a large scale, generally in open pits, for
copper and byproduct
molybdenum. Most deposits are 3 to 8 km
across, and of low grade (less
than 1% Cu). They are always associated
with intermediate to felsic
hypabyssal porphyritic intrusive rocks.
Distribution of sulfide minerals
changes outward from dissemination to
veinlets and veins. Supergene
enrichment has been very important at
most deposits, as without it the
grade would be too low to permit mining.
AGI
porphyry deposit
a. A deposit in which minerals of copper,
molybdenum, gold, or less
commonly tungsten and tin, are
disseminated or occur in a stockwork of
small veinlets within a large mass of
hydrothermally altered igneous rock.
The host rock is commonly an intrusive
porphyry, but other rocks intruded
by a porphyry can also be hosts for ore
minerals.
b. A deposit, usually of copper,
molybdenum, or tin, in igneous rock of
any composition that contains larger
crystals in a fine-grained
groundmass. SME, 1

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port

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a. In drilling, a cylindrical opening
through the bit shank from which the
circulating fluid is discharged at the bit
face into the water ways.
Long
b. Any opening in a furnace through
which fuel or flame enters or exhaust
gases escape. ASTM
portable aggregate plant
A plant mounted so that it can be moved
over the highways on its own
mounting and that performs all the
operations of a stationary plant,
including crushing, scalping, secondary
crushing, screening, washing, and
sand separation. Some of these complete
plants are mounted on one chassis;
others have the more common operations
on one chassis with the
supplementary equipment on separate
portable mountings.
Pit and Quarry
portable bucket loader
Any of several types of self-propelled
multibucket loaders that are
considered suitable for miscellaneous light
excavating work. These loaders
dig their own path, and to do this, have
various means of gathering the
material to a point where it will be picked
up by the buckets as they pass
over the lower tumbler. While these
loaders are usually used for
reclaiming from stockpiles, they can,
under favorable conditions, excavate
from deposits. These machines always are
mounted on crawler treads.
Pit and Quarry

portable concentric mine cable
A double conductor cable with one
conductor located at the center and with
the other conductor strands located
concentric to the center conductor
with rubber or synthetic insulation
between conductors and over the outer
conductor.
portable conveyor
a. A conveyor designed to be moved as a
unit. It is commonly wheel mounted
and may or may not be sectional. NEMA,
2
b. Any type of transportable conveyor,
usually having supports that
provide mobility.
loading conveyor; movable conveyor;
portable drag conveyor;
roller conveyor; trimmer conveyor;
unloading conveyor; wheel conveyor.
portable crane
A hoisting device carried by a frame
mounted on wheels. Crispin
portable crusher
A crusher with temporary support