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Presentation
Outcomes
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THERMAL STRESS & COMPOSITE BAR
Thermal stress in series composite bar
INTRODUCTION
SOLVE PROBLEMS
Thermal stress in parallel composite bar
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THERMAL
STRESSES IN
COMPOSITE BAR

Explain the effects of temperature changes on composite bar.

Define the coefficient of linear expansion.

Calculate internal stresses developed in the material
subjected to temperature changes.

Calculate the following composite bars:
a. Series composite bars b. Parallel composite bars

Calculate the stress in the composite bar components which is
subjected to external load and due to temperature changes.

Solve problem regarding thermal stresses nd composite bars

LESSON LEARNING OUTCOME
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INTRODUCTION
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It has been established since long, th of a body, it at
whenever there I some increase or decrease in the
temperature of a body, it causes the body to expand or
contract.
A little consideration will show that if the body is allowed
to expand or contract freely, with the rise or fall of the
temperature, no stresses are included in the body. But if
the deformation of the body is presented, some stresses
are included in the body. Such stresses are called thermal
stresses or temperature stresses.
The corresponding strain are called thermal strains or
temperature strains.

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Composite or compound bar
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A compound bar is one comprising of two or more parallel
elements, of different materials, which are fixed together at
their end. The component bar may be loaded in tension or
compression.
A. series joint
A B C Pa = Pb = Pc
L = La + Lb


B. parallel joint
B Pa+ Pb = P
A L = La = Lb


THERMAL STRESSES IN
COMPOSITE BAR




1. 'Composite bar "is a bar that contains two or more different bar materials,
rigidly connected either in series or in parallel.

2. "Thermal stress' is the effect of temperature action imposed on a substance if
the substance is a compound bar or otherwise.



SERIES PARALLEL
External force, P P = P
1
= P
2
= P
3
P = P
1
+ P
2
+ P
3

Total elongation, L L = L
1
+ L
2
+ L
3
L = L
1
= L
2
= L
3





THERMAL STRESS (TEMPERATURE STRESS)

Most structural materials expand when heated, in
accordance to the law. = T
Where is linear strain and is the coefficient of linear
expansion.


L original length of the bar.
T is the rise in temperature
L length of the rod.
If its temperature increase by t, the extension
L = L T




A change in temperature can cause a material to change its dimensions. If
the temperature increases, generally a material expands, where as if the
temperature decreases, the material will contract.
Linear coefficient of thermal expansion () = describes how the size of an
object changes with a change in temperature.
Example = steel = 13 x 10-6 / C , means a 1 m long steel bar will
experience an expansion of 13 x 10
-6
m for 1C temperature rise.







L = . L. T
L = change in length of the member (m)
= Linear coefficient of thermal expansion (/ C )
L = original length (m)
T = change in temperature of the member (C)

material Linear coefficient of thermal expansion x 10
-6
/
o
C
Keluli 11.5 13.0
Aluminium 23.0 24.0
Kuprum 17.0 18.0
Besi tuang 11.0 12.0
Kaca 9.0
Kayu 5.4
Konkrit 10.8
Thermal Strain
T = L / L
T = T
No stress involve in this case
Therefore, = 0
As in this case of lateral strains, thermal strain do not
induce stresses unless they are constrained. The total
strain in a body experiencing thermal stress may be divided
into two components.
Strain due to stress, and that due to temperature T
thus, = + T
= / E + T

Thermal stress in series composite bar
P= Pa =Pb, L = La + Lb
L
A

L
B

Bhn
A
Bhn
B
The figure below shows a compound bar ( A and B) connected in
series. The bar is rigidly mounted to the wall at both ends for a
temperature T
o
C



Given

A
>
B

E
A

E
B

A
A

A
B

T
o
C
L
A

L
B

A
B
L
A
+ L
B
akibat suhu
T

A
B
Jika dibiarkan bebas
mengembang
L
A

L
B

A
B
L
A
+ L
B
akibat daya
P

P
Keadaan sebenar wujudnya
daya dalaman P bagi
menghalang perubahan
panjang akibat T
figure 2
Total length changes, due to the increase in temperature T is
equal to the change in length due to the action of forces P
(L
A
+ L
B
) akibatsuhu T = (L
A
+ L
B
) akibatdayaP




Thermal stress in parallel composite bar
P = Pa + Pb, L = La = Lb



L
Original condition
effects of changes
in temperature
T
Final condition
L
tiub

L
rod

L
L
tiub
L
rod

P
rod
P
tiub

rod
>

tiub


Figure 3
Simple handout
1. Aluminium alloy bar, fixed at its both ends is heated through 20K. Find
the stress developed in the bar. Take modulus of elasticity, and
coefficient of linear expansion for the bar material as 80Gpa and 24 X
10 /K respectively.

2. A brass rod 2m long is fixed at both its ends. If the thermal stress is not
to exceed 76.5 Mpa, calculate the temperature through which the rod
should be heated. Take the values of and E as 17 X 10 and 90 Gpa
respectively.

Work examples ( group discussion)
Thermal stress in simple bar (CLO1 : C3)
3. A parallel composite bar is made of steel and copper of the same
sectional area of 500mm for each bar. The bar is rigidly fixed at both
ends. Given
E copper = 107 GN/m E steel = 200 GN/m
copper = 17.5 x 10 / C steel = 12 x 10 / C
A copper = 500 mm A steel = 500 mm

Calculate:
a. The stress in each bar when a compressive load of 30KN is applied axially on the
composite bar.
b. The stress developed in each bar when the temperature is increased to 50 C
Work examples ( group discussion)
Thermal stress in composite bar (CLO1:C3)
Figure below shows a series of compound bar mounted on a rigid wall at both ends. Calculate the
stresses that occur in each bar if the temperature is raised by 50 . Given



Steel

E
K
= 200 GN/m
2

K
= 12 x 10
-6
/
o
C

A
K
= 150 mm
2


Aluminium

E
A
= 69 GN/m
2

A
= 23 x 10
-6
/
o
C

A
A
= 300 mm
2

200 mm
100 mm
A Aluminium
Steel

B
C
Thermal stress in composite bar (CLO1:C3)

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