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HRM (recruitment &

Suneet Seth
MBA 1 s t SEM
R.N 430
Today, in every organisation personnel planning as an activity is necessary. It is an
important part of an organisation. Human Resource Planning is a vital ingredient for
the success of the organisation in the long run. There are certain ways that are to be
followed by every organisation, which ensures that it has right number and kind of
people, at the right place and right time, so that organisation can achieve its planned
The objectives of Human Resource Department are Human Resource
Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Career planning,
Transfer and Promotion, Risk Management, Performance Appraisal and so on. Each
objective needs special attention and proper planning and implementation.
For every organisation it is important to have a right person on a right
job. Recruitment and Selection plays a vital role in this situation. Shortage of skills
and the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers
go about Recruiting and Selecting staff. First we will know what is recruitment and
Recruitment and Selection are simultaneous process and are incomplete without each
other. Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel
management. Recruitment precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate.
They are important components of the organisation and are different from each other

Meaning of Recruitment:
Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make
suitable arran gements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment is understood as
the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for the jobs, from among whom the
right people can be selected.
In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for
selection of most suitable candidates. Recruitment represents the first contact that a
company makes with potential employees
Flippo’s definition: “It is a process of searching for prospective
employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an

Need for recruitment:

The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation:
a) Vacancies due to promotions, transfer, retirement, termination, permanent disability,
death and labour turnover.
b) Creation of new vacancies due to the growth, expansion and diversification of business
activities of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job
Purpose and importance of Recruitment:
1. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization on
conjunction with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities.
2. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
3. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing
the number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
4. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and
selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time.
5. Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the
composition of its work force.
6. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be
appropriate candidates.
7. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term
and long term.
8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and
sources for all types of job applicants.
Sources of Recruitment


1) Promotion 1) Campus recruitment
2) Transfers 2) Press advertisement
3) Internal notification 3) Management consultancy
(Advertisement) & private employment
4) Retirement 4) Deputation of personnel or
From one enterprise to
5) Recall 5) Management training
6) Former employees 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins
7) Miscellaneous external sources


Recruitment Pros and Cons:

The Internal Recruitment can build a strong loyalty with the organization as the employees have a
chance to change their position after a period of time. The employees are not pressed to look for
opportunities on the external job market.
The Internal Recruitment can be cheaper for the organization and can save the costs dedicated to the
training and induction of new employees. Also, as the candidate knows the organization, the possibility
of the failure is not a significant issue to the organization.
The Internal Recruitment needs strong management from the HRM Function, which can lead to the
conflicts and the HRM Function has to have a position to be able to act as a strong facilitator in the
conflict resolution.
The Internal Recruitment can lead to huge issues when the candidates come from one department. The
managers have to have the right to protect their own interests in the organization as they are
responsible for the smooth operation.
The Internal Recruitment does not bring new skills and competencies to the organization and
organization with an intensive usage of the internal recruitment can suffer from the fresh blood.
External Recruitment Pros and Cons:
The External Recruitment brings new people to the organization, which can be a huge benefit for the
organization. The External Recruitment allows the organization to define the right requirements and
the organization can select the candidate, which suits the organization best. The external recruitment
can be in many situations quicker solutions, mainly in the situation, when the job market is full of
potential job candidates.
The external recruitment and proper campaign increase the popularity of the organization on the job
market, which helps to improve the position for further expansion.
On the other hand, the external recruitment is expensive and takes a lot of energy from the HRM
Function to handle all the job candidates in the selection process.

Meaning of SELECTION:
Selection is defined as the process of differentiating between applicants in order to
identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.
Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the
appropriate qualification and competency to do the job.
The difference between recruitment and selection:
Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to apply for a job.
Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants .
Selection process starts where recruitment ends

Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview of the
applicants and ending with the contract of employment.
The following chart gives an idea about selection process: -


Internal environment

Preliminary interview

Selection test
Rejected Application

Employment interview

Reference and Background


Selection decision

Physical examination

Job offer

Employment contract

Environment factor affecting selection:
Selection is influenced by several factors. More prominent among them
are supply and demand of specific skills in the labor market, unemployment
rate, labor- market conditions, legal and political considerations, company’s
image, company’s policy, human resources planning and cost of hiring. The
last three constitute the internal environment and the remaining form the
external environment of selection process.

