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BSc. PhO. CCh€m. FRSC



LS.A. Building,HackworthIndustrialPark,
Shildon,Co. Durham,DL4 lLH, England

@ Copyrightby J. GordonCook, 1959,1960,1964,1968,1974,1984,1993

SecondEdition 1960
Third Edition 1964(November)
FourthEdition 1968
Fifih Editiott 1984

All rights reserved.No port of thispublicationntay be

reproctuced,stored in a retrievalsyslem,or!ronsnlilled,
in any lorrn oi by any ,,,eatts,electronic, meclratrit:al,
plrctocopying,recordingor atltert'ise,withouttlreprior
permissionof tlrc publishus

I S B N 0 9 0 4 0 9 54 0 I

Printed in Great Britain by

Redwood Books,Trowbridge,Wiltshire
The manufactureof textilesis one of the olcrestancrmost inrpor-
tant industriesof all, Its raw materialsare librcs, and the siuJy
of textiles therefore begins with an uudcrstanclirrg of thc fibrci
fronr which nrodcrn textiles are rnaclc.
- In this book, an outline is given of the history, procluctionand
fundam.entalproperties of important tcxtilc nUr.s in ,r" ioaol.
The. behaviour of each fibre as it anecb the nature of its fabric
rs olscussecl.
The book is in two volumes.Volume I deals with the natural
fibres on which we dependccrfor our rextilcsuntil cor'pai;ii;;it
reccnt times. Volume II is conccrned with .nn-nroi.
including rayons ancl other natural poiy,".. fibrcs, and
thc lruc
synthetic fibres wrrich rravcrnaclesuch iapid progrcss
in ,,,o,t.i,i
The book has bee' wrir.tenfor all co.ccrncd with thc
trade who require a backgrouncrof information on nt..t
them in their work. Every eflort has beenmacrcr.oensurc
thar thi
text is accuratc ancr up-to-d^tc. 'r'hc infornration
on 'unn-n.,nJ"
f i b r e si s b a s c do n f a c t ss u p p r i c db y t h c ' r i r n u l a c t u r c t r
or trr"iibi.s
In writing this book. I. have bcen given much cncouragcnrent
a n d h c l p b y m a n y i n d i v i d u a l sa n d o i g a r r i z a t i o n s- t.- h c
t u r e r so I t h e n r a n - n r a d cf i b r c sn r c n t i o n e ci 'rt h c t c x t r r ^ u " g o i r " - i o
great "otr,r
.trouble on my bchalf i' providing infor'ratio' in
checkingthe text before publication.I woulcllike to
!h9ir h.elp,with grateful thanks,and also that givc' t" "r" fry tfi.
following individualsand organizatiorrs :
D. A. Derrett-Smjth.,Esq., B.Sc., F.R.I.C., Linen
D_rC. H. Fisher, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
The Cotton Board, Manchcster.
Stanley B. Hunt, Textile Economics Bureau.
Pr !t. J. W. Reynolds,I.C.I. Dyestulls Division.
N,Ir H. Sagar, I.C.I. Dyestufls Dlvision.
I{. L. Parsons,Esq., B.Sc., F.R.I.C., Low ancl Bonar
L. G. Noon, ESq.,Wigglesworth ancl Co. Ltd.

Silk and Rayon Users Association'

i- C. ni.Union, Esq', International Wool Secretariat'
*. R. neath, Esq., and his colleagues;CourtauldsLtd'
g.'Lo.A, nsq., il.S.., Cotton Silk ancl Man-Made Fibres
K. J. Brookfield, Esq., FibreglassLtd'
F. H. Clayton, Esq., Wm. Frost Ltd'
Ilurlington Industries Inc.


The man-ntaclefibre industry ltu, .*pund"d greatly since the
fourtlr eclition of. Ilanclbook of Textile Fibres was published.
Many new fibres havecome into production in countriestluough-
out ihe world, but the emphasishas been largelyon development
and moclificationof establishecl fibre classes, rather tSan upo' tlle
introductiort of fibres of ncw cltentical typcs.
Within ahnost every chelnical class there is now a family of
fibres displaying a range of properties and applicationslirnited
only by tLe fundamental chemicalstructureof the fibre class.To
inciude detailed information about every fibre in production
would have meatrt producing a book of unmanageableand
uneconomic size. ln this volume, therefore, I have provided
backgrounclinformation about eachchemicalclassof fibre, based
uruoiiy upon a fibre in current production w1ric6exemplifiesits
chemical class.More specific information about individual fibres
will be found in a supplementaryvolume.
Since the fourth edition was published, production of sonte
classesof fibre has been suspended.I have, ltowever, rctained
inforrnation about these fibre classes;they are of technicaland
historicalinterest, and there is alwaysthe possibility that produc-
tion of these fibres may restart to meet changingeconomic and
As in previous ectitions,I have been given much valued assis-
tance by iibre manufacturersand textile organisationstlrrouglout
the woild. Many individuals have gone to great trouble on n1y
behalf by providing information and checking the text before
p u b l i c a t i o n .I w o u l c ll i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g et h e i r h e l p w i t h g r a t e f u l


FuNrolrr4rNrrs. oF FrBnBSrnucrune tx

A. Nalural Polynrer Fibres

L Cu,lur-ose Flnnr,s; R,r,yoNs 9

Viscose Rayon 9
Cupro (Cupramrnoniunr) 65
S n p o n i f i c dC c l l u l o s cE s t c r "t4

2. Ce,i-lur-ose Esl:n Flnnns 79

CelluloseAcetate (Acetatc) 80
CelluloseTriacctate (friacetatc) 99

3. Pnorarx Frnnns l5
Casein Fibres t7
Groundnut Protein Fibres 35
Zein Fibres l4l
Soya Bean Protcin Fibres 144
Collagen Fibres t46
MiscellaneousProtcin Fibrcs t47

4. MrscrlurNEous NrrrunLr- PolyveR FrnRrs 148

Alginate Fibres 148
Natural Rubbcr Fibres 153
Silicate Fibres t't 6
Silica Fibres 178
B. Syn(hcticFibrcs t92

l. Pot-y,ruroe lltnncs t94

Nylon 6.6 209
Nylon 6 261

Nylon I I 292
Nylon 6.10 302
New Types of Polyamide Fibre 308
2. Polyr,srr,n Flnnes 328
(PET Polyester Fibres) 330
Poly-1, 4-cyclohexylene-dimethylene
TerephthalateFibres (PCDT polyester Fibres) 316
Other Types of Polyester Fibre 388
3. Por-yvlNyr" DEnrvrrrvr Flnnns 392
PolyacrylonitrileFibres 393
Polyvinyl chloride Fibres 444
Polyvinylidenechloride Fibres 484
Polyvinyl alcohol Fibres 493
Polytetrafluoroethylene (and related) Fibres 509
Polyvinylidenedinitrile Fibres 523
PolystyreneFibres s33
4. Polyolerrx FlnRrs 536
PolyethyleneFibres 541
PolypropyleneFibres 564
5. Polyunsnr,q,ne Frnnes 610
6. Mrscnlr"rNe,ousSyvnrr,nc FlnRrs 639
Glass Fibres 639
Aluminium silicate Fibres 666
Nfetallic Fibres 678
Polyurea Fibres 707
PolycarbonateFibres 7t4
C a r b o nF i b r e s 7t6

INoex 7t9


D u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y ,a l l t h e f a r n i l i a r
n r a t c r i a l st l r a t t h c
world.lras bee. using for triousancrs of ycars huvc co'c un<Jcr
t'e microscope'scie'ce.has opcncclup a
ircat cra of cxproratiori
which is_probing into rhe nature of matciiat
thi.gs. W" ,;^;;i;
know why differcnt forrns of nratter bchave
as il.rcydo: and to
{ind our answerswe have had to stucly ttte
atours and rnolcculcs
frorn which n.raterialsare nrade.
In this respect,natural-fibrcs havc proved
to bc onc of the
.interesting ficlds of nrodcrn scicntific ,"..nr"ti. nr- *i
rnaterialsof o'.e of tlrc worlcl'sgrcfltcsti'drrstrics,
ar;J';, ir;;,,1i;;;
I o r ' r s o I n r a t t c r i n t h c i r o w ' r ' l g l r t ,n t r . s ' i r a v c
r o r r gc x c i r c d t r r c
curiosity of scientisrs.Now, rJsearch
iirto thc .f";r[i;-;;,;
physics of fibres has provic.lecla
satisfying cxplanatiou of thc
runusualand invaluablc propertics that
itrey possess.
7'lucad-like Molecules
A l l f i b r e sh a v e b e c n f o u n c l t o s h a r c o n e
r h i n g i n c o n r n r o n ;l h c
f.undamentalparticles, nrolcculcr,ni" ,,t*"y, long ancl thrcad-
like. That is to sav. thc'rolcculer;i
fib;;r, r'nttcr arc i. t'c
fo.n of hunclrecrs b. .u.., trrousancrs of incrividuar^tonrs strung
together one after the orher. rn. n.,ol..irlc
of celiiri;r;:"i;;
isbuiltup by theplantfronrtrr,,J..a,ol" n",or"
glucose-nrolecules, ;l-il;l
eacrr of which i' turn cont.i's six carbon
atoms.T'e cellulosernolecule,thcreforc,
is in t'c forni of ;-i;;;
thin chain of atoms.
T h e m o l e c u l c so f a f i b r e _ a r et h u s i n s h a p e
v e r y s i n r i l a rt o t h c
libre itself-And just as trre fibre uoto*s
itr'"rraractcristicson trrc
y a r ' o f w h i c h i t f o r ' r s a s i n g l cs t r a n d , . o . r o " ,
propcrties frorn the threacr-rikc'rorcculcs t r r cf i b r c d c r i v c i t s
of trrc ,,,trrru,.,".'rio,i..
which it is rnade.
One of the ntost outstanclingpropcrtiesof a
fibr.eis its strcrrgth.
R c l a t i v et o i t s c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l . i r r e a , i f , " , t r . , i e i f r
of a silk nir;;-f",
c x a m l r l e i, s c x t r a o r c l i n a r i llyr i g h .A s i r r g l c
s t i a n c l ,s o l i n e , , , i l r r "
alnrosti'visible to the nakc. cye, w.ill ,_""ppoit
a wcig't o[ scvcral

grants.Yet, at the same tiure, this filarl1cntis flexible zrndrcsilient.

In silk, as in other natural fibres,the threadlike moleculestend
to lie along the direction of the ftbre itself; they are aligned in
one direction like sticks in a bundle of faggots' It is almost as
though the silkworm, in extruding its silk,,the sheepin growing
its wool fibres, and thc plant in producing its cotton and flax
coulcl align the long thin moleculesas the llbrcs are forfitcd'

orientationof the fibre nroleculesis uot a precisegeonretrical
arrangement.Rather is it a tendency for the majority of the
molecules to lie in one direction. The effect on the libre is
analogousto the effect of the individual strands twisted into a
rope - each one plays its part in taking up the strain on the rope
as a whole.
Long nroleculesof this sort are a characteristicof the peculiar
fornrs bf mattcr wc call plastics ancl rubbcrs, as lvcll as fibrcs'
But it is only very special types of long n.roleculethat arc ablc
to form {ibres.'fhey must, for example,be fairly regular in shape
'repeating'pattern of atoms in the molecule.They must
with a
not have iarge pendant groups of atoms sticking out from the
sides,or the long moleculesare unable to pack together'
When the long molecules are able to pack closely together,
tlrey can exert strong forces of attraction betweeneach other' In
o fibr" the moleculesare able to develop these forces, and it is
this that is responsiblefor many of the fibre's characteristic
Insiclethe fibre the long moleculeslying alongsideeach othcr
pack tightly here and there into their little bundles. But the
inoleculesare so long that they can each be involved in many
diflerent close-packedbunclles.In betweenthese orderly regions,
the fibre moleiules run through regions in which the molecules
are aligned to some degree along the fibre, but are not aligned
rvith the precisiorrthat allows thcm to pack together into well-
The eflect of this wandering of molecules in and out o[
r c g i o r r so f t i g h t - p a c k i n gi s t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l m o l e c u l ei s t i e d
firnrly to its neighboursat inlervals along its length. In between
'tiecl' region there is a sector of freedom and disordcr.It is
t h i s p e c u l i a r m o l e c u l a ra r r a n g e m e n t h a t g i v e s a l i b r e i t s c o n l -
bination of strength and flexibility.

1 ' h o u g h n a t u r e h c r s c l f p r o d u c c sn r a n y c l i f f c r c n ts o r t s o f l o n g
rnolecules,she has used few for nraking Iibres. 'I'lrc dillcrcnces
betweenthe natural fibres are the result of diflcrcnt charactcristics
in tl.reconstituentmolecules.


The Iong molccules of a typical fibrc-fornring rnntcrill nrc ablc

t o p a c k t o g c t h c r c l o s e l y a l o n g s i d co n c t n o t l r c r , l i k c s t i c k s i r r a
bundle of faggots. regularity of structure brorrglrt - i n about by
h i s a r r a n g e m e n tr e s u l t s. i n r e g i o n so f . c r y s t a l l i n i t y t h c l i b r c .
are regions in rvhich a nurnbcr of nrolcculcsare lligncd
in such a rvay lhat strong forccs of attraction hold thc ntolcCulcs
together. The bonds dcvelopcd in this way nrc not clrcnrical
bonds in the familiar scnse, but thcy arc strorrgcr tlran tlrc
tuormal forccs of attraction cxcrtcd bctrvccri indivitlunl
.. Thc. dcgrec of order introduced by thcsc rcgions o[ crystal-
l i n i t y i s a n i n r p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d c t c r h r i r r i r r tgl r C r r s c f r r l n c s s - on I
p o t c n t i a l t i b r c . l n d i v i d u n l n r o l c c u l c sf o r r n i n-gt i rpragrltc o
t lf n r c g i o n
of crystallinity miry wandcr tlrrough ir n t n s s -o f
rnolccules in rancklnr flrrtngcntcnt, lncl tlrcn l'ot.nr part oI
another rcgion oI crystallinity. tn this rvay, thc ntolcculcs
fornring the fibrc are arrangcd into a strucfurc corrsisting of
regions rvith a high tlcgrcc of alignnrcnt wlrcrc thc nrolcCulcs
hold tightly to cach other, ancl rcgions o[ randonr arrnngcnlcnt
w h e r e l l r c n r o l c c u l e sa r c n o t h o l d i l r t t i -and 'l
chtlv to clch otlrcr. hc
crystalline regions provitlc stlcngih rigirlity, arrd tlrc
anrorphous rcgions provicle llcxibility and rcactivity.
ratio of crystallinc to antorphous nrtlcrial lxrs an inrpor-
tant itrflucnce on thc propcrtics of nny librc. lrr tlrc c;rsc oI
natural fibrcs, tlris is an inlrcrcnt propcrty of thc lihrc rvhiclr is
lixed by nature. ln thc caseof a nran-nr:rriclibrc, thc crysttrllirrc-
arnorphous ratio may be conlrollctl to a lrrgc tlcgrcc by tlrc
conrlitions undcr u,lriclt tlrc fibrc is prodrrccrl.

I n t l r e v e g e t a b l ef i b r e s ,c c l l u l o s ej s t h c m a l c r i a l t h a t p r o v i d e s
thread-like molecules.This molecule. built up by nature from
s n r a l l e rg l u c o s en r o l e c u l c si,s r e g u l a i i n a r r a n g e m e n tb, u t i t
fairly rigid in structure.The celluloscfibres,in consequence, are
s t r o n ga n d t o u g h .
A t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e c e l l u l o s em o l e c u l e t h e r e a r e
groups of atonrs which tend to att.ractwater. wherr cotton,
cxample,is steepedin water, thcsegroups encouragetrrerelatively
small water moleculesto penetratebetwee' the long thin celr;ro;;
molecules.As a result, the fibre structure is loo"se'eclu; u;J
softened.In a humid atmosprrere,therefore,cotton fibres aie not
so inclined to break - a factor that may have helpeclttre growtt.,
of the cotton tradein Lancashire.
This softeni'g eflect of water also explainshow mercerization
c.rn give
.its spccial propcrties to a cotion fabric. The e{Iect oi
t h c c a r s t i c t r e a t * c n t i s t o l o r c c w a t c r n r o l c c u l c si ' t o i l ; f i b ; ,
making il soft a'd plastic. The cellulose of the cotton ir ii"i,
able to 'Ilow' as it is stretched.
Ani.ral fibres are nrade from protei's, the classof substances
tuscdi' the animal world for so nrany builcling jobs. protein
rnoleculcsare, ol'lceagain, long, thread-likechainJ of atonrs.
plant world, celluloseholds a monopory i' fibre produc-
. In the
t i o n . w h e t h e r i t i s i n c o t t o n o r t r r et r u n k o f o i r . . , i ' f l a x o r i n
the fruit or leaves,the cellulosehas the sarle chemicalstructure.
Ilut thc proteins used in tl'reanirnal worrcldiffer widely one fro'r

The long moleculesof a protein are built up from sorne twenty
or so differenttypesof srnallamino acid moleiule.The proportio;
and arrangementof thesedifferent units cleterminethe structure
of the protein moleculeand the nature of the protein itself.
. By cornparison with proleins, the regular cillulose n.rolecule
built from its glucoseunits is sinrplea'cr straightforward.t'roteiri
nrolecules,with infinitc possibilitiesfor the arrangernentof their
n r a n y c o n s t i t u c na t m i n o a c i d u n i t s ,a r e e x c e e d i n g l cy o r l p l e x . B u t
chenristshave been probing steacrilyinto the myiteries oi protcirr
s l r u c t u r cd u r i n g r e c c n ty c a r s ,a n d w c a r c b e g i ' r i i n gt o u ' d e r s t a n c r
the intricaciesof thesecomplex molecules.

lhc protein molcculcsin woot arc now
rcgardcclas bcing foldcd
r'olcculcs.T'c long, thr.cacl_likc "f*i", of ,,t?ntsc,o.ot lic straig^t
alongsideeach other: they bencl
uo"r.*ura', and forrvards like a
m e a n d e r i n gs t r e a m .
In the ordinary unstretchccl
are arra'ged alonqsideeach other .wool fibre, thescfolcicclmolcculcs
ancl lioiit.tte g.n"roi;i;;;;;;
of the fibre irselfl When the fibre
is ,i..i.tr..r, the fol<ls in thc
rnolecttlcsare partly straightenecl
""t-rriii they can.ot u'folcl
a ' y f u r r h c r .T r r e w o o l f i b r c i s t r r . n
oi ir,"'ii,"it or its crasticitv.r

fhere is anothcr fu'clanrentar criflcrencc
bctwccn thc ccrurose
moleculesi' cotton ancrflax,.anJ
iri"-p."t.r" nrorccuresof woor.
Wrereas the close-packedcellulor"-rnii."uf..
solely by elecrrostaiicforces."f ;rr;";i;;]'tn" are hcld togethcr
n r o l e c u l cas r e a c r u a , yj o i ' c c r t o g c i i ; ; ; ; ; ; ; "tor._packcd woot
""^ti.ir-,.rv a n c rt r r c r cb y c r r c r r r i c a r
lirrks' T'hcsc'cross-ririks'
molecules.Thev ensurctrrat .act as ,rrong tics bctrvccrrrrrc
whcn'th-e'ntl."ur., arc strctcrrccl
of their norn.,aifoldecl ,ho;., out
il;y';;;;;]; rhar shapc whcn rlrc
stretchingforce is renroved.
One of wool's most inrportant
charactcristicsis its thirst for
water. As in the casc of, cotton,
ilr; ;ilii w.rcr nlolcculcs ca'
penetrate betwcen thc long
*oot ,"ol."ut.r. U,.,.1;;-;;lrii;
conditions,wool can absorb Inf
f itr-o*n-*.igfl, o[ water.
Unlike ceilurose,however,the protein
of woor is attackedfairry
readity by warer, which cause.;;;i;;;;
l'rolecule.If wool is stretc.hea, changes in rhc wool
fo. ."n,rrjt", ancl t'c' hcatcd in
boiling water and atowed to'coor
* i r i r l i ' r , t t r s r r c t c r r c cirt, w i '
remain in its stretchedform.
The reason for this is founcl jn
the cross_linkswlrich join the
wool moleculestopether.Hot
watei oi'ri.nnl can dcstroy tlrcsc
links so that trre nioleculesor.
ri." to'ti^v'in thc ncw positions
they reachedrvhen the nUr. *r-rtr*f*i]
heating will actuallv causc new I\,Ioreovcr,prolongcd
links to for.nr '"' rvhich anclror thc
'rolecules firnrly iri rhcir new
I n l s l s w l r a t I t a n p c n sw. l r c n . l r a i r
i s g i v e n a p c n n a n e n tw a v e .
l ' h e h a i r i s b c n t a n i r r v i s t c ci nl t o - i i s
" r i i v l ' r o p . , w h i c r rs t r c t c h c s
* Strctchirrgof
^ wool bf"r^_o^,llI partly srr.liglttcnsorrt thc fokls.
u o r n p l e t ct r a r r s i t i o fnr o,,f
t o - k c r a t r nt e p - k c r a t i r o r n l y t : r k c sp i . ; ' ; ; ;
o e s t r o y r n tgh e c r o s s - l i n i i r .


a n d d i s t o r t st l r ef i b r e s .I t i s t h e n s t c a m c dw h i l s t h c l d i n t h i s s h a p c :
the links between the clistortedmoleculesbreak down and tlten
r c b u i l d t h e m s e l v eisn t h e i r n e w p o s i t i o n sO . n c e t h i s h a sh a p p e n e d ,
the hair fibrcs arc lixed firnrly in their ncw shape.

Silk Protcitt
S i l k , l i k e w o o l , i s a n a n i m a l f i b r e ,a n d i t i s o n c ea g a i na p r o t c i n '
B u t t h e c h e m i c a sl t r u c t u r eo f t h e s i l k p r o t e i ni s d i f l e r e n tf r o m t h a t
of wool. This clillerenceis reflectedin the diflerencebetweenthe
two fibres.
Where wool ntoleculesare folded and capableof being stretched
out straight, the silk moleculesare in the extended position to
start witli. That is why silk possesses little 'returnable' elasticity
alter a substantialclegreeof stretching.when it is stretchedwitll
sulhcient force, the moleculeshave to slide over eacl'rother and
clo not return to their original positions when the stretching
forcc is releascrl.The nrolcculesoI silk are not joincd togcthcr
by chemical cross-linksas are the molecules of wool.
Research has shown that in silk the protein nroleculesare
h i g h l y o r i e n t a t e d- t h e y l i e i n t h e d i r e c t i o no f t h e f i b r e a n d c a n
pnik tigtttty together.The forces of attraction bctwcctrthe molc-
cules are thus able to conre into play and give the nrolecular
b u n d l e sv e r y g r e a t s t r e n g t h .
The c{Iect of hcat on silk is similar to its eflect on wool' At a
high tenrperature,silk rvill burn. But silk is simpler than wool in
iti rnolecular structure. There are no cross-litrksbetween tlre
moleculesto break down or rebuild. silk will thus stand higher
t e n r p e r a t u r etsh a n w o o l w i t h o r r t t a k i n g a n y h a r m .
Scricin, the gum that holds the twin stranclsof silk together,
is a protein similar to that of silk. But the moleculesof sericin
protein are not alignccl,ancl the tnaterial is thus not fibrous'
This differencebetweensilk fibre atrd sericingum is an example
o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n tfso r f i b r e f o r n r a t i o n .I t i s n o t e n o u g ht h a t t h e
molecules of the material shotrld be long and thread-like. To
nrake a uselul fibrc, they nrust be of stlch a shapeand strttcturo
that they can bc alignecland packedtogetheralongsidecach other.

Eflcct of Oricrtlntion
D i l l c r c n c c si n t h c p r o P c r t i e so f n a t u r n l f i b r c so f s i n t i l a rc h c n r i c a l
c o n s t i t u t i o nc a t r b c e x p l a i n e di r t p a r t b y v a r i a t i o n si n t h e s t a t co f

a l i g n n r c n to f t h c n r o l c c u l e sF. I a x a n d c o t t o r r ,f o r c x n r r r p l cn, r c
chenricallyalmost identical;they are both celluloscfibrcs.llut flax
has tcnsilepropertiesquite diflcrent from those of cotton; it has
a _ t e n a c i t y - 9 fu p t o 5 5 . 6 c N / t e x ( 6 . 3 g . p . d . ) , c o n r p a r c cw l itlr
2 6 . 5 - 4 4 c N / t e x ( 3 - 5 g . p . d . )o f c o t t o n .
These differencesin the tensilepropcrtiesof cotton and flax arc
causedby differencesin the fine structureo[ thc two fibrcs. Most
irlportant of all arc the differcnccsin thc dcgrcc of alignnrcnt
of the cellulosemoleculesthemsclves.In flax, tlrc rnolcculcsarc
highly orientatedalong Lhe fibre; they lie alongsideone anothcr
in the same direction as the fibrc itsclf. ln cotton, this dcgrec of
alignment is not so high; there are more of thc moleculcslying
of true'.
When the flax fibre is subjcctedto a stretchingforce, thc alignccl
tnoleculescombine to resistthe force. But in cotton, many more of
the moleculesare lying at an angle to the long fibre axis anclcon-
t r i b u t c l i t t l c t o t h c s t r c n g t ho f t h c f i b r c . I n n n t u r n l l i b r c s . l h c
oI orienl.ation'oI tlre long moleculcs is controllcd bv
nature, and there is little we can clo about it. Nnturc givcs flai
a n d r a m i e t h e i r u n u s u a l l yh i g h t e n s i l es t r e n g t h sb y a l i g n i n gt h c i r
moleculesto a high degrce.Wc havc no way o[ incrcasirrgthc
dcgree of orientation of thc celh.rloscmolcculcs in cotton in
order to make it compare in strcngth with flax or ranric.r
In natural fibres, also, the way in which thc molcculcs arc
alignedis complicatedby various factors.'fhe ccllulosemolcculcs
i n f l a x o r c o t t o na r e o r g a n i z e di n u n i t b u n c l l c so r f i b r i l s ,w h i c h a r e
in turn built up into largcr units in thc fibrc. 'flrcsc molccular
bundles are not laid down by the plant in a simple fore-and-aft
fashion along the fibre; they are in spiral form.
As would be expected,thc nature of the spiral in cclluloscfibrcs
has a great infiuence on the tensileproperties of thc librc. 'fhc
greaterthe angle of the spiral,the more the fibre can stretchbcfolc
the alignedmoleculeshavc to take up thc full strain of thc tcr)silc
force. Cotton, with an anglc o[ spirality of about 3l clcgrccs,has
a -ttruchgrcater clongntionat brcak tlran flax, with its spiral arrglc
of 5 degrces.
l - h c e f l e c t o f o r i e n t a t i o na n d s p i r a t i t yc a n t h u s b e s e c n q u i t c
clearly in the case of natural cellulosic librcs. Cclh"rloseis n
reasonablyun.ilorm straightforwarclrnolccule which consistsof
. Tlrs dcgrecof oricnl.ation of cclluloscmolcculcsin co(on cnn bc
r n c r c a s etdo s o t r r cc , r t c r rbt y n r e r c c r i z a l i o n .

(A) nnruoovt coPoLYMER -x-x-Y-x-Y-Y-Y-x-


(C) aurEnNartNG coPoLYMER -x-Y-x-Y-x-Y-x-Y-


Linear moleculesmay be produced by polyrnerizationof a mixture of
'copolymers' in which the linear molecule con-
monomers, forming
tains trvo or more types of monomer unit. A nunrber of clillcrent typcs
of copolymer may be proclucedin this way, as shown abovc.
In i randont copolymcr, the mononrer units are linked together in
random fashion. ln a block copolymer, one or mote of tlre contponents
may be polymerized to form sectionsof nrolccule containing otrly one
type of nrononrer trnit. These'blocks'are linked togcther to form the
liriear molecule. In an altennling copolynrcr, the motromer units alter-
nate in sequencealong the linear molecule. In a grall copolynrer, a
block of third componcnt may be grafted on to the linear molecule,
forming part of the molecular chnin itself, or forming a side chain.

. ut the pro-
m a n y r e p c a t i n gu n i t s o f s m a l l e r g l u c o s es e c t i o n s B
teins from rvhich the animal fibres are tnade are much more
cornplex in their detailed chenricalarratrgetnent.fhe orierrtation
of protcin moleculcsstrchas those of wool, for exarnple,is conr-
p l i c a t c c l b y t h e c x i s t c n c eo f c h e m i c a l b r i d g c s b c t w e c n t h c
nrolccules,and by the lolded state in which the nrolectrlcslic.

Control of Orientation
W c c a n d o l i t t l e t o n r o d i f y t h e d c g r c e o I o r i c r r t a l i o no f t l r c
m o l c c u l e si l r n a t u r a l f i b r c s . B u t i t t n t a k i n g s c t t t i - s y n l h c t i o
s . v n t l r e t i fci b r e s t l r c a l i g n n r e n to f l o n g m o l c c u l e si s a n e s s e r r t i a l
step in manufaclure. We are able to control the alignntent in
such a way as to exert a major influenceon the propertiesof the
fibre itself.

l - h c f i r s t s t c p i n m a k i n g a s y n t h c t i co r s c n r i - s y n t l r c tfiicb r c i s t o
obtain a substanccwith the rcquisite long thrcad-likc nrolcculcs.
In the case of a syntheticfibre, this substanceis built up fronr
simpler chemicals;in the case of a semi-synthcticl.ibre,iuch as
a rayon, the substancehas been nrade bv naturc.


Man-made fibrcs arc nrn<tc bv
cxtrusion of fibre-forrning sub-
stances in liquid form (ntoltcn or
i n s o l u t i o n ) t h r o r r g hf i r r eh o l e s i r r a
spinncrct.1'hc jcts of liquicl nrc
l r l r d c n e d i n o n c ' o [ s c v c r a lw n v s t o
fonn solid filarrrcnts. 'l hcsc- arc
drawn or strctchcd antl nrnv bc
trvistcd sliglrtly togclhcr to iorrrr
y n r n s o f v i r t u a l l-yk n n on wyr r r l c s i r c r l
lcrrgth,rvltich arc ns corr-
theu cut i;rto slrort lcrrgthsto fo-irn staplc fibrcj this niay ir" "o,l,t".i.
a t t e n u n t e d . a n ds p u n i n t o y a n l s b y t e c h n i q u c ss i n r i l a r [ o t h o s c u s c t i
lor natrrrar staple libres such as cotton or wool, fornrinE staplc or
Continuous Filanrcnt Yants, These
cotrsist of unbroken filamcnts rvlrich
alc. hcld .togcthcr irrto a yarn by a
slight twist. They arc sniooth intl
generally compact anrl arc used for
satins, poults, tallctas, faillcs and
similar fabrics.
Sputr or Staplc Yartrs.Thcsc consistof
short fibres hclcl togcthcr by the twist
' l ' h c y t o a n a t t e n u a t c isl t r a n d o f f i b r c s .
arc gcnerally nruclt fullcr in
'Ilt'ahrer d l et h a n c o n t i n r r o u sf i l a t n e n tv a r n s .
s h o r t f i b r c s l i c a t v a r i o t r sr i r r g l c s
with respcctto the long axis of ilrc
y a r r r ,t h e < l c g r e co f u n i f o i n r i t y d c p c n d -
i t t g u p o n t l t c c o r n b i r r ga n c lo t l r c r t r c n t -
nrcrrtsgivcn to thc fibrc stranrls bcforc
being twistcd togcthcr. The surfacc oI
.J spun yarn-is roughcr to thc touch, owing to thc fibrc-crrtlsprotrutlinr
l r o n r r t , - a n d s p u n y a r n s a r c i n g e n c r a l f u l l c r a n t l r v a r D r c rt h i l n c o r r -
lilarnenryarrrs. are-usctlfor sports shirts, suitjngs,shccts,
b l a r r K c t sl,u n l t s l l r n g a n d o t h e r f a b r i c s .


In its 'raw' state, a fibre-forming substancemay bc little more

than an amorphousmatcrial such as, for exantple,the powclerecl
casein from milk, the celluloseof wood pulp or the ribbon of
tough horny plastic extruded from the nylon-manulacturing
In this bulk-material,the long thread-likemoleculesare mixed
up one with another in more or less random fashion, like the
mass of fibres in a bundle of cotton wool. In orclcr to turn the
material into a textile fibre, we have to (a) shapeit into thc usurl
fibre form, i.e. a long, uniform rod of extremelyfine cross-section,
and (D) ensurethat the long ntoleculesof the material are aligned
so that tlrey tend to lie alongsideone another in the same direc_
tion as the long axis of the libre itself.

T h e f i r s t s t a g eo f f i b r e - p r o d u c t i o ins c a r r j c d o u t b y r e n d e r i n gt h c
mass of fibre-forming material into a liquid or serni-liquiclitate.
This can be done either by dissolvirrgthe rnaterial in i solvent.
o r b y h e a t i n gi t u n t i l i t m e l t s .I n e i t h e rc a s e ,t h e l o n g m o l e c u l e s
are freed from closeentanglenrentwith each other, and can move
The liquid containing the fibre-forming material is then
eltqgde_dthrough very small holes so that it emergesas fine jets
of liquid. These jets are hardened,forming a solid rod which
possesscs all the superficialcharacteristicsof a long filament such
In the production of nran-madefibres, the extrusion of liouicl
fibre-forming material, followed by hardening of the fine jeti to
f o r n r f i l a r n e n t s i, s d e s c r i b e da s ' s p i n n i n g ' .l t i s s i n r i l a r i o t h e
'spinning' process
uscclby the silkrvorm or the spider,resultingas
it docs in the production of continuouslilantents.
The hardening of the jets from the spinneretmay be carried
out in one of severaw l ays:
(l) Wet SpinningT . h e s o l u t i o n o f f i b r e - f o r n t i n gm a t e r i a ln r a y
b e e x t r u d e di n t o a n a q u e o u sc o a g u l a t i n gb a t h i n w h i c h t h e j e t s
are hardened as a result of chemical or physical change.
Viscose, for example, is wet spun, the solution of cellulose
x a n t l r a t eb e i n g e x t r u d e di n t o a n a q u e o u ss o l u t i o n o f a c i d s a n c l
s a l t s . c e l l u l o s c i s r e g c n c r a t e da, r r d t h i s i s i n s o l u b l ei n w a t c r .
forming solid filarnents.


z = 9= 9 !r

:!3 t;

i7="-89. ! "Ei

= < d

2 = 2.3 ' i : . =* : " :5 r l -

z= c 5
u o = t - d
o q
= >\c
= o j .L -' I
= = . = E= 2 L-b

;F € E :i : E €
3 E : > , = -


- lr-!
r ' 7
d i E - " . ; e
) 7
. T 5E I E 1
H - 7 f,< ?=,6.^o .=
E, ' , '=i >"a.;i . E f go ' x r . \
F U ) -. P

,;i* i:igi#.ff!,i;i
z s o c c E -
=E"pIE;.= !

