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At this time your child is no longer that small child who needed you for everything. By this
time a child is doing so much for themselves and they are preparing to enter the world and
explore it without their parents constant supervisions. The purpose of this fact sheet is
to discuss several developmental milestones as well as provide information they will aid
parents in promoting healthy
development in their child
Physical Development
A lot of changes take place during this time of a childs life especially because they enter
puberty and there is a hormonal change that takes place. One major developmental is that
hair starts to grow in places that there was no hair such as facial hair for boys as well as
pubic hair and underarm hair for both females and males. Another development that
occurs is the deepening of boys voices as well as the development of breast in girls. The
childs weight and height may also change (Center for Disease Control, 2014).
Cognitive Development Milestones
Other changes in development that may be seen at this stage is an increase in the childs
understanding of right and wrong. Other changes that can be seen is children become more
aware of their future and showing concern as well making plans such as work and school
(Center for Disease Control, 2014).
Language Development Milestones
By this time in a childs life their vocabulary has expanded to the tens of
thousands, yet how they use language continues to evolve. At this age adolescence
begin to use language abstractly and are able to use and understand irony and
sarcasm. In addition, their language changes to accommodate their social habits.
During this time words take a new meanings and even new words are develop to
express themselves in a more social setting (Oswalt, n.d.).
Social/Emotional Developmental Milestones
During this age children begin to show more interest in sex. They become curious
about sex and may even become sexually active in addition to developing romantic
feelings for someone. Another milestone that is met during this stage. Children
also tend to withdraw away from their parents a lot more which can learn to
conflict between the child and parents (CDC, 2014).
Moral Reasoning/Self-Regulation Developmental
Children during this stage become highly reflective and use moral judgment in their
decision making process and their actions. Children become more aware and think
about the consequences of their actions. Childrens self-regulation increases,
aggressions towards other especially peers and teachers also seems to decline
(Berk, 2013).
Social Factors that Influence Development
At this age there are so many factors that can influence a childs development, society
being one of them. With social media, magazines, the internet and reality televisions shows
there are so many things within the world a child can be exposed to. These things can
impact a childs way of thinking about themselves or others, how they dress and/or how
they behave. Society can have a strong impact on dictating what and who a child should be
(Berk, 2013).

Cultural Factors that Influences
Religion and/or traditions have a major influence during this time. In some
cultures/religions this stage of a childs life is when they become a man or woman.
The expectations that their family or other important figures in a childs life may
change. The way that the child is expected to carry him or herself can have a
major impact on the childs development especially socially/emotionally (Berk,
Warning Signs
A parent should become concerned about their childs development if their child seems to
be obsessed with their appearance especially his or her weight. Depressions is a growing
concern for children at this age. If your child seems to have extreme changes in behavior
seems very withdrawn and their school progress seems to be declining these may all be
signs of depression, or that your child is developing atypical. Your childs doctor should be
contacted for further examination. If this is seen, a parent should try talking to the child
or contacting their health care professional (Center for Disease Control, 2014)
What You Can Do
Children during this age endure a lot of change
and uncertainties. It is important for parents to
talk to their children, listen to them and be open
to their opinions. Parents should listen to what
their child has to say and not discredit or ignore
their feelings or opinions. Parents should also
respect their childs need for privacy. Children at
this age need to feel like their parents trust this
helps to motivate good choices. However, parents
should be aware of what is too much privacy as well as too much (Center for Disease
Control, 2014).

Berk, L.E. (2013). Child Development. (9
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Center for Disease Control. (2014). Positive parenting tips.
Oswalt, A. (n.d.). The maturing adolescent brain.