STEP 1 : -
The applicants received from job seekers would be subject to scrutiny
so as to eliminate unqualified applicants. This is usually followed by a
preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as
scrutiny of application, that is, eliminate of unqualified applicants. Scrutiny
enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified jobseekers based on the
information supplied in their application forms. Preliminary interview, on the
other hand, helps reject misfits for reason, which did not appear in the
application forms. Besides, preliminary interview, often called ‘courtesy
interview’, is a good public relation exercise.

STEP 2 : -
Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary
interview are called for tests. Different types of tests may be
administered, depending on the job and the company. Generally,
tests are used to determine the applicant’s ability, aptitude and
The following are the type of tests taken:
1). Ability tests:
Assist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks
related to the job. An excellent illustration of this is the typing tests given
to a prospective employer for secretarial job. Also called as
‘ACHEIVEMENT TESTS’. It is concerned with what one has
accomplished. When applicant claims to know something, an achievement
test is taken to measure how well they know it. Trade tests are the most
common type of achievement test given. Questions have been prepared
and tested for such trades as asbestos worker, punch-press operators,
electricians and machinists.
2). Aptitude test :

Aptitude tests measure whether an individual’s has the capacity or

latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. The use of
aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no experience
along the line of the job opening. Aptitudes tests help determine a person’s
potential to learn in a given area. An example of such test is the general
management aptitude tests (GMAT), which many business students take
prior to gaining admission to a graduate business school programme.
Forms of aptitude test:
1. Mental or intelligence tests
2. Mechanical aptitude tests:
3. Psychomotor or skills tests:
4. Intelligence test:
5. Interest Test:
6. Personality Test:
7. Projective Test:
8. General knowledge Test:
9. Perception Test:
10. Graphology Test:
11. Polygraph Test:
12. Medical Test:

STEP 3 : -
The next step in the selection process is an interview. Interview is formal,
in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. It
is considered to be excellent selection device. It is face-to-face exchange of
view, ideas and opinion between the candidates and interviewers. Basically,
interview is nothing but an oral examination of candidates. Interview can be
adapted to unskilled, skilled, managerial and profession employees.

Types of interview:
Interviews can be of different types. There interviews employed by the
companies. Following are the various types of interview: -
1) I n f o r m a l I n t e r v i e w :
An informal interview is an oral interview and may take place
anywhere. The employee or the manager or the personnel manager
may ask a few almost inconsequential questions like name, place
of birth, names of relatives etc. either in their respective offices
or anywhere outside the plant of company .
2) F o r m a l I n t e r v i e w :
Formal interviews may be held in the employment office by the
employment office in a more formal atmosphere, with the help of well
structured questions, the time and place of the interview will be stipulated
by the employment office.
3) N o n - d i r e c t i v e I n t e r v i e w :
Non-directive interview or unstructured interview is designed to let the
interviewee speak his mind freely. The interviewer has no formal or
directive questions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He encourages
the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e.g. “Mr.
Ray, please tell us about yourself after you’re graduated from high
4) Depth Interview:
It is designed to intensely examine the candidate’s background and
thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an
important nature and of special interest to the candidates. For example, if
the candidate says that he is interested in tennis, a series of questions may
be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate.
These probing questions must be asked with tact and through exhaustive
analysis; it is possible to get a good picture of the candidate.
5) Stress Interview:
It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him
under conditions of stress and strain. The interviewer may start with “Mr.
Joseph, we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for
this position,’ and watch the reaction of the candidates. A good candidates
will not yield, on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to
handle the job.
6) G r o u p I n t e r v i e w :
It is designed to save busy executive’s time and to see how the candidates
may be brought together in the employment office and they may be
7) Panel Interview:
A panel or interviewing board or selection committee may interview the
candidate, usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions.
This type of interview pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the
panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in questioning the
faculties of the candidate.
8) Sequential Interview:
The sequential interview takes the one-to-one a step further and involves a
series of interview, usually utilizing the strength and knowledgebase of each
interviewer, so that each interviewer can ask questions in relation to his or
her subject area of each candidate, as the candidate moves from room to
9) Structures Interview:
In a structured interview, the interviewer uses preset standardized questions,
which are put to all the interviewees. This interview is also called as
‘Guided’ or ‘Patterned’ interview. It is useful for valid results, especially
when dealing with the large number of applicants.
10) Unstructured Interview:
It is also known as ‘Unpatterned’ interview, the interview is largely
unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. Unguided interview
is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendly conversation between the
interviewer and the interviewee and in the process, the later reveals more of
his or her desire and problems.
11) Mixed Interview:
In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend
of structured and structured and unstructured questions. This approach is
called the Mixed Interview. The structured questions provide a base of
interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique
differences between applicants.
12) Dinner Interviews:
These interviews may be structured, informal, or socially situated, such as in
a restaurant. Decide what to eat quickly, some interviewers will ask you to
order first (do not appear indecisive). Avoid potentially messy foods, such as
spaghetti. Be prepared for the conversation to abruptly change from friendly
chat to direct interview questions, however, do not underestimate the value
of casual discussion, some employers place a great value on it. Be prepared
to switch gears rapidly, from fun talk to business talk.
13) Telephone Interviews:
Have a copy of your resume and any points you want to remember to say
nearby. If you are on your home telephone, make sure that all roommates or
family members are aware of the interview (no loud stereos, barking dogs
etc.). Speak a bit slower than usual. It is crucial that you convey your
enthusiasm verbally, since the interviewer cannot see your face. If there are
pauses, do not worry; the interviewer is likely just taking some notes.