2 - u c ) ; 5 =
3s -
- -
' U- X- - v . \;
L -
- ' - b -
a, . =

- 2
; :i;,;Ei: $:: i€ Y=
= = ; i : =.ii =
.:< H6 U
8; ii:
- \

19.? "i - ! >,
Q 6 : E E E o
a: I i = aE
.=9.=9 E
- - - r v - - Lr,

i:;:l!!#*t ::a:

qifjii ii,iii r: -\

l {

*l [ '

siru:€8,;ra ]|


STRETCFIING I t i s n o w c s t a b l i s h c tchl a t t h c s u r f n c co I a n c x t r r r d c cf li l i r n r c n its

t u s u a l l yr n o r e h i g h l y o r i c n t a t c d t h a n t l r e n r n t c r i a l i n s i c l c t h c
filarnent.This surface alignmcnt is known as the skin elJccr.lt
has an irnportant influenceon thc propcrtiesof the fibrc.
o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e l o n g n r o l e c u l e iss c o r n p l e t c cbl y s t r e t c h i n gt h c
f i l a m e n t .T h i s h a s t h c c f r e c t o f p u l l i n g t h e I o r r g ' r o r e c t r l c si n t o
a l i g n n r e . ta l o n g t h e l o n g i t u d i n a a l . x i so f t h e f i b r c ,s o t h a t t l r c y a r c
able to iie alongsideone anotherancldeveloptlrcir cohcsivcforccs.
T h e d e g r e eo f o r i e n t a t i o nd e p e n d su p o n t h c a ' l o u ' t o [ s t r e t c h
to which the filanrentis subjcctecl,and by controlling thc strctch-
ing (or 'drawing') it is possibleto control the tcnsilc propcrtics
o f t h c f i l a m e n tt o a h i g h d e g r e e .
I * t h e p r o d u c t i o . o f a s y n t h e t i cf i b r c ,w e h a v c c o n t r o lo v e r t l r c
c h e r n i c a ln a t u r e o f t h e f i b r e - f o r m i n gs u b s t a n c ca, ' c l h c n c c c a '
p r o d u c e a f i b r c w i t h w c l l - t l c f i r r c dc h c n r i c a l p r o p c r t i c s n n t l
b c h a v i o u r .T h i s c o r r t r o lo v c r t h c c h c n r i c a ls t r u c t i r c o f t l r c t i b r c
a l s oe n a b l e su s t o c o n t r o l t h e s h a p ea n c lt h e p h y s i c a lb c h a v i o u ro f
t h e l o n g t h r e a d - l i k em o l e c u l e st h a t w e r n a k e _
It is reasonableto expcct, for exanrplc,that slcrrrlcr,unifornr
(e) r n o l c c u l c sw i l l b e a b l c t o p a c k a l o n g s i c loc n e a n o t h c rn r u c h r n o r c
strctching (drawing) ant! Aligntnurl. c-xtrusionof fibre-fornring c l l i c i c n t l y t l r a n i r r c g u l a r m o l c c u l c sw i t h n w k w a r d k ' o b s n n d
matcrial'brings ab6ut sorne sliglrt dcgree of orientation o[ the lincar . n g l e s d c s t r o y i n gt h c i r u n i f o l ' r i t y . A b u ' c l l c o f b n n r b o ' c a n c s ,
n'roleculesin the direction o[ the fibre axis. This is nlost pronounccd f o r e x a n t p l e ,r v i l l p a c k t o g c t h c r n t o r c t i g h t l y t h a . a b u ' d l c o i
'skin eflect') (A)'
near the outer surface oI thc filanrcrrt(the
'fhe twigs.
subsequcntstretchirrgor drnwing of the filanretttcontinues thc
a l i g r r r n c n to f t h e n r o l c c t r l e st h r o t r g h o u t t l r e . b u l k o f t h c f i l a r n e n t . ln 'raking a synthctic Iibrc, thcrefore, wc terrcrto dcsig. our
nra'icrial.The crystallinc regions are oricntatcd in thc dircction of the long-chainnrolcculesin such a way that they havc an oppoitunity
fibre lonc axis. ahd thc nrolcculcsin tlre amorphous region are brouglrt -group,
of packing together with rcasonablecflicicncy. I_arge oi
irrto grea-terilignnrent, incrcasing the degree of.crystallinity- of the
atorns attached to the
nrateiial (B).'fhe 'stretch-properties of the llbrc are greatly influenced by tlte .sidesof the long moleculcsare generally
amount of to-rvhich the lilanrcnts are subjected. undcsirable,for exarnple,as they prevent the closc-packingwhicir
c o n t r i b u t e ss o g r e a t l y t o f i b r e s t r c n g t h .
through spinnerets,and the jets haiden as they cool on etnerging Crystalline and Antorplrcus Rcgiotrs
'Terylene',for example,are melt
from the spinneret.Nylon and wherever the threacl-likemolcculesare ablc to pack closcly to-
spun. gcther in a fibrc, thcrc is a tendcncytowarclsan orclercclnrr"ng.-
Skin ElTect rncnt of the atoms with rcspcct to one anotlrcr. 'flrcse tiglt-
The extrusion processbrings about sonte orientationof the long packecl bundles of thread-moleculcsarc, in cflcct, rcgions-oI
moleculesinside the filatnent. This is especiallypronounced on crystallinity; thcy possessthe rcgular ancl prccisearrangcrncntof
thc outer sttrfaceof thc filanlctrt,whcre the molcctrleshave bccn a t o n r st h a t i s c l r a r a c t e r i s t iocf a n y c r y s t a l s u c h ^ s s a l t o r c o p p c r
influencedby the edgesof the spinnerethole. sulphate.

I ) u r i ' g t h c s t r e t c h i n go p c r a t i o ni n s y n t h c t i cf i b r c n r a u u f a c t u r c ,
i n b c t w c c r rt h c s c r c g i o n so f c r y s t a l l i n i t ya r c r c g i o n si n w l r i c l l the long moleculesslide ovcr o'e anothcr as thcy arc pullcd ilrto
the moleculeshave trot been able to line tltenrselves up with suclr alignment in the direction of the fibre's longiiudinal axis. As
precision.These arc the anrorphous regions of the fibre. drawing continues,more and morc of the moleculesare brought
In this tnodertr conceptiotl o[ fibre-structure we regard the long to a statewhcre they can pack alongsideone anothcr into crvslal-
threacl-liketnolcculesas passing through regionsof orderedcrYs.-
-embedclea line regions; in these regions, the molecules are able to hold
talline arrangementwhic'h are in amorphousmaterial tightly togetheras a result of their cohesiveforces.Thcy wiI the.
The molecuies in the amorphous regions are aligned to sotfle rcsistfurthcr movenlentwith respcctto one anothcr.
clegree,but have not been lined up with the precisiontltat enables whe. nylon is drawni' this way alter spinning,a filarnert may
them to pack togetherin a wcll-defiucdcrystallineforrr-r. stretch to as much as live times its original lerUth. Then, quitc
abruptly, the drawn filarnent wirl resist furthei strctchiirg. rts
molcculeshave aligned themselvesas effcctivelyas possiblJi.to
crystallineregionsand are holding tightly together.'l'he filanrcnt
_X-X_X-X_X-X_X- -x-x-'x-x-x(.1 u'ill now withstand much greater force without stretchi'g, and if
1 ^-x-.. tlre load increasesit will eventuallyrupture as the nrolcculcsare
I ^-x
-ya dragged apart.
(A) -x-x-x-x(i_"
' ^-x- Dlect ott Properties
The degreeof alignment of fibre moleculesaffcch thc propcrtics
of a fibre in severalways. The more closely the rnolcculcspack
-n-*'1'r-r-*al]*- together,the greater is the tenacity of the tibre. This incrcaie in
I ')x-""\x tenacityis accompaniedby a decreasein thc clongationat brcak;
I u'xt^ the moleculesare not able to slide over one anotrreras they coul<i
^\v belore alignment took place.
A high degreeof oric'tation also tends to incrcascthe stiffncss
\ v ,
or rigidity of the fibre. The nroleculesno longcr have the freec.lorn
Cross Litrkitrpatrc!Clmitt Brcncltitrg.T1e productio. o[ loitg molecUle-s of movement that they had before alignment.
during polyrierization of a monorncr X may lake place in such a $u{
as to'fbrrn a linear molecule (A). It may, however, lortn brancnc; watcr is unable to penetratebetweentho moleculcsin a crvstal-
nrolecules(B), and tlteseutay evcnttrallylink logetlter to lorm networN line region of the fibre as readily as jt does in the amorphous
structures (C).
-'i'fr" regions.Increasedalignmcnt thereforetendsto lower the -oirtur"
fo.ri-iion of brancltestcnclsto reducc the ability of the linea! absorptionof the fibre. This resistanceto water-pcnctrationaffccts
nrolecules to pnck togcther irr such a way as to form {gsjons^:j
crystallinity, and branche<lmolecules do not as a rulc result ln g<lv" the dyeing properties in a highly orientatectfibre; moleculesof
Iibre properties. dyestuffcannot migrate frorn the dyebathinto the spaccsbetwccn
The formation o[ a netrvork structure, in which.the linear molectt.les the fibre motecules.
nr" iin[.1 iogether, prcvcnts moven]ent of tlre chains of aton'r.s rclatlv9 'fhis
. Clbsc'pncking of the chains is not possiblc, itrttt
resistanceto pcnctration by forcign moleculcsaflccts thc
crystallizatiold t ocs not norrnnlly takc place. gc'cral chemical stability of a fibre; highly oricntatcd fibrcs nrc
Network structures m"y b" created aitcr the littenr-nro-lcculcsltllc nrore resistantto chemical attack.
been formed arrd aligned into libres.Tltis ltas the result.o[ blndlng.]': There is a markcd changc in the appearanceof fibrcs ns thcy
molectrles firnrly togethcr, and nr:ry intprove-certain libre properrt-; a r c d r a w n . I n t h c u n d r a w r rs t a t c ,n y l o n i s u s u a l l yc l u l la n < lo p a q u c ;
,srvcllincnrnv bc rctluced, for exantplc, ils solveltts(e'g' watcr) can'i"'
nenetralc scl'rcadilv belrvccn the long nrolccttlcs' Ccllulosc ffiolccttt'" as the filamc'ts are drawn, and orientation i'crcascs, tlie illa-
"Iopel' and 'Corval"
Ii.' "i"ii-iiitt cd in'nrodified rayons iuch as

ments acquire a transparencyand lustre which are characteristic The great modern rayon industricshavc dcvclopcd frortr thcsc
of drawn nylon. natural long-chainmoleculeswhich nature has ncglccteclto turn
out in the form of ready-madetextile fibres.Cellulosefrottr woocl
MAN-MADE FIBRES is a raw material for rayon; it is separatedfrom its undcsirablc
gurns and then re-made into fibres suitablc for tcxtilcs. Cascin
Though nature has used long threadlike molecules for many from milk, and other proteins,are manipulated r.rntiltheir long
purpo-ses,it is only in a relatively few casesthat she has fulfilled
moleculesare lying side-by-sidein fibrous fornr.
ih.^t.quit..ents for a textile fibre. In wool and cotton, flax and F i n a l l y ,w e h a v e n o w l e a r n c dt o r c m a i n e n t i r c l yi n d c p c t t c l c tot t[
silk, nature has carricclout tlre entire job of fibre production. All nature for our fibre production. We can start from scratch and
we have to cto is to avail ourselvesof nature's bounty' actually make the long fibre-forming moleculesthcmsclvesfrotlt
In other cases,naturehas associatedher libre-formingsubstance sirnpler chemicals.This is what we have done in makirrg nylon
such as cellulosewith extraneousmaterials that make it useless and the other syntheticfibrcs. As a result,wc hirvc o1rcttcdtrp a
as a fibre. ln wooct, for exan.rple,thc cellulosefibres are bound great new field of scientilic industry which can provicleus with
togetherby lignin and other gummy sttbstances. fibres unlike any that we have been able to derivc frotn naturc's
1et again, nature may produce the necessarylibre-forming limited selectionof ready-madelong-chainmolecules.
n-roleculei,but ornit to alig' them in the necessaryway. Caseiu,
for exarnple,the protein of milk, will form a fibre if the nroleculcs
Chssificnliono[ Mln-Mndc Fibrcs
are arrangedalongsideeach other.
I\,[an-madefibres fall naturally into two broad groups,dcpcnding
on the origin of the fibre-fornringmatcrialsfrorn which thcy arc
POLYMERIZATION produced (seepage xxx ).
CH.=g1161+ cH2: cHCt + CH"-611a, Polymeriz-ation may take lvlan-madefibres arc considcrcdunder two nrain hcaclings:
vtNyl cHLoRtDE place in one or other of
I two ways: A. N,lrun,rt Polyut:n FtBnes (in which thc fibrc-forrning
t (l) Additiotr Polynterizatiott. material is o[ natural origin).
- cH2-cHct-
-cH2-cHcr cH2-cHCt- o;:ii:"i:l *'il;ll B. SyN'nrEl'tcFrlnes (in which thc fibrc-fornring nratcriaI is
lllf "11.1 nrade from sinrplersubstances).
togethcr without the elinrina-
(l ) tion of atoms to fornr
by-product molecules.'fhe These main sectionsare sub-dividcclas lollorvs:
r--------r nlonomer molecules literally
add together. PolVetfvlgnet
Natural Polymer Fibres
DTAMTNEotar''.nc'o :frili'1,?tt"j':i.3:"-#i'i:l?i The fibres in this group may be classifiedinto the following
JY potvmeiirnacte
h" "/liil;;" ioivnl"'lt"ti""' sub-groups:
NHe(cHe)ouH.oc (cx.). cooH+ H2o iir"ii,ononr.r nrolcculesli'k (l) CelluloseFibres; Rayons (in which thc fibre is wholly
I togcther via the double bond or mainly cellulose).
(2) Cellulose Estcr Fibres.
H[Hr'r * nl,o i\r\,ni]:;il;;, poryttrcriza-
(3) Protcin Fibrcs.
tiorr'. This is a proccss itl
(4) MisccllaneousNatural Polymcr Fibres.
(s) l,:',"'ll,J["",]i::*lf':"Jf,ll3'i,",
chcmical action which results in the elimination of a by-prod.uct Synthe(icFibrcs
;i;G;ri;, comrnonly tvater. Polyatnidesare produced by copde.satio'
polynrerization (lJ)' Synthetic libres may be classil'iedwith rcfcrencc to thcir
xxiv xxv

chcnrical structure. The following synthctic materials have 92 pcrccntoI thc hyclroxyl
groupsarcacctylatc<1, thc lcrrn,trincc_
become the' basisof cotnmercially-irnportantfibres: tate'may bc uscdas a gcncricdcscription
of thc fibre.
(l) Polyamides.
(Z) Polyesters. Auylic. A manufactured fibre in which the fibrc-fornring sub_
(3) Polyvinyl Derivatives. sta.ceis any long chain synthcticpolymerconrposcd of ai lcast
(a) Polyacrylonitrile. 85 per cent by weightof acrylonitrileunirs (-CI-I,-CI-I(CN)_).
(t') Polyvinyl chloride.
Anidex. A rnanufacturedfibre in which thc fibre-lbrnring
(c) Polyvinylidene chloride.
is any long chainsyntheticpolynrcrcornposcd oI it
@ Polyvinyl alcohol. least50 per cent by weightof one oi ntbre estersof a n.tono-
(e) Polytetrafluoroethylene.
hydricalcoholandacrylicacid(Cl12= ClI-COOII).
A Polyvinylidenedinitrile.
(e) Polystyrene.
Aranid. A manufacturedfibre in which thc libre-lbruring
(/r) MiscellaneousPolyvinyl Derivatives.
substance is a long chain syntheticpolyanricle
in wrrichat leasi
(4) Polyolefins.
95 p9r cent of the anridelinkages-(-CO-Nlf-)arc artachcd
(a) Polyethylene.
directlyto two aromaticrings.
(D) Polypropylene.
(5) P o l y u r e t h a n e s .
(6) MiscellaneousSyntheticFibres. Azlon.A manufacturcd
fibrc in which thc fibrc-forrrrirrg
stance is composedof any rcgencratcdltaturally occurrirrg
This is not by any means the only effectiveway in which man- proteins.
made Iibres may be classified,but it is a simple and straightfor-
G/ass. A manufactured libre in which the fibre-forming sub.
ward method of considering{ibres on the basis of their chemical
stanceis glass.
constitution.It is the classificationwhich has been followed in the
remaining section of the Handbook. Metallic. A manufacturcd fibre composcd o[ ntctal, plaslic-
It should be rememberedthat modern syntheticlibres are often coated metal, metal-coatedplastic, or a core cornpletclycoverecl
copolymersor modificationsof polymers, and they may on that by metal.
account be consideredas belongingto two or more chemicalsub-
groups. For the purposes of this book, libres are included in the Modacrylic. A manrrfacturedfibre in which the fibre-forrning
sub-grouprepresentedby the major constituentof the polymer. substanceis any long chain syntheticpolymer conrposeclof lesi
t h a n 8 5 p e r c e n t b u t a t l e a s t3 5 p e r c e n t b y w e i g l r to f a c r y l o n i t r i l c
Fedcral 'frade CourntissionFibre Idcntilication Act 1958
units (-CH_2-C-ll(CN)-), except fibres qualifying unclcr sub-
In recent years, the nunrber of synthetic libres appearing on the paragraph(2) of paragrapl.r
market has given rise to considerableconfusionregardingthe true fi) (rubber) of ihis sectiirnand fibrcs
qualifying under paragraph(q) (glass)of this section.
nature of textile products.In order to protect producersand con-
sumers from rnisbrandingand false advertising,the U'S. Federal N o v o l o i d .A n r a n u f a c t u r e df i b r e c o u t a i n i n ga t l c a s tB 5 p c r c e n t
Trade Commission established'l(ulcsand Regulationsfor Fibrc b y w e i g h to f a c r o s s - l i n k e nd o v o l a c .
Identificationwhich came into force on 3 March 1960.After that
date, the following generic names were obligatory for man-made N)'lort. A manulactured fibre irt rvhich thc [ibrc.firrrnirrg
t e x t i l ef i b r e s : s u b s t a n c ei s a l o n g - c h a i ns y n t h e t i cp o l y a n r i d ci n w h i c h l c s st h i r n
/lcetate (and Triacetate).A tnanulacturedfibre in which tlte Q5 pcr cent of the anridc (-CO-Nfl-) l i n k a g c sa r c a t t t c h e d
d i r e c t l yt o t w o a r o n r l t i cr i r r g s .
libre-forrning substanceis celluloseacetate.Where not less than
xxvi xxvll
l_ I r-f r_f


N y t r i l . A n r a n u f a c t u r e cl l lb r e
c o n t a i n i n ga t I e a s tg 5 p e r c e n t
a Iongchain poly'r.. uinlri.rii.'ii"iii,," (_{H,__c(cN),_) of Saran. A nranufa<
where rhe vinylideneainitrile
unit in the polymer chain.
"""i;";l;';; ressrhan every orher :11::i:i;,i;il'"yiii,,,,,,9".:i"i:!tti"ii,ltf
per cent by weight Ti:li,j,J,t;
of vinylidene .nf.jii.f.
rlnrts (__CH,__CCI1_).
Olefin. A nranufacturedfib.re Spandex.A manufactured
in which the fibre-forming fibre in which thc fibrc_forrning
is a.ny Iong.chain synrhed; p;i;;;, sub_ stanceis a long chain
:?i.^: composedof at reast synrhert" ;;i;;;;;,orp's.o sub_
u-\ per cerrrby weigh_t-of .ihyr.n", ;."p;i;;" pcr cent of a scgmentecl . "" of at teast85
except amorphous (non-crysialli"Lj or ourer orefin unirs polyurcth;;;.
pJrv"i qualirvingunder
catesory(l);ip;;r;raph Vinal. A manufactured
0) (rubber)"ro"illl fibrc irr which thc
;ii ffi :'",i"ilr'
il:nif iJoqir'".J'composecr
i I .:l-ltn'l or ar rcas
un;ts(-it{,--ciiriiriiji r
Polyester'A marufactureclfibre
substan_ce in wrric^ the fibre-fornring andrn wtrichrtrc,o,o,ol"ullvlalcohol
is any long .f,uii,,yntlirti;'o;i, ",1'
t 85p.'..it t u'i".ier,,
oi;;;;;;;.;;'i'lTJ?ilff:.,i,,:1,# nroreor .rhe";;; ;;' ;:.11,',.]"",1j a;d any ; ; oi
acict,includ"f, ot thc fibre. ^'l';:j:?'
) Pcr ccnt by wcight
:1rb?*.{li: ir,',ioi"^rlr,rt.,ecl to substituted
terephthalateunits p.(__{t"_O_9O_9._H. _CO_O_I and para- Vinyon.A manufacturf
substituted hy droxyberizoate u ni tsp (_"n]O_Cull4 _CO_O_). srarrcc 1p.".in which the fibcr_fornring
is any rongchainsy.rrtrrcti" sub_
dr por ccnt by weight pory,u.r'.onr'oscrt
Rayon. A nrunufl:l:,.1.q Iibre. of at ren.st
of vinyl .f,f.jrla,".r,,lt,(_CI.I,_CIlcl*).
cellulose, cornposed of regenerated
as rve' as ma'ufacturedhbres
cellulose "J,rpos.a of regeneratecr
i' whichsubsrituenisl;;;",;;iled
pcr ccnt of the hyctrogcns not more rhan t5
of rtr. try.t,oilil.oupr.
Rubber.A nranufacturcd
fibre in which the fibre_forntinc
;illi:ffi:"i:r'::l:;'i:,1, ii'i,i";,t d;;;ffiffiii;
l. A nranufac(uredfibre jn
which the fibre-fornringsubstance
is a hydrocarbon such as
nari;;;;';rrrU.r,-".;' potyisoprene,polv_
butadiene, copolymers..of
.li;;*; hydrocarbons, o.
a n r o r p h o u s( n o n _ c r y s t a l l i n e
p lo f v o i " n n s . ' -
. 2. A nranufacturecl fibre.itr.whichthe fibre_tornring
ls a copolymer of acrylonitrile substance
ani " Ji""" (such as butacliene)
conrposedof not more.
thSn.so per .!"i"rr."t ;r;;.j;
" o"it.i
r" u'iit' iJH,--cor(c.N)-).' "*
li, "o{.;:'qi::r:fi"l:ilt asa genciic
nures raiiingffi;'; ,illlt"i:r:[: 'rcs'iipiio'i'ro.
3. A manufactured fibrein which rhefibre-forming
is a polychloroprcne substance
or a colrolym..oi-"i,to.oprene
ar'lc.st 35 'er cc't by rvciglit in whiclr
r "r tli.lior"-1'orrrring
s conrposect
o[ chIoroprc". t_Cll,_6 6l : Cli;ii,T

, *El s
z = - l o f

e fi{l-s;-1
- o
x= z=
fi-l Heae]I
I i = l -
fr-l a=l. LiF
E <
I rE;_l
o z
! < tsrt
o - Fl
m o

n= ;==l
;=]@ I
z IE

9 < (t)

L *-u;J


:ll :
t i
i l -

-l I gur
r m 9
T : I
s=4 r D | - j
r ' | Y

sHA o z
s: >z co o

aJ- a

=l |
Q < -l
= <
- z
= <
z a | | 4 _ rl F
# l l = l l ,=
iHr l r j f i
{ I

Ir F= - r. l i
z @



ln 1664,the famousEngrishscientistRobertI{ooke pubrisrrcd
book calledMicrograp.iia.Amo'gst tt.,"-i.,.,ony a
discusscd. was trrcpossibirity oI i'ritntingtrrciirkwoi' to iu.r..
a' rrtificialfibrc.I{cre wasar i'scct th''i 'racre
trrcrin.ri t,ro*n
sinrplyby forcinga liquiclthrougha tiny h;lc-;,;
hca_d. Why could not we do the iame thirigrncctrlnically,ii;
nrakean artificialsilk? and
It w^snca'ly two hu'crrccr yearsbcfore.Llookc's suggcsrio'was
strcccssfullytrieclout. onry the silkwormk'cw how i6 n.,,i["
liquidthat hardencd iii.
into iilk afterit traoL..n squirtccr i'to rhc
\9!9aV couldsuggest arrything clseto do thc job.
In 1842,an Fnglishweaver,LouG Schwabe, dcviscda nrachinc
for makingartificialfilarnents by forcingtif,,fa tt.,rough
^oles.The rnaterialhe usecr- ;;;t;i;;;
*os gtnsi,-*lrri.rr
plasticwhen molte' to bc.forcecl-tt.,rougtrwis"su;l;i.;ii; 'ar;.i;;1
thc trolcs,
woLrlcl cool to a solid onceit canteinto "intu"t witlt
tlre air.
This was thc neares-t thing yet to arr artificialfibrc. Buf'giu*
fibrewasnot suitablcfor texliics,nna s"ii*"rre's
cntrcatics to trrc
scientiststo providesomethingbetterwereof no nvail.
At that time,science lradharcllybcgunto intcrcst
natureof fibrousmalerials.The txistenccof long itsclfi'the
tl r;"l-;;;i;:
culcs,suchas are neecjed for fibre_forn.,niior.,,
had not "u.,r-fr..,,
suspccted. But it was realizcdtrratin naturalcclrurosc
a potentialraw materiarfor nrakingfibrcs.Natur" ir,.i"-**
tr.rr"ti ir.'",t.
ccllulosefibresin cotton anclflax. lVhy sirould
not nran makc
useo[ lhe vaststoresof vcgetablc ccturoseior r,akingracritional
suppliesof textilelibres?

U n f o r t u n a t c l y ,t h c c c l l u l o s cf r o n r w o o d a u d s t r a w a n d s i n t i l a r N i t r o c c l l u l o s c ,u r r l i k c i t s p a r c n t n r a t c r i a l c c l l t r l o s c ,
sourceswas associatedwith gumrny matcrialssuch as lignin. And r c a d i l y ; f o r e x a n r p l c ,i ' a ' r i x t u r c o [ c t h c r a ' c l
' l c o r r o r .r , r i a s J ,
though in sonre cases it was possible to separate the fibrous Gcorge Audemars discovercclthat if hc clippe<ln
'cecllc i;1" ,;
cellulosein usefulform - for example,flax - most of it was useless s o l u t i o ' o f n i t r o c c l r u l o sa e n d t t r e nd r c w i t a w a y , a I i r a l r r c n t
for tcxtile purposcs.What rvasncededwas some way of purifying forrrrcdwhich dricd a'<r rrarcrened i' the air anctcourd bc rvou'd
the celluloseand obtainiug it as a satisfactoryfibre. tupinto a reel. The modern rayon inclustryhad
D u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e c n t hc e n t t t r y ,m a n y a t t c r n p t s Whcn cellulose is turncd iirto nitroccilulosc,
tic lrrolcculcs
wcre nrade to use crude celluloseas raw material lor a textile rc.rain i' thcir long trrrea<I-rike shapc;snrailgroups o[ ator's huvc
Iibre. problem resolveditself into finding a way of dissolving becn attached to their sides, maiirg thc new
cellulose, separating the liquid from the impurities and then soluble.when Audemars touchecrthc nitroccilulosc
squirting it through tiny holes and hardcningit into a fibre. t h e ' d ' c w h i s n c c c t c a w a y , t r r e a r c o ' o r a n c rc t r r c r
" u n p o r n -lo,ig
t . , ii i i
C c l l u l o s c ,h o w e v e r ,w o u l d n o t d i s s o l v ei n a n y s u i t a b l cl i q u i d . t'c. air, Icaving tlrc solicl nitrocellulosc bchi.cl.
,tn.i ttr.
r ' o l c c u l e sw c r e a b l c t o h o l d l h c n i t r o c c r l u l o s c
t o g c t r r c ri ' i t s n c r v
Nitroccllulose il Dt'oussl)ape.
In 1846 a scientisttrriedrich Schtinbeindiscoveredthat ccllulose 'itrocellulose fibres wcrc a grcat adva'cc r.orvartrs
production of a comnrerciallyuscful fi-brc. trrc
could be turned into anothcr substance,nitrocellulose,when it Thcy ,u".. ,ufi, ;il;;
was treated with nitric acid. This nitrocellulosewas a highly a n d f l e x i b l e .B u t t h c i r I I a r ' r ' a b i l i t y p r c v c r r f c c l -
nrry grc^t ,,*. ui
f l a m n r a b l e n r a t e r i a l ; i t w a s , i n d e e d , e x p l o s i v e .I t s d i s c o v e r y thc for nraking tcxtilcs - no-uo,rywantcd [o wcar
,fibres crotrrcs
n r a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i u go f t h e n r o d e r n e x p l o s i v e si n d u s t r y ; a n d , n r a c l cf r o l n g u n c o t t o n .
rnixed rvith camphor, it gave us the lirst man-made plastic, t h i r t y y c a r s p a s s c cul n t i l , i n 1 g 8 3 ,S i r J o s c g r h
.t ^) cl ^g"a_n.rlof lo?K1r, n g Swan
celluloid. r o r s o r n ew a y o f ' a k i . g I i r a r ' c . t s f o r r r i i c r c c t r i c
light bulbs. He warrtccl sbnrctrring tirirt
wourtl givc hir) !;ri
c x t r e m e l yf i n e f i l a m e n t o f c a r b o n f a n d
he uscrl nitroccllulosc.
cHzoH ,Swan
f ?H f ?H fH'oH .pa.tenteda process foruqrirting .itroccllulos" ;1,;;;;;
c-c c-o c-c c-o through holes to forrn fila'rcnts,'follorvctl
by a chc.rila i;;;i_
AV* t./il H.1x
___.o,/6" \-o.-16H *\,H \r--- n r c n t o I t l r e f i l a n r e n t sw h i c r rc h a r r g c dt h c < l . n g c r o t r s
H\ /-o-\H H/\ H\ /-o/\u r/.H b a c k i n t o h a r m l e s sc c l l u l o s e .
c-o c-c c-o c-c l ' I 8 8 5 , S w a n e x h i b i t e ctle x t i r c sn r a d ef r o m
t t l t l l
OH r r i s , a r t i f i c i a rs i r k ' ,
cH2oH H OH CH2OH H ,]:-l:T interestcct
in hisfitamcnrsasr wayor nrlking
nnc carbonTlli]ly
nranrents for lanrps,
CELLULOSE anclhc fairccr
to fojrowup trri
I NrrnnrroN textilepossibilities.
H oNoe ONo2 ClmrdonnetSilk
oy j[ut\." -
-- - I\'[carrwhile,,in
1878,Count I-lilaircdc Charclortnct
' 1z[- -o- - r,^rf;]\, tncntingi. Fra.ce.crrnrclonnct was a stucrcrrt
at trrci:.ot" ti,iiy-
n\ ,L-ro,'\lto.T,z"'H "\ 7L-'o"u19xo.fi\ tcc^niquc undcrLouis pastcurat thc timc of trrcpdbrir.,.
tcH2oNo2 g-9 9-o 9-9 gationi' thesilk industry. inv.rii-
H oNoz cHzoNo2 H ONOz I-Icbecar'cirrtcrc.stcd iri trrcsirkwor'rjs
sril fibres,a'd crctcrnrincctto crirurrtcit ^rtificiliry.
CELLULOSE NITRATE rn 1884,chardonnctnracle rrisfirstartifiliarfibrcsfrom nitro-
( NT T R O C E L L U L O S E ) ccllulose
solutionwhichwassquirtcdt^rougiitiny rrorcs, rr;rrdcnccr
in rvarm air and then treated clrenricallyto convert it back to Acatotc Fibre
cellulose.Materials made front this arti{icial silk werc cxhibited
I t r v a sn o t u n t i l a f t e r w o r r d w a r I t h a t a n o t h c r t y p e
at the Paris Exposition in 1889and Chardonnetsecuredfinancial of artificial
fibre cane into successfur production.This rvas ,rc fibrc wc ,ow
backing for the industrial development of his libre. A factory
know as acetate.
was built in 1890at Besangonand began producing'Chardonnet
once again, the raw material is cellulose,which is
silk'. rcrctcrccl
solub.leby being convertedto a derivative,celiulose
This was the first artificial fibre to be produced commercially, n..torc, *trj.n
dissolvesin aceto'e ancl other solvenis. In this
and it marked the beginning of our modern man-made fibre ,.rp".t, it.,"
production of acetateresenrbresthat of chardo''ct
industry. But nitrocelluloseis a highly flamnrable material, and .iit, wtri.t,
the nranufacturingprocessproved dificult and dangerous.Large , n r a d e b y c o n v e r t i n g c e l l u l o s ei n t o c e l l u l o s . , r i t . i i t " o , , J
clissolvingit in solvent.
scale production of Chardonnetsilk was never realized,although
cellulose acetatesolution is extruded through finc rrorcs,
the fibre rvas manufacturedsporadicallyuntil 1949.In that year, as in
the caseof the other regeneratedfibres.But in-steacl
the only remainingChardonnetsilk factory, in Brazil, was burned "i.,rt"riiig'*
down. -coagulating
-l'he.solvent bath, the fine jets enrergeinto a stream o[ warm irir.
The Chardonnetprocessis no longer used commercially.It had evaporates,leavingfilamentsof soliclcellulosc"""t"i..
The lilamentsmade in this way ctifferfunctamenraLlti;;;til
the advantagesof simplicity, a stable spinning solution and a
rtadc by the c,pramnroniunr or viscoseproccsses,
m i n i m u m o f w a s t c d u r i n g m a n u f a c t u r c .l l u t i t w a s s t o w i n in ih^t tl*t ;;;
roI rccorvc.tccl to ccilurosc.1'hcy rcrrrni' ccilurosc
operation,potentially dangerousand cxpcnsive. .cctntc, ri,iti
thc propcrtiesof thc fibre are thus trirlcrcntfrou.rttror"
Cupramrttoniunt Fibre; Cupro
In 1890,a new processfor making artificial fibres was invented, Pro!eitt Fibres
which made use of the discovcrythat cellulosecould be dissolved c c l l u l o s ei s b y f a r t r r c r n o s ti n r p o r t a n ts o u r c eo f n a t . r a l
in cuprammonium liquor, The solution was extruded through poryr'cr
fibres.made t o d a y .B u t n a t u r ep r o v i c l e so t h e r r n a t c r i a l sw h i c h
small holes into a coagulating bath, where the cellulose was arc
ca,pable^of fornri'g fibres,ancrio're of theserravelr..n
regeneratedto form continuouslilaments. r'0,t. iui.]
t l b r e so l c o t n r t r e r c i avla l u e .
The cuprammoniumprocesswas developedinto a commercially for example,.are useclby
._,Protcins., "Butnature in nraking natural
important process,and it continuesin operation today. Cupram- Iibres.suc'
monium fibre has never achievedreally large scale protluction, _as wool, hair ancl silk. th"r. o." nrany ot^cr
proteins which are not in fibrous fornr,
and marry of ttr;r;;;;..
but the fibre has special qualities which have enabled it to b e . , n r a n i p u l a t etdo c o n v e r t t h e m i n t o n U . . r . , t ,
establishimportant outlets in the textile trade. in thc caseof
cclltrlose,it is necessaryto dissolvethe protei'
nna .itr,iJ.-tri.
solution in the form of fine jets which can
be frnrd.n.J-inlo
Viscose Fibre fiIanrcnts.
In 1892, another method of making regeneratedcellulosellbre Casein (from milk), zein, (from maize) and
arachin (front
was cleviscd,in which thc cellulose is converted to cellulose groundnuts) havc becn made into uscful
fibrcs, but non" fi..,
xanthate and dissolvedto form the solution known as yiscosc. yct achicvcd rtrnjor successin thc tcxtilc ficlcl.
When fine jets of viscoseare extruded into an acid coagulating
bath, celluloseis regeneratedin the form of lilaments. illginate Fibrcs
In the years prior to World War I, the viscoselibre industry Alginic acid extractecrfrom seawcectis a crre.ricrl
rcrativc of
dcvelopcdrapidly, and viscoseis now the nrost inrportant rral.ural c c l l u l o s ea' . d i t h a s b e c o u r e ' r a w n r a t c r i a r
[ r o ' r w r r i c r r| i b r c s
polymer libre of all. lre spun. Alginate fibres have usefui specializedappticationr,

a r e o f r e l a t i v e l ym i n o r i n r p o r t a n c eb y c o n r p a r i s o uw i t h o t h c r
natural polymcr fibres. l. CELLULOSE [tUIlES; RAYONS
N onrenclature
I?edcral 1'ratle Conunissiott Delinitiotr
In the early days of natural polymer libre production, the fibres
'artificial silk'. The reascittfor this lay in the Tlre ge.nericLerm rayon was aclopteclby thc U.S. Ircclcrall.racle
became knorvn as
fact that the fibres were produced in the form o[ continuous Conr'rission for fibres of the rcge'ciatccl cellulosc typc, thc
filarnents; in this respect, they resernbledsilk rather than the olllcial definition being as follows:
short staplefibres of cottolt or wool. Also, they often had a silk- Rayon. A manufactured fibre composcdof regcncratcdccllu_
like sheen. lose, as well as manufactureclfibres composeclof rcgencratccl
F t r n d a m e n l a l l y ,l r o r v e v e r ,t h e f i b r e s m a d e b y t h e c u p r a m - cellulosein which substituentshave repracecL.otmore'th;; itp;;
m o n i u n r a n d v i s c o s ep r o c e s s easr e r e l a t e dt o c o t t o n , i n t h a t t h e y ccnt of the hydrogensof the hyclroxyl groups.
arc all cellulosefibres. Silk, on the other hand, is a protein. The
'artificial silk' was obviously a ntisnomer' therefore, This definition includes three types of regcreratecrcelrulosc
fibre in production today, i.e. viiiose Rayoir, cuprattrttrottiutrit
especiallyas it becameapparent that the ne* fibres were estab-
Royott (Cupro), and Saponiliecl Ccllulose Accrate.
lishing thcmselvesin their own right in the textile trade. They
r v c r c n o I n r c r e l y s u b s t i t u t c sf o r s i l k , b t r t h a d t t n i q u c p r o p e r t i e s
which made thcm unlike any othcr fibrcs. ln due cotlrse,the term VISCOSBI{AYON
'artificial silk' was abaudoncd,and the fibres became known as
l a t u r a lp o l y l n c rf i b r c s o f a l l t y p e s ,
A t l l r s t , t h i s t e r r n i n c l u d c cn Thc large-_scalc devcloplncrrtof rayon was nrlclc possiblcby C. F.
but it is now restrictedto those fibres consistingwholly or sub- Cross,E. J. I3cvan,and C. Beacllein Englanclin ig92, whofouncl
stantially of regeneratedcellulose.In practice, this means that it that they could dissolve cellulose witrrout first nrliring
refersto fibres made by the cupranlmoniunrand viscoseprocesses. it i.to
n i t r o c e l l u l o s eT.h e c e l l u r o s ew a s t r e a t e dw i t h c a u s t i ct J a n ,
Fibres nrade from cellulose acetate are called acela!e (or tri- ttt.n
vrith carbon disulphide, ancr the procruct <rissolvccl
acetate),and those from proteins are azlorr libres. (See U.S. . in clilutc
curstic soda.Tlris viscousliquid they callecl,viscosc'.
Federal Trade Commission de{initionson page xxvi).
.. A rnethod of producing textile liiaments [ror, tlrc viscoscrvas
Nalural Polynrer Fibres TodaY discoveredby C. H. StearnanclC. F. Tophant, thc l:rtter
o[ whonr
V i s c o s e ,c u p r a m m o n i u ma n d a c e t a t em'fhe ake up the btrlk of the invenlecl the 'ageing' of viscose (to iis corrcct conclition
natural polytncr fibres produced today. ccllulosc tlrat scrves spinning),the rnultiple hole spinning jct ancl the fanrous'l'oprrarrr
as raw material is availablc in virtually unlimited quantities,and s p i n n i n gb o x .
the manufacturing processeshave been developedand improved . In 1904,the British rights of trreviscoscprocessrvcrc purchnscd
u n t i l t h c p r o d u c t i o no f n a t u r a l p o l y m e r f i b r e si s n o w o n e o f t h e by courtaulds Ltd., who developcclit into trle most
rlost cflicient and irnportant industricsin the worlcl. n r c t h o do f r a y o n n r a r r u l a c t u r e irr tlrc world.
The rapid rise of the natural polynler libre industry is reflected The viscose process is cornpurativcly lcngthy ancl sonrc
s t a t i s t i c sA. t t h e e n d o f W o r l d W a r I , t h e a c c u r a t c l yc o n t r o l l c ds t c p sa r c i r r v o r v c cTt .h c r l w r r n t c r i a l s ,
in thc nranulacttrring how-
c.vcr'arc chcap.viscosc r.yo' c.' gc'crally be pro<rtrcccl
w o r l d o u t p u t o f r t r t u r a l p o l y n t c r f i b r c s a t r l o t t t r t e dt o - o n l y 9 0 0 0 crrcarrcr
than othcr rayons, ancl viscoscis irow 'ranufacturccl i' grciitcr
t o n n e s ( l e s s t h a n t h a t o f s i l k ) . I l y 1 9 5 7 o u t p u t . h a d s o a r e dt o
q u n n t i t y t h a n e i t h e r c u p r a l n n r o n i t u l tr a y o n o r
sonre2tli utilliort totrttesand in 197"1it was 3'l lnillion tortncs. ncclttc.

Wateris needed itr grcatquantityandutanychcrrricals arcuscd
" .i
i! !
! :
irr viscose^rayonrranu.faclure. A kilogra.roi' ,uyu,,fiti. .rii.ir,
::. o:
1t tlreuseof more than 1,600kg of watir, nearlyi kc of sulDlniiic
. a " l I r .

2 : a
;t b.i acid.,I ltk^gof caustic..soda., of woodpuli o, ;,ii;il;i;;r,
y'^ii .l.yikg
I tg of carbon disulphirtea"ndsr.alrera'rou'ts o| otrrer
ConlinuousFilnnrcntanit Slaplc
Until 1914, viscoserayon was produceclalnrost entircly
in thc
form of continuousfila'rcnt yarn. During Worlct War
and ItaUan firms began proclucingstapl,erayon fibre
by chop_
ping the filarnentsafter extrusion.
o 'fhe
o production of rayon staple macle rapid progress
:; !? the 1930s,and by 1940 there wis as much itaplc bJing
!; used a!
continuous filarnent. After worlcl war rI, filirnc.t pio.tr,.iioii
!: lhat of staple u'til 1954,when siaplc once ;dl,ii;;i;
, a t thc lcacl. I' 1961, somc 60 pcr ccnt of thc *orl,l
i : consistcdof staplc fibrc. ;;;;i;,.;;;;

- l ' t h e 1 9 6 0 s a ^ d l g z o s p r o c l u c t i o no f c o r t i n u o u s f i h ' r c ' t

dirninishedbut stapleproduction i,.,rrrrr.J.


As co'trol and understancling o[ the viscoseprocessrrasirrcrcasctr,

z i t h . a sb e c o m ep o s s i b l et o r n o d i f y . t h ep r o p c i t i c so f
o tlrc Iibr; i;,;
= v ' r i e t y o f w a y s .A r a n g eo [ v i s c o s er o y o n i i s n o r v
a v a i l a b l cw h i c h
z x; incluclesfibres of widely diflering charactcristics.
;5: ; r Physical modificatio's of the viscosefibre ra'gc
:;: 9! from crrangcs
ts in thc forrrr of the filanrent, e.g. hollow, shapcd
z nnd surfrric_
ntodilied lilamcnt (seepage 20) io changesi' irrc
f, linc structurlc
i ' , t t l " h i g h . t e n a c i t yr a y o n s( s e cp a g e3 i ) a n c lh i g h
wct nroclulus
(l ,rrn c l u o t n gp o l y n o s r c )r a y o r ) s( s e e
l l a g e4 7 ) .
Chemical nrodification,Iikewiscjhas rcsultcd in nrany
o typcs of
nrodificd viscosefibre, such as cross_linkccl,
z rayolls (scepage 38).
basificd n,iA gi,,itJ
:; U
i :
Il:rrv Mutcrinls
:: T h e r a w n r a t e r i a l sf o r m a k i n g v i s c o s er a y o ' a r c c i t r r c r
9;; cotto'
li.ters (the short, uselessfibreJin thc co'on boll)
or- ivooi;;;
;!: I l'i l l
dcrived fronr such tinrber as northern spruce, rvesternlrenrlock, cellulosc)(scc pagc
e u c a l y p t u so r s o u t h e r ns l a s hp i n e . T h e s ep u l p s c o n t a i n a b o u t 9 4 ^12).
cellulosemoreculesare ,Dur:ing
attackci .tlreagcirrgl)roccss, thc long
per cent cellulose,and are most suitablefor fibre nranufacture. bv- o*-vg"nfrorrr rrrc ^ir rrrrl
brokenup to someextentjnto shorter
Wood pulp is puri{ied by boiling with caustic soda or soclium molccules.
bisulphite solution. It is bleachedand washed, ancl reachesthe Sodium CelluloscXunthuteproluctiott
rayon factory in the form of sheetslike thick blotting paper.The The aged crumbsof
cellulosepulp is stored under controlled conditions of hurniclity -arkariceturosca'c nrixcrrwitrr c.rbo'
tisulphidein a rcvorving a.r-. iir"
a n d t e m p e r a t u r eu n t i l t h e m o i s t u r ei s d i s t r i b u t e du n i f o r m l y ; t h i s
'conditioning' graduallyyellowanclt'en orn,rg. "r'n"t, wrritccrrrrrrtrs rrr.l
o, ,oJiu,n ..ii"f"r. _.",i,,,t.
nray take severalweeks. is formed-(sec pagc l2). The-barcrr
. ls tippccrirrto :r dirurc
Forrtrtt!iott of Alkali Cellulose (Soda Cellulose) 'fhcre of causticiocra,iormi'g ; ,-hi"[""rangc-browlr sorrrtiorr
is a rooseassociation ^itiiit"rtng" bctwcc. trrc sotlirrrr
The first step in viscoserayon ntanufactureis the production of cellulose xanthateanclthe ro<.tiui"'iivr.f
alkali ccllulose.The cellulose pulp sheets are steepedin warm Thc lustreof thc ray.onis "ont.oit.A-nt
caustic soda for an hour, and then pressedto remove excess producedfronr trrc socriunr ttrisstag..If rlryorris
".[;i;;;;;;rrrre sorurio'wirrrour
solution. Thc trcated cellulose is brokcn up in a shredder to anvrhingto ir, rhe ,ovoii *rii-'i,nu"
f o r n r p o w d e r yc r u r n b s .
la^r]ins. . n sirk_rikcsrrccn.
o[tcn howcver,a ctulicrappca;;;;;";,
prctcrrccl,antt rtris is
The crumbs are aged f<lr up to a day, during which tinrc thc ac'icvcclby adrtirrg
caustic soda reacts with cellulose to form alkali cellulose(socla 1l1rc,ylr'itcfrisu-.,t,i,r,rr'ytir.rriurrr tlioxitlc,
to tlrcspinnlng solution at thispoii,ti,.,n"iirulactur.c.
oll oH OH ONa fhe sodiurncellulose.xanthatc solutiorr
r l t l allowedto sra'<rutra,rip.ii'iu;r;"i;';'i'y (viscoscsolutiorr)is
trolled.rcrrrperarure, ;rr . carc.rry c<.rrr-
/ \ , / \ crurirrgwhich'tiirre'ii ii nrt.r.J ;;;;;,i,..r;.
-o-cH -N- >
-o -cH c H*
cH- sornebreakdownof thc
\au_n / \ / of lower nrolccular .lJng ".liuror"-"ror*,ii., i,,r"',rri"""iJ;
CH_O wciglrttiL.. iri.".,'i ,i ,fr" vi.scosity
I I solutionfallsinitiallv. oI t'c
cH2oH cH20H orr lurtherstandi.g,the viscosity of thc sorrrtio'bcgirsto rise
CELLULOSE SODACELLULoSE againas celluloseis
ij illlii,jj
for a long tinre, ceruroseis cleposit.a
Iroweve.r,ripening is atow-ccr,i-t"trir","'unrirsolution. ln practicc,
tl ' 1 , thc solutio, rras
reachcda state suitable.for
OH OC-SNa t ^ c ' s u b j c c t c dt o
l t t l vacuulll to 'remove bubbrcs of- s p i n n i , i r . - ' i
air or-otrrcr gascs wrriclr wourtl
i n t c r f e r e w i t h t h o s n r o o t hf l o w
/ \ c s , / \ o C r f , " , o i " r i o , . ,d u r i r r g s l r i r r r r i n g .
-o-cH cH- -o-cll cH-
\ / \ / Spinning*
cH-o cH-o T ' e r i p e n c d' v i s c o s es p i n n i n g s o l u t i o n
t l *
i s p a s s c ctrh r o u g h a r i r r a l
cH2oH cH2oH
' s p iIn
n nthci n g manufaclurc
' o{ rayon.anclothcr nrnrr-nradc librcs,lhc tcrnt
h a s c o n r et o - b c i p p i i c r i
XANTHATE t t r r o u g ht i n y l r o l c s , o f ? , . 1 ,t.i,, b l ; ' t l ; ; ' y , r ' o . . r , o t . f o r c i r r gt i t l t r i d
n U . " . . f : n ; - i l , ; " t c r n r i s r r s c t il n r h c
Viscose Rayon. Stage.r itt prodttctiott
if,l,'.,",10?il'i,il:"if.'":"u rttan-t'atlc nu,"i-roi'ii,.

A s t h e c o r e s h r i n k s ,t h c s k i n b c c o ' r c sw r i n k l c c la n d t h c f i l n r n c n t
fittcring stage,and then forccd through tiny holes bored in a cap
acquiresits lobed cross-scction.
of metal forming the spinneret.Spinneretsare made from gold,
platinurr, palladium, tantalutn and other corrosion-resisting . l n t h e p r o d u c t i o no f h i g h - t c n a c i t yf i b r c s o f a l l _ s k i nc o n s t r u c _
tion (sec page 43), regc'cration rttardants arc acldccrto
metals; platinurn alloys are comuronly used. thc
coagulating bath, slowing up the regencration or cclrurosc
The holes in the spinneret are usually between 0.005 and bv
the acid, a'd so allowi'g thc srowei route (b) to bri'g-aLoiri
0.0125 mm diameter, and each spinneretwill be pierced by up 'i, -tiv
rcgenerationthroughout the
to 20,000 o[ thent. .libre. This cltcci int.r.,.rincJ
u s i n g a h i g h c r c o . c c r r t r a t i o r r ' o zf i n c s a r t si n r t , . , t r i , r , . , i , i e - [ , , i i i .
As it emergeslrom the hole in the spinneret,thc jet of viscosc
entersa coagulatingbath containing a mixture of acids and salts, I'he slower rege'cration obtainccrin trris way ailows tiirc
stretchingand orientation to be carriccl out morc eflccrivclv.
typically of the following composition:
S u l p h u r i ca c i d 4-12 parts by weight
Sodium sulphate10-22 parts by weight
Zinc sulphate l-5 Parts bY weight There are three ways in rvrrich the firanrentsare trcatcd
I e a v i n gt h e c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h ; t h e p r o c c s s easr c k n o w n
n, pof oi
b o x ,s p i n n i n g ,b o b b i n s p i n n i n ga n i c o n t i n t i o u ss p i n n i n g ,
I n t h e c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h , t h e s o d i u m c e l l u l o s ex a n t h a t ei s c o n - *rp..-
. h i s i s i n s o l u b l ei n t h e l i q r r i d o [ t h c tivcly.
v e r t e d b a c k i n t o c c l l u l o s cT
bath, so that the fine jet of viscosesolution is changedinto a solicl P o t S p i n n i n g ;I l o x S p i n t i n g
f i l a m e n to f c e l l u l o s e . 'fhe
sodium I n p o t s p i . n i n g t h e b u n c h o f f i r a r n e n t fsr o m
The action of the spinning bath is complex. 'r'his c a c- h s p i n r r c r cits l c t l
s u l p h a t e b r i n g s a b o u t t h e c o a g u l a t i o no f t h e s o d i u m c e l l u l o s c
outof rhebarhandarou'cra wrrccr. whcer "irr"J rli. e"i[i
whecl pulls the filame-ntrrom the jct at a co'trotcrr
xanthate to form a lilament. This is thcn ccinvertedto cellulose spcccr.It is
t h i s s p e e d ,t o g e t h e rw i t h t h e r a t e o f e x t r u s i o n ,
by one or othcr of two routes: which crctcrr'incs
(a) thc soclium cellulosexanthate is converted into celltrlose t h e d i a m e t e ro f t h e r a y o n I i b r e . f h e f a s t e ri t p u l l e d
is ". it i."".,
t h e j e t , t h e t h i n n e rt h e f i b r e w i l l b e .
xanthic acid, which decomposesinto cellulose.
(b) the sodirrm cellulosexanthate is converted first irrto zinc leaving the gocretwhccl, the fibrcs pass arouncr
.on a sccorrcr
wheel which is movi.g fastcr than thc lirst. -fhe
cellulosexanthatc, which is then convertedinto cellulosexanthic fibrcs arc thcrc_
fore stretched bctween trre two wtreers-l-a proccss
acid and finally into cellulose. whicrr has a
profound elTecton the finar fibre.
The conversionof zinc cellulosexanthateinto cellulosexanthic This stictching or trr" siiti-
p l a s t i cr a y o n t e n d s t o o r i e n t a t et h ;
acid takes place more slowly than the conversion of sodium n r ; i ; " ; , | " s o f c c l l u l o s ca l o n g
the direction of trre libre. rhe tirng nrot.ctires
cellulose xanthate into cellulose xanthic acid, and route (b) is arc po.t". n.,oii
tightly together so that rheir nrutuit otiin"iion
slower than route (a). "",":;-i;,r; ;i;y.
Ihey hold strongly to each other, giving a sirongcr
I n t h e c o a g u l a t i o no f v i s c o s eu, s i n g a b a t h a s o u t l i n e da b o v c , tibrc.
The more. the rayo' is strctcirJd *i.,it" it
t h e z i n c s u l p h a t ei s i n l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o na, n d i t p e n e t r a t e so n l y . is still p!.stic, thc
s t r o n g e ri s t l r e f i b r e . I l u t a t . t h c s a n r et i n r e ,
a short distanceinto the lilament in the time that the acid pene- t l r i s t i g f r tp n " f l , i g ' o i
t'e molecules recluces..the,stretchabiiiat;'of
trates into the centre of the filament. The bulk of the filament, t^c fibrc, so thnt
inclucling,the core, is thus regeneratedvia the direct route (a). -stretchingw'r. achicve high strcngtrr usua'y rrt iii"
cxpenseof other desirabrepropertics.
Only the outer layer is regeneratedvia the slower route (b). 1'he treatrrent is trrcrcforc
The slower regenerationtaking place in the outer layer of the
to suit ilreco^dirlonitn" nu." *iit r.,"u"to ,riinrinn,i
filament results in a nrore uniforrrr deposition of cellulose,and . Afterstretching, thefibrep_assesinto a Tophal'box.Thisis :i
createsthe skin cffect that is typical of a regular viscosefibre. hollowcontaineri6out rB.*?7i;iilr Jir],i"t* rvrricrr wrrirrs
t4 I5
a sp.inningtop. The filanrent is lccl through a hole in thc top o[ ptrrification'
t h e b o x a ' d i s f l u n g a g a i n s tt h e s i d e b y c e n t r i f u g a lf o r c e . I n t h i s
waslring and crryi'gof trrcfirarrrcrt
lcavingrhc coacuraring a[tcr
rvay it. is pulled continuously through the hole ancl buil<Isup br,tt,.li'ii,"
';i";;, pri,i,'",iorrof rayorrby pot
spi'ning, for eiar'plc] ,il;
i'to a cake of filament inside the box. A n'rcchanicaldevice rnoreto complete. ijj.,, rakc J0 rrri'rrrcsor
ensuresthat the cake js built up evenly from top to bottom, ancl Ancr.intrristilne,*o.i'urnn a rnirc
nrightbe spun'If continuously-pr;;; of firanrcnt
the spin o[ the b_oxgivesa twist to tlie fibres, irsually about L.i
ti'e to process,, Iira'rc't took rhc sanrc
t u r n s t o t h e c m ( 3 t u r n st o t h e i n c h ) . n.-,,1:,1,-li:ii
i;,i;';;;il; arrcr drying cquiprrcnr
'lhe wouldhavclo accon)n_todatc
Topharn box rotates some 10,000 tinres per nrinute. The a conrparablc lcngtho[ filnlrrcnt.
The successfur
crevcronrr."toi;;1;ii;;us spirrning
sidesare perforated,so that most of the liquid ii ftung off from wasnradepossibrc of viscosc
to.a rargccxteni
t h c w e t f i b r c c a k e . U p t o 6 3 r n ( 7 0 y r t ) a t n i n u t e a r e f e c li n t o dcviccswrrichcourcrrtoralnrm"u;; bt'l;* dcsig'o[ rrrccrranic.r
t h e b o x ; i t t a k e s s e v e r a lh o u r s t o b u i l a u p a c o n t p l e t e , c a k e , , i;r;,ir-
tinuousmovementas they p"rr.,r jfrr*:,ill o[ firarncnri' co'-
which is tl'renwashed and may be treated wittr soaium sulphicle ,n. o.o..rsirrgtrain.
sol.tion to renrove residual sulphur conrpouncrs.The fibre is
bleachcd, IttdttstrialRayott Corporatiotr proce.rs
.Lrsuallywith sodiurn or calciirm hypochlorite or
peroxide,rinscd in dilute acid, washecland driecl.
the 1930s,many firnrs expcrinrcntecl
vrscose spinningtcchniques. with corrrinuous
Bobbin Spinning onc of tlr"-n"t t" ^"il;;;..;;,,,:
rrrcrcialsucccsswns il
In bobbin spinning, the filanrentsof rayon emerging front lhc .l)t.occsstlcvclopcrl
by lrrrlrrslrirrl
c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h m a y b e w o u n d w i t h o u t t w i s t o n t o b o b b i n s . wtii.l'",,n,"-inio''or,..",io'
nr l.irrcsvlc,
bobbins,whicl'rhave perforateclbarrels,are purifieclancl bleachecl
Thc 3|'i3:ilt!;|r.u't'n.,
T^c probrcrnof harrclrirrg great
tunderpressure.The yarn is then dried and oiled, ancl after trvist- processingwas solveclty.",,ii,rf- rcngthso[ firrr.rcrrtrrurirrg
ing is wound up again ready for winding into skeinsor cones. rir..?,.r'aovil'c*g rccls of
ingeniousdesign.Each recl ""*irt.i""i"o
C o rr!i rttrous Spi nning axes set on thc skew, i.e. n_otparallcl pri,. of rorcrs rvitrr
filanrentis fed to one io caclr othcr. Whcrr
I n t h e p o t a n d b o b b i n s p i n n i n g p r o c e s s e sp,a c k a g e so f v i s c o s c .end "f " ;;;;";i n.,ouing rollcrsof t^is
sort, a'd passcdrounrl thc .o'eis--as'ttrougl,
filan.rent are collected rouncl n plir o[
1nd then subjected-to desurphurizing, pulleys,rhe fitanrentrcrcts
to f"r;; ;"rl;;;;l which nrovcs.torrc
bleaching,washing and drying before tire rayon is ready for usJ. thepair of rotersunril.it..n"n",
Thc processis thus an interrnittentone, in which batchesof Iila- ii.*oii,.. ..a. r.rrccrirccrion or
nrovement of the sniral,.the .istancct.i*..n thc coils,arcl thc
ment are handled separatelyas they become available. lcngth of filanrent"u.ii.,l,
lJatchprocesses of this type are inevitably costly in labour aucl bctwecnthe axeso[ ttretwo rollcrs. trJ,, ,,," anglc o[ skcw
operati.g chargesa , n d t h e i n t e r m i t t e n to p e r a t i n g - t e n dtso i n t r o - A pair of skew_set rollers"un if,i,, bc rrscclfor carryirrg
d u c e v a r i a t i o n si n t h e q u a r i t yo f t h e p r o d t i c tf r o n i b a t c h t o b a t c h . lengt'sof filanrent grcat
in a.vcry.snrall space,
.modern industry therc is a te'dincy to favour processesin betweenindivicrualcoits.df ni;,;;;;-i;i witlroutp^ysic^lcolrlilct
rvhich the procluct nloves from one stagc to the 'cit in a
con- strandsof filament"^n. b.: ,,,frj".i.J- i,,g pr,,"". r'<livictuat
t i . u o u s s t r e a n . rc. o n t i r r u o u s p r o c e s s e so f t r r i s s o r t a r e u s u a i l y cnviron're'ts irr a most dircct '*^r,-f,ro'pro""r.ingliquidsantl
c h e a p c rt o o p e r a t c ,a n d c a n b e c o n t r o l l e c tl o p r o c l r r c ea h i g h l i r v h i c ' a r ew o u ' < It o c c t h cirr r t o c,ontra.twith flla.lents
r u n i f o r r np r o d u c t . a c i ( . o r o t h c r ' : r c k a g e . . l . l irri rs ,
I t h a s l o n g b e e n r e a l i z e r tl h a t t h e p r o r l u c t i o no f v i s c o s er a y o n l,Ill: rhcpiocl:sring
i:d":.s uced^ ti,n"'-n..i..i'io.r^c trc*tr'crrr -ir;;..r_r o[
con t i nuously-prod fi lnnri. r, o, "oi"pn r.a wi rh t d;
could. be aclaptedto operate on a continuous basis. nut o f - f i l a r n c n ti n p a c k a g et o r n t . *
practical problcms hacl to be sorvecrbelorc contintror-rs
spirrrirri l n t h e I n d u s t r i a lR a y o n C o r p o r a l i o n
bccamea reality. The main difiiculty lay in the time requirecl c e s s t, h e t h r e a da d v a n c i n gr e c l s ' c o n r i r i c o n t i n u o u ss p i r r r r i n gp r o -
" i p . i r c o [ s k c w _ s cht o l l o w
f__ | l_ -.1 L I L f


rollers wlrich rotate one inside the other. A sttccessionof thcse l i k c t h c r o l l c r si n a w r i n g c r ,w i t h t h c i r a . r c s . s co[n t h c s k c r v . ' t ' h c
reelscarriesthe filament from the coagulatingbath and stretching r o l l e r s ,a t l ' u t I n r ( 3 . 3 f t ) l o . g , c a r r y u l o r e t r r a ' 1 0 0 c . i r s
equipment,through desulphurizing,blcaching,rvashing,oiling and t l r e f i l a r n c n ts l r i r a la s i t r n o v c sf r o m o n c c n c lt o t h c o t h c r .
cliying stages, until eventually a clean, d-ry lilarnent is delivered
-shipm"nt A s t h c f i l a m c n t se r r i e r g cf r o r n t h e c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h , t h c y a r c
,..ua' for to the textile manufacturer.The techrriqtre carried upwards to pass over thc uppcr roilcr and tlic. ,iorun-
has now been devcloped and refined, and Industrial Rayon r v a r d st o p a s s u . d e r t h e l o w c r r o l l c r , a n c l s o o ' . ' l ' h c f i r s t c o i l s
c o r p o r a t i o n c o n t i n u o u ss p i n n i n gn r a c h i n e.sa r ei u w i d e s p r c a du s e o f t h e s p i r a l a r c s p r a y e d w i t h u c i c r ,a n d c o r g u r i r t i o ^i s c o r r r -
throughout the worlcl. Worlcl rights to the process,cxcluding p l c t c d d u r i n g t h i s f i r s t s t a g c .' l - h c f i l a n r c n t i s t h c r r r v . s h c c l
U.S.A-.ancl Scuth America, are held by Coultaulds Ltd', U'K' w a t e rs p r a y sa s i t ' r o v c s a l o r r gt l r . er o l l c r s ,p a s s i ' gI i ' a l l y o v c r
A motlern continuous spinning machine of this type is 6 .rl'r e u d s e c t i o n so f t h e r o l l e r s ,r v h i c ha r e h c a t c d .o r y t i l a r n c n t tt . , i u .
(20 f0 high, and has threi operating levels.On the top are the t h e r o l l c r s ,h a v i ' g s p c n t s o m c 3 n r i n u t c st r a v c r s i i r gf r o ' r o n c c . t l
coagrriating b a t h a n d t h c s t r e t c h i n gt t r e c h a n i s nfrr,o l r t w h i c h t h e t o t h c o t h c r , n r o v i n g r h r o u g h r , o r c t r r a ' 1 0 0 c o i - i so f t l r c s p i r r l
filarirentmoves clownwardto pass throtrgh a train of ten process- o ' _ t h e w a y . 1 ' h c d r y f i l a r n c n t sa r c t r v i s t c car n t r c o l l c c t c do i r
ing stages.Each stage consistsof a thread advancing reel, and b o b b i n s ,u s u a l l y b y a c a p s p i n n i n gm c c h a n i s m .
cltiring its passagethrough the reel the filament is subjectedto D e s p i t e l h e o n r i s s i o ' o f t h e d c s u r p h u r i z i n gs r . x g c f, i r . r ' c . t s
the appropiiate processitrgliquids or environments.Finally, the p r o d u c e db y t h e N c l s o n P r o c e s sc o n t a i n o n l y b . I _ - 0 : j p c r
tilanrcnt passcs through a drying rccl ctrclosccliu n hclrtctl s r r l p l r r r rI.f , a s i s r r s r r n lt,h c y ^ r n s r r t r s c q t r c r r tpI lyr s s c s
i r r i . u i , g l i, ,
chamber.Thc dry filament emergcslront this rccl ancl is twistcd r v c I p r o c c s s i r r tgr c u t ' r c ' t , s u c l r a s s c o r r r . i r rogi t i y c i r r g ,
ontl woutrd on to bobbins which iarry up to 4.54 kg ( I 0 lb)' p r o p . o r t i o no f s u l p h u r i s r c n r o v c d .r f t h c s u b s c q u c i i t
' o p c r a tr ian' ,. rt t, i n !
The dofling of the bobbins is automatic,and there is no intcr- o f t h e y a r n d o c s n o t i n c l u c l ca w c t p r o c c s s i n g
r u l t t i o n t o t l i e o p e r a t i o no f t h e m a c h i n e .T h e e n t i r c p r o c e s si s t r : r c eo f s u l p h . u . r . n r abyc r c r n o v c ccl a s i i y b y , v . i h i n g
thc fribric.
c o n t i n u o u st,h c f i l a n t e n tb c i n g w o u n d o n t o t h e b o b b i n l i t t l e m o r e r r r c u s e o t r r i g r rq u l r i t y w o o d p u r p r r a sr c . d c r c d t r r c
t h a n 5 m i n u t e s a f t c r b e i n g p r o d u c e d i n t h e c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h ' s l a g e u n n c c e s s a r fyo r m o s t a p p l i c a t i o n sb, u t b l c a c l r i n g
can nlsi
be carrieclout if nccessaryaf fabric stage.
Anrcricatt Visco.rcCorporotiotr Itroccs.r
Nelson Process T f i i s i s a ] ' i g h - s p c c dc o . t i n u o t r ss p i ' n i n g
l ) r o c c s si . r v r r i c r rt r r c
A c o n t i n u o u ss p i n n i n gp r o c e s sw a s d e v i s e di n t h e U ' K ' b y S ' W ' f i l a n r c n t sl c a v c t h e c o a g u r ' t i n g u i r t r v i i a j c t o f " o n g , , i u r i i i f
Barber anclJ. Nelson during the early 1930s.By 1934,the process l i q u i d , i n . w h i c h t h e l i l a u r e n t s' ' o v e f o r a d i s t . n c e o I a E . t r t l i
was in operation. It has since been developedby Lustrafil Ltd', c'r (6. irr). Irilar'cnts ther passround the rccls of a thrcaJ-
and has bcconreknown as the Nelson Process. a d v a n c r n gn r c c h a ' i s r ' a t s u c l ra s p c c dt h a t c x c c s sl i q u i t l
is rlrrorvrr
In the Nelson Process,a combination of two techniqtresis o ( r b y c e n t r i f u g a lf o r c c . c o a g t r l a t i o no f t h e c c l l u l o s c
useclto overcome the problem of carrying great lengtlrsof fila- a s t h c f i l a r n e n t st r a v c l a l o n g t h c i r s p i r a l p a t h , , , , r , t
,tr"t"iri,,f i,
rncnt during the processiugstages.Firstly, skew-sctrollers are carried out when lcss trrat 70 pcr ccnt icgc.cr-.tiorr
l r : r sr i r k c r r
u s e d t o c a r r y t h c f i l a m e u t ,a s i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R a y o n P r o c e s s ; placc.
seconclly,the stages in processingare redttced,desulphurizing K uljian Proccss
a n d b l e a c h i n gb c i n g o n t i t t e d .
The thread advancingdevice,in the Nclson Process,is sinrilar I n t h i s p r o c e s sf' i l a ' r c n t s a r e c a r r i c d f r o n r t h c c o a g r r r a t i r g
i n p r i n c i p l e t o t h a t u s e d i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R a y o n P r o c e s s-,t r t t t by godct wheels,ancr prss on to a systenrof roflcis
*t,i"il ..ii
cliffirs in the details of its operation.The two rollers, instcaclof b e c o n t r o l l e dt o a p p l y a < l c s i r c c<lI c g r e co f s t r c t c h .- I ' h c
rotating insicle one another, are arranged one above the other are trcatedas they travcl tltrough tlrc rollcr systcnr,
a r r c ll h c r r
l8 l)

d r i e d b y h o t a i r . T h e d r y f i l a m e n t sa r e w o u n d o n t o b o b b i n sb y I) tt b ble-fiI Icd F i I artrc:n t.r

a r i n g s p i n n i n gn t e c l t a t t i s n r . 'l-he
covering powcr of viscosc firanrcntsrrray bc
s p i n n i n gi n s u c h a w a y t h a t b u b b l c s o r
Koltortr'Okortratic' Process .i.'";-"li;;;;;' ";i
trapped inside the firamcnr. This may bc dorrc
try rpi,i,iii,g"o
A process of continuous spinning devised by Von Kohorn v i s c o s es o l u t i o ' w h i c h r r a s b c c . a g i r a i c c r p r o d u c c
'Okomatic' Process, ^ [orr' irr
lnternational Corporatiotr, known as the which air bubbles are entrappecl .
carries the yarn forward by means of a system of skew-setglass hr 1976courtaulds Ltd nraricetccr a rrollow visc.sc tibrc .Vilot.t,
x!i.I isr'adebv.gc'crari'g carbo'aiu*ia.i,,iia.iii. iir,,,;i;;,i.
T h e p r o d u c t i o n o f y a r n s b y t h e s e c o n t i n u o u ss p i n n i n g p r o - r r l c ' D r e l l i l s[ r e a i l v i r r c r c a s c d
b u l"ii'
k a ' d h i g h r r r o i s t u r c' b s . r . p t i o r r .
cesseshas now beconreestablislredpracticein the rayon industry. ur wil' ptityest.,ii rrr.r, ; ";?,1.,i'c rcasc
The quality of the yarns is fully equal to that of yarns produced ,']:.,9;r:" d c.vcri' g
by batch techniques,and the uniformity of the lilan.rentsis high. llle'ds oI hollowviscose witrrcottonarc uscdirrshirti'gsa'cl
TIris increased uniformity is reflected in the reductior"rof drcssfabricsa'd for tcrry t.wel pile. Iloli.w
breakagesduring weaving, and consequentin-rprovementin the widelyusedin nor-wove's,particulirlyl' fieids
quality of thc fabrics. a.d rnedicalfabricswrrerehighrnoistrric ribsorptio'a.d ,r,isturc
NtoDtrlc^'floNoF ITILANIEN l)rrrirrgworltl w'r il, a bubbrc-riilctl viscoscrilrrrrrcrrr
'llubblclil' crrilcd
wasproducccl in.U.S.A.by clu'clrrt,usi,ga tcchrrirluc
l l y n r a n i p u l a t i o na n d m o d i f i c a t i o no f t h e s p i n n i u g p r o c e s s t' h e by.which.air,rvasinjccterlinto the iil"nr.,rt.s
physicrl structure and form of the rayon lilament can b e -fhis it
produccda co'ti'uous firanrc'tcorrtii,ring was cxtrudcd.
c h a n g e di n n r a n y w a Y s . ait.r.t" iri,ili.,
3-6 "r -% i.) lo'g, whichwasusccl
l* asa substitute ti,, k;;;;k
irrlitejackets, poritoorri,insulatecl
The cross-sectionalshape of the filament may be varied by
extruding through spinneretholes of suitableshapc.Modification SpturclyedFilatnent and Staple
of filanrent cross-sectionis becoming of increasing in'rportance Conlrolof the spinningprocess in rayonprocluction cnnblcsthc
today, as it can causeprofound changesin the characteristicsof 'ranuflacturer to mix lirrcry-crispcrsccr-pigrirc'ts
- rvitrrtrrc viscosc
yarns'and fabrics. Circular cross-sectionfilaments,for example, solutionbcforespinning.Thc pignrcntJaic
loct<c,li,r*i,|. rlic
or" poot., in covering power than lobed cross-sections typical filar,entsa-[terspinning'proviclirr!'spuir-Jy.a'
fibres are now rira'rc'tsrvhiclr
of the normal viscose filament. Many synthetic arc unusually fastto rightn.crto w.shing.wrritctitlnit,,r.,aiuii,l.
being produced in non-circular forms, such as dog-bone and is uscdi' this way for duili'g ttt. n"fJini
srrcc' of r^yor.
trilobal cross-sections.
V i s c o s er a y o n h a s b e e n m a d e e x p e r i n r e n t a l l iyn a v a r i e t y o f
cross-scctionolSltu1r.s,and sonrc lrirve become of conrnrercial -fhc^spinnirg
importance.Straw filaments,for example,are produced by.sonre q L r a l i t i e so f s t a p l c f i t r r e a r c u s t r : r l l y
c.l*rrrccd iI
ntanufacturers.Flat filaments are made by extrusion of viscos: t h e f i b r e h a s a w a v i . e s so r c r i n r p
1 c i . w o o r y ,a n . f i r a n r c n t rsv ^ i c l r
tlrrough slit orifices insteaclof circular ones; these{'ilamcntshavc . r e r o b c n r a d c i n t o s t a p r ca r c c o ' r r n o n r y ' r r c a r c d
'l'his t o p r o v i t r ca
improved covering power, but tend to be of harsh handle' c.ritnp.. rnay bc donc rncchlrrically,for exunrl.,leby passirrg
ihc cliarnctero[ a filanrc.t ntay be varied continuouslybetrveen t'c fi lar.cnt bctwee' g^car_likc rollcrs,'or cl.,.,r.,ic.ilyb; ;";;r,.;t
t h i c k a r r c lt h i n , p r o v i t l i n g r a y o n f i l a n r c n t sw h i c l t r l l a k e u p i n l o l i u g .t h e c o a g ' l a t i o n o i t h c f i r a ' c ' r i t t - ; , ' ; i ;
a way .s ro crcirtc
spccial cffcct fabrics. a fibre of asymnrctr.icalcross-scction.