STEP 4 :
Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers of
references for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps, gaining
additional background information on an applicant. Although listed on the
application form, references are not usually checked until an applicant has
successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. When
the labour market is very tight, organisations sometimes hire applicants
before checking references. They should chek all the reference of candidate.
STEP 5 :
After obtaining information through the preceding steps, selection decision-
the most critical of all the steps- must be made. The other stages in the
selection process have been used to narrow the number of the candidates. The
final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pas the tests,
interviews and reference checks.

STEP 6: -
After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is
required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is, often, contingent
upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. The
results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are
preserved in the personnel records. There are several objectives behind a
physical test. Obviously, one reason for a physical test is to detect if the
individual carries any infectious disease. Secondly, the test assists in
determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work.
Thirdly, the physical examination information can be used to determine if
there are certain physical capabilities, which differentiate successful and less
successful employees. Fourth, medical check-up protects applicants with
health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or
might otherwise endanger the employer’s property.
STEP 7: -

The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who
have crossed all the previous hurdles. Job offer is made through a letter of
appointed. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee
must report on duty. The appointee must be given reasonable time for
reporting. Thos is particularly necessary when he or she is already in
employment, in which case the appointee is required to obtain a relieving
certificate from the previous employer. Again, a new job may require
movement to another city, which means considerable preparation, and
movement of property.

STEP 8: -
After the job offer has been made and candidates accept the offer, certain
documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. One such
document is the attestation form. This form contains vital details about the
candidate, which are authenticated and attested by him/her. Attestation form
will be a valid record for the future reference.

STEP 9: -
Contrary to popular perception, the selection process will not end with
executing the employment contract. There is another step – amore sensitive
one reassuring those candidates who have not selected, not because of any
serious deficiencies in their personality, but because their profile did not
match the requirement of the organisation. They must be told that those who
were selected were done purely on relative merit.

STEP 10:-
The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of
the personnel hired. An organisation must have competent and committed
personnel. The selection process, if properly done, will ensure availability of
such employees. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programme?
A periodic audit is the answer. People who work independent of HR
department must conduct audit. The table below contains an outline that
highlights the areas and questions to be covered in a systematic evaluation.

So this is the full process of recruitment and

selection which is discussed in the human
resource management.
Selection process of INFOSyS
If we see the steps follow by the INFOSYS during selection process then it is found that the
selection steps are as below shown by the diagram -

Regarding Filling the

Application Form:

They will ask to Fill an

Application Form
before the

commencement of the Examination which consists of 4 pages and regarding our personal
details, like

- Date, Place of Birth

- Blood Group
- Allergies
- Last Major illness / Surgery with specific date
- Eye Vision
- Parent's Details
- Passport Details (If not having, no problem)
- Educational Details along with % (from SSC to PG)
- Languages Known
- Previous Working Details (If Experienced)
- Two Reference's Addresses & Details like Email, Ph no.
(can give our HOD's or lecturers Details) for the Verification purpose
- Two Infosys employees details (if known anybody)
- Whether appeared for Infosys or Progeon (Sister concern
of Infosys) previously
- Educational Achievements like Scholarships, prizes
- Extra currical Activities & Achievements
- Etc., and some more details I think so.