20 2t
rL -*J [*.,J


Chcnrical crimp has resulted very largely from experimental Surlace-Modifiect Fibre
work carriccl out in Japan, aud much of the viscose staple l-hc nature of the fibre surface influcnccs
pro<luccclin Japan is now crinrped in tlris way. The crimp is perties of a fibre, and lhc proccssingpro-
.arTects i,r u"iir"i"rr lr.t ,sc. 'rrrc striirte.
i n t r o d u c c db y s p i n n i n gv i s c o s ei n t o a c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h c o n t a i n i n g surface o[,a regular viscosenU..,
*iiii irs typical lobcd cross-
less acid and nrore salt than is usual, followed by carefully con- scction, influences the sp.innabllit'y
oi""ir.osc staple, a,d also
trollcd strctclting.The filanrent is then ctrt'into staple and dried. irflects.theappearanc-e and hancte or uir.or" yarus. o.
Filarnentsproduced in this way have an asymmetricalcross- h a n d , i n d e n t a t i o n so f t r r i ss o r t t * , i - t o ' " i i n g trrc othcr
section, cne side bcing thick-skinned and almost smooth, the t o p a r t i c r c so f d i r t .
and fibrcs of this typc arc oftcn
more rlifiicult to clcln thnn
other side being thin-skinnecland highly serrated.When the fibrcs sirnilar fibres with a non_serratecl
are wet, thcy srvell much more on the thin-skinncdside than on T h e . u n i q u e p r o p c r t i e so f w o o l " r " - J i , .
the thick-skinnedside, so that there is a tendencyto curl. ., i r r s o r . c r r r c u s u r ct o
the scaly surfaceof th-efibrc ona
nt,,iiy niiinrp,, havc bccn r'adc
A sirnilar efl'cct nray be introduced into rayon by using the t o c r e a t ea s u r f a c eo f . t h i s t y p c
'bicornpcnent' tcchnique which has becn developedsuccessfully o' .ovri-^ntr othcr nran-nradc
'Orlon' Bicom- fibres'such fibres wourd rr. .^p..t.a^tli.oui.r"
in the plcduction of some synthetic libres (see with wool. iruproved brcnds
porrcnt Fibrc). This consistsin the extrusion of twin filarnents Surface moclified rayon fibres have
through orifices set sicle by side, in such a way that the two bccn procluccclby nrcans
o f f i n i s h i n g t r e a t m c n t i ,a n c l b y u r i n g
{ l l l m c n t s j o i n n s t h e y c o a g t r l a t cT. h e c o r n p o s i t ef i l a l n c n ti s t l r a d c uiLrnfingspinncrcls.
from viscoscsolutions of dillercnt characteristics,atrd the two Iligh l'cn:rcl{yllnyol
portions o[ the filament have different swelling properties. In During the extrusion ancl strctching
which fornr parl. of thc
w a t e r ,t h c f i l a m e n tt e n d st o c u r l a s o n e s i d e s w e l l sm o r e t h a n t h e p r o c e s so f . p r o d u c i n g
f i l a m e n t { t h c n r o l e c u l e r . " i. . f f r f " . r .
o th c r . arc alig'ed and oricntal"cr ..ny9n
'fhe to-sonrc ,r"gr.. wlrcrc r'orcctrrcs
a n t o u n t o [ c r i m p t h a t i s p u t i n t o a f i b r e d e p e n d su p o n t l t e able to pack togcther..inorclc.rlyi"rfrion,'tr.,.y arc
forrn rcgions of
d e c i t e x .F i b r e so f 1 . 7 d t e x ( 1 . 5 d e n ) m a y h a v e 5 c r i m p s p e r c r n crystallinity,or crystailitcs,wrrich
ur"r.pn.nr.,r frorn o.e arol'cr
a n d 3 . 3 d t e x ( 3 d e n ) f i b r e s3 c r i m p s p e r c m . I f l l b r e s a r e - g i v e n b y - r e g i o n so f a m o r p h o u sc e l l u l o s e .
t o o n r u c h c r i m p , n e p st n a y b e c a u s e dd u r i n g p r o c e s s i n gi ;f t h e y In this respect,the rayon filamc't
g ay be resertrblcsthe cotton fibrc,
a r c g i v e n t o o l i t t l e c r i n r p , t l t e c o l t e s i o tdt u r i n gp r o c e s s i n m rvhich also consists of cerrulose
-"r.*i.r' parry in crystntine
too low. in arnorp.trous
form. Brt il;; <lirlcrs
rn-r lirrty
n.urnbcr from corron
of significant ways.
uunng vlscosemanufacture, the
so.r'edegradation,ana, i' a norrnal
Crimped Viscose Rayon. DY suit- "i;;;r; fibrc tlrc nrolcculcs

able control of spinning conditions, pcrhaps.20G-700
u"l;. ;;, couon,rtreccllulose
viscose filarnents may be spun in andmaycontain2,000_1b,000
which the skin is thicker on one ;il[:",.r ;ii;;;;;
side of the filament than ort thc
other. Tbe swelling and othcr .^ The prop.ortionof crystatine rnaterialin a nornrarviscoscIibre

ts conrnronlyin the re-gionof
characteristics of the two sides o[ 25_30p.. "*t, whcrcasin corton
the fibre are different, and the rvet it is as high as 70-75 c e n t . T h e c r y s t a l l i t c si n r a y o n
filament contractsmore on one sidc s t n a l l e rt h a n i n c o t t o n ; i.np er a
y o n , r f r . y - , , r . , ' o , ,t v c r a g c ,a b o u t
than on thc othcr. This producesa t n g s t r o m sl o n g a n d 4 0 a n g s t r o n r , 100
crirnp (cf. the relationship betwecn *id.; iir cotton thcy lre sonrc
the twirr-corc structure of the wool 1 9 9 : : F s t r o m s . l o n g a n c l -6 0 n , r g r t i o i . r " '* t 0 . . N t o r c o v c r
o r r c n r a t i o .o f t r r c c r v s t ^ l r i t c sn t o , [ rhc
fibrc cot(cx and the crirttp o[ rvool) r t r " n b r c a x i s i s g r . c a r c ri n
- Alter Cottlartlds L!d. c o t t o nt h a n i n r a y o n .

These factors all contribute to the difiercncesin physical pro- thc r c g i o n so f t h c s k i n a r c r c s sr i r ' g r c d
perties betweenrayon and cottotr. In particular, they explain the -arnorp'ous a r r dl r * p h a z - l ' d
'r arrar)gement than_in rhc core. .t-hc skiri is
relative weaknessof rayon, especiallywhen wet. And they have uniform structure,and the o.i.niotion'oi ai;,;, ;i..;;;;.
,tr. "ryr,,r'itcs is 'igrrcr
pointed the way towards the developmentof viscoserayous o[ in the skin than in the core.
i n c r e a s e ds t r e n g t ha n d d i n r e n s i o n asl t a b i l i t y . I n t h e p r o d u c t i o no f h i g h _ t c n a c i t y
'I'he r a y o r ) s t, h c c o n g u l n t i o na n c l
successachievedin this field is demonstratedby the intro- slretchingof the fibre arc controllea
in suctra way Ji; i;;;;#;
duction of high-tenacityviscoscfibres (seepage 39). Since World tlre internar structure of the liranre"t.':rrtir
ircrcascin rne propor.rion is acconrparricdby .rr
War II, the usc of high-strength r a y o n i n t y r e s ,c o n v e y o rb e l t i n g , of ,kii;; ;;;j ;;;;'t,i']il;,;;;i
transnrissionbelting, hose pipes, etc., has become cornmonplace. tio'of
'fhe. core,to the poi't at wrrichirr..ori.(rsar)pcars coruprctcly.
These yarns are produced by applying a high degree of stretch fibre is coagulared i" " ,r-;;'i;"i;;;"., way, an<Irtrc
c l u r i n g m a n u f a c t u r e ,w h e n t h c i n d i v i d u a l f i l a n . r e n t sa r e i n a section beconrcslcss scrralcclas cross-
'lhe thc corc_shrinkagc ellcct is
pseudo-plasticstate. stretchingis eflectedby suitable choice dinrinisrrcd' In trrecaseoI a 'wt.,ot.-s[ini .'l-errasco
a n d c o n t r o l o f t h e c h e m i c a l si n t h e s p i n n i n gs o l u t i o na n d i n t h e Suder105',the crosssectionis alnrost {ib." sr.r, as
s p i n n i n gb a t h . l'he increasedunilormitynri,rorr.,rt,,iion
The acicl bath coagulatesthe cellulosexanthate solution ancl an all-skinfibre of this iype ;.;;l;';,;'"n or thc nrorccurcs irr
'I'hc ircreaseirr rensite
p c r m i t ss t r c t c h t o b e a p p l i c d i n o n e o r n l o r e s t a g e s . process s t r e n g t ' 'I f t h e n r o. r c c u r c s -n. l n
r u s c di n t h e p r o d u c t i o no f ' T c n a s c o '
y r r n s b y M c s s r s .C o u r t a u l c l s l,r"u: poor rrcgrccor oricntriiioii," a r c , o t ' r i g r r c a n r r t l
crystallirrity "r"ir trrc oricrrr^tio'^rrtl
L t d . i s o f t h i s t y p e , p r o v i d i n gy a r u s w h i c h a r e t h r e e t i m e s a s vary grcatly
a te.silesrresswilt be iakcn b;;;iy';-r;"alt ti,. iitrr., t,c rcsistn'ccto
s t r o n ga s n o r n r a lv i s c o s er a y o n .
The aclditionalstretch given to viscosefilaments in producing availablemoleculcsat a.time. proporrionof rhc
rf, in" if." i, strctclrcd, thcse
h i g h t e n a c i t y r a y o n s i n c r e a s e st h e d c g r e e o f a l i g n n r e n to f t h e nrotecutes will break,anciorhers*iii'i";i;
cellulosemolecules.This has the effect of increasingthe propor- too will break,anclso on. up ttrc strain.f.hcsc
t i o n o f c r y s t a l l i n em a t e r i a l , a n d o r i c n t a t e st h e m o l e c u l e sa n d lf the degreeof oricnlationof
the nrolcculcs arrdcrystallitcs
c r y s t a l l i t e sn r o r e h i g h l y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f i b r e a x i s . T h e is high, anclthe structureof the
nbr. is-rinifornt,a grcatcrpro-
physical structure of the fibre changes,resulting in increased portionof nrorecules
s t r c n g t ha n d d i m i n i s h c dc x t e n s i b i l i t y . libre is pulrccf. 'rrre wi' co-operai" i" i"r.irg trrcstrai. rvrrc,trre
fibre *irii"i;;-;';;;','il. rcrsircsrr'rgrrr.
Skin ElJect
W h e n v i s c o s es o l u t i o n i s e x t r u c l e di n t o t h e c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h , a IIigh lVet Morlultrs Royons;polytrosic
Fibrcs(secpagc 47)
skin of celluloseforms on thc outsideof the filanient.As coagttla- I\'lanynew typesof ui::-:r_:l]"y..cnrcrgccl
tcxtilescientists cturingrcccntycars,ns
t i o n c o n t i n u e s ,t h e c o r e o f t h e f i l a m e n t h a r d e n s a n d s h r i n k s , haveincreascd trreirinacrstandirrg
c a u s i n ga w r i n k l i n g o f t h e o u t c r s k i n o f t h e f i l a m c n t .T h e r c s u l t of spin'ing ancrproccssing ancrcontror
t"Jrriiqi,.r."anron,trrc nrostinrpor-
of this can be seen in the serrated cross-sectionof the norrnal tant are the hieh wet modulusrnodal anclpolynosic
v i s c o s cf i l a n r e n tT. h e s k i n i t s e l fc a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h ebdy e x a n r i n i r r g T'ese rravebeen fibrcs.
i,i u uu,ri'rrJiirJ,run trics i rr ll ri rair.
a d y c d a n d l e a c h c df i b r e . ' I ' h e c o r e d y e s m o r e r e a d i l y t h a n t h e rrr.odal.fi
bre is r'anuftrciup.a y c"" rir,irar'r-ta.u,der ; a
'Vincel'; ^t Irrc'arirc
s k i n , a n d i t l i k e w i s el o s e si t s d y e m o r e r e a d i l yo n l e a c h i n gl,e a v i n g in thc U.S..rn.ocr..rfi6res*.'r"rir.rrr. as ,Avrir'
t"ibers (Avtcx
a darkcr shadewhich can be secn quite easily through the nticro- Inc.)and'Mov*cr' (c* iirrri;
- r'i;;iil'i,;,;;i.n'iui.;)"
scope. Modal arrd polv.osic'fibresare"iiigi,.t.,,r.ity,
T h c s k i n a n t l c o r c a r c b o t h c c l l u l o s e ,b u t t h e y d i f l c r i n t h e rr,dulusrayo'sin wrricrr 'ig, wcr
oi'il,. ,,,,,t..rr.rstrrrcturc
n a t u r e a n d o r i c n t a t i o n o f t h c c r y s t a l l i t e s .I n t h c s k i n , t h e hasrcsultedin a fibrewirhnranv"iijr;';;;;."rivc
c r y s t a l l i t e sa r e s m a l l c r t h a n i n t h e c o r e , a n d t h e m o l c c u l c si n crraracrcris(ics

T I A N D B O O KO F T I ] X T I L E F I B R E S N A T U I I A L P O L Y M E , I T F TB R [ , S

o f c o t t o n .T h e h i g h s t r e n g t h e , s p c c i a l l yw h e n w e t , r c s u l t si n g o o d

d i r r e n s i o n a sl t a b i l i t ya n d f i r m u e s s .

The nranu[acttrrcof viscosestaple libre has assttrnedincreasing

s fi
i n r p o r t a n c cs i n c e t h e e n d o f W o r l d W a r l l . ' S t a p l e i s n r a c l eb y
chopping filanrents,which may havc been crimped nre^chanically

(lth-8 in),
l y ,i n t o s h o r t u n i f o r t u l e t t g t h sc, o t n t t t o n l y3 B - 2 0 0 n t r n
p r c l e n r i c a l-after
they etnergelrom tl're coagu.lating.bath.The
e3% [p {
i t a p l e f i b r i i s t h e n w a s h e da n d d r i e d ,a n d p a c k e di n b a l e s .
in proclucingstaple,it is not llecessaryto control the trniformity
of the fibre to sttch a fine clegreeas in the case of continuous
f i l a r n e n tp r o c l u c t i o n(.U n i f o r r n i t y i s n e v e r t h e l e svse r y g o o d , a n d
i r r t r i n s i c a l l yb e t t e r t h a n t b a t o b t a i n e dw i t h n a t u r a l f i b r e s . )A l s o '
' Ssl, &) 9

t h e f i l a m e n t sc a t t b c s p u n l r o m s p i n t t e r c t w s l t i c h p r o v i d ea t h i c k

,sur#ot010 c
)0 b:
r o p c o r t o w c o n s i s t i n go [ t h o u s a n d so f f i l a m e n t s .T h e s e t w o
factors tencl to lower thc cost o[ producing staplc as conrlrarcd

w i t h c o n t i n u o u sf i l a t n e n ty a r n s .

Viscoscstaple nray be blendcd with wool, cottoll or other

fibrcs, and spun into yarn by the various systenrstrsedfor staple

f i b r e s .Y a r n s t u a d e f r o m v i s c o s es t a p l ea r e n a t u r a l l y f t r l l e r a n d
r o u g h c ri n h a n c l l ct h a t t t h o s ct u a d ef r o t n f i l a m c n ty a r n s ( c f . w o o l
and silk).
Totv !o Top Conversiotr
c o n v e r s i o no f s t a l l l ef i b r e t o y a r n i n v o l v c st h e r e a l i g n n r e n t
of thc nrassof short fibres which have resultcclfrorn thc ctrtting
ZyAenae$: .{I
3 4

oI the filanretrts,bringing thcm back, in elTect,towards the state
o f a l i g n m c n tt h a t t h e y h a d w h e n t h e y w e r e i n t h e f o r m o f u n c u t
1 . S T A N D A R Dt . . I O R O
t o w . I - no r d c r t o a v o i c la n a p p a r c n t l yu l l l l c c c s s a rdyi s o r g a n i z a t i o n
ancl rcalignrnent,tow to top conversiotrtechniqucshave been 2. TENASCO
developeclin which the filaments in thc tow are cut or broken 3 . T E N A S C O3 5
i n t o s t a p l ea n d d r a f t e d i n t o s l i v c r a s a c o n t i n u o t l sp r o c e s s '

Z Y ^ W
7^vf,w - 4 . T E N A S C O S U P E R7 0
" I ' ( t t u s c oO' .p p o s i t cl:' l i g ht c n n c i t yv i s c o srca y o l l so f t h c " l ' c n n s c ot y' .p c
5 . T E N A S C O S U P E R1 O 5
a r c u r o c l u c c d ' bcvr t r u s i o no f t h e v i s c o s e into an acicb l a t l tc o n t a i n i r r g
z.in.'atr,l socliunisulphates, follorvedby stretchingof tlrene_rvly-fortlrcd
f i l a n r c n t isn h o t n q u c o u sa c i d . T h i s r c s u l t si n i n' cs rkei na's c d molecular
o- r i . i i t i t i o n ,a n c la n ' i t r c r e a si en t h e p r o p o r t i o no f to 'core''
y n i i t n t o a ci n t h i s w : I y a r e s t r o l l g e trl r n nt t o r n r avl i s c o s ea,n d t h i s
< ii t h o n l y s l i g h t_ r e t l u c t i oi nr r e x t e n s i o a
nt 5
" r , t i n . t t r . r r g t ti rs : r c h i c v c w
Lie:rk.'l'lris"nteans that the fibreshlvc n high rvorkoI ruptute'-Aller
1l) 27


NAT.'lt^L PoI-YMllR
Drtacr co.r.oN t
r^src "':,
v i s c o s e .f i l a n r e n ty a r . s a r e c o n r n r o ' l y s i z e d w i t r r
sizes which arc renroved by scouri'g. stapre yarns
tll';iii:: Tillrl",.::,'
tunobtainable ::; :
wirh othcray*irnr'irr.,tir"
s t a r c h n r a y b e d e s i z e db y t r e a t n r e n tw i t l , " , l " v n l . r . frgitiu. to light.
. - -,'tii'et,
are trsccr
;:'fii?:Jllii'JJ;;;ji;;,;'r'o ..r..corr,istrrcss
A s i n a l l r v e t p r o c c s s i n go f v i s c o s eg, r c a t c a r e m u s t
be taken to
a v o i d c a u s i r r gd i s t o r t i o no J t h e r a y o n g o o c i sw h e n w e t .
S.ouiinl trvcs
r n i r yb c c a r r i c c ol r t r s i n g t r r eu s r a l t c c h r r i c l u cr so r c e l r u l o s i c
s u c h a s s o a p a r c l s o c r i u r ' c r r r b o n a t es; o i i p , s r r r f a c "a c t i v e
nui..i :.,.J..11i{1'":1,',,',iifJ'nil,:iT,iJ"';,:[..u,.1,'.,.
to conri,iuorrs
i;;;k; brackis
ag"rii Sraplcfibrc is dyc<l*itf, n ;;fJlu ?:lif."'
a n d . t r i s o d i u r r rp h o s p h a t e ;s o a p , s u r f a c ea c t i v e a g e n t u , . , a
pyrophosphate.Scouririgshould be foilowld frv ^zolc Dycsrunn".,-y1r::rc rayonhasa high,t.gi.e of
nnslllg. azoicclyesttrlTs tt.runni.il.iil..i "otto,,l..l.hc aflinityfor
gooclfasttrcss colouri arc
:lll;'H;,'iil'l.ltavc i" ir"tr'i,u,cross-trycirrl;,
Il lcnching
S t r o n g .o x i d i z i n g a g e n t s s h o u l d b e a v o i d e c l .B l e a c h i n g
may be . v^'r' Dyns'uFF' ilrc lrrc_fastcstof all lrrc crycstu,.s
c a r r i c d o u t r v i t h h y d r o g e np. e r o x i c l ea t t e n t p c r a t u r eusp rcsist
the.n..t, ui'iigrrr trscrro.
to 50"C., ;i:f[':i::;,1*: a.rrrvasrrirrg
- s o d i u n rl r y p o c h l o r i t e , a i c l p o t a s s i t , up. ,. . , n ^ i r _
g a n a t c f o l l o r v e cbl y s o d i u n rb .i spuc lrnbhoirtac t. e , .,
1 - h ea p p l i c a t i o n
o f v a I c l y c st o v j s c o . srci
ivityorrlrc,fi bre., llayo';;ii; ;,1v,?* ii
Dycing tuscd
. bsorbed ru1,i.r ";,; ,,".'i",r1i ffi?i:'::lfil.,lil
y th.r,i l;; ;;:' ;; ::i;;,:gifiJiii:l:tr.l;
viscose rayon is a regeneratecrceilulose fibre, a'cl
#'lX.;"'t av.'-*ltr' n;;i-,.;,
as such is
c h e ' r i c a l l ya l n r o s ti d e ' t i c a l w i t h c o t t o . . r t c a ' b c < r y e c r
c o t t o n d y e s t u f f s ,b u t t e c h n i q u e so f c l y e i n g a r e i r r i l u e n " . A
iilil;",f"9il.J',]:il','j' i; i*iiir,ii
s p c c i a lf a c l . o r s . Sptttr-dygdRayon
R a y o n h a s a g r e a t e ra f r i n i t yf o r d y e s t h a n h a s c o t t o n .
Afri'itv Ivluch rayon is norv
r n a y v a r y a c c o r d i n gt o n r a n u f a c t u r i n gc o n c l i t i o n sa, n < J itl the sptttt-dyccl.
will noi coloureclpig.rcnts ,,r"1'f.-o!l1"ttl forrtt, in rv6iclr
neccssarilybe icle'tical irr rayons procluceclfronr tire ,n,r.,.ptont.
it "i ;;;i';,;i;ii:t -
t n c o r p o r a t c dc l t r r i r r g
s l i r r r t i r t g' .r r i ; t p t , " . - t
. Ilayon swells to a greater extent than cotton when it is
ilrnrersedin water. The fibres are weakenecl,
rar oi' :;il;.;
iy;i ;;; ;; ;]'i;,,111i":,11:i'.1,,,'.xi1"'.,,,,[.
ancl yarns or fabrics
m u s t b e h a n d l e dw i t h g r e a t c a r e i n t h e d y e b a t h . Drl,ing
V i s c o s ci s d y c d i n t h e f o r n r o f h a n k s ,s i a p l ef i b r e ,p i c c e g o o d s
a n d ' c a k e ' ( i . e . a s c o l l e c t e col n t h e s p i n n i n gn r a c h i r i e j..f h e " h i g t i \ V c t v i s c d s cn r t r s t
b c c l r i c < li n s t r c l t a w ; l y
degree of swetling can carse dilficulties *Ir"n ,nyon ,,,'eccssa rystrains",,"],1: i*.j;l'iil;ii":i,i:,;l as
p a c k a g e df o r m . C a k e sf o r d y e i n gs h o u l c h
is clyed in widrh rrraybc fo.ilorvctltry l;i,'",i,,ii,J
l avean openwind. ;,1^jilt ,t;i;;;';
I i D A C T I V E D y D S T U t ; F S w h i c h c h e n r i c a l l yb o n d t o
onasrc, rcr .q,,
itp..r inJl'i",',1::li
#'^iii li lii,iii
c c l l u l o s cr n o l c c u l c sa r e o f t e n u s c c l .
t," """irJii, as rhisnrly crusc
,,.fJ/::.'.. n hnrslr
O F ' T E , X T I I -FEI B R E , S
IIANDBOOK A : N A . t U R A Lt , o r - Y M [ , t It r l u t t E s

liinishing r r r a d ci n a r a n g co f d t c x . ' l ' y p i c a sl t l n l c I'ibrcd tcx a r c 1 . 7 ,. 1 . - 1 ,

g . 0 r 1 7 , 4 0 , 5 6 ( l k , 3 - , ' 4 k ,g ,
T h e f i n i s h i n g o f v i s c o s c f a b r i c s i s c o n c e r t r e dl a r g e l y w i t h .5.0, \ 5 , 1 8 , 4 4 , 5c0l c r r )s; t l r p l c
its l e r r g t l r3
s 2 - 2 0 0 n r r n( l / a - 8 i n ) .
r ' i . i n t i z i ' g t l c s h o r t c o r r i n g si n h c r c u t i r t v i s c o s e ,r t o t a b l y
s c n s i t i v i t yt o l v a t e r ' l l c s i n f i n i s h e so f I n a n y t y p c s a r e .n o w . u s e d l'cnsilcStrength
. f t . . t i u . t y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , p r o v i c l i n g i n c r e a s e cdl i n r e n s i o n a l O , r d i r r avr iys c o srea y o r hr u sa t c r u r c i toyl ' l g - 2 3 c N / t e x( z . t J * 2 . 6
s t a b i l i t yi t r r i n g w a s l r i i g , i n r p r o v e dw r i n k l e. r e s i s t a n caeu d c r c a s e g / d c r r )d r y ; 9 . 0 - 1 3 . 2 c N / t c x ( 1 . 0 _1 . 5 g / t l c r r )w c r . . l . e D s i l c
rcsistarice. These finishesshorrld be used wit5 cirre, as they rlray
strengtlr o[-rrorr'al viscose r'yo. is 210942i4 kg/c.r2(30,000-
c a u s el o s s o f a b r a S i o nr e s i S t a n caen d t c a r s t r e n g t h ,a n d p r o d u c e 46,000lb/in2).
a h a r s h ,b o a r d Yh a n d l e .
v i s c o s e f a b r i c s n t a y b c c a l e n d e r c ccl a r e f t r l l y t o i n c r e a s e- t h e Iilougalion
f u l l n e s so f h a n d l e . d c c a t i s i n g i s u s e c lt o p r o d u c e a w o o l - l i k e N o r n t a l v i s c o s ew i l l s t r e t c hb y a b o u t l 7 * 2 5 p c r c c n t
finish. Iength bcfore brcaking, ancl 23-32 pcr ccrit rvlrcrr

Mercerizittg IJlaslicllccovcry
R a y o n i s a l u s t r o u sf i b r e , a n d t h e r c i s r a r e l y a n y c a l l f o r l u s t r e c o t t o u a n d o t h e r n a t u r a l c c l l u l o s cf i b r c s h t v c l i t t l c i ' h c r c n t
t o L c i n c r c a s e c el ,. g . b y r u c t ' c c r i z i n gI .t n r a y b e d c s i r a b l e h , ow- c l a s t i c i t yv' i s c o s cr ^ y o , , l r o r v c v c rh, . s c v c ' l c s s . r t I r . s i r s a r i r i l
e v c r ,f o r b l e n t l s o f c o t t o n a r r d r a y o n t o b e t t t c r c c t i z c t
c o
l i m l rrovc c l a s l i c s t r c t c h o I a b o u t 2 1 r c r c c r r t f ' o . r r v r r i c hi t r v i l l r j c c . u . . r i
t h e i u s ( r e o f t l r e c o t t o n , a n c l b r i n g i t s d y e i n g q u a l i t i e sm o r e i n t o w h c n r e l a x c c l .I l u t . r o r e p c r s i s t c ' t s t r c t c h i n gw i l l t c n d t o c a r r s c
l i n e w i t h t h o s eo f t h e r a Y o n . P e r n r a t r c ndtc f o r n r a t i o na s t h c l o n g c c l l u l o s cr r r c l l c c u l cssl i d c < l v c r .
V i s c o s ef i b r e w i l t w i t h s t a n c tl h c c a u s t i cs o d a s o l t r t i o nu s c d i n oncanother.
n r c r c c r i z igr r, b u t c l i s i n t e g r n t ecsl t t r i n gs u b s e q t r c ur tv a s h i n gS. p e c i a l E l a s t i cr c c o v e r y( 6 0 p e r c c n t r . h . ) :
t c c h r r i q u eas r c u s c c lt o o v c r c o t l l ct h i s p r o b l c m , i u c l u d i n gt h e t t s c I p c r c c r r tc x t c n s i o n :6 7 p c r c c l l t
o I c a u i t i c p o t a s h ,o r n r i x t u r e so [ c a u s t i cp o t a s ha u d c a u s t i cs o c l a , 2 pcr ccnt cxtcnsion: 60 pcr ccnt
i n p l a c e o [ c a u s t i cs o d a . 3 per centcxtcrrsion3 : g ncr ccnt
5 1 > c cr c n t c x l c r r s i o n 3: 2 j r c r c c l ' lt
l0 lter ccnt cxtcnsion: 2J ncr ccnt
S'fl{UCI'Ul{Il n ND PI{OPIIR'flES (l{cgular Viscose)

liiue Slructurcltnd APPcarancc

f h e f i l a r n e n to f v i s c o s er a y o n i s s n l o o t h a n d s t r a i g h t .I t n t a y b c Averngc Stillncss
c r i n r p e d ( ' s a r i l l e ' ) b u t t h e r e a r e u o c o u v o l u t i o n sa s i n c o t t o t t . 98 cN/tex (l l.l g/den).
T l e s u r f a i e i s h o w e v e r ,m a r k e d b y l o n g i t u d i n a lc h a n r r e l sw h i c h
a r e c a u s e c lb y c o n t r a c t i o ni n v o l u n r e o f t h e f i l a r l e n t c l u r i r l g Initixl M()dulus
coagulation, c h a n n c l so r s t r i a t i o t t sg i v c t h e c L o s s - s e c t i oon[
477 cN/tex (54 g/dcn).
v i s c - o sr"a y o n a c h a r a c t c r i s t i o c u t l i n e ,r v l t i c hi s d e e p l ys e r r a' st p
W h c n r a y o n h a s b e e t rd u l l e d w i t h t i t a n i u m d i o x i d e ,o r lYork Factor
d y c d ' c l u r i n gn r a n u f a c t u r ct,h e p a r t i c l e so f p i g n l e n t a r e s c e t l a s 0.62.
d a r k s p e c k se m b e d d e di n t h e f i l a r n e n t .
A s i a y o n i s a m a . r r f a c t u r c d n t a t e r i a l ,t 5 e c l i a ' r e t e r o f t ; e Spccific Grnvity
f i l a n r c n tc a n b e v a r i e d t h r o u g h w i d c l i n r i t s .v i s c o s ci s c o n r n r o n l y 1 . 5 0t o 1 . 5 2 .

ElIcct of Illois(urc o . ' e a t i n g . l t b e g i ' s t o l o s es t r c n g t ' a t l 5 O o c .