Regarding the Exam Pattern:

The Exam is for 1 1/2 Hours, in which 1 Hour is given for 10 Puzzles to solve, and the
Remaining 1/2 an Hour is given to answer 45 Simple English Grammar Questions. In
English It'll be Quite Easy questions.

Regarding Puzzles & English:

The Puzzles is of 50 Marks, and one have to score above 35 to get qualified in the test. They
will take the Puzzles Question Paper after the completion of 1 Hour. So, if there are any
unsolved puzzles, you can note them in the rough paper which they will give you to make the
rough work, and can try to solve them during the English Section. Sometimes, they are
asking two essays and asking to write an essay among them.

If you got selected in the written test, then that's all. You can be confirmed that you got
selected for Infosys. 99% of the people got selected in the written test got selected in the
Interviews also. The remaining 1% those who not selected are because of their
communication skills.

Regarding Interview:
The Interview is of Purely HR Based. There will be Two Persons. One Younger and One
Elder. Younger One make to keep us cool, where as Elder one fire the Questions on us, that
too HR Questions.

The Questions are as Follows: -

Tell me about yourself?
What are Ur Strengths and Weakness?
Explain Ur Project in Clay men Words and Do U tested it or not
why do you want to join in Infosys? What does u know about us?
Why should we hire you? What can u do for us if you are selected?
What are your strengths and Weakness?
What's the time you faced a lot of trouble in your life and how you solved it?
And some more questions like this,
And questions based on your Interests and Hobbies.
They stress mainly on your hobbies, so be careful in answering to those questions.
( 60-Second Guide to Hiring the Right
0:60 Define the Duties:
To find promising employees, you must first determine what you want them
to do. Carefully consider all direct and associated responsibilities and
incorporate them into a written job description. Be careful with general titles
such as typist or sales clerk, as they have different meanings to different
0:49 What it Takes to do them:
Fulfilling these responsibilities will require some level of skill and
experience, even if it is an entry-level position. Be reasonable about
your expectations. Setting the bar too high may limit your available
talent pool; setting it too low risks a flood of applications from those
unqualified for the job.
0:37 Make it Worth their While:
Likewise, you don’t want to be overly generous or restrictive about
compensation. State and local chambers of commerce, employment bureaus
and professional associations can help you determine appropriate wages and
benefits. Scanning descriptions of comparable jobs in the classified ads and
other employment publications will also provide clues about prevailing wage
0:38 Spread the Word:
How you advertise your job opening depends on who you want to
attract. Some positions are as easy to promote as posting a “help
wanted” sign in your store window or placing an ad in your local
newspaper. For jobs requiring more specialized skills, consider
targeted channels such as trade magazines, on-line job banks and
employment agencies (though these may require a fee). And don’t
overlook sources such as friends, neighbours, supplier’s customers
and present employees.
0:25 Talk it Over:
Because you have clearly defined the role and requirements, you should have
little difficulty identifying candidates for interviews. Make sure you
schedule them when you have ample time to review the resume, prepare your
questions and give the candidate your undivided attention. After the
interview, jot down any impressions or key points while they’re still fresh in
your mind. This will be a valuable reference when it’s time to make a
0:12 Follow-up on Interviews:
You want to believe your candidates are being honest, but never assume.
Contact references to make sure you’re getting the facts or to clear up any
uncertainties. Professional background checks are a wise investment for
highly sensitive positions, or those that involve handling substantial amounts
of money and valuables.
0:03 you’ve Found them; now keep them:
Now that you’ve hired ideal employees, make sure they stay with you by
providing training and professional development opportunities. The small
business experts at SCORE can help you craft human resource policies and
incentive plans that will ensure your company remains the small business
employer of choice.