' e a t i ' g , a n d b e g l r s t o c l e c o n r p o si.t t g s _ z o 5 o C .
l n n a t u r a l c e l l u l o s cf i b r e ss u c h a s c o t t o l l , t h e c e l l u l o s em o l c c u l e s (clcplir,iil";;,
a l e p a c k e d t o g e t l t e ri n o r d e r l y l a s l t i o n w h e r e v e ra l i g n m e n t o [ t i n r ef a c t o r ) .
t h e n r o l e c u l e sn r z r k e st h i s p o s s i b l e .T h e s e o r d c r e d , c r y s t a l l i n e
r c g i o n sc o n f e r s t r e n g t ha n d r i g i d i t y o n t h e f i b r e ; t h e a m o r p h o u s Flatnrrnbility
r e g i o n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w l t e r e c e l l u l o s e m o l e c t l lse a r e R a y o n b u r n s r c a c l i l yw i t h a c h a r a c t c r i s t i c
o c l o u ro f b r r r u t p l p c r .
a r r a n g e di n r a u d o r n f a s h i o n a r e r e s p o u s i b l ef o r t h e f l e x i b i l i t y ,
' s t l c t c h a b i l i t ya' n d s r v e l l i n gp r o p e r t i c so f t h e f i b r e .
liltcct ot Agc
W h e u n a t u r a t c c l l u l o s ef i b r c s a r c d i s s o l v c dd u l i n g v i s c o s c
So slight as to be almost nil.
r n a n u f a c t u r et,h e m o l e c u l e sa r e s e t f r c e f r o u t o t t e a n o t h e r ,a n d
a r e a b l e t o n r o v ea r o u n d n r o r e o r l e s si n d e p e n d e n t liyn t h e l i q u i d .
-fhe Iillcct of Sunligtrt
c x t r u s i o no f t h c l i q u i d , f o l l o w c c lb y c o a g u l a t i o tar n d s t r c t c h -
i n g , t c n d s t o r c s t o r et h e a l i g n n r e n o t f t h e c c l l u l o s et n o l c c u l e sa n d V i s c o s er a y o n w i t h s t a ' d sc x p o s u r c
to su'rig't wit'out riiscolora-
e u c o u r a g e tsh e f o r n r a t i o no f c r y s t a l l i n er e g i o u sa g a i n .l n g c u e r a l , expo^surc causcsa grartualloss o[ rcnsilcsrrcngrtr.
h o w e v e r ,t h e m o l e c u l a r l i n c - t r p i s u o t r e s t o r e dt o s u c h a h i g h ll?it:,ll:.t^":pcd
r r l l sl s l l ) o r cs e v c r ei f t h c f i b r e c o n i r i n s
t i t a n i u r no x i d e .
c l c g r c ca s i n t h e o r i g i n a l n a t u r a l s t a t c .A l t l t o u g h t h e f i l a r n e n to [ ChcrnicalPropcrlie.s
v i s c o s cr a y o n c o n s i s t so f c c l l u l o s c ,i t d i { [ c r si n t h i s r c s p c c Lf r o t t t
c o t t o n . l t . b c h a v e si n m a u y w a y s l i k c a c o t t o n i n r v h i c h t h e Acids
c e l l u l o s em o l c c u l e sh a v e b e e n s h o r t e n c d( i . e . b y c h e n r i c a a l ction
S i n r i l a r[ o c o t t o n .v i s c o s cr a y o n i s a t t a c k c c r
d u r i n g r i p c n i n ga n d a g e i n g )a n d a l i g n e dw i t h r a t h e rl e s sp r e c i s i o n b y r r o td i r u t co r c c l l t l
c o r c e ' t r a t c c lr . ' i n e r a ra c i c r sw
, r r i c h w e a k * r a r r r rd i s i r r t c g ' r t c
t h a n i n c o t t o n . T h c a c t u a l d c g r e eo [ a l i g n n r e n ta n d c r y s t a l l i n i t y tlrc
fi b r e .
clepcncls upon the att.toutrtof stretch that is given to the filament
during rnanufacture.
l ' h e r c d u c e d c r y s t a l l i n i t y o f t h e c c i l u l o s e i t r v i s c o s er a y o t r
r e n c l c r st h e f i b r e r n o r e r e s p o l t s i v et o w a t e r - p e t r e t t ' a t i o n . ' f h e L i k c c o t t o n , v i s c o s cr a y o n r r a s a h i g '
c r c g r c co I r c s i s t . . c c t .
n r o l c c u l e so f w a t c r c a n f o r c e t h e i r w a y b c t r v e c nt h e l o o s e l y d i l L r t ea l k a l i s .S t r o n ' ! s o i u t i o n so f ^ r k a ' r i -
ciirsc srvc'i.g, witrr r.ss
o r g a n i z e dc e l l u l o s em o l c c u l e si n t h e a n t o r p h o u sr c g i o n s o f t h e o f t c n s i l es t r c n g t h .
r a y o n . V i s c o s er a y o n r v i l l a b s o r b t w i c e a s t t t u c h r v a t e rn a t u r a l l y
f r o n r t h c a i r a s c o t t o n d o c s . V i s c o s el t a s a n t o i s t u r er c g a i n o [ G etteral
l 3 p c r c e n t u n c l e rs t a n d a r t lc o n d i t i o u s .( W a t e r i n r b i b i t i o n : 1 0 0 - 'I'he
celluloseof viscoscrayon u'crcrgoes
1 1 0 p e r c e n t . )W h e n s o a k e di n w i t t e r ,v i s c o s er a y o t r w i l l i t r c r e a s e sor.rcaclrory'rcrizatio,
during the rranufacturi'gproccrr.
i n l c n g t h b y 3 - 5 p e r c e n t a n d s w e l l t o d o u b l e i t s o r i g i n a lv o l u u r e . r ' i r ; - ; ; ; " r c f l c r st o c ^ c r ' i c a r s
ir a'ra.'er si'rirar to cotion,rrutit g1n.*ry
T h i s i n c r c a s c dw a t c r p e n e t r a t i o ni s r e f l e c t e di n t h e c h a n g ei n r ' o r c s c n s i t i v el.t
is attackcd bv oxidizirrg agcnrs such
t c n s i l cs t r e n g t l tr v h e n r a y o t r i s w e t t e d .V i s c o s el o s e sa s m u c h a s as rrigh-strerietri-i,;,ir"g.l,
p c r o x i d c , b u t . w i l l w i t h s t a n c ln o r n r a l
h a l I i t s s t r e n g t l tw h c t t r v c t , a n d i s m o r e e a s i l y s t r e t c h e d T . hc liyfoctrtoritc or pcroxidc
s t r c n g t h r e t u r r t s o n d r y i n g , i n c r c n s i n ga s t h e r a y o t l b c c o m e s
bonc-dry. Mlcct of (JrganicSolvcrrts
v i s c o s er a y o ' i s i n s o l u b l ei n m o s t o r g a n i c
s o l v c r r t si;t
Ii{Ject ol IIiglt'I'cntpuature a fcw co'rplcx solutions,s.uc' as c,,,lr..nrr'o,ri,,,rr: a i s s o r v c is'
l l a y o n i s n o t t h c r n t o p l a s t i ca, t r d c l o c sn o t n r c l t o r b e c o n t ct a c k y s o l v c n t sd o n o t h a v c a n y c l c l c t c r i o u s ^ c f l c f i .

5L 3l

K I - T E X T I L EF I D R g S

Lr.sccls V I S C O S ER A Y O N I N U S E
V i s c o s ci s r e s i s t a n t o i n s e c ta t t a c k b u t i s a t t a c k e db y s i l v e r - f i s h . I n t h e m a n - r n a d cf i b r e f i e r d ,r a y o n p r a y sa r o l c
s i n r i r a rt o t r r n to I
c o t t o n i n t h e f i e l d o f n a t u r a l f i b r c s .I t
M icro-organisnrs i s p r o d u c c di , , g r l n t . ,
quantity t'an any other nran_r',oa,
" 'U
n ' - r' . ; " i t ' i s r e l a i i v e l y; i l ; ;
Nlilclewsdo not reaclilyattack the celluloseof the nbre itself, but a n d h a s a w i c l er a n g eo f o p p t i . n i i r i r .
wili feed on the size that is left on the fibres after processing' A l t h o u g h v i s c o s er a y o n i s s i m i l a r t o c o t t o n
in its cclrulosic
Milclervswill cause discoloration,and weaken the libre if the structure,it provides a range of yarns ancl
fabrics wltfi tf,.lr o*n
attack is severc. characteristicpropertics.Tlie cclrulosc
oi ioyon has bcen nrocrificd
to some degrce during. manufacture, ancl
thc alignr'enf ;i ih;
McctricalI'ropcr(ies molecules is not ideniical with thai
oi-naturat fibres such as
T h c h i g h m o i s t u r ea b s o r p t i o no f r a y o n t e n d st o d e t r a c tf r o m i t s cottol, Also, the fact that rayon is
a nranulacturcd rnatcrial
v a l u e f o r i n s u l a t i o n p u r p o s e s 'T h c d i e l e c t r i cs t r e n g t h o f d r y cnables us to control the physical
charricteristicsoI the Iinal
fabrics is fair. Undei orclinary conditions, viscose rayon does
product. We can nrakcthe ,iyon .on.s" -.oiorr.
oi-fi,r., ^ii.;ih:i;.;r;ii;
i r o t c l c v e l o ps t a t i cc h a r g e sb u t a n t i s t a t i ca g e n t sa r e u s u a l l ya d d c d and e-lasticity, modify its lustre un,i
nranufactured Moreovcr,as u
i f t h e r e l a t i v eh u m i d i t y i s l e s s t h a n a b o u t 3 0 p e r c e t r t ' materiai,viscoserayo. is irol subjcctt; ;i.,;;;i,.,;
cconomicand cli.raticcircunrstaiccs srrchns tiroscttrnt nircci
thc,propcrtics anclpriccof a naturalfibre.
vlscoserayo' conducts heatmore rcadilythansilk clocs,and
therayonhasa cooler.feel against trt. Jln.-vrrcoscis arsohirhrv
absorbent, and thisenhances irs uoru"nr-o'.i;ili,;;
-uira.rgo., ;;;;;;,,i."','t
Ihe of strcngthwhich rayon
probablyits rnostseriousshortcoming, whcn wet is
biri mo.tcrnresinfinishcs
have done rnuch to overcontethis
rayongarments lroblenr. properly finishccl ---"--
havehigh dimensionar stabilitywtren;.;:
The introductionof. iayon staplehas ciiaf:fcA
to blendrayonwith othernatural-ancl synitretic staptent;;;, ;;.i
rayonstapleis usedvery largclyin this way.
its moistureabsorption and-other.cellulosic' characteristics to
blenclsof strongeranctlessabsorte;a-h1;;;,
TENACITY incluclingnrosroI
the synthetics.Blendswith polycsterstaplc
are of prrti.ufni
Blendsof rayonwith otlrerfibresrnaybe -nr" proccssccl
lo 20 30 .40
Ihe by arryof
s r R A r N( 2 e l o N c n r t o r u T .farniliartechniquc.s. staple rcngtrir 'roviaccr to suit
p a r t i c u l abrl e n d as n ds y s t e n r s5; a0 r n r n( 2 i -ibol'i;6;;;r;(;;,i;;
n ) s t a p l ef ,u r . * u , , , p 1 . .
ca' be ha'dledon cotio' r'achi'ery0,,)-n
staple nraybeusedwith wool.
In,.general, viscose rayon fabrics rvaslr l i k c
cotton; tltcy nro
< ; e l l u l o s ifci b r e s . I l u t v i s c o s cg o o c l s . a r e
l r r r r c hl c s s s t r o n g t h a r r
(:ottone , s p e c i a l l yw h e n w c t ,
a n c lt h i s n r u s ta l w a y sb e r c r n c r n b c r c c l


w [ c 1 r a y o n g a r m e l t s a r c l a u n c l c r c dT. h c u s e o [ r c s i l l ' t u i s h c s l)ry Clcaling

has done n]uih to increasethe dimensional stability of viscose Viscose is not aflcctecl by
thc usual'aJ'JIIcctivcty
clry clcanilrg solvcnls, and
fabrics when wet, but it is ahvays necessaryto take great care viscose fabrics may bc .liy .l"n,r.a
when wet rayon fabrics are bcing hanclled. irs cotton.
Rayon fibre itself does not shrink appreciably,but a wovert Iind Uscs
fabric nray unclergo progressiveshrinkage, evcn whcu it has variety.,offabricscan be rnadefronr viscosc
been treated with a resin linish to provide dimensionalstability. f rs
rr. ,*^r.:1
now possibleto use rayon i' nrnking rayorr,urrtl
Much dependsupon the way the cloth has bceu constructed' traditionalpatternsanclwcavesttrat iiave^'rong al,'osi-;;i";i.ii;;
I{ayon fabrics will usually withstand tcmperatures u.p Jo naturalIibres. bccn'raclc fr.orrr
boiling, but it is recommended that most garments should be To meet specificneeds,viscoserayoll proclucccl
washedin hot water (60'C., 140'F.). In the casc of some knitted varietyof typesanclsize.s,.a.ntl is in a witlc
ancl lightweight garrnents, hand-hot (48"C., I l8'F.) or evcn it is jossibi" to rirg t'c clrangcs
on fibre-properties by suitirbre
"rtoi..'oi riyon ,yp". Thc softncss
warrn (40"C., 104"F.) water should be uscd' of handleof a fabric is incrcasccl,
hr general, the washing telnperaturesfor other fibres (except for cxirmplc'by usiug fincr
cotton) are more restrictedthan for rayons, and rvhen rayon is Rayonin its nrany..forms
blencledwith other fibres the washinginstructionsfor thcsellbrcs
is astolishingly and unirluclyvcr-
satile.It is useclin evcry branch
s h o u l db e f o l l o w c d . of tlic--icxrifcirrtlrrstry:
rvonrcr'sand crrildrc''s outcrwca,
W a s h i n g a n c l b l e a c h i n ga g e n t s n t a y b c u s e d a s l o r c o t t o t r . n,r,i u'<Icrwcirr;riii,,irrli,.,r:,
and carpcts;householdtextileso,ra
Soap cloesnot aflect tlre fibre under nornral washing conditions, nr.,fi.nf fabrics.
ancl rayon will withstanclhypochlorite bleaches. Crinrped llayotts
are finclingparticularly
outlctsi, tuftcclcar.l)cts
Drying arrd rugs, tuftecrcrre'illes,curtains,
fabricsfor surgicaluse. ancr.o'-wov'r
R a y o n i s a n a b s o r b e n ft i b r e , a n d i t d r i e s s l o w l y ' F l e a v yg a r n r e t t t s
nlult be supported carelrrlly when they are ltung up to dry, or Sputr-dyeclRayon
they may stretch ancl lose their shape.Alter the labric has dried,
tho rayon retains its original strength. g:rtails and car.upfiolsteryare applications irr whichspun_dycd
rayo' is of speciarinte.rcsip.oviaing
Spin clriers and turnbler dricrs may be used with ,rayon .*".lrtiorlnrrigi,i^ri^uiiiv.
g a r m e n t s ,b u t s p i n n i n g f o r t o o l o n g n r a y i n c r e a s et h e a m o u n t In,knittcdgoods,blencts*lti, n".yiiin-l'r-c-J
ar" poputar.
o [ i r o n i n g r e q u i r e d .H a r d w r i n g i n g t n u s t b e a v o i d e d .
Jerseyknit fabricshavelong fr.L,io-pr*rvc
cxcels-inlow shrinkag",goo,l handte o[ cotton,rvhiclr
o,rJ'"ou.r. Thc irrtro<.luc_
tion of foam-backed i:g:i: ."J i;;i,,;;.'r,'lro*.u"r, trastargcty
lrorring cancelled out the advantages "njoyJ bt';ltton in thcscrcspcct.s,
'Ihe and spun-dyed rayon has made-goodlrcactway
lroning presetrtsno special difficulties. fibre is not ttnduly in this ficld.
s c n s i t i v e t o h c a t , a n d i r o n i n g t e n r p e r a t u r e sf o r o t h e r f i b r e s
FIat Filanrcnt
(exceptcotton) are more restrictedthan tltose for rayons. When
i r o n i n g b l e n d s ,t h e i n s t r u c t i o n sf o r t h e o t h e r f i b r e s i n t h e b l e n d Flat filanrentviscoseis usccrw'ere increasecr
Irandleare required. Iustrca'tr a fir'rcr
s h o u l db e f o l l o w e d .
Rayon fabrics iron well with a meditrrn-hot iron (I-ILCC An u.ustralbut notcntialry i'rportantorrtlctis iu trrcbrc'cring
s e t t i n g3 ) w h e n s l i g h t l yd a m p . I f d a r n p i n gi s n e c e s s a r yi t, i s b c t t e r oI vcry shortflat-filanrent siaprc'withwooJ rrur', in trrclrrocrtrc-
t o r o l l t h e g a r m e n ti n a d a m p t o w c l t h a n t o s p r i n k l e i t . lion of papcr.
36 37

rri- I [" '1

' l ;. 1 I
I r a v e i n c r c a s e dr e s i s t a n c cI o w a t e r a n r l a l k a l i ,
RAYON with rcrlucctl
P O L Y M E , R . M O D I F I E , DV I S C O S P swcllingT . h e c l a s t i cr c c o v c r yo f t h e f i b r c i s i n c r c a s c d ,
thc hancllc
soiution before it is spun' the is more wool-like, anclcovci is improved.
Ilv mixing stlbstancesinto viscose
conrposition of tbe extrudedfilament'
manufacture,"on utt"''in" Ilasilicd Viscose
lor "-^'ttpit, lJ t"Jt Uy adclingfinely-dispersed
Spun-<lyect fibre, T h e i n t r o d u c t i o no f r a y o n s t a p l ep r o v i d e <Il f i b r c
( s e e p a g e 2 l ) ; t i t a n i u n rd i o x i d e that could be
n i q r n e n t st o t h e v r s c o s e * ; J l ; l ; ; b l e n d e dw i t h o t h e r s t a p l e f i b r e s , ' i n c l u c l i n gw o o l .
iriJa.a to dull the lustre of the filaments' V i s c o s ei s a
techniqucmay i"itta t" moclify.the characterof viscose cellulosic fibre, however, and it cloes not have
an aflinity for
gi"ing it chnracteristicswhich are a c i d . d y e sc o m p a r a b l ew i t h t h a t o f w o o l .
1 - h ed y e i n g o f f r i . n J ,
fibre in rnore subtle *"Vt,
Aclditivesmay increasethe of viscoseand wool may therefor" pr.r.nl
required for particulat"^r]pii*ti""t'
ex-anrple'or give it an affinitv .
B y i n c o r p o r a t i n gb a s i c c o n s t i t u e n t si n t h e v i s c o s c
waier resistanceof th; ;t;;;;i;; is possibleto produce Iibres whicrr hou" inipiouecr
s o l u t i o n ,i t
i;;;r ;i;*ide the "'il tungt of viscosedves' dyeabiritywitii
respectto acid and other dyestuflsuseclin
Tho possibilitiesin#ini ii-t tiit technique are almost in{inite' dyeing wool.
have bien made' A few have The
. ' R a yadditives may take ihe form of synilictic-resinr,n,
and thousana, or *oa]iitJ;;i;;t in o l a n d a ' ,
o r c a s e i na s i n . C i s a l p n u ; u n a, L a c i s a n a i .
bccome of commercial imPortance'

l n c o r p o r a t c dR n Y o nS t a p l c HICI.I I'ENACITY VISCOSE ITAYON

p o l y r n e r si' n c l u d i n g
V i s c o s em a y b e b l e n c l e dw i t h n o n - c e l l u l o s i c
to thoextent INTITODUCTION
;;i;;;yi;;itrite ana ntt"Lyt "1":1"t.,,'^:,*monlv rayons
of about 10-20 per "tni' Tltt" so-called incorporated -I'he
s t r e t c h i n go f f i l a r n e n t sc l u r i n g t h e s p i n n i n g
nray bc made in " ;;; "^tiltv of forms' depenclingon
"oi--^trJta fcature of all 'nocrcrn viscose-.."yo"
p e r a t i o ni s a
poly.mer' Features which are li.oarction ti
nature and amouut s t e l n s f r o n r t h e t c c h n. i q u e .o f u s i n g i w o g o c l c t
for acicl dyes' increased wh.cls, on"
generallyconlmon t'" ii itt"ft"rt omnitv. rotating faster tha' the ot'cr, perfJctccl
a'd wooi-likehandle' bi f. p. Wi1,",.,""1
;i;;ii"ili, bulkiness c o r " r r t a u l dL
s t d i n 1 9 1 4 .T h i s p i o v i c r e cal
sirnplcarcl e{Tcctive
rvay o[- bringing about the coritinuous
Cross-linkcd IlaYon o r i e n t a t i o no f c c t u r o s c
of the nroleculesin the newly_formeclfilame't, an,l
may bring about cross-linking so i,r..;n;i,;;'tl;;
Polymers added to viscose of strengthof rayon to a satisfactorylevel.
thJ Jreerlom of movement
cellulose molecules'i;it";;J;;"s . Since that time, researchon ti," spinning o[ rayon has been
t; each and has the effect of
the moleculeswith t;;;;ti .other'
water and alkali' and
intensiveand unceasing.tlvery urp."i oi-ui!.or"
production and
reducing water absoffit" ^"a *tffi"g s p i n n i n gh a s b e e n s t u d i e c ra, n , l i n " r . a s e d
increasiig the wet initial modulus' are factorsinvolved has made.oossiblethe pioauction
resistanceto t.h: effects of water
These improut*ti"t-io 'iitt-ttionul c'aracteristicsthat are suifed to p".ti"ii-
of rayons witlr
stability and washability' upptications.n;;h;;;
reflected in in",tu"i t h e m o s t i r n p o r t a n to f t h e s e. r " t h . h i g h
and increasedcovering power' f e n a c i t yr a y o n s .
Fabrics also have u'lttttt nundle T'e use of textile varns as reinforceire't in
tions has bee' increasingropioiy-i"-i"rp"rt^".e
l a Y o nS t a P l e
G r a t t e cR during thc last
half century. High strength y".ns u.. ur.a
o t h e r p o l y m e r sm a y b e a d d e d in f,or, fip"r,-.on-
P o l y a c r y l o n i t r i l ep, o l y s t y r e n ea n d v e y o r b e l t s , -t y r e s a n c l o t h e i a p p l i c a t i o n s
a w a y a s t o p r o d u c eg r a f t p o l y m e r s ' of tfri, &fi..'Vort
t o v i s c o s es o l u t l o n , n ,-ttr*"
extent importantof all is rhe part b y r c i n for....ni't;.;;-i;
The characteristicsoi depend upon the nature and t y r c s ,a n d a s t h c c a r a n d t r u cl l k" yi .nac l u s t i yh a s g r o w r r ,
used commonly to improve so hns t.c
of thc grafting, tut tit^l"tftniqut is c l c r n a n r[lo r h i g h s t r e n g t hy n r n s i n " r . o s . d . - '
Grafted viscoserayons
the dimensionatstabiiity of thl viscose'
t l t a n c o t n p e n s a t efcol r b y t h e i n c r e a s e dt e n a c i t y ,e s p c c i a l l yw h c n *.l v r or
v r fi
r rlir
r ( rrncn
r r r u rrr tsr
s t rucrurc
r t l c l t l l ' c it tnrrucrrccs
wet. ]',::,flil::l,i:"
tltc cltaractcristics
c li.l :.:il,j"lnray tllttcttccs
These fibres have become the basis' of S u
the so-called
p e r
X":":ll"ijy:::H:,n.y!" y,,
r^v^nc ^tenacity

i t' 1,.i,:,"
F j'[ ^TiS;,; .bc ,sccn in thc rlngc oi
I tlrefc rs a prosrcs-
high tenacity rayon yarns, such as Tenasco',
sive i'crease in
. - I . c l r a s c o ' . . T e n a s c ^ ifr;,;";;il;j";;:'
""# :illll;
C J r c l u r a ' a n c t ' s u p r c r l k a " M a n u f a c t u r e r so f t h o s u p e r h i g h
H'l'I;r ::,l' :^:{:::iq"
;i;il -';;i "l"!l'-.?
t e n a c i t y y a n l s c o o p e r a t e di n t l t e t r t a r k e t i n go f t h e i r t y r e c o r d s
"i1"1'::Tf ^'i,,i^"
m.n:i ;i: ; ;.',; :;ff:
througir the Tyrex Inc. organization.
,l -t a
- .g
L ,7, , n
t as ";,,";
?.1,* ; ;fi;,ii1,,
IiiL, -si,
r ubrlvy jmn tuht ee o rurtl l li l e
, uor t. a
of the filanrcttts ancl irt
unilormity of iriternal srructure. thc
Molcculur Struc!ure
' f h e p h y s i c a lc h a r a c t e r i s t i cos[ r a y o n d e p e n du p o n t h e m o l e c u l a r
structure of tlre tjlaluents. All rayons consist of regeneratecl
c e l l u l o s eb, u t t h e c e l l u l o s er n o l e c u l e sm a y b e o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h s , I n t h e p r o d u c t i o no f . l r i g l r . t c l a c i l y .
r a y o n s ,s u c h a s t h c . . l . c r r a s c o ,
a n c l t h e y n r a y b e p o s i t i o n e di n a l l m a n n e r o f w a y s w i t h r e s p e c t anclstretcliir,r'J'ii,"fibrcarc
t o e a c h o t h e i a n d t o t h e f i l a m e n t i t s e l f .T h e u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e Ili].i:.,|" :"agularion coprrolcct
f i l a m c n t m a y v a r y w i t h r e s p e c tt o t h e n a t u r e a n d p o s i t i o n i n go f X,?"':1".:?:';l':,,1"ri:;"1::i:'lUliJ,J
t h e c c l l t t l o s em o l e c u l e s .
'fhe iLi. .; ffi J'ifflf-:fill;:
I :ff?JT:"lii :ti:ft,ln,T
length of the cellulosenrolectrlcsis controllcd largcly
the conditions under which the viscosesolution is made'
Tlese changcsjn tne ,tru.ti,?. i
may be such as to bring about severebreakdown of the cellulose
n.roicculcs into shorter oues.Or they may be such that breakdowtt
i s k e p t t o a m i n i m u n t , a n c ll i t t l e d e p o l y m e r i z a t i o tna k e sp l a c e '
:filfl;nrilil j:ll;Iitiikff
(.T"ily, 'Tenasco
Supcr I05,.

The positioning of the ccllulose nroleculesin the filament is Orclinaryviscose riyon hasa thin skin,and is
controllcclprimarily by the conditions under which regeneration In^'Tenasco' higlrlyscrratcrl,
.higrr teriac]tynr"r"."i,"irr"' ii.,i"t,,.ssof skin
a n c l c o a g u l a t i o nt a k e p l a c e i n t h e s p i n n i n gb a t h . T h e m o l e c u l e s rncreasecl,and [hc serrario.sLn;. ;;.;;;;" lrns
nray be procluceclin such a way that the formation of crystallites trenclis 'raintai'eclin 'renasco-:si-i"'*i,i"rri"r, ,r.ono'rcca..],^is
',ir" '.or. t'c tcrracityrr.s
i s a t a m i n i m u m , i . e . t h e d e g r e eo f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o nis low. Condi- rncreased. In ,'lenascoSup"r ZOI
tions of spinning and stretchingwill also inlluencethe size of the cntirely,and theserrations has <lisappcarcrl
with respect fin".-nf,"ort'iiriprr.nr..f, lcavingonly
crystallites,and the way in which they are orientatcd 'Ihese a bea'-shapecl cross_secri";r.
i.i,l;ll;,'il"':.1cr0sco Strpcr
to each other ancl to the long axis of the libre. conditions thc-cross-section 105,,
is alnost rouncl.
rnay also be used to control the uniformity of the lilament Thereare now many techniques
ancladclitivcs whichnray bc
s t r u c t u r e ;s o m e f i l a m e n t sm a y b e o f t h e s a m es t r u c t u r et h r o u g h - tuscdin producingther
out, rvhereasothers may have a structure in the centre that is recrucin
g "*t.n,i6i
-n.s.a -iii'r il,J"ix:,#ffil:il ri
d i f f e r e n tf r o m t h a t o f t h e o u t c r l a y e r s . rr'acceprabreaegrce. rcti
These factors all have a major influence on the tenacity and ts as active
r,t"i.i,i' "r rayo^productiorr
today as it has ever frl.,r,^.,"f
o t h e r p r o p e r t i e so f f i l a m e n t s t h a t a r e p r o d u c e d w h e n r a y o n r v es h a l ls e en r a n y n e w t y p c s o f i t s c e m sl i k c l y t ^ n t
r a y o n; ; , l ; ; ; , , g i n t h e I l t u r c .
i s s p u n . B y u n d e r s t a n d i n ga n d c o n t r o l l i n g t h e t c c h n i q u e o f
regenerating,coagulating ancl stretching rayon' therefore, it is
poisible to produce rayons to meet particular specifications.It S1'ItUCTURE AND pROpElt.l.ll).S
( H i g h - f c r r a c i r yI l l y o r r s )
is in this way that modern high tenacity rayons havc bcen
developed. Iligh tenacityrayonsarc crrcr'icalry
si'rilar to r.cgtrr.r.
42 . 4 3
iF t h l'':h h h F-|'':TT-F-F}-F}
Thcrnral Properlics includingthe mammolh.. crir tyre markct, high tenacityrayon
High tenacity rayons have an improved performance at elevated retainsits hold.The abilityto lustainhigh tcnacityuna .rini.n-
tenrperatures; tensile strength and other mechanical properties sionalstabilityat the temperatures geneiatcrli" ;"; it.;,"iil.
are affected less than in the case of regular viscose. excellentresistance to farigue,and the price adva'tng"'oi r.,igr,
tenacity rayonshaveenabledtrresefibresto-*iiririo,iJ
conrpetition from nylonandothersynthetics
-which in thisfield.
The combinationof properties serveshigh tenacity
The highly orientedmoleculesof cellulosein high tenacityviscose rayonsin tyres has been equally eflectivein oth;; in-,;;;tn;ri
rayons presenta barrier to water moleculesand to moleculesof industrialapplications. Flexi6lerlbb.r beltingis uscd for con-
dyestuflsin solution or suspension.High tenacity viscoserayons veyingall manncrof materials,from coal anJ iron oie
do not, as a rule, dye casily or eflcctively,and the rnajority of to p*i,
and productsmoving down innumerableassernblylines. .lhe
their applicationsare in lields where colour is of minor impor- rubberin theseconveyorbeltsrequiresreinforcem*t,
tance.They are predominantly industrial fibres, more often than doesin a car.tyre.And again,riigii t.nu.iff vis.ose,^vfi;;i
not being buried out of sight in a mass of rubber or similar ", ii^*
como into widespread use for tiis purpose.They proviclethe
material. hig.hstrength,dimensional stability,iatigue
- resistance and llexi-
High strength, and the ability to retain high strength under bility that are needcd,
and at moaesicost]
s e v e r ee n v i r o n m e n t acl o n d i t i o n s ,a r e t h e m o s t v a l u a b l ef e a t u r e s Power transnrission bclts form anothcrirrrportnnt
of high tcnacity viscoserayons. They are uscd, for example, iu scctorof
this field,requiringthe samecombination of propcrtie,in tfio
applications where elevated temperaturesare encountered,or yarnsthat are usedto reinforcethem.Nylon,,
where there is repeatedflexing. ,up.iio, ..ririonl.
to shockloadinggives,it.ausefuladvaniog.ou.r
Tyre cords provide by far the largest outlet for these fibres. high tenacity
rayonsin somepower.beltapplications, bui f,igt t.ni'.itv invoil
1 ' h c p h c n o m e n a lg r o w t h o f t h e c a r a n d t r u c k i n d u s t r y d u r i n g remainscompetitivewheretliii is not a vitar rJquirc,.,r.ni. "-'-"
the present ccntury has created a huge market for tyres, arld I{igh tenacityviscoserayons
for the tyre cords that are used in reinforcing the rubber-in the industry,includingthe pro<Iuction.havclnany othei applications in
of tarpaulinsancl protcctive
t y r e s . T o d a y , h i g h t e n a c i t y r a y o n s s u p p l y a l a r g ep a r t o f t h e s e fabrics,sewingthrcaclsand umbrellafabiics,
tyre cords,and seemlikely to continue doing so in the forseeable -andthe rcinforcernent
of hosesa'd of plasticsusedfor bearings ot'cr h";"t_J;i;
future. purposes.
Tyre cords are called upon to provide great tensilestrength,and
to retain high strengthat the considerabletemperaturesgenerated HrcH wET MODULUS (polyNostc)
inside the tyre during use. They must withstand repeatedflexing, RAyoN.S
and resist deformation. High tenacity viscoserayons have rnuch INTRODUCTION
to offer in theserespects,and they have ousted cotton from this
important market during recent years.The arrival of nylon has Viscoserayon has now been in production for
diminishedthe hold that high -tenacityrayons had established, but more than half a
c e n t u r y . . W . h e nf i r s t p r o d u c e d ,i t w a s a f i l a m e n t y a r n
r a y o n r e t a i n sa l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e t y r e c o r d m a r k e t , a n d i t i s o[ hiqh
lusrre wlrch borc a superficialresc'blancc i'
u n l i k e l y t l t a t n y l o n w i l l c h a n g et h i s s i t u a t i o n ' trreserespectsio
Its properriesctid.not,.howcver, bcar comparisonwirh
Nylon competes witlt greatcst effect in the reinforcement of lfjij"l.u]|,<;
ururs of ur silk,
s'K' and
anq rt it cornpcted
cornpcted iniiiattyi'i the continuousfiramcnt
h e a v y d u t y t y r e s f o r a i r c r a f t , e a r t h - m o v i n ge q u i p m e n ta n d t h e field on the basis of relative cheapnessancl a n d noveltv
n o v e l t y value.
like. In these applicatiotrs,its phenomenal resistanceto sltock
l o a d sg i r r e sn y l o n t h e e d g eo n h i g h t e n a c i t yr a y o n , a n d i t a l s o h a s . In due course,viscoserayon settleclao*n- ona-i.g^"-i" nra
its propernichein the textilefield.It wasacccptccl
as a cellulosic
a higher strength/weightratio. But in tyres for lighter purposes, fibre,in this respcctrcsembling cottonrwhichtoulcl bc proctuccJ


falls, and the lilament will stretch in responscto only a sntall
in wood' Its
extremely cheaply from the cellulose available tensilestress.Elastic recovery from such strctchingis poor.
and it found. its market in those 'this
shortcorningswere accepted, deteriorationin the mcchanicalproperticsof rayon whcn
where cheapness was.o[ ovcr-riding importance'
-"i-t- wct is reflected in the behaviour of yarns ancl fabrics. Rayon
the process
"*p.tience of viscose production grew' and goods do not possessthe wonderful wet-stabilityand washability
improvements were made in
."ni" uni"t scientificinvestigation, and of cotton. They tend to deform when handled without due care,
presen-t day'
fibre quality. This tre;A has-continuectto the and undergo progressiveshrinkagc.
establishecl for itself a wide range of
moclern viscose,oyon--hot 'fhe production of viscoserayon exceeds Also, rayon docs not have the crisp, firm handle that is so
^pJrc"ii"iit ona outt"tt' characteristicof cotton. Rayon fabrics tcnd to havc a limp and
position seemslikely
ijiif "f any other man-madehbre, a'd this floppy feel.
o r e t r t a i t rf o r a v c r y l o n g t i m c
t'-;;;;ii; t o c o m e ' In reccnt years, rnuch has bcen done to inrprove rayon in
inir r"n.,oitobl! progres-'made.bv viscose^.ravon' theserespects.High tenacity rayons, for exanrplc,havc cnablcd
quality of the fibre' viscose
the continuous improvement in the rayons to compete eflectivelyin the important field of industrial
been associatecl
i.tnin, unattractivJ characteristicswhich have textiles. Cross-linked and chemically modified rayons havc
earliest times. These sbortcomings have preventcd
;iii; il tinl" tnt iucrcasedthe resistanceto water (seepage 38), and rcsin finislrcs
as it might with tlte
uir"tt. toyon from competing as -effectively have done much to provide dintensionalstability and waslrability.
- cotton'
natttral fibre it most ncarly rcsemblcs Dcspite these aclvanccsin rayon tcchnology, howcvcr, viscosc
ccrtain advantagcs
A, u tnauufactureclftbrc, viscoscrayon has r n y o n i s s t i l l r r o n r a t c h f o r c o t t o u i n i t s b c h n v i o u rw i t h l c s p c c t
It is procluced as a contiuuous lilament' of uniforttt
over cotton. of anv to water, or in the charactcr and crispncssof its handlc.
iffin;;;itv utia Jo"-tp"titio"' tt it cut into staple
'fhe p.roduction costs can be
i.ngth, o, ,rri*t,',r" of lengths' Stntclural Diflerences
is possible w'itlt
assessedand controlted mo-re accurately than I n c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n ,v i s c o s er a y o n a n d c o t t o n a r e a l i k c ;
price and
;;ii;n,-which is suUj"ct to all the.fluctuations of they are both cellulose.The diflerencesbctwecn the fibrcs stcnt
product'- And rayon' produced
pr"J""ti"ti typical of'a natural fronr dillerencesin the physical structulc of the filamcnts. It is
oUunaant raw-material' is the least expensive
i;;; " cheap^and rcasonableto assunte,therefore,that by nrodifying thc structurc
t e x t i l ef i b r e n o w a v a i l a b l e . of the viscosefilament, it should be possiblcto producc a rayoll
atl inrportant
Thcse advautageshave enableclrayon to sustain that more nearly resemblescotton.
tixtile field' But rayon manulacturers have Iong
oosition in the The micro-structuresof cotton ancl viscoserayon have been
fi;;iil'ii;t rayon is only parrly
ih; pore'riatof viscose studied extensively,and the dilfcrenccs bctwccn thcnr are well
overcome' ano IIS
being realized; if its shortcomingscould be tunderstood.In cotton, the cellulose nrolccutcsconsist of sonrc
o r o o e r t i c sb r o u g h t m o r " n t n r l y I n t o l i n e w i t h those of cotton'
2,000 to 10,000glucose units linked togcthcr (i.e. cotton has a
iiffi;';;r;" ."""iOfr."onretlie mosrimportanttextile'ibre of degreeof polymerizationof 2,000to 10,000).Thcsc long ccllulosc
all. nroleculesare laid down in a wondcrfully preciseand ordcrcd
'thc Same as
deficienciesof ttroclcrn viscose rayons are the w a y ( s e e V o l . l ) , f o r m i n g a h i g h l y o r i c n t a t e d ,u n i f o r n r s t r u c -
f i l a m c n t sw ere pro-
t h o s e t l t a t h a v e b e c n w i t h i t s i n c et h e f i r s t t u r c i n w h i c h t h c r c i s a p r o p o r t i o no f c r y s t a l l i n cr n a t c r i a la r . r l o u n t -
last century' Improvelnents have bcen
iiircectat the cncl of thc ing to about 70-80per cent.
but these have been largely a matter of degree'
' The crystallitesin cotton are oricntatcd with rcspcct to cuclr
Vittot. rayon is sensitive to itre effects of moisture' othcr, fonning fibreJike groups or micro-librils; thc rrricro-fibrils,
and swells, thc diameter of the
.oyon ls ru.t, it abs;rbs water . in turn, are arrangcd into fibrils, and the fibrils into filamcnts.
25 per cent' At the same time'
filarnent increasing by nrore than The structure of the cotton libre is, in fact, 'fibrous' all thc way
tii. t.nn.ity falfJ frV aborrt 50'fhc per cent, ancl the e-xtcnsibility t hr o u g h .
increascsby sorle 20 per cent' irritial rnodtrlusof the rayott

f-l rl r-I r r
rF F F F F F l. f-}.-}.-F}}:l} l_f_li H-r

e'g' by chenticaltreatment'its High lle t MoclulLts Moctal atul pob,nosic lla1,s115