1. Poor attitude. Many candidates come across as arrogant. While employers can afford to
be self-centred, candidates cannot.
2. Appearance. Many candidates do not consider their appearance as much as they should.
First impressions are quickly made in the first three to five minutes. (For details regarding
Appearance, refer to the message 'Interview Etiquette' which I had posted earlier in
"CHETANA-JOBS" group).
3. Lack of research. It's obvious when candidates haven't learned about the job, company or
industry prior to the interview. Visit the library or use the Internet to research the company,
then talk with friends, peers and other professionals about the opportunity before each
4. Not having questions to ask. Asking questions shows your interest in the company and
the position. Prepare a list of intelligent questions in advance.
5. Not readily knowing the answers to interviewers' questions. Anticipate and rehearse
answers to tough questions about your background, such as recent termination or an
employment gap. Practicing with your spouse or a friend before the interview will help you
to frame intelligent responses.
6. Relying too much on resumes. Employees hire people, not paper. Although a resume can
list qualifications and skills, it's the interview dialogue that will portray you as a committed,
responsive team player.
7. Too much humility. Being conditioned not to brag, candidates are sometimes reluctant to
describe their accomplishments. Explaining how you reach difficult or impressive goals
helps portray you as a committed, responsive team player.
8. Not relating skills to employers' needs. A list of sterling accomplishments means little if
you can't relate them to a company's requirements. Reiterate your skills and convince the
employer that you can "do the same for them".
9. Handling salary issues ineptly. Candidates often ask about salary and benefit packages
too early. If they believe an employer is interested, they may demand inappropriate amounts
and price themselves out of the jobs. Candidates who ask for too little undervalue themselves
or appear desperate.
10. Lack of career direction. Job hunters who aren't clear about their career goals often
can't spot or commit to appropriate opportunities. Not knowing what you want wastes
everybody's time.
11. Job shopping. Some applicants, particularly those in certain high-tech, sales and
marketing fields, will admit they're just "shopping" for opportunities and have little intention
of changing jobs. This wastes time and leaves a bad impression with employers they may
need to contact in the future.

Sample set of INFOSYS PAPER ON 19th AUGUST 2006

1) In a game of cricket azahar scored 28 less than dravid.and sachin scored 72 more than
Azahar.the total runs made by Azahar and robin are 94.robin scored 26 more than
zadeja.dravid scored 26 more than robin. What is the score?Make some equations ..based on
the above datas n solve it…its an easy one..
2) Reema and Mona went to shopping, they had spent half of the money plus Rs.2 in butcher
shop, then they had gone to xxx spent half of the remaining +Rs.5.then they went to bakery
and spent half of the remaining amount. Finally Rs.5 was left with them. How many rupees
did they carry.
3) Two train starts from two town for each hour. it takes 5hours to reach other town. how
many trains does the train come across.
4) XYZ and XYZ
__________ _______________
Then find the value of X,Y,Z ,G
5) There are five persons in an office in the post of buyer, clerk, floorwalker, manager, and
cashier. Allen, Benett, Clark, Ewinger, Davis holds the post.
1. Among the 5 two have their lunch time from 11:30- 12:30 and the rest have it in 12:30
2. Mrs Allen and Mrs Benett are sisters.
3. Cashier and floorwalker share their lunch among themselves.
4. Cashier and clerk share Bachelors rooms.
5. Davis and Ewinger doesn't face each other from the day Davis reported Ewinger to the
Manager when he returned from lunch and found out that Ewinger has already left for lunch
before time.
6) A couple had triplets - Annie, Fannie and Danny. One of them broke a drum with flour in
it and there were foot-prints all around the kitchen-floor. The parents could not tell to whom
those footprints belonged coz all of them wore same shoes. Then they asked their children
who did it. Annie said "I didn't do it". Fannie said "Danny did it". Danny said "Fannie is
lying". Only one of them spoke truth while the other 2 were lying. Whose the culprit?
7) a )1,2,3,5,16,_____?

b) 1,2,3,8,--?,224

8) A man starts from XYZ city and drives a constant speed. After some time he sees a
milestone with two digits written on it. after he drives for an hour, he sees another milestone
with the same digits, but in reversed order. After another hour of journey, he sees another
milestone with original digits but with a zero between them.
What was the speed of his car if milestones show kilometers?
9) A man asked a taxi driver his number to which he replied:
If you divide my taxi no with 2,3,4,5 or 6, it leaves a remainder 1, but it is completely
divisible by 11. And there’s no other taxi driver in the city having a smaller number than my
taxi who can say the same.
What was his taxi no??
10) There were less than 500 students in a school. one-third of the number of students in the
school was a whole number and so were one-fourth , one-fifth and one-seventh of students in
the school. What's the total no of students in the school?
Engilsh section was there
And then Interview.