If a cotton {ibre is clisintegrate<l, 'fhe
micro-fibrillar structure is displayed as it breaksup into ever-finer mai' structural crirTere.ces ber.ween viscoscrayo' and cotton
nlarnents.With the help of the electronmicroscope,it is possibleto can be sunrmarizedas (a) difrcrencesin thc crcgrcc pory,tr..ir-n-
f o l l o w t h e f i l a r l e n t o u sc l i s i n t e g r a t i ounn t i l e v e n t u a l l yt h e c e l l u l o s c tio' of the celluloscmorc.culcs, ancl (b) crirlererices in ttr" ^rruir["-
nroleculeitself is reached;this is the finest librous elementof all. nrent of thesemoleculesin the filan.rent.
In this wonclcrfully organizecl micro-librillar structure of B y t h e 1 9 3 0 s u, n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v i s c o s er a y o n p r o c c s sw a s
c o t t o n w e h a v e t h e e x p l a n a t i o no f m a n y o f c o t t o n ' s u n i q u e such that methods of irrrproving rayon in botir tl,;r"
characteristics. The high degreeof orientationand crystallization, rvere know'. It was realizcd, for ciample, that
anclthe uniformity of the structure,enablethe cellulosemolecules the celhlose moleculestook place cluring the agcing
of thc alkari
to cooperateeffectiveiyin resistinga tensilestress.cotton has a c c l l u l o s e ,a n c l i n t h e r i p e n i n g o f s o J i u r n . . l l u l o r .
x -ri.g.r,
high tenacity. solution during viscose procrui.tion.Ry avoicring
:fh" 1i*r.
crysialline regions of the cotton fibre are not readily viscosesolutionscoulclbc macrci' whicli the molcculcs
or soaiurii
penetrateciby water molecules; the amorphous regions-,into c e l l u l o s ex a n t h a t ew e r e l o n g c r t h a n i n n o r m a l v i s c o s e .
which water can fincl its way, form only a relatively small pro- .The.
d e v e l o p m c n to f h i g h t c n a c i t y r a y o n s h a d d e m o n s t r a t e c l ,
portion of the whole. swelling takes place as water enters the also,that the structureof trre filament .outa be
influcncJ il;tli
cotton fibre, but without affectingdrastically the strength-provid- b y c o n t r o l o f t h e s p i . n i n g c o n d i t i o n s I, n g e n e r a l ,
thc slorierthc
i n g c r y s t a l l i t r es t r u c t u r e ;t h c r a t i o o f w c t t o d r y s t r c n g t hi s h i g h ' r c g c . c r a t i o ' a n c l . c o a g r r l ' t i oonf t h c c c l l t r l o i c ,
t h o i u o r c c t t c c t i v 'c' i v
1he highly-crystalline, higtrly-orientated micro-fibrillar structure c o u l d s t r e t c h i r r gb c u s c d i u o ' i c u t a t i n gt h c c c l r u l o s c
of the cotton fibre enhances the rigidity and stiflness that is 1he late 1.930s, rayons.werebein! nradein rvhich the Acgi."
inhcrent irr the cellulose molecule itself. Cotton is a stifl fibre, of polymerizationof the cellulose*oi i,r.i.or.d
by moclification
ancl this stiffnessplays a part in giving cotton fabrics their o f , . t h e v i s c o s ep r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s ,a n d t h c o r i c n t a l i o n
of thc
characteristic risPness. cclluloscwas improved.by siowing tlr. ,"g.n"r,,tion
nnJ "onl,iin_
The possibilityof reproducingthis cotton structurein a viscose tion of the ccllulose filanrcnts
Gee lligliienacity ftnVo,i, ing.
filament seems remots indeed. The cotton fibre grows slowly, 39).
ancl its architectureis establishedgradually and with great pre- D u r i n g W o r l d W a r I I , f u r t h c r p r o g r e s sw a s n r a c l c
a l o n"gi rtrh c s c
c i s i o n .V i s c o s er a y o l ' I ,o u t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s c r e a t e dr a p i d l y b y l i n e s , n o t a b l y i ' J a p a n . I n 1 9 5 1 ,t h l s w o r k
culnrinatccl the
regenerationancl coagulationof cellulosein the coagulatingbath' a.pplicationfor a patent by S. Tachikawa,
covering the protlirc_
Simultaneousstretching aligns the cellulosemolecules to some tion of viscoserayon by a icchniquewhich'yielclcd
fibres of novcl
degree,the extent of alignmenl dependingon the conditionsused' type. In
.particular, the. Tachikaw" .nyon, wcre strongcr ilrarr
Ilut even under the rnost favourable circumstances,the position- r e g u l a rv i s c o s ew , i t h r e c l u c c de l o n g a t i o r ia, ' d t h e y f r . a g r " o i i V
i n g o f t h e c e l l u l o s em o l e c u l e sc a n u o t b e e x p e c t e dt o m a t c h t h e i n r p r o v c dr a t i o o f w e t t o c l r y s t r i n g t h ' ( 7 i p e r
cent, cornparccl
preciseorganizationthat we find in the cotton fibre. rvith the 56 per cent of regular viscose).ilris
Despite the obvious di{Iicultiesthat face the rnanufacturerin to the eflect of water was reflccteclalio in a
high *.t ,"oauii",
h i s a t t e m p tt o n r o d e ll t i s r a y o n o n t h e c o t t o n p l a n , g r e a tp r o g r e s s w i t h I o w e r w a t e r i m b i b i t i o n a n c l r c c l u c c csl w c l l i n g .
h a s b e c n t n a d ei n t h i s r e s p c c ti r l r c c e n t y c a r s " f h c p r o d u c t i o r to f tYl?: o[. rayon <liflcrcclstructurally fronr rcgular
..,]'f. rayon.
vlscose l-.*
h i g h t e n a c i t yr a y o n s h a s t a k e n u s s o m e w a y a l o n g t h e r o a d ; The ccllulosemoleculeswere longcr, with a dJgree
soine of theie rayons have nricro-llbrillar structuresthat begin to of polymerizationin thc region of 500 (cf. ordinaiy
'o ntioi,i
l o o k l i k s t h a t o f c o t t o n . E v e n n t o r e i m p r e s s i v ep r o g r e s si n t h i s 250)..Also, disintegration of the filanicnt <Jisplayccl
direction has taken place with the developnrentof the new types f i b r i l l a r s t r u c t u r ew i t h a r c s e m b l a n c e to that o[ cotton.
o f v i s c o s er a y o n w h i c l t h a v e b e c o m ek n o w n a s h i g h w e t m o d t t l u s Development of the Tachikawa proccss in
Japan lc,l to the
( l l W l v l )r n o d a la n d p o l y n o s i cr a y o n s . p r o d u c t i o no f h i g h s t r e n g t hh, i g h w e i m o d u l u s
r a y o n sw h i c h w c r c
50 5l
A T U N A L P O L Y M I ] I TF I N R E S
FII]RES In practicethe tcrrn"rrigrrwct nrodurus" (lrwM) is cr,rrrr.rrlv
rusedto describea broaclla'ge of fibr;"i
Firnr Fibrc Trade Mark "polyr.osic" itii;iy;;.,li;;"i;;;i
9:!!,! 'Modal" beingusedfor triose*iih'th. higrrcst wct rrrocrurrrs.
Austria un enrlelaser-Lenzrng Superfaser is wideryuseaur o gru.ri. i;;;r'i;, regc'c.rrcd
fibresobtai'edbv orocesseJgiving ccilurosc
Belgium trabelta Z 54 (Zaryl) a 'igrr ie.acitya'd a 'ig' rvct
England Ltd.
Courtaulds Vincel rrrodulus-
France 254 'fe
Germarty Poly{lox, xrile IttstituteDefirtitiort:s
Super Polyflox PolynosicFibre A.reg.'re.tccicelluloseflbre
Italy Snia Viscosa I(oplon isedby a high iritiai w-et'uoaurusoi eiasticity is charirctcr-
lowdegree a'd a- --'--"'"r
Switzerland ViscoseSuisse 254 of sweilirgin soclium hyaroxirte soltitic,'.
r4 ne,1 D a i w a S p i n n i n gC o . Polyno ModalFibre Geneiic name fo; ,.g;;;rtccl
obtai'ed by processes cclluloscl.ibrcs
F u j i S p i n n i n gC o . Junlon givi'g u rrigli"i.iiucitya'd a rrigrrwct
M i t s u b i s h iR a y o n C o . Hipolan rnodulus.
Teijin Ltd. Polycot
'l'oho FederalTrade Cotrrrtri.ssiotr
l{ayon Co. M 63 (Tovis) Delititiotr (U.S.A.)
'loyobo 'f
Co. Ltd. u lccl Tlrc.terrnpolyn.o.ric:
fibre rtasbccn clcfincdtry thc u.s. Itctlcrrrl
U.S.A. A v t e x F i b e r sI n c . Fiber40, Avril. Comrnission as follows:
American Enka Zantrel PolynosicFibre. A rnanufacturcd
Courtaulds N. Anrerica W 63 (Lirelle) cclltrlosicfibre with a firrc
andstablemicro-fibriilarstructurc whichis rcsisrant to trrcaction
of 8 per cent sodiurnhyclroxidcsolutiondown
nrarketed as 'Toramornen' and l a t e r ' T u f c e l ' . S i n r i l a r t y p e s o f structureresultsin a nrininrutn,wet
lo 0.C., ;l,i;ii
r a y o n h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e di u o t l r e r c o u n t r i e s ,a n d a r e u o w i n strcngth"f Z.Z gtd", f'ti.i
cN/tex).arda wet elongatiori "r i.*iiirrit:., pcrccrr.at a sr.rcss
producl.ion. oi 0.5 g/den(4.4 cN/texj
In the Iate 1950s,viscoserayons produced by the new techniques flwM rnodalfibresall rr* ,r*irrowi'g propertics
were being dcscribed in Europe as 'polynosique' rayons. This i, coruror:
term was derived, presunrably,fronr a conrbinationof 'poly', to !]J |rlgtrwet modulus, i.e. resistance
to extension whenrvct
indicate a high degrce of polynrerization,and 'cellulosique'. (2) increased ratio of wct to dry brcakin!icnacity
term was subsequentlymodified to 'polynosic'. (3) increased resistance to swcltingUy cairsiicalkalis
In its original sense,the term 'polynosic'was restrictedto fibres (a) high degreeof polymerizatioioi ""tiuior"
of the high rvet modulus type produced by techniquessimilar to (5) nricro-fi
brillar sl.rucrure.
that dcscribedin the Tachikawa patent. In the U.S.A., an oflicial Thesecharactcristics are sharcctwitrrcotto. nnd otrrcrnaturirr
Federal Trade Commission definition was coined, using a high cellulosicfib-res,and for thisreaso''wM iiiouarfibrcsareso'rc-
w e t m o d u l u s a s t h e c r i t e r i o n ,i . e . e x t e n s i o na t 0 . 5 g . / d e n( 4 . 4 c N / thnescalled'artificial cottons'.
t e x ) b e i n g n o t m o r e t h a n ' 3 5 % i n w a t e r ( s e ep a g e5 3 ) . T l i e t e r m
'polynosic' has since
been used with less precision, to describe Thrcc Types
higher-strengthrayons of the increasedwet-strcngthtype. These
do not necessarilymect the requirementsof the F.'l'.C. delinition. Dcspitethesecharactcristicswhichall r-lrvlvlrrrodal fibrcshavcirr
conlnron,thcindividualr-rwMrrr'cralfibrcsdif|cr rru,n
,,,,. ,iiintl,.i


llwlvt MODAL FIBRES- COMPARATIVEPROPERTIES . .(.3) ltiglt ElongatiotrHIrM l;ibres. r'rrcsc arc crraractcriz.cd by
9 l o l q a t i o n s ,d r y a n d w e t , c . g . i n t h e r a n g c 1 2 _ 1 4p e r c c r r t
dry; 16-20 per cent wer.
III|M Modals
-Fibres belongingto each o[ thesethrce groups,and thc rangcs
I I i g l rS t r e n g t h S t a n d a t ' d E l o n g ' n Cotton Rayon of properries-they clisplay.are shown in itr.
_High 'fhe i^frf" o,i-pre"'3a.
Uppcrs Staple table also i.cludes corresponclin j propcrties oi
SuperPoly- 254 Superfaser ;;;i,,.-,;
rayon staple and of a reprcsentitivecotton (uppcrs).
flox Vincel Fiber 40
Junlon Polyflox ( A v r i l )
w6l Koplon PI{ODUCTION
(Lirelle) Polyno
Hipolan 'fhe
pri.ciples Iollowccr in the procruction
Polycot of high wct nrocrurus 'itiJ
rayon by the Tacrrikawa technique are (a)
Tenacity(cN/tex) .Jar"tio,r--in
amount of cellulosebreakdown whlch takespln""
dry 4l-46 28-35 a a
A ^
JL 22 iu if,.'p;;.;;:
12 tion of t^e viscosesolution ancl(b) sto*lng .fbw,,
wet 30-35 tB-27 2t-30 35 of tfr" ,ig"'n;r;_
t i o n . a n d c o a g u l a t i o no f t h e f i l a m e n t ,p " . i r i t t i u g
c a r r i e do u t g e n t l y a n c li n s t a g e s .
dry 6-10 8-t2 12-14 9 l8 .,."|,f,.r^:.|lt...1.-in productiori of a IMM rrrotllI nryr.rn
by tlrc
8- l4 9-t6 16-20 l0 22 l a c l ) l K a w ap r o c e s sa r c a s f o l l o w s : _
W e tl v l o d u l u s( c N / t e x ) . ( l ) S o d a c c l l u l o s c( a r k a r ic e l r u r o - sics) p r o c J u c cbt ly s t c c ' i r r gt r r c
c e l l u l o s ei n c a u s r i cs o d a , . f o l l o w . ar i y p i " r r i n g
p e r l 0 0 d / oe x t ' n a,<l ,irrJ;1ft';;
i ' t h e p r o d u c t i o . o f r c g u l a rv i s c o s er.d e c o n a i t i o n s
at2Vo exl'rt 98-r s9 53-80 i Ut) 35 are cnrcfulrv
IJL-LLI controlled to ensure that the temperature
159 44 .lo; n;;'l;";il;l
a t ) 7 oe x t n 221-353 r24-247 109-il5 2 0 ' C . , a n d t h e p r o c e s si s c o m p l e t c cw i ithin 2 horrrs.
65-75 55 - 7 0 6 s - 75 50 90-100 ( 2 ) f h e t h e o r c t i c a lq u a n t i t y o f c a r b o '
d i s u l p h i d ei s u s c c li n
xanthation(lessthan trre theorcticar
.quantity is tiscdi'.t p."J".i,.,g
r e g u l a r v i s c o s e )a, n c l t h e a d c l i t i o ni , n r " a l
o v c r 2 [ h o u r s ,T l r c
tcn)peratureis held below 20.C., a'cl the.
in propertiesover a wide range' Air-dry tenacities,for example, raiscclto ZS"C- f", i
n l o y U t 2 8 . 3 - 4 ' l . ' 7c N / t e x ( 3 : ? . 5 . 4 g / d e n ) ;w e t e l o n g a t i o n m
s ay
r a n s ef r o n r 8 t o 2 0 p e r c e n t .w i t h i n t h i s w i d e r a n g eo f p r o p e r t i e s , ( 3 ) S o d i u m c e . l l u l o sxea n t h a t ei s d i s s o l v c .
i' watcr to proviac
horicver, it is possiblc to classify the polynosic librcs into three a c o n t a i n i n gt r r c e q u i v a r c ' t o f 6
^solution l i e r c c n t c c i l u r o s ca r r t l
rnain groups, as proposed by J. D. Grifliths of Courtaulds Ltd' 2.8 per cent sodium hydroxidc. (ln the regular
"ir;;;; ;;;;;;;
( l ' e x l . I n s l . I n d u s t r . ,1 9 6 5 ,3 , N o . 3 , p . 5 4 ) : x a n t h a t ci s d i s s o l v e ci ln c a u s t i ci o d a s o l u t t n . ) ' . ---'

(|)Highstrengt|tH||MFibres.Tlreseareclraracterizedby.lriglt (4) The solution is

- s o u n b y e x t r u s i o ni n t-f-f,.
o a bath of vcry
t.tioJiii.i, Jty uita wet, e.g.40.6-45.9cN/tex(4'6-5'2 gidert) dilute.(1 per cent) sulphuric acicl at ZS;i. filamcrlts arc
dry;30-35.3cN/tex(3.4-4.0giden)wet' s t r e t c h e di n s t a g e st o t h r e e t i m e s t h e i r
spun lcngth al;;J;;
( 2 \ S t a n d a r d H | | M F i b r e s . T h i s g r o r r p i n c l u d e s t l r e n r a j o r i t y o f v i s c o s ei s e x t r u c l e di r t o a b a t h c o ' t a i ' i n g i o p c r c - c n r , i ; i p l , i ; ; ;
a c i d , I p e r c e n t z i n c s u l p h a t ea n d a b o i t
""i;ir;;; nbres.Te.acities28.3-35.3cN/tcx (3'2-4'0 g/dert) lg pcr cc't sociiurrr
in tlte sulphate maintained at 45-55'c. rhe aeliee of srretcrr
tkv'..17.7-26.5cN/tex(2.0-3.0 g/den)wet. Elongations t u p o nt h e t y p e o f r a y o n b c i n g n r a d c . )
r r n g e8 - 1 2 p e rc e t t td r y ; 9 - 1 6 p c rc e n tw e t '
5.1 55

Under these conditions, the degradirtion of cellulose is helcl lIlcaclring

to a minirnum by the omission of ageing and ripening stages' Hypochlorite, chloritc a1t{
blcachcs rnav bc peroxidc
and by the milder conditions used in preparing the viscose used safelv ]rydroqcn
solution. The regenerationand coagulationof the cellulosetakes [ibres means, ir.r"i.i.r*"1;;;;;;ili,.;."
however, that rcss arorti""-"on,ritions
place slowly and gently in the dilute acid of the spinning bath, to produce whites equivarentto rhosc nray be uscrr
obtai'ccr *iiri "ii,., nrrr*.
ivhich contairrs little or no salt. This pernrits stretching to be A s w i t h a l I c c l l u l o s i o t i b r c so, v e r b l c a c h i " g ' i n " y
carriecl out graf,ually, allowing the moleculesto assumea higlt c a u s ea c g r a d a t i o '
and shouldbe avoicled.
clcgreeof orientation and crystallization.The filamentsproduced
arc of nrore uniform conrposition;tltc cross-section is round. I)ycirrg
The degreeof polylnerization of FIWM rnodal fibres produced All the usual tvoes of dyestufls for cellulosic
i n t h i s w a y i s a b o u t 5 0 0 , i . e . a b o u t t w i c e t h a t o f o r d i n a r yr a y o t . r - on I-'WMmodaffibres,i";i;dl;;-;ir*tl'urt, libres tnay be usecl
The coiclitions describeclabove are typical of those used in uzni.,reacrivc crc.
I l W l v lr n o d a lf i b r e p r o d t r c t i o nb, u t t h c y m a y b e v a r i e di t t a n u t n b c r
thc dycingproperrie;
lt].9.,r..r,u1, uiiiwrurrnodllslre ncarcrto
cottontrranto ordi.aryvisco.se rayor,bui tt,. u'ri,rit,cs
of rvays to provicle fibres of the desired charactcristicswithitl vidualHWMnr.darfibresvaries oili,ii
the l'lWM ntodal range.The coagulatiotrbath, for exantple,may co'sidcrabry.'r'rris is rrarticurrrlv
noticeable witndirecrdycs.Thus,; At;;i;iii;,,;i i;;;.,';;';ii;iii
c o n t a i n s u l p l t u r i ca c i d a n d s o d i u m s u l p h a t ei n v a r y i n g p r o p o r - foronettwM'rocrar
t i o n s .Z i n c s a l t sn t a y [ : c u s c d t o s l o w t h c r c g c n c r a t i o rot f c c l l u l o s c
by lorming zinc cellulosexanthate (sce page l4)' Forrnaldchydc
lusthcs..rcdvcstu|r'will h'veurr'l'lirrity Ibr.rr,thcrl lwMrrr.tl,l
nray be adcleclto the viscosesolution or to the spinning bath,
'l'rrciscloserto thatif ;lqplry;i;;;;iiuuy viscosc.
[ o r m i n g a n c s t e r b e t w e e nt h e x a n t h a t e a n d t h c f o r m a l d e h y d c ,
rangcof avairabrc .ry.ri,,ri,'ir-
sii';ii. ilili;rrrr.rstcvcrv
shadeof requirecl fasrncs-s.'to*n.t,i,,g,riglii pir.rri;;ii;;;,,";;;:
which also servesto slow the regenerationprocess.
canbeproduced on anyI-IWM nroclal n;r;."
IlWlvl nrodalfibres are essentiallycotton-like itr character,and tlte lllvM modalrayotls
aregcnera'ysir'ilarto cotto' i' trreir
initial ernphasisin staple productiou has been to provide staple nnd physicalstructurc,gl:1. chcrrricrl
tri.v ,.rpouj'to finishingin nruclr
l e n g t h sa n c l l i n e a r d e n s i t i c ss u i t a b l ef o r u s e o u c o t t o n s p i n n i n g t'e,same.way ascorron.IIwM;iiodalsi;;;; -u,r.or.,
. grcarcrrcsisra'cct.
rnachinery. The setting of cards, drawframes, etc., reqttirc swellingin causticalkalis.rtra,,
t]l*i"d merce nrrtlt'ey will
acljustment,to suit the particrrlar fibre being processed,but
,yi rizing
ni.xir i."ceof rrwMr,. .hrs
t h e r e a r e n o m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e si r t p r o d u c i n gH W M m o d a l y a r t r st o lsnoIasgreat ast'at.ofcottonhowevcr,n,,ait isl,rri;ffi,;'i;
a wide rangeo[counts, frortt coarseto fine. tuscthefullrnerccrjzation
with lOtf% ffWU
flWM modal flbres sharewith other man'madefibres the advan- I^i: i:, in anycase,un.ecessary
bc fully set,stabilizccr.ancr
as I.IWM ri"iJrr., ,i,.y
tages of uniformity of staple and linear density, and yarns may givenlncrcasecr cryearlinityby trcnt-
be producedfrorn them to a much higher standardof unifornrity nrcnt with causticsoda cxceedingellrtp", ccnt. _I_his
t h a n i s p o s s i b l ew i t h c o t t o n . centration causcs .noi con-
no significant
lossotllropcrtics, ancrit is uscful
I I W M n r o d a lf i b r e s a r e a l s os p u n a n d c u t t o l i n e a rd e n s i t i e sa r t d ils u 'retreatme't for variousrcsinapplicatiorrs,'anrl
colour.yicld irr printing. f; l;r;;;
staplessuitablefor processingon woollen worstedand flax equip-
ment. l(esl' treatrlre'tsuscdwith cotton rnay
bc appricclto lrlvM
W e a v i n ga n d k n i t t i n g o i H W M n t o d a l y a r n si s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , 'odals, e.g. provideincreased ,turlitiiyincr to bcstowcuse-,[-
t h e b c s t r i s u l t s i n w c a v i - n fgi n c c o u n t y a r u sb c i r t go b t a i n c da t r c l a - carepr.opertics. IlwM r'odal fabricssubjcctcrl
-ir t, rcsi' tr..ii"crit
t i v e l r u r r r i d i t i eosf 7 Q %a n d a b o v e ,a s i n t h e w e a v i n go f c o t t o t l ' suflcr loss o[ tensilcan. tca*tr"u!ttr'
ro lcssercxtcnt than
H , l ,, I


T h i s I n e a r l st h a t I I W M m o d a l
c o t t o n g i v e n t h e s a t n et r e a t t n e n t '
j s h o r v st h c w o r k d o n e .i n s t r e t c h i n g
permanentset (i.e. 100 per cent
a fibrc w^c' wct, ancl tlre
ease-of-carepro-pertieswill nrinus elasti
fabrics of given crcase-recoveryancl I ror thettr,..crols.
be stronger than cotton o' 'nyo'l fabrics o[ equivalent crease-
s;l ! ryr,,L
;1! ;T;;
;; i ?;;l,,jii.i,l1,1
The amottnt of resin neccled rayo' staple.The superiority of I-IWM,"oaui,
,*"""iv'^"a .or"-ot-.n'"
to attaitr a particular levei of these
prope.rtieswith l-lWM modal I t'at fabrics rna.e from ihern
in rlrir ;;;i;;
are tess sut lcct to pe.t.la'c't
d e f o r m a t i o nd u r i n g w e t t r e a t m e t r t s

i;;;;l; t.t'i inan witlt cotton or ravon fabrics' i t h a n e i t h e rc o t t o n o r o r d i n a r y

I r a y o n s t a p l ef a b r i c s .


liine Structure and APPcarnncc t
r o u u d c r o s s - s e c t i o na'n d d o li
I I W M n r o c i a lf i b r e s a r e t y p i c a l l y o f I
is fibrillar' the
tr"i aftp V any skin "fttt' fn" micro-structure Iil
Illament breaking "p-l;t; smaller ancl smaller fibrils whcn r, HIGII ELONGATION
are distributed il,
for exampleby nitric acid' The fibrils
uniformly throughoui the filamettt
cross-section' producing. a I o.8
honrogctteousstructure.til; iht tltgtt". o.f polynrerizationis in
ori twtr/l
a.ei..oi cryii,itti'rity libres
is ti z-t\
ceut,compareci with 40-45per cent.for
tl Y
";;t"nof 55 per
in the region ^;o-so lfl
nna f"t "titt {or cotton'The crvstallites I
;;ii;;ty In 3 o.o
those in ordinaryrayorl'
i; Hivi',itnooutlibresarelargertharr I U
the long cellulosemolecules'in
The clegreeof orientatioriof of the fibre' is

both the amorphousutJ 1ft" crystallineregions (,

fibrestharlin ordinary rayon'
itiglt.t in HWlvimoclal :r
H o'a
TerracitY q l ORDINARY
dry;30-35 cN/tex
Strength:4l-46 cN/tex(4.6-5.2g/den) \ n l RAYON STAPLE
cNi tex
sto)iio,a,'i|-ts'.N[.* Q.2-4.0 g/dcn)dry; l8-26
(2-3 giden)wet' //corToN
dry;21-30 cN/
"texElongation: 34-42cN/tex (3.8-4.8 g/den)
Q.4-3.4 g/den)wet'

c e n tw e t ' 2 3
l l i g hS t r e n g t h6:- 1 0 p e rc € t r t : t t y , ; , S - l , 4 . l e r PERMANENT
sEr (1")
l 6 p c rc c t t wct'
b l , i , r d a r c5l-: t z p . t c ' c ndt r y ; 9 - lllvA'l Modal Iribres. 'I'rrc relationsrrip
rz-14 pei cent drv; l6-20 percetrtwet' between rvork do'c in strctcrrinc
;itdfti;;s;tioni r fibre when wet and the set' 1he srrperiorityot llwilt rnoJai
l-ibreswith respecrto or;,|:.T1Lent
treatnrents tlf"fill?,l,i';ii:l,l',x:l,y|l
thaneithercottonor "i.ti,i"iy i"y* iiirr,", _
than for cottou or
Elasticrecoveryis higherior IIWM ntodals'Ihe followingdiagrant Court csy J.D. Grifl'it hr
in tlte wet state'
58 59

lnitialModulus,Wet This dimensional stabilityunderwet conditions is pcrhtpsthc

r'ost.l,portant characteristic o[ IrwM r'ocl't rib;J;ii;;;; il;;
Less tlran 3.5% elon}ationin water at 4.4 cN/tex (0.5 g/den). practical..point
FlighStrengthflWM Modal: oI view.But r-rwMmocrar fiures'rrryik"t. gir;"
a so[t,si.lkyhandlethat cliffersfronrcottorror viscose.
132-221cN/tex (15-25 g/den)per l0Alo ext'n at 2Voext'n.
221-353 cN/tex (25-40 g/den) per IOO%ext'n at SVoext'n. lVashing
Standard llWM Modal:
88-159 cN/tex (10-18 g/den)per llVo ext'n at 2Voext'n. F'abrics
madefrom FIWM-nroclal.fibres
nraybe wasrrc.rcpeatccily
124-247 cN/tex (14-28 g/den)per l}V/o ext'n at 5% ext'n. rvithout.undcrgoing_.,dcformation
I-lighElongationFIWlvlModal: Launderingcharactcristics
are gcncraty siirrilarto trror."iri
53-79 cNi tex (6-9 g/den) per l)Vo ext'n at 2Voext'n. colton.
8B-ll5 cN/tex(10-13 g/den)per llVo ext'n at 5% ext'n.
liltcct of I\loislure llWM modalfabricsiron likecotton.
S e e f c n a c i t y a n d o t l t e r t e n s i l ep r o p c r t i e s '
Dry Cleaning
l - l i g hS t r e n g t hl ' l W M M o d a l s : 6 5 - 7 5 p e r c e n t . l-lwMr'odal fibresarevirtuallypurcccilrrlosc,
nrrrlarcrrrt n|f'cc.
S t a n d u r dI " I W MM o d a l s : 5 5 - 7 0 p c r c c t t t . tv dry clc''irrgsurvc'rs.
r.'tlc ir.r'rrrrvlri'iiui,ir
H i g h E l o n g a t i o nI ' I W M M o d a l s : 6 5 - 1 5 p e r c e n t .
l l D r e sn l a y l r e d r y c l e a n e da s r e a d i l ya sc c l t t o n .
I n c r e a s ei n d i a m e t c ro n w e t t i n g : l l . 5 - 1 5 p e r c e n t .T h i s i s i n t e r ' -
r n e d i a t eb e t w e e nc o t t o l l a n d o r d i n a r y r a y o n s t a p l e .H W M m o d a l lind Uscs
f i b r e ss w e l l l e s sr e a c l i l yi n a q t t e o t t s o l t r t i o t l st h l u o r d i n a r y r a y o l l T h e d i r n e n s i o n asl t a b i l i t y o f I I W M n r o c r a r
f a b r i c sw r r e r rw c t r * s
s t a p l ed o c s . give'tnernthee'rrde.inio
.u.if t'i.t,t"a,r;;ri;;ii;,;'i;;
- irc strorrg, ri,ir,i,;;;;i,,;;
Mtect of Alkalis dinrensionally stabre, rrnilornr ano oi gooct ha.cllc
[{WM modal tibres swell ntrtch lessthan ordinary rayon staple' appcarance.
T h e y w i l l w i t h s t a n dt t t c r c e r i z i t tcgo t t d i t i o n s . stability of orclinary viscosc rvhcn wct
has clcnicd
r,,t a c c e1o,or
s st o n r a u-blouscs.,
y i m p o r t a n t a p l l l i c a t i o n si,n c l u d i n g
,ou.n nuJ
Chcnricnland Biologicll Propertics knitted shirtings, knittcd una.r*"n.. a'<I outerwear gar-
r l e r t s ' B u t H W M r u o d a l s' a v e ' o w r r i " u r c L
G c n e r a l l ys i r t t i l a rt o o t h e r c e l l u l o s i cf i b r c s . v l s c o s et o c o r r p c t e
ellectivelywith cotton in e.nclusesof
this iyfc, cspeciallytrroseirr
IIIGH WET MODULUS RAYON FIBRESIN USE which a soft, silky handle i, oa"oning.Jirs.
In printcd drcss
fabrics,for exarnpie, HwM ;"dri;';;;fre a conrbi'atiorr
jrrsire of
IlwM nrodal libres have brought to the textile industry a viscose stability, subduecl and attractive hancJlc.
rayon rvhich approaches cottou in character, notably in its D i n r e n s i o n a ls t a b i l i l y a t v a r y i n g h u r n i c l i t i e s
is an irnltortant
behaviour with respect to water' The high initial wet moclulus factor in the fiercr of curtain'"rit"ii"fr.-burtaius
of HWM modal fibres is reflectedin fabricswhich are highly resis- ordinary viscosestapleare liable to alterin
lingth fronr scilsonto
tant to deformation whett tvet; they wilt withstand the strcsses s e a s o na, n d e v e nf r o m m o r n i n g t o e v c n i n g ,
a s i r c s u l to f c t r a n g " s
i r n p o s c cdt u r i n g l a u n d e r i n ga n c l w e t p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l l yw i t h o u t in^hunridity.But rhis p^e.nornJnon.;;
i;; ou.r"o,u" by rhc usc
t u n c l e r g o i nsgh r i n k a g et o a s i g r r i f i c a t rctx t c t t t , a n d r v i t h o u t t r e i n g of l{WM nrodal yarns in the warp of iliJ fufrrj..
p u l l e do u t o f s h a p e . Cotton interlock fabrics tc.cl io bcco're lrard
a'<J boardy, a'cl
60 6l

r .,


--: }]rcHsrRErucrH
o t4 1
J 6z

4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4
srRAtN(% elorucarroru)
2. llet. Tltis diagrarrr
curvcslor thcsofibrcsln tho
wct stfttc.
o 2 4 6 'o 16 18 c o t t o t r 'T ' e b r e a k i n st e . n a c i toyI. c o t t o r f i b r e s . r r a s
(r l?or"Jrlo*)
.roo?,* l r r c r c a s csdr g r r t l y ,
9.,:ql!t.tC hasbeena si-gniticanr it,op iiifiiitirr',n'oii,,,,r.
llllM Modal Fibrcs.-'f|rcsc all sli.w ioiu.i'r]i*iti,rg tc'ircrtrosand rrr_
l. Air-Dry. This diagrant, b:rsed on air-dry conditions, compares the creased brcakingextensions,
three types of l{WM rnodal fibre rvith cottons, flax and rayon staple. which are .ui.i.,ii tiu,u"trr.iu*iirii,g'ii ti,.
slopes of thecurves.
Cotlon. The region covered by the curves for various cotton fibrei is
indicatedby the shadedarea.
upper marginof the arer representsthe . Higll strengthand standard ItwM modarfibresrenralnrrrgerywithin
tle. regionof the cottoncurves.-r-ligh .ro,rjotioiiilrvMnrodalfibresnorv
stress-strain curve of a Sea lsland cotton (St. Vincent); the lorver ntargin lie betweenthecottoncurves
r e p r e s e n t st h e c u r v e so f t y p i c a l A s i a t i c c o t t o n s( O o n r r a sa n d B e n g a l s ) .
ancl.thitioi rifon itopfc.
. Irr tensilepropcrties,the HwM ,n"it.i''r'iurrrrcscrrrbrc
The breakingtenacitiesofvariousIigyptian,Americanand Peruviancottons closelythandoesiny otliertypC"f r.ge".i,,t.aciilutosic cottorrrr'rc
a r e i n d i c a t e db y p o i n t s . fibrc.
Hlltl[ lr[odal Fibres. Curves typical of the tlrree groups of HWM modal Court esyJ.D. Griflit tts.
fibres are shorvn.It will be seen that (a) the curve of the high strength
tlWI'l modal group closely resenrblesthat of Sea Island cotton, (b) the
curve of the standard HWM modal group resemblesthose of uppers,
American lvliddling and Peruvian cottons, (c) the curve of the high Blettds
e l o n g a t i o nI I W M n t o d a lg r o u p l i e s w i t h i n t h e a r e ao f t h e c o t t o n c u r v e sf o r T h e e n d u s e sd e s c r i b c r l . a b o vree l a t el a r g c l y
about the first 5 per cent of exterrsion,but beyond this point its high t o y a n l s r n a d cl i o n r
fibrcs.lut UWfi-iiroari,
e x t e n s i o nt a k e si t r v e l lo u t s i d et h e a r e a .
rapidheadwayasconstituerts "r;;i;;;;;k;;;;
Flax; Rayon Staple.Thecurvesfor flax and rayon staplerepresetrtapprox- of yor,r,,pr,,i-i-;r;ilir;^;i.;;;;."'"
irnately the trvo extrerrlesof the total rangeof cellulosicfibre curves.
Seediagrantoppositcfor fibres in the wet state. Cotlott Blcnds
The resenrblance
of HWMrnoclal
lrbresto cott'' i.cricatcs
t h e s u r f a c e t a k e s o n a f e l t e d a p p e a r a n c ew , h e n s u b j e c t e dt o trrat
repeatedrvashingand turlble drying. llWM modal interlock suffers ll*rg_tygtypesof {tbrewouldlr. .onipoiille
i, ble'Js.M;;ii;i
the HWM modalfibre 'ow producedir'u.ing uscd
n o n e o f t h e s e d c f e c t s ,a n d r e t a i n s i t s i n i t i a l a p p e a r a n c ea n d ir ble'crswith
cottor,and manyexcellentfabricsare nraclc-
in this*ny, in"ir'iJ_
h n n d l ct h r o t r g h o t rntr o s to f i t s l i f c . ing drcssnratcrials,

l - l W M n r o d a l f i b r e s c o n t r i b u t c i t t c r e a s c dr e g u l a r i t y a n d u n i -
lorrnity to the blendcd yarrt.
Flax Blcnds
l-lWM modal llbres ltave higher bending and torsiottalrigidities
t h a n e i t h e r c o t t o n o r r a y o n s t a p l e ,a n d i n h b a v i e rd e n i e r st h e y cellulosewill crissolve
provide fabrics with a linen-like handle. This is especiallytrue in a mixecrsorutio'o[ c<lppcr sartsancl
anrnronia,calledcuprarnm oniumliquor,on,t..g.,r.il i..r *ir,,i"ri
in the caseof the high strengthand standardl{WM modal fibres. fibresare producecl by extrusionof ttri, solutio]ri,rto o "*g;;;
Blended rvith flax, HWM modal fibres of this type provide fabrics ing bath. yarn
of full linen handle which is retaitredafter repeatedwashings. -The by tlte "up.ornn.,oniunr process
consists of regeneratccl ccllulose;it ir no*'*irt.ty tnoivn'-dil;
lVool Blends nameof cupro.
Blends of I-lWM modal fibres with wool provide fabricswhich Thecuprammoniurn process haclits beginnings
yearsof cellulosic[ibre manufacture. in thc vcrvcarlv
d i s p l a yr e d u c e ds h r i n k a g ee, v e nw i t h t h e H W M m o d a l c o n s t i t u e n t In lg9O," i+.],.f, .il#;i
i n c o r n p a r a t i v e l y5 m a l l a m o u n t s .T h e h a n d l e a n d a p p e a r a n c o
ef Despeissis,<liscovcredthat he couict.issotvc;ii;i;;;
rn lt llrt
the fabrics remain substantially unchanged,resemblingthe all- liquor,anclspin a fine Iilaurcntor ,nrtiii"-i,i
wool fabric. silk' from the solution.- Dcspeisiiscticcl,nowcvcr,alrd for two
ycarshis invcntionwasforgoitcn.
Sytttlrctic Fibre Blends ^ln 1892,Max FrerneryancrJohannUrban at oberbructrin
Cermanymade use of the cuprarnmonir,r., pro..r, for rnaking
l-lWM rnodalshave reolacedcotton to a considerableextent in
carbonfilanrentsusedin carly elcctriclight bulbs.
lrlenclswith polyester fi-bres;thc fabric retains ail thc clesirable r' rgca.-'*Jifi
thc lrclp of others,they bcganrnanufactu"ring ccilurosic
characteristicsof the cotton blend, but is clearcr ancl morc ' librcsi<rr
tcxtilo p_u-rposes;this was the bcgin'ing o[ thc Vcrcinicic
r e g u l a r .A l s o , s u c l rb l e n d so f l t W M r n o d a la n d p o l y e s t e rr n a y b e
u..i,i,. ui. oi tii.-rrrl.r;';,i;;
cheaper, as it is not necessaryto comb the l-lWM rnodal fibre; r'adefibreproducing
c o t t o n i s c o n r n r o n l yc o n r b e db e f o r eb l e n d i n g . orgarrizations
in the*"iia icir"r;;8ii;:C:j.
s t a n d a r dl l W M r n o d a l s h a v ca l o a d - e x t e n s i o l l c u r vwch i c h i s
very similar to that of polyestersfor the first few percentage . A f t e r a b o u t l 0 y c a r s , . t h ec u p r a m r n o n i u npr r o c c s sw a s a b a n _
doned in favour of-thc viscos"p;";;;r;;;J
e x t c n s i o n ;t h i s p a r t o f t h e c u r v e i s o f g r e a t e s ti r n p o r t a n c ei n ir rc.raineclneglcctecl
until aftcr World War I In 19ll, a tectrniquc
fabric perfonuance.The highelougatioul-lWMmodalshave air-dry of stretch ,p'l;i;i;;
dcvclopedby J. p. BernbergA.G. rcvivcJ ini"."rt
curves wlrich resenrble the polyester curves over almost the i' thc cuprnr'-
r'onium process,ancrsincJ then thc proau"tiou
rvholc of their range. Blend yarns of diflerent ratios show a of the nui, iins
c.ontinucd..The cupro fibre has b..o*.
m o r e n e a r l y l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i pt h a n d o s i r n i l a rb l e n d sw i t h o t h e r 'lJcntberg' wictcly f no*i, o,
types of I-IWMmodal libre, and for this reasorlthe high-elongation
type of l{WM rnodal is favouredfor polyesterblends. NOMENCLATUITE
Bleuds of llWM modal fibre with a relativelysnrallproportiorr
of lorv density fibre, e.g. polypropylene, provide fabrics with Fedcral Trade Conunissiotr Dcfinitiotr
handleand shearpropertiesvery similar to those of cotton fabrics. Fibre produ.cgdbV thc
The additiou o[ the low dcnsity fibre increasesthe bulk of the ccllulosewhich falls within .cupramrnoniunrproccss is rcgcncratcd
the class cJescribecl
,,, ,rryl,, ,riia.i
l l W l v l n r o d a l y a r n , w h i c h t e n d s t o b e l e s sb u l k y a n d n l o r e c o r n - llte U.S. Fecleral Trade Comrnission <.lcfinitions,
p a c t t h a n c o t t o n , l a r g e l y o w i n g t o t h e c i r c u l a rc r o s s - s c c t i oon[ thc oflicial
d c s c r i p t i o nb e i n g a s f o l l o w s :
the IlWlvl nrodal Ilbre.


Rayott. A manufacturedfibre corlposed of rcgeneratedcellu-

Prcprrationof SpinningSolulion
lose, as well as rnanufactured llbres composed of regenerated
s a v e r e p l a c e dn o t m o r e t h a n 1 5
c e l l u l o s ei n w h i c h s u b s t i t u e n t h Purified cotton linters or wood pulp is rnixed
i'to cupranrnroniunr
per cent of the hydrogens of the hydroxyl groups. liquor.a.l 1ow temperature. Stabiizing
a g c n t s a n d c a u s t i c s- ioi ic.r a
arc added, the latter in sufllcicnt quintity
Cupro ro "onv".t
c u p r i t e t r a m m i n os u r p r r a t ei n t o h y c r r o x i i e .
T h e c c l l u l o s e. o , r t . , r i
The term cupro ltas now come into widespreaduse throughout o f t h e s o l u t i o ni s a b o u t l 0 p e r c e n t .
the rvorld to denote any regeneratedcellulosefibre produced by T h e s p i n n i n g s o l u t i o n i i f i l t e r e c lb y p a s s i n g
. it through a
I h e c u p r a m n r o n i u mp r o c e s s . succcssiouof nickel filter scrccns.It i;
' l ' h c tl,en cllacraf;ii ;;;i ;
rcady for,spinni'g. solution is stablc aucl r'ay bc storcd
C upr atrtttto triuttt Rayo tt
pcriocls wirhour apprcciabt. Acteriorario,,;
L",i. ln
as cupratrrtnotriuntrayotr to dis-
Ctrpro is also still <tescribecl U ) r s::]l-riU:.able
r e s p e c t ,r t c o l l t r a s t ss t r o r r g l yw i t h v i s c o s cs o l u t i o n .
tinguish it from viscoserayon.
PI{ODUCTION ( a . )B a t c l u , i s c S p i n n i n g( R e c ! o r p o t
, c p r o c e s sf o r m a k i n g c u p r o i s s i n t i l a r t o t h a t l ' ^ c f i l t e r c d - s p i n ' i n gs. o i u t i o n i t p u n - , 1 r . , i
I n i t s e s s e n t i a l st h ro a uickcrspi.rrcrcr,
u s e di n n r a k i n gv i s c o s eC . e l l u l o s ci s d i s s o l v e da, n d t h e s o l u t i o ni s rrrrlcxtrudccl
througrr 'r'rt.
lrorcso[ 0.g .iru. rriarrctcr.
solution ili* "i
e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e s p i n n e r e tI r o l e s f l o w
forced through holes in a spinneret. The jets of solution are into a glass
c o a g u l a t e d t, h c c e l l u l o s eb e i n g r e g e n e r a t e da s a s o l i d f i l a m e n t . funnel, where thev nleet astreain of purc watc.r
which i. ii";i;;
dow' through tlie fu'nel. Th" ;Ji;;-.lissoru.,
Rarv Mntcrial .rost oI thc
arnmonia and about one third of thc copper
fron.r tfr"- j.ir,
C o t t o n l i n t e r s a n d w o o d p u l p a r e b o t h u s e d a s r a w n l a t e r i a li n b r i n g i n g a b o u t c o a g u r a t i o no f t h e c e l l u r o s e
to fornr prastic
m a k i n g c u p r o . C o t t o n l i n t e r s i s a s o u r c eo f v e r y p u r e c e l l u l o s e , filanrents.The filaments are carriecl along
by th" st;J;;;'-;;
and for this reasou was preferred initially as raw material. water,and are stretchedrcontinuously to fonri nf r",.irt, "i *,,rfii
Latterly, holever, rvood pr-rlphas been used otl an increasing a b o u t1 . 4d t e x( 1 . 3 c l e n ) .
s c a l e ,l a r g e l y b e c a u s eo f i t s l o w e r c o s t . F o r h i g h q u a l i t y p r o d u c - The loose thread of filamcnts erncrging froru
the bottonr of
t i o n s ,c o t t o n l i n t e r s c e l l u l o s ei s s t i l l u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y . tho funnel is carried rouncl a guia."ioir,
most of the watcr
C o t t o n l i n t e r s i s p u r i f i e d b y k i e r - b o i l i n gw i t h d i l u t e c a u s t i c being flung olr. The"thread th.i pass.s
iouna a rolrcr rv'iclr
soda at about 150'C., followed by bleaching with sodiurn rotatesin a trough of sulphuric acicl;
thc remaining "opp.i""nJ
hypochlorite. anrnronia are removed as copper
ancl ammoniunr
W o o d i s s e l c c t e da n d p u r i f i e d t o y i e l d a n r a t c r i a l o f h i e h sulphaterespectively.
a l p h a c c l l u l o s ec o r r t c n t( a b o v c 9 6 p c r c e n t ) . * T h e f i l a r n e n t sa r e t h c n w o u n d c i t h c ri n t o s k c i n s( R c c l
or into cakcsin a Topham box (pot Spinrring),
C u p r a n r n r o n i u nlri q t r o r i s p r c p a r c t lb y d i s s o l v i n gb a s i c c o p p c r Slinni,.Ig;.'1ll";k"i;;';;
s u l p h a t e i n a n r n r o u i at o f o r t . n a s o l t l t i o t r o f c u p r i t c t r a m m i u o cakes are washcd to rcnrovc acicl ancl^any
rcnraining coppcr
h y c l r o x i d e a n d c u p r i t e t r a n r m i n os u l p h a t e i n t h e r a t i o 3 : l , s u l p h a t eo r a m m o n i u m s u l p h a t e s, o i t . n . J f y
a d c l i n gl u b r i c a n t s ,
c o n t a i n i n g3 - 4 p e r c e n t c o p p e r a n d 5 - 8 p e r c e n t a m m o n i a . and dried. The yarn is.-comnroniygivcn a
seconcl*"^rlil; ;;
o l t e m u l s i o n ,o r ( i f i t i s t o - b J t w i s t e i l a r e r )
* A l n h ac e l l u l o sies t h a tw h i c hd o c sn o t d i s s o l vicn 1 7 . 5 - 1 8 p . 0e rc e n t 3n{ i. ";;rkl;;
bath. It is then dried again.
c a u s t i is o d as o l u t i o na f t e r 3 0 n t i n u t c sa t 2 0 " C .I t c o n s i s tosf c e l l u l o s e
r v h i c hl r a su n d e r g o nae I r i n i m u m o f d e g r a d a t i o n a ,n d i t i s t l t e m o s t (b) Continuous Spinning
satisfactorycellulosefor use in fibre-nrantrfacture.
A s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f v i s c o s cr a y o n , t h e p r o c l u c t i o n
of cupro

h a s b e e nm o d i f i c dt o o p e r a t eo n a c o n t i n u o u sb a s i s A . continuous 1 - h c s cm a y b e _n r a d e , [ o r c x a r n p l c ,
b y c x t r u c l i r r gt h c s l l i r r n i r r g
s p i n n i n g p r o c e s sw a s i n t r o d u c e df i r s t i n G c r n r a n y a n d i n 1 9 4 4 s p i . n c r c t sw i r h t w o s c r so f f r i f i c c s . . I . h c
in the U.S.A. The following dcscription refers essentiallyto the :*o'r
: l : l : i "one
^ r l t hset
rough filar'c'rs
of orifices arc alrowecrto cotcct on a
to fornr bundles which adhere together; flat surfacc
U.S. process. t]r.r, o.. carriecl away
Up to the point at which the filamentsemergefrorn tbe funnel, a t . i . t c r v a l s t o j o i n t h e f i l a m e n t sJ i t i " J . , L - i . o n r
trrcot.cr sct of
the continuous processis virtually identical with the batchwise orifices,forming a compositeyn.n
*itt, tir. buncilcscrcating slubs
process. The thread of filaments from the funnel is passed at intervals.
through an enclosedbath of hot dilute acid called the pretreat-
nlerlt pan. This continues the coagulationof the cellulose, PI{OCESSING
reducing the filamcnts to about one third of their original
Scnuringand Dcsizing
c l i a n r e t e rT. h e o r i e n t e d f i l a m e n t so f c e l l u l o s ea r e s h e a t h e di n a
f i l n r o f u n a l i g n e dc e l l u l o s e a, n d t h i s i s w a s h e da w a y i n t h e p r e - W a t e r s o l u b l e s i z e s ,s u c h a s t l r e p o l y v i n y l
alcolrol typcs oftcn
t r e a t n l e n tp a n . I f l e f t , t h e u n a l i g n e dc e l l u l o s ew o u l d a c t a s a tuscd,may be removeclbv s o a k i n g ,
followcd by a ncutralscour
g l u e , h o l d i n g t h e f i l a m e n t st o g e t h e r . at the boil.
After leaving the pretreatrnentpan, the thread of filaments
p a s s e st h r o u g h a n a c i d t r o u g h w h e r e r e m a i n i n g c o p p e r i s
removed as copper sulphate. Thc acid is washcd away as the C u p r o i s an unusually whitcfibrc,and blcnclrirrg
is not gcrrcrully
t h r e a d n r o v e st h r o u g h a w a t e r t r o u g h , a n d l u b r i c a n t s ,s i z e se t c . r c q u i r c d .If.it shouldprovencccssary,
the usuirltcclrniqucs
a r e a d d e d a s r e q u i r e db y p a s s i n gt h e t h r e a d o v e r a p r e p a r a t i o n c e l l u l o s i cfibresnray bc uscd,
c.g. Irypocltloritc
or hydrogcrr
roll, pcroxide.
T h e t h r e a d p a s s e st h r o u g h a s u c c e s s i o n of driers and over a
r o l l w h i c h a p p l i e sc o n i n g o i l b e f o r e b e i n gw o u n d o n t o f l a n g e l e s s D5'cing
s p o o l s .U n t w i s t e dt h r e a d sm a y a l s o b e w o u n d o n t o b e a m sw h i c h
C u p r o i s a c c l l u l o s i cf i b r e o f r c l a t i v e l y
aio used directly in warp knitting, or combined to provide a l o w - c r y s t a l l i n i t y( c . g . b y
c o n r p a r i s o nw i t h c o t t o n ) ,a n c l i t
w e a v e r ' sb e a m , ; , p . o O r " . . r u s u a l l yi n t ' c f o r ' r
o f I i n e f i l a n r e n t s .W a t c r p c n c t . " t . ,
T h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n t i n t r o u sp r o c e s s t, h e t h r e a d o f f i l a m e n t i s d y c i n g t a k e sp l a c e r a p i d l y n , r a
qrltiy into thc {ibrc ancl
never ltandled, and irnperfectionsare thtrs held at a nrinimunr. used
.ft..tii.ir.'f^" typcsof dycstufl
T h e l l l a m e n t sa r e o f h i g h l y u n i l o r m s t r u c t u r ea n d d i r n e n s i o n s , 'l',c for cotton a.rl otrrcr ccrurosic nu"., n.. usca for cupro.
s^ades obrainecrwirrr cupro a;;i;;;;;
a n d t h e p r o p e r t i e sa r e e x c c l l e n t .A f t e r c o n d i t i o n i n gf o r a f e w t u n d c rc o r n p a r a b l cc o n c l i t i o n s ' w i t t i rrra. trroseobrairc<r
d a y s a t c o n t r o l l e dh u m i c l i t y ,t h e c u p r o i s r e a d y f o r d e s p a t c h . o t t r J i ' . - " t r r l o r i .n U r . r .
Cupro filamcnts adhcre to eaclt other, and are separatedonly
by a comparativelystrong force. Unlike viscoseyarns, they may STI{UC'I'UREAND PROPERTIES
b e u s c d f o r m a n y p u r p o s c si n a n u n t w i s t e dc o n d i t i o n .
A r v i d ev a r i c t y o l ' c u p r o y a r n si s p r o d u c e d ,r a n g i n gl r o r n l 7 t o
t o 3 3 0 d t e x ( 1 5 - 3 0 0 d e n ) a n d n t o r e .W e a v i n ga n d k n i t t i n g y a r n s C u p r oi s t h e m o s t . s i l k - l i k c ' oa[l l c e l l u l o s i c
y a r r r sI .t i s s n t o o t h _
a r e c o r n n l o n l yi n t h e r a n g e5 6 t o I l 0 d t e x ( 5 0 - 1 0 0 d e n ) . surfaccd and shows'o rnarkings or rtii,,tilnr.l. cross_scctio' it
is almostround.
Novelly Yarns The filarnents are extrelnely-fine, usually1.4tltcx (1.3 dcn),
Cupro manufacturershave been particularly successfulin their andhavebeennranufacturecl i,i o.+i hi.*?ol+ ,r.,,1.
p r o c t u c t i o no I n o v e l t y y a r n s , s u c h a s s l u b a n d n u b b y y a r n s .



I'cnsilc Strenglh
The tenacityo[ cupro is l5-20 cN/tex ( 1 . 7 - 2 3 g / d e n )d r y ;
9 . 7 - 1 1 . 9c N it e x( l . l - 1 . 3 5 g / d e n w
) ei.
The terrsilestrengthof Jupro'is about2 1 0 0 - 31 5 0 k g l c r n 2
(30,000-40,000 lb/in2)
(oR wooD PULP) EIongnIion
Cupro has.an elongation of l0-17 per
c e n t when dry and 17-33
per cent when wet.

Ulstic Properlies
Cupro has an elastic recovcry of
2 0 _ 75 p c r c c n t a t d i f l e r e n t

Spccillc Gravity
at I I per centrnoisture.
[lfcct of Moislurc
c u p r o s w c l l si ' w a t e r a n d l o s e ss t r e n g t h T . h e r n o i s t u r cr e g a i r i s
1 2 . 5p e r c e n t u n d e rs t a n d a r dc o n d i t i o n sT. h e c o r n n r c r c i aslt a ' c l a r d
is 1l per cent.

[lfcct of l.Icnt
Deco-mpositionbegins at about 250.C. without ntelting. yarns
a n d f a b r i c s b u r n r e a d i l y , l e a v i n gl i t t l e a s h .
Iilfcct of Agc
S i n r i l a rt o v i s c o s e .
EIIectof Sunlight
P r o l o n g e de x p o s u r ec a u s e ss o t n ed e g r a d a t i o na n d l o s so f s t r c n g t l r .
l'he fibres are disintegratedby h o t d i l u t e o r c o l d c o n c c n t r a t e d
Cupro Florv Chart
,U 1l
F I BR I i S
I rrse
Alkalis C u p r o i s r n o d e r a t c l ya t t a c k c cbl y s o n r c i n s e c t s .
D i l u t e s o l u t i o n s d o n o t h a v e a n y a p p r e c i a b l ee f i e c t . S t r o n g
s o l u t i o n sc a u s es r v e l l i n ga n d d e g r a d a t i o n . l\ Iicro.organisrns
W e t f i b r e i s a t t a c k e db y n r i l d c w s .
C u p r o b e h a v e sg e n e r a l l y l i k e o t h e r c c l l u l o s i cf i b r e s . I t i s n o t DlcctricalItropcrtics
aflected by rveak oxidiziug agents or by bleachessuch as hypo- It,loderatedielectric strcngth when dry.
chlorite or pcroxide solutions. Strong oxidizing agents cattse
Olhcr Propcrlics
Eflect of OrganicSolvents T h e f i b r e h a s a s o f t s i r k - r i k eh a n d l e a n d
a c h a r a c t e r i s t i rcu s t r c .
L i k e o t h c r c e l l u l o s i cf i b r e s ,g e n e r a l l yi n s o l u b l e .

c r r p r o i s i n g c n c r a ln l o r e e x p c n s i v et h a n o t h e r
cellrr- nrnn-nrnrtc
losicyarns.Its cxrrafinc'cis.nn,t;i;;i,;tn,
subdued 'ttrrictiv;';r;l;:
lustreand goodtlrapingprop.rfi., cnableit
rhisexrracostin th-crnanufactul"'oi to carrv
iiieii q;;l;;; nooir.',,t
lVashing, Ironing, Dry Clcaning
cupro is similar to other cellulosics
i n i t s g e n e r a rb e r r a v i o u r
-E laundering ancl ctry cleaning p.o..rr.r.
fowarrfs. It should bc
t r c a t e di n t l r e s a m e w a y a s v i s c o s e .

U'' End Uses

x. cupro is made into chi{Ions,satins,nets,
ninons a.tl at rnanncr
o of very sheerfabrics. or tnir-vuirt goesinto unclcrwear,
dressfabrics and linings. _ M u c r r
y a r n s ,s u c ha s s l u b . . y a r n a
s ,r e u s e ciln a g r c a t v a r . i c t yo f
asweri.strt, yor,rr"r.urJJii.,ai.rrr^i.*,
- A.specialityend use,l.ies
:'J=: :-i:::----3: ?j-::::
in thc production of ynrn_clyccl
for hig' qualitv sirk-rikeJi,ings, ,ir.rr "n,r "pr.toiri.iy fabrics
*r,iit.a r,ilrl"r.
Reelspun ya'ni or. especiaily to ttrcseapprications;
o l o 2 a 3 0 4 0 arc produccdin skcinsrcaclyfor yarn_clycing thcy
srnatru(% rr-oNcattoN) in the untwistcrl
state.The dyedyarn is useduntwiiteAfor the
welt and twisted
for the waro.


?.' r l

t l . r ec a r l y 1 9 3 0 s , s t r e t c h i n go I s o l v e n t _ p l a s t i c i s c c l
SAPONIFIED CELLULOSE ES'|ER c c l l u l o s ea c e t a t er e s u l t e ci 'r. t r-rteh'er o c r u c t i o no f
v a r r r sw i t l i , . , , i i " i i i . . . ,
i' tne regio. of 44-53 cN/tex (5-6 g/dc'). 'l ii.i. y;;;;;;i;i,;;ii
INTRODUCTION t l r c e s s e n t i acl h a r a c t e r i s t i cosi c c l l u l o s ca c c t ^ t c ,
but thcy courcr
b c c o n v e r t e di n t o c e l l u l o s eb y s a p o ' i f i c a t i o r w i t r r
D u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 s e, v e r y e f f o r t w a s b e i n g n - r a d et o d e v e l o p c a u s t i cs o d a
s o l u t i o n , p r o v i d i n g h i g h l y - o i i e n t e c lf i l a u r c r r t s
t e c h n i q u e sf o r i n c r e a s i n gt h e t e n a c i t yo f v i s c o s er a y o n f i l a m e n t s oI rcgcncratccl
c c l l u l o s e . ' f h c r n o l e c ' r e s i ' t h c s e s a p o ' i f i c c rc c i l u l o s c
by motlification of the spinning and stretching techniques.The acctrtc
f i l a r ' c n t sw e r c i n a r l o r e h i g r r l y o r i e ' i c c ra ' c r c r y s t a i l i r c
h e a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m l a y i n t h e d i f l i c u l t y o f m a i n t a i n i n gt h e co'di-
t i o n t , a . c o u l d b e o b t a i n e c lt y s t r e t c h i ' g I i l a r i c ' t s
extruded filament in a plastic condition after it enteredthe proAii..A
during coagulat.ioo n f v i s c o s e, o y o n .
c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h , a n d s o p r o v i d i n g a n o p p o r t u n i t yo f s t r e t c h i n g
1 - l ] r re l e g a ' t t c c h . i q u c o f c r c a t i r r gl r i g r r l y - o r i c r r t c d
t h c f i l a r n e n tt o o r i e n t a t et h e c e l l u l o s en r o l e c u l e s( s c e p a g e 4 0 ) . cllul'sefira-
'e'ts lbrrnsrhe basisof
D u r i n g t h i s s a n r e p e r i o c l ,a t t e r n p t sw e r e a l s o b e i n g m a d e t o
groupof cornpa'ies .trrcpruc.r"tusccrby tl,. b,,iiitr"ii,
produce high tenacity cellttloseacetate yarlls by stretching in proirucirghigrrtcrLacity'rryo,,r-,i,iaii
t r a d en a r n e ' F o r t i s a n ' .
f i l a n r e n t so f c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t e .I n t h i s c a s e ,h o w e v c r ,t h e p r o j e c t
w a s s i m p l i { i c db y t h e r e a d i n e s w s i t h w h i c h c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t ec o u l d
bc brought i n t o a p l a s t i cc o n d i t i o t ta l t e r i t h a d b c e u n . r a d c . NOMI]NCLATUITE
h a r u l c n i n go I a c c l l u l o s ca c c t a t cf i l a r n c n ti s a c h i c v c t lb y
e v a p o r a t i n gs o l v e n tf r o m t h e j e t o f s o l u t i o n c t n e r g i t t gf r o m t h c
I r i b r e sp r o d u c e db y t h e s a p o n i f i c a t i o n
s p i n n e r e t .A n d t h e l i l a m e n t m a y b e r e u d e r e dp l a s t i c a g a i n b y o f c c i l u l o s ca c c t . t c fi brcs
t r e a t r n c n tw i t h a s o l v e l t t ,w h i c h w i l l f i r s t s w e l l a n d t h e n d i s s o l v e a r e r c g e n e r a t e dc e l I u l o s ea, n < l a r e p r o p e r l y
d c s c r i b e cal s rayotl
undcr the rules of thc U.S. Fccleraltl.r,r.l"
t h c c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t c .C e l l u l o s ea c e t a t ei s a l s o a t h e r m o p l a s t i c Co,ll,trissiou(scc p i r S c
n r a t e r i a l ,a n c l m a y b e s o f t c r t e db y h c a t i n g .
These diflereucesin the behaviour of celluloseand cellulosc
a c e t a t e t o w a r d s s o l v e n t sa n d h e a t a r e a c o n s e q u e n c eo f t h e I'I{ODUCTION
c l i f f e r e n c ei sn t h e i r m o l c c u l a rs t r t l c t u r e T . h e h y c l r o x y lg r o u p s o f
accrittcfibres arc nraclcby hcatirrgccllulosc
c c l l u l o s cc l o n o t e n c o t l r a g es o l u t i o n o f t h e m o l e c u l ei n o r g a n i c l::::ltt:.cJ
s o l v e n t s ,w h e r e a s t h e a c e t y l g f o t l p s o f t h e c c l l u l o s e a c e t a t e liil'i;i,'ll,']?'
: r,b",i tr.k;[;;;
sofrcne<l.-i "iiiu.,i :0i;);;:),
nrolecule do. Also, cellulosemoleculesare able to pack closely ;::1,;,..llli'lq
llT vnr,, rry.-+'t"
lo iir"l?iiil,,ii
length.Tho stretchect
yarn ii wouni on roili;;;,;,i
togctherand developporverfulforces of attractionassociated with
a n d .s a p o n i f i e db y t r e a t r n e nw
h i g h c r y s t a l l i n i t y ;c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t eI n o l e c t t l e sw, ith their large t i t r r c a u s t i cs o-c r *s o l u t i o . . I ' t r c y a r '
is thcn washed,oitccl,driccl nn.t ,"*oi,n.i.
penclang t r o u p s ,d o n o t p c r n t i t o I t h e c l o s e p a c k i l r gt h a t r e s u l t s
V c r y f i n e f i l a n r c n t s . o f r c g e n c r a t c chl i g h l y _ o r i c n t c d
i n h i g h c r y s t a l l i n i t y ,a n c l c c l l t r l o s ea c c t i r t ei s s o f t e n c db y h c a t ' c c lI u lo s c
'I'his n r a y b e p r o d u c c di n t h r s w a y .
r c a d i n e s sw i t h w h i c h c e l l u l o s ca c c t l t e c a n b e r e n d c r e d
p l a s t i c ,e i t l i e r b y s o l v e t t to r b y h e a t , p r o v i d c s a n e i r s ys o l u t i o n
t o t h c p r o b l c m o f s t r c t c h i n gl i l a r n c n t st o c r e a t ea h i g h d e g r c eo [
o r i c n t a t i o n . F i l a r n e n t so f c e l l u l o s e a c c t a t e w h i c h b a v e b e e n l)yeing
s o f t e n c db y s o l v e n to r b y h c a t t n a y b e s t r e t c h e dt o m a n y t i n . r c s
S a p o ' i f i e dc c l l u l o s ca c e t a t cy a r , s r r a v ca y c i r r gp r o p c r t i c s
t h c i r o r i g i n a l l e n g t h , t h c l o n g t n o l c c t l l e so f c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t e si'rilur
t o t h o s e o f c o t t o n o r v i s c o s cr a y o n , t h c i r i g h , i . g . . c
s l i c l i n gr e a d i l y o v c r o n c a n o t l t e r a s t h c y a r e d r a w n i n t o a l i g n - of oricnta-
t i o n r e n d c r i n gd y e i n g s l o w c r a n d l c s s c f f c c ' i i v c .
I n c nt .

74 75


Saponifiedcelluloseacetateyarns consistof regeneratecl cellulose, Iillcct of Moislurc

and their characteristicsare esseutialtythose of highly-oriented
cellulosic fibres.They are sirnilar to high tenacity yarns clerived I'Iigh rcsistanceto stretch is retainccl un<ler
both wet and d r y
b y t h e v i s c o s ea n d t h c c u p r o t c c h n i q u c s( s c ep a g c 4 3 ) . c o n d i t i o n sg
, i v i n g h i g h d i r n c n s i o n asl t a b i l i t y .
The mechanical properties of the yarns depend upon the I(cgain: 10.7.
degree to which the filanrentshave been stretched.
Olhcr Propcrties
The prop.crtiesdescribcdi^ tlre following sectionare basedupo'
'llor Sinrilar to cotton ancl viscose.
Filaments are of somewhat lobecl, almost rouncl cross_section. .Saponificd
celluloseacetateyarns are used for applications
The indentationsare seenas striationswhen the lilament is view.J of typicrrl
high srrengrrr ceilurosic
rayonsrr." liigrr'rtr.neil,-;iJ""*
lengthwise. r^yo'rs,page46).Theyare ,scd whcrc a highrarioii ,r;;;;ii;
t<lvolur'cnndcxccllcrrt. crir.c^sio'i,t
,rniiiiry'rc ncrvnrrr'gcous,
TensileStrcngtb c.g,in parachute roncsand_fabrics,
T e r r a c i t y :5 3 . 6 2 c N / t e x ( 6 - 7 g l d e n ) d r y ; 4 4 _ 5 3 c N / t e x ( 5 _ 6 b a l l o o nf a b r i c s .
T l r e v e r y f i n e f i l a m c n t s, n n , t . b y t h i s t c c l r n i q r r c
den)wet. el 'ave. enabledsaponificctiellulose ;..1;i; yarns
to rc1:laccnatural
T e n s i l es t r e n g t h :9 5 2 0 _ k g / c n r 2 silk in applicationssuch as elcctrical
1 l : 6 , 0 0 0 l b / i n 2') . i's,ir"ii",, "-'"i'.;;[, ;.;:';;;
Loop strength:about 50 per cent ofstandard. hearing. aid equiprnent. Coatecl fabrics provide
light, strong
t a r p a u l i n sa n d p r o t e c t i v ef a b r i c s .
6 per cent, dry or wet.

60-80per cent at 2 per cent extension.

I r r i ( i a lM o d u l u s
1 500-2207 cN/tex ( I 70-250 e/clen).

1 0 3 3 - l 1 9 2 c N / t e x( l l 7 - 1 3 5 g / d e n ) .







78 79



' l
Prinrory Ace!ate
cellulose acetati:producccl in these carry cxperiments
n conrpletely acetylatedcellulose,i' wrrich ntt ti.tr..
g r o u p so f e a c hg l u c o s eu n i t i ' t h e c c l l u l o s cm o l c c u l c
I i, n..iyLni.,t.
I t w a s c e l l u l o s et r i a c c t a t ew, h i c r rr a t c r b c c a r ' c k n o w . u ,
l c c t a t e ( s c c p a g e8 2 ) .
viscose and cuprarnmoniunrrayons are basicallysimilar, in that fI c e l l u l o s et r i a c e t a t cw ^ s o b t a i n e car s a t o u g h ,h o r n y s o r i c r. rv h i c l r
the libre procluieclat the end of the processconsistsof cellulose. :l
r' l l
rvas.no.t readily wasrrccrfrce of acid, an<I it arso
I n b o t h p r o " . t t . t , t h e r a w n r a t e r i a lc e l l u l o s c w o o d p t r l p o r il
s u l p h u r i ce s t e rg r o u p s w h i c h r c n c l c r c ci il u n s t a b l c .I t
was soluble
c o t t o n l i r i t e r s i s b r o u g h t t o a s o l u b l ef o r n r s o t h a t i t c a n b e
- 1l
o n l y i n t o x i c a ' d e x p c ^ s i v cs o l v c n t s ,s u c l r a s c r r l o r o f o r n r
extrudeclthrough fine holcs to form filanrcnts.The filirment is t c tr a c h l o r o e t h a n c .
c r e a t e db y r e g c n e r a t i o no f t h e s o l i d c c l l u l o s ea s t h e l i q u i d j e t I
tl SecotrdaryAcelale
e n t e r s t h e c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h .
Viscosc and cuprammonium are therefore regeneratedcellu- iT
In 1906, Miles discovercdthat the triacctatc courd bc partiaily
lose. In their chenrical structure they resemble cotton or flax' hydrolysedto produce a celluloseacetatcin whicr*on.,"
fr oi tt,L
B u t t h c r e i s a n o t h c r i m p o r t a n t [ o r r n o I c c l l u l o s i cm a n - m a d e
ncctategroups of thc triacetatc had bccn ren.rovcd,nnct
I rccon-
f i b r c , i t r w h i c h t h e w o o d o r c o t t o n c c l l u l o s ci s c l t a n g c c il n t o a v c r t c c lt o h y d r o x y l g r o , p s r s i n t h c o r i g i r r n lc c l l r r l o s c .
f ll,i., ;;
di{Ierent substanceto render it soluble ancl spinnable,ancl after il
t'atcrial was, in eflcc.t,a partialry acctyratcdcciltrrosc
being spun is left in its changed chemical form' This fibre is I by cornpletc acetylation
.ancl subscqucnt partial fry<lrolvrir. lt
made fionr a chemical derivative of cellulose;cellulose acctate. L bccanreknown as ,secondaryacctatc;.
Like the nitrocelluloseft'om which early rayons were spun'
{ T h e s c c o n d a r ya c e t a t ew a s s o l u b l e i n a r c l t t i v c l y c h c a p
t and
c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t eh a s b u l k y g r o u p s o f a t o m s a t t a c h e dt o t h e l o n g { non'.toxicsolvent,acetone.Also, it courcrbe wrstrcclfrce
oi acid
cellulosemoleculeat intcrvals throughout its length.Theseacetate
nruch nrore easily than the primary acetatc.
groups tenclto keep the moleculesapart, preventingthe alignment D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d l e a c l i n gu p t o i h e o u t b r c a ko f W o r l c l
'close lr War I,
incl packing into regions of regularity which make for {, n r a n y w - o r k e r se x p e r i m e n t e dw i t h t h c p r o c r u c t i o no f
crystallinesiructure.The hydroxyl groupswhich exert so powerful acetatefilaments from solutions of the prirnary ancl
li sccondary
an attraction on each other'in thc cellulosenroleculehave been acctatcs.The secondaryacetate,which dlssolu.il i,, thc
li chctpci
recluceclor elintinated, dirninishing the grip exerted by eacll and less toxic solvent, appearedto olTer thc greatcstprospcct
l! o[
molecule on its neighbotrrs.It is easier for the moleculesof an success,and it was upou this material that lnuch oi ttr. *ort
o r g a n i c s o l v e n t t o p e n e t r r t e b e t w e e nt h e m o l e c u l e so f c e l l u l o s e was carried out.
o""tot. than betwecn the molecules of cellulose itself, and
Anrong the most active workcrs in the cclruloseacctatc ficrd
c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t et v i l l d i s s o l v ei n s u i t a b l es o l v e n t s . t] at that tinre were the brothers Drs. Henry and carnille
T h e n i t r o g r o u p s i n n i t r o c e l l u l o s eh a d t h e d i s a d v a n t a g eo f $i i ' S w i t z e r l a n d 'w h e n w a r b r o k e o u t i n 1 9 1 4 , t h e b r o t i r e r s
n.rakingthe niaterial highly flartrrnable.But ccllulosc acetate is
ir Dreyfuswere invited to Britain by the covcr'nre't, who
li wcrc
n o n r o r ef l u n n t a b l et h a t l c o t t o t r . ti i . t e r e s t c di ' t h e u s c o f c c l l r r l o s ca c c t a r ca s a v a r n i s h f o r
il fabric wings of aircraft. In the early tlays of thc war, nitro_
Celluloseacetatewas first preparedby Sclrutzenberger in 1865, ai cellulosehad been used for this purpose,iut its extrcnrc
by heating c o t t o n w i t h a c e t i ca n h y d r i d ea t 1 3 0 - 1 4 0 " Ci.n a closed i, nrability had causcdheavy casualties.cellulosc acctatcwas r'uch
vessel.In 1894, Cross ancl Bevatl discovereda more practical lr more satisfactoryfor the purpose.
p r o c e s si,n w h i c h t h c a c e t y l a t i o nw a s c a r r i e do t l t a t a t t l o s p h e r i c ll The Dreyfus brothers establislrcda ccllulose acctatc factory
F a t S p o n d o n ,D e r b y , w h e r e s e c o n d a r ya c e t a t cs o l u t i o n o r . d o n c ,
p r . s s u r c ,u s i n g s u l p h u r i ca c i d o r z i n c c h l o r i d ea s c a t a l y s t ' l.
80 l 8l


'lt..l L



a c e l l u l o s ea c c t a t ef i b r e . B y r 9 2 1 ,n r o s to f
t h e t c c h n i c a<
t tifiicultics
1"9 P."1 overcome,.ancl a filament-aceraic,
H ococH3 yorn- *n, being nraclc irr
Ilritain fronr seconcrary ccllurose
.\^,/:;i,\.1 *.. '-o\./o\--- 'Cclanesc'.
Sorne six years later, Courtaui.s Ltd.,,";r"";i;;
u.crcr t^c na'lc
p r o d u c i n ga s e c o n d a r yc e i l u r o s ea c e t a t ey a r n .
,r'\3_ o,/"\o.z- \i:atl pound*s
.of _acetateyarn. was exporte<Ito Arnerica, ,,;.i ;t ij;i;
y.earBritish dyestu[s chenristsiracr sorvecl
In r934,a rnillion

trrc biggcst pi"rri.i,i

lH.o.o.t, '\ A.ocH, l h a t . w a sh o l d i n g u p r ' e p r o g r c s so f t h c n c w n U r c_ i i o w
Viscose and_,cuprammoniumrayons, consisting
C E L L U L O S ET R I A C E T A T E n, tfr.V ;; ;i
regeneratcdcellulose,can be dyed with dycstulls
(entuaRY AcETATE; FULLYacrtvuetro) uscclfoi cotton
and other natural cellulosic fibres. cellulose
acetatc, howcvcr,
cliflers chernically frorn cotton in trrat marry
CELLULOSE NCE,TATE of ttre trvaroiyi
sroups,an<lrhe iy
th9::i''-"'**fl':^{H* :l::1,^:. ^1,1y:
cnaracrerrstrcs -b:""n.,r.ol"cd
oI the fibre with respect to clycstuflshave bceir
changed. It was necessaryto deveiop new
-lt :*mf ii|i,{tlji:h':ij n.
v,. acetatelibre.
typcs of dyes for
O . n c c t l r i s p r o b l c r n l r a c l b c e n . s o l v c c l c, c l l r r l o s c
chiorictc' is insolub'"r,';ri11:11?al ncctntcflbrcs
'vdrolvsiso[ -ii cellulose
triacctatc r r r a d cr a p i d h c a d w a y . l : j l a n r c n t y a r n s ,
'r"9il"i?'t',f';.; tii" g,o,,pr back i nto v<lroxvl sroups,to s t r i p l c n n d tow arc norv
p r o d . u c e di n r n a n y c o u n t r i e s ,o n , i o r " ' a v a i i a b l e
l5'"'"tfff .
tit'it is. sonretimes called cellulose i n a widc rangc
;;;il';.;;;;;v-i"riuror" i.itft". of sizes and spun-dyeclcolours. They are
ttis trvo of its hydroxvl now known sinrply
.iacerarc,implying tr.,oi".iifr'Jiu..oi"-unii as ecetatc (see bclow).
[l*T;.*;:rWltfl n"l'fi*;l*.,";:Jl"i.3lr""i'3i"''""'"':iii'lll't
c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t e .
iellulose acetatcis soluble in acetone'
of thecelIuIose.molecule.,iir'il]}t:::,i"'"i:l:
is".onifionfv the acely/ valtle' u
cxprcsseclas Until conrparatively recc'r ti'rcs, fibrcs spun
lro.r scc<l'darv
'"8ii?l'3j1,"1ifl,qq1 c c l l u l o s ca c e t a t e( s e ep a g eg 2 ) w c r e c r e s c r i b c c
,..-tt,f ^.v t.tlulose acetatehas arl acetyl
value t ffi:;;'it:;!lmerciar
In modernterminology, is uscdo,rryi,i a.r".i;;;;'iib;;;
_of regcnerat".,lc.llulos", inclucling viscosc,oy;; ;;;
c u p r o ' a n d f i b r e s s p u n f r o n r s e c o n d a r yc c i l u i o s c
accratc;r. ,i;;
known sirnply as ocetale. Iribres spun fro,n prinrary
quantity' When Anrerica acetateare called triacetate.
rvas ultinratcly produccclir"rconsidcrable
c n t e r e dt h e r v a r , C a m i l l e D r c y f t r s w e n t .to the U'S' to establish I,'eclcralT'rade Cornttissiorr Definitiotr
n r o c l u c t i o no f c e l l u l o s ca c c t a t c t h e r e ' T h c w a r e n d e db c f o r e t h c
r e t u r n e dt o E n g l a n d ' T'he generic LcrtTrsacc!arc irncl trictccrurcwcre arloptcd by
i;;;;;;t conrpleted a n c l D r c y f u s thc
U.S. FederalTrade commission for fibrcs o[ trreccllrros. ^..tni.
typc, the ofiicial dcfinition bcing as follows:
AcetaleFibres Acetate (and Triacetatc).A manufacturcd fibre in w h i c h t l r c
-fhc with a largc
c n d o f t h c r v a r f o t t n c lt h e D r e y f u s b r o t h e r s f i b r e - f o r m i n gs u b s t a n c ci s c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t c .W h c r c n o t l c s s
n o l o n g c r ntry clct'itttd
. . i L u t o r " a c e t a t cf a c t o i y i ' l l r i t a i r l , i i n d 9 2 p c r c c n t o [ t h e h y d r o x y l g r o u p s a r c a c c t y l a t c d ,t h c t e r n r
t o w o r k ; t h e r e f o r e t
' o t r y and dcvelop 'triacetatc'
io, nii.rntt dope.'l'hey'sc m a y b c u s c c la s a g e n . r n i c l c s c r i p t i o no f t h c f i b r e .
82 83
I I A N D B O O K O I : ' I ' E X ' I ' IL E I : I 8 I { E S
NAI-URAL l,oLYMSt{ rrt
r c s i d u a .rc c t i c a c i d f r o n r t h c a c e t y r a t i o n
' r i x t u r c , l o r r r r sa s o r u t i o '
(A) lcarvl,r,'noN oF wooD put-p ol( colroN LINT.ERS o f a c c t i c a c i c li n w a t c r .
T ' e c e t u l o s e t r i a c ^ c r ' aitsc a ' o w c d
Itatv IVlatcrial t o s t a n d i . t , i s s o r u t i o no [
a c e t i ca c i d i n w a t e r f . o r . t r pt o
Z Ot o r r r . b u r i , , g t h i s t i n r c ,p a r t i i r l
A s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f v i s c o s cr a y o n a . c l c u p r o , t h e c e l l u l o s e ^ydrolysis of the cc'ulose i.i^..-tnt"'i.i"s
pr".", sonrc of thc
t u s e da s r a r v m a t e r i a I i n a c e t a t em a n u f a c t u r ec o m e sc i t h e r f r o n r "
a c e t y lg r o u p s b e i n s
i L"J'rivj,"i;,;,"' -
c o t t o l l l i n t e r so r p r e d o r n i n a n t l yf r o n r p u r i f i e dw o o d p u l p .
C o t t o t r l i n t e r s a r e p u r i f i e d b ) , k i e r - b o i l i n gf o r s e v e i a l h o u r s
:i,;:"',: :.Jili,1f i'.:j:il ;,;lr,lll
:'i, :fJ:',
rhccornplcr.r :
r v i t h a s o l u t i o n o [ s o c l i u n rc a r b o n a t eo r c a u s t i cs o d a .T h e l i n t e r s ;l3lll
D c r r l gc ::L
o n v^t,.ol..rr:
/ n."ivilr.rtccllu
e r t e di n t o a p a r t i a l l y - a c e t y l a t c a toscrriaccrl
'I^e celrulose
a r e t h c n r v a s h e da n d b l c a c h c cw l i t h s o d i u m h y l r o c h l o r i t ew
, ashecl r e s t o r a t i o no f s o m c o f . t l i c h y c l r o ^ Vgt . o u p , ^ . " t , i i " . - - " "
o c c t a t e r n o l e c u l cc , a n g e s o' tlteccllrrlosc
againand dricd.
acet:rtc. ce'urose . t h e s o i u b i l i r y . 1 , u . ^ . t . .'rr,,il,,J"r,,iri"
is sorublo
in Jrrrorofo.ii,
Slccpirrg i' accrone;
in accrateis irrsorubrc
1 ' h e p u r i l i e d c o t t o n l i n t e r s o r w o o c l p u l p a r e s t e e p c di . g l a c i a l but
_ c h l o r o f o r m , s o l u - b l ei n ' n . . t o , -acetatc
acctic acicl to swell the llbrcs ancl incrcnsc thcir chemical 1'he partiallv-acetylate<l cellulose nradc in t'is wav is
r e a c t i v i t y .M o d c r n p r o c c s s cus s c v a p o u r - p h a slcc t i v a t i o u b n s c col r r o f t c n c a l l e d. . l l u l o r ,
a c e t i c - w tae r n r i x t u r c s .
l:i:l,l:;,i;;;;;' 'i,li".''';::;,,''i:ili,illf,,""1l,,i,";,,lli
so that cach glucoscunit now lras
two <li l,; ii;,:;;
-l'he hydroxylgrorps ac"tytati<I.
s w o l l e n c e l l u l o s ei s t r a n s f e r r c dt o a c l o s e d r c a c r . i o nv e s s e l 1,i,,1,r"r"",' t'e scco'cfaryacctatc
c o n t a i n i n ga n r i x t u r e o f a c c t i c a c i d a n d a n h y c l r i d el.' h e r n i x t u r e usedin spinningacctatcfibreao.r
nor .J.rcspo.aprcciscry witrr
has the following weight ratio: cellulosodiacetate.fhe hycrrolyri,
"iir* i.racctatcis arowccrto
Purificd linters I part proceeduntil eachglucoscunii
in thc cellirlosc ;;"r.."i.1,".i ""
Acetic anhydride3 parts average,about2| of its hy<lroxylgroupsu""tytot.a
acetatestructurelies part way Letwecn n* ;;.;;;1.;;
C l a c i a l a c e t i ca c i d 5 p a r t s t'at "i i;i*;;;;.;;ri
T h e r c a c t a n t sa r e n r i x c d , a n c l a s m a l l q u a n t i t y ( 0 . 1 p a r t ) o f diacetate.
s u l p h u r i c a c i d d i s s o l v e di n g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d i s a O a e d .. | h e D u r i n g t h e h v d r o l v s i sp r o c e s s ,
t c s t sa r c c a r r i c t ro u t a t i n t c r v a r s
a c c t y l a t i o n o f t h e c e l l u l o s e n o w p r o c e c d s .T h e r e a c t i o n i s to i'clicate
how the',r.-L..ivi"ii"u'ir'p"r*..,rirrg.
the desirect wrrc. it lr.s
e x o t h e r r n i c ,a n d t h e v e s s e il s c o o l e d t o m a i n t a i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e c l :."r:T9 point,.tlic,oiuiio,,i."porr.A into
ot water, arrd
a' cxccss
t e r n p e r a t u r ep r o f i l e . A f t e r a p e r i o d t h e t e m p e r a t u r ii s a l l o w e dt o 'l'ese the scco'dary acetatc is prccipitat.,l ;; ;lr;i;
r i s e a . d m a i ' t a i n e d a t a h i g h e r t e r ' p e r a t u r ei o r a f u r t h e r p e r i o d . flakes. are was'ecl t6r;;ilt ona ,rrry be grourrcli'to
D u r i n g t h i s t i n t e , c o n r p l c t ea c e t y l a t i o no f t h e c e l l u l o s et a k e s The acetic acicl is rccovercclfrom
the residual solution antl
p l a c c . T h e t h r c e h y d r o x y l g r o u p s o n c a c r r g l u c o s eu ' i t o f t h e u s e da g a i n .
c c l l r r l o s cn r o l c c u l ea r e : r l l a c c t y l a t c c la, n d t h c l r r o c t u c ti s c c l l u l o s c I)ry Spinrring
triacetate. is known as prinrary acetate.
Thc spin'ing solutio' is ma<Je f r o r ' a b l e n c lo f s c c o n d a r ya c c r a t c
Ilydrolysis (Itipcning) contairing material fronr a torg.
n u n r L " r - o i b a t c l r c . si ., o r a c r
l ' h c s o l r r t i o no f p r i r n a r y a c c t a t ei s t r a n s [ e r r e ctlo a n o t h c r v e s s c l , a s h i g h d e g r e eo f u n i i ' o r n i t y a s ' p o s s i U l c .
1 o : . : u . :
a c e t a t ei s d i s s o l v c ciln T'e blcndcd
a ' d ' r i x e d w i t h d i l u t e a c c t i c a c i d . T h e r e s i c l u aal c e t i c a ' h y d r i c l e c o n t a i r i i r r gi - s r r r n l lp r o p o r t i o n o I
r e a c t sr v i t h t h e w a t e rt o [ o r n r a c e t i ca c i c a w a t c r ( u p t o 5 p e r c c n.taocnc ttohneew c i g h t
l n d t h i s ,t o g e t h e r* i i r i i r r . o f " a c c t o r r c )a, n c lp i g r n c n t s
t t t a y b e a d d c d a t t h i s s t a g e .R i n e l y - _ d i v i J c , l
corbon black (2 pcr
S t a p l ef i b r e i s p r o d u c c db y c r i r n p i n gt h e l i l a r r r c n t s
ccnt on the weight of acetate) is used in rnaking black fibre; a|d
d nOu jlr,gn
ru nl ecnn cgytliie^. s lrhem m linro
t i t a n i u m d i o x i d e1 t - Z p . . c e n t o n t h e w e i g h t o f a c e t a t e i)s a d d e d
l trf u
l rnn g ul lr ec m ,rrori
i tr lr tron cs
hh^o. rr t t ^ - ^ , r - .
e n e t h s r a n g i n gf r o n t 3 8 - l 5 0
r r r n r( l t l - 6 i n ) . T h e s t a p l e l e n g t h i s c h i s e n t o b l c n ds u i t a b l y
in making dull libre. with
'dope', is filtercd carc- other.fibres in lnaking blencleriyarns.
The spltning solution, now known as ipinning
fully and deaeiated,ancl is ready for spinning' It contains 20-30 1l*::1.:!e.<lry -of'o sirnpli{icsthc producrion
It is pumped to the spinnerot'under- :j jl..l",:_ fiqT1jI,,"nF:rrs" ^process " r,!r. ; Ji^;r',..i""rr"*j,i
per"cent ccllulose acetate. n
' ceceudceud ri nn c o u
n s li cd leerraabbl leeq^u a n t i t y .
n nnul filtration on the way. From the spinneretholes,jets p r o d u c e d n e e d s a b o u t O . eS tkg
Every kg oi acctaic fibie
iioing off . o t ] , , i " . " 1.5
s o I s kg off ,acetic
lz. n ,^^ri^
6i ttiinning solution, 25-15 p in cliatnetcr,cmergeinto a spinning
iuU.. ffrir-i, an encloseclvesselthrough which hot air is llowing Iillili:; 1;9,
_cellulose, j d'l;
It lf.:::'*t''q'^o$
ni n t.,"p.roture of about 100'C. As the jets of spinning solution
:::,T:"':?.111.1: f gari;
ductionof acerare
fibrc is
ntcet the hot air stream, acetone is evaporated to leave solid recoveryof a.high proportion of thcse
the raw rnatcrials,so that riicf
f i l a r n c n t so f c e l l u l o s ea c e t a t e .M o r e t h a n 9 0 p e r c e n t o f can bc recvcled.
acetonein tlte jets is evaporated during the fraction of a second
that the jet is moving downwarclsthrough the spinning tube'. lVet Spinning
ifr" nlwly-forme,l filurn.nt of cellulose acetate is stretched T h e . f i n a l s t a g ei n t h e p r o < l u c t i o no f
s e c o n c r a rcyc l r u l o s ca c c t . t c
,f igfriiy wtrite stitt plastic,to align the long molectrlesa'd develop
t h e s t r e n- g mtoho v i[ntgh e l l l a m c n t . :,:'::1'l:
i'l*'' .".i;i;i,iliil;;';";J"i;
After < l o w n w a r d st h r o u g h t h e s p i n n i n g t u b e f o r . a l,::ll.l::li1lcid
a solutio',from which.itis prccipitated ,',i,,1:,J;
distance of sevJral feet, the filaments are sprayed or wiped with In the n9r3al way, this precipitation
bycrilutio'*itr, *;t..l
lubricant. Thcy pass round a guide roller and emerge from
the is*Jarri.a out i. suchir
s p i n n i n g t u b e o n t o a c o n s t a n ts p e e d f e e d r o l l ' F r o m t h i s ' t h cy Iil"i.:":l l.l1Lll.: of for
n .tut.Jii.i, *. J,ir,r.o"er,,ri
which may wind the untwisted .,: .l:,.ron" "" ir"''ol ;,;';;;;' ;r";; ",ffffi:
"t"^I llj: o,':'
nie leaio a winding mechanism
filaments on to a cylindrical tube, or insert twist and
then ill:::'::": u't
iJn;i ; ;i; ; ; ; iIil" ;l:lli
mechanisms arrd cheese [r"l':Y:,:.::-uld. b: ex ; rrr",*.*i ;;iJ'iii:"J,ll]
*i,ia tn. trvistedyurn on to bobbins' Ring lose acetateprecipitateclin t^e forri
oi n'ionr.nt, in au aqucous
c o l l e c t i o na r e c o t n n l o n l Yu s e d ' c o a g u l a t i n gb a t h .
Acetate ftlament yains procluce<lin this way are ready for Wet spinning techniqucsof this sort have
immediate use, without any of the washing or purilication s p i n n i n gc e l l u l o s ea c e t a t e .
becn clcvclopedfor
n.rentsthat are necessary with wet-spun fibres'
itl" technique of dry spinning is made possible by the
that seconclarycellulosen".tut" dissolves in a readily-evaporated Illclt Spinniug
.otu.nt'acetone.Theprocessissimplerandfastertl-ranthewet Celluloseacetateis a thermoplasticfibrc;
spinning processesuseclwith viscoseand cuprammoniurniuygl! it nrclts when hcatcd
to temperaturesin the of 230"C., ancl molten-;;.i;;';
o r i J t p i n n i n g m a y b e c a r r i e d o u t a t v e r y , h i g h s p e e d so f -region
sullicientlystablc to undergo -.ft ,pinn-G.
i i i . l r . i p e r r r i i n u t e .T h e r e i s n o h a n d l i n g o f t l t e f i l a r n e r t b
t e t ween
w i t , t ' c d c v e l o r m c n to i n r c l t s p i i r n i i r l
i c c h n i q u . sf o r s y ' t l r c t i c
e x t r u s i o na n d c o l l e c t i o r t . l i b r e s . ,t h e ' r e l t i p i n n i ' g o r . . i r r i o r . ' ^ . . t " t "
Acetate filarnentsare proclucedin a rangeof co.unts,the nlost practical possibility, and- many has beconrca
witlt yarn ";;;;i,r,;;;.1 fibres havc bccn
o o o r t u t f i l a r n e n t sb e i n g ^ o [ 3 . 3 - 4 . 4 d t e x ( 3 - 4 d e n ) "l'_j i ns.om eui"v,ir*, ni^..",r'o."a"iili
4 .4t -o2r O
c o i r r r-t fsn s ,O O d t e x ( 4 0 - 1 8 0 0 d e n ) .T h e c o u t t t i s c o n t r o l l e dD y ll," Iu r;.I|1,
b ry d
u rJy sr pprillll. n,g ,n oortaaiq.,
rnr rnui 8 bllyy il n tuht eelirr r eeaacctti lo n t o b o i l i n g
itii.. ( l ) t 5 c i a t e a t w 6 i c 5 s p i ' . i ' g s o l u . t i o rits . p u n r p e d s p u n f i l a m c n t s t e n c l t o r J e r u s t r ei n
watcr. Dry
b o i r i n g w a t e r , b u t ' r cnrct l t s pput rnn
t o t h e s p i r t n e r e t(,2 ) t h e s i z e o f t l l e s p i r t n e r eltt o l c s , a n d ( J ) t l l e ItIame
ntsdonot.rh. ; ;;i;;'" r"'.ii,o"i,nriii;,,ir'i,
rate at wl'ticlt tlte filarnent is drawn away from tlte spinneret' "'ffi iJlil
RI I l I T E S
I\lodiliqrtionof Filnnrent
C O T I O NL I N T E R s rffiq
I* conr'ron with other.rnan-made fibres, cellurose
nray be produced in physically_modifiedfornrs
acctatc fibrcs
by ,r,oniputniio,,
of the spinning process.
Spun-dyedacetatelibres are now bcing nradc
in great varicty
bv the addition of pigments.to the spilning
PROPYLENE sorutlon p.i"i-i6
gas e x t r u s i o n .c a r b o n b l a c k p r o v i c r e sb l a c i f i b r e s ;
ACTIVATED is used to modify lustre.
CELLULOSE of spinneretorificesof appropriatcslrapcsrvill proclucc
a l a r l r c ' t s o r u n u s u a l c r o s s - s e c t i o r sa, n d r n a ' y v a r i a t i u i r s
ACETYLATED nrade commercially. Frat firaments rcflcct
tnc tigtrt ana yi.iJ
CELLULOSE novelty glitter yarns.X- ancry-shaped cross-sectioniprovi.t"
T A C E T I CA N H Y D R I D E of improved handle ancl.covering-power,nna yornr'*iri;f
in water. Thick and thin yarnJ and siub yarns
are nrade by
varying the rate of feed of the solution to
tlie spinn.;.i; ;;; ;i,
thc extrusion of diflercnt filanrcnts which
,"" ,,,frr.qi,.,rtfi
c o l n b i n c di n t o c o r n p o s i t cn o v c l t y y a r n s .
l r..or.ry andrc-usc
waihinq . A. (B) lcnrvrnrtoN oF cr:rrul.ostc FIDRE5
w a t c r - > d r i i n q - > w c a k a c c t i ca c i d
In . the production of celluloscacctate fibres
by thc norrnal
tcchnique, the raw material is ceilulose in a
fibrous form trrut
- a c c t o n cc x h a u s t o r e c o v e r ya -n- d rc-use i is not, however, suitable for textile use. Cotton
+------- ----i rinters ;;. i;;
s h o r t t o b e s p u n i n t o a s a t i s f a c t o r yy a r n ; w o o c l
c e l l u l o s ei s
c o n t a m i n a t e dw i t h n a t u r a l g u m s a n d r e s i n s ,
and the fibrcs in
puri{ied wood pulp ^r" ugain too short
to fbrrn u t."tli;-;;r;;:
During.acetylation, the fibrous structurc o[
*obtdinablc from eithcr
acetic acid or acctonc the ccllulosic'raw
.is-destroyed; the acetylateclcellulose forms a solution
from which celluloseacetateis precipitated as
flakcs; trrc nakes
are redissolvedand spun .into filamenis.
warm air ->
It has long been known that cellulose fibres
may unclcrgo
chemical modilication without losing thcir fibrous
f"orm. If"a
r------- cellulosictextile fibre is acetyratedun*crpr sucrr"onaitions, lt -ov
I b e c o n v e r t e di n t o a f i b r e w h i c h i s e i t h e r c c l l u l o s e
* t r i a c c t a t co r a '
i ' t i n r a t e r n i x t u r e o f c e l l u l o s ct r i a c e t a r .aen d c c l l u l o s c
ard is in a
s t a t es u i t a b l ef o r i r n r n e d i a t et e x t i l eu s c .
F I I - A M E N TY A R N
C o t t o n f i b r e s o f t e x t i l e q u a l i t . ym
- a y b c a c c t y l n t c <wl i t h o u t l o s i r r g
ilreir.fibrousfornr, the modincd hbrcs bci,rg ccllulose
Acetale Flotv Chart Practical processesfor the production of acclyratedcotto.

b e e n e s t a b l i s h e db y t h e U . S ' D e p a r t m e u t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , u s i n g PROCESSING
e i t h c r a b a t c h w i s eo r c o n t i u u o t r st e c h n i q u e .
Batchwise Proccss.Cotton fibrc, yartr or fabric is purificd by
c e l l u l o s e a c e t a t ei s s e n s i t i v ct o c a u s t i c a r k a l i , w h i c r r r c n c r s
b o i l i n g i n d i l u t e c a u s t i cs o d a , w a s h e da_n d d : i e d . l t i s t h e n a l l o w e d to
to soik in acetic acid for at least I hour. Excessacid is squeezed b.ringabout hydrolysis of the acetategroups. yarns anct fabrics
from the cotton, which is then treated with a mixture of acetic should not be scoured undcr alkalinc ionditions.
a c i d a n c l a c e t i ca n h y c l r i d ei n t h e p r e s e n c eo f a s n r a l l a m o u n t o f sulphatedfatty acid at 60.C., ammonia, or tetrasodiu,npyrfplos-
perclrloric acicl catalyst. After treatment for I hour at 20"C'' p h a t e a n d s u r f a c ea c t i v ea g e n ta r e e f f c c t i v e .D e t c r g e n G - n r ., , o r u
t h e c o t t o n i s w a s h e da n d d r i e d . widelyused.
Continuous Process,Tltis process,rvhich is designedfor ttse Illeaching
with fabr.ic,is essentiallythe satne as the above, but presoaking c e l l u l o s e a c e t a t e i s a w h i t e f i b r e , a n c r b r c a c h i n gi s s c l c r o ' r
i s s h o r t e n e cb l y c a r r y i n g i t o u t a t 8 2 ' C ' f o r 2 m i n u t e s .T h e n e c e s s a r yI.f b l e a c h i ' g i s r e q u i r e d , a l k a r i n e c o n d i ' [ i o n ss h o u r d
fabric is coolecl an<l passed coutinuously through a bath of
*"1::1,1.3:.t:i9 or a soctium
perchloric acicl in acetic acid, followed by treatment with acetic p e r o x l c t e b a t , hs h ofrltgrtrlorite,
uld be used.
i n h y d r i d e i n a n a c e t y l a t i o nv e s s e lf o r 3 m i n u t e s a t 2 0 " C ' T h e
c o t t o n i s t h e n w a s h e da n d d r i e d .
P a r t i a l t y a c e t y l a t c dc o t t o n p r o c l u c e di n t h i s w a y h a s g r e a t l y
improveclrot- and lteat-resistttnce (seePA cotton, Vol. l). cellulose acetate dirlcrs in its che'rical structurc froln
ce_llulosic fibres, such as cotton, viscoseancl cupro. All but a fcw
Viscose of the reactive hydroxyl groups of the ccliulose havc
acetylated,and acetate will not, as a rule, acccpt
D u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 sJ, a p a n e s es c i c t t t i s t d s e v e l o p e da s i m i l a r p r o c e s s thc dycs that
are normally used for ccllulosicfibres.
for the direct a c e t y l a t i o no f v i s c o s ef i b r e w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n gi t s
When acetate fibre came on the nrarket, its succcssful
fibrous form. This technique has uow become the basis of a com_
mercial development was prejucliccclby thc fact
conrmercial process rvhich produces a cellulose acetate fibre that availablc
t y l a t i o no f t h e dyestuffs were unsarisfactoryfor the riew fibrc. N.;
r l i r c c t f r o n r a p o l y n o s i c - t y p cv i s c o s eb y d i r e c"tla' oclct a loll"
'Alott' or dycstull wcre discovercdfor dycing acctate,notably
i i b r c . l " i b r c sc a r r i c dt l r c t r a d c r l a t n c s thc ilispcrsc
dyes, and acctatecan now be cryedsatisfacforilyrn'a
T h e a c e t y l a t i o ni s c a r r i e d o u t b y s o a k i n g p o l y n o s i c r a y o n wia" ritirtc
o f s h a d e s .A c e t a t e w o v e n f a b r i i s a r e n o r r n a l l y l l g
s t a p l e i n a s o l u t i o n o f a c a t a l y s t ( e . g . s o d i u m a c e t a t e ,z i n c d y e A fr.t*..n
l gi t t h r o u g h a 60 and g8oc at pFI 6.0 to 6.5 clepenai,igoii'tr,i ;ffi;;;;;;;;;;;
s u l p h a t e )p, a r t i a l l yd r y i n g t h c f i b r e a n d t h e n p a s s 'i ft h e
c h a n r b e rc o n t a i n i n ga c c t i c a c i d v a p o u r a t I l 0 ' C . fibre then dyeing.equipnrent can also be used to dyc *uu.,,
passcs through an acetylating chamber containing acetic a c e t a t et a b r i c s ,b u t i s n o r m a l l y u s e dt o d y e a c e t a t ct r i c o t .
a n h y d r i d eY a p o u ra t 1 3 0 " C . B o i l i n gw a t e r t e n d st o d e l u s t r ea c e t a t ef i b r e , a ' c r c r y e i n g s h o u t c r
Acetylatiott takcs place,to a slightly lcss dcgreethan in normal b e c a r r i e d o u t i f p o s s i b l e a t t e m p e r a t u r e sr o w c r g5oc.
seconclaryacetatc. The fibrc is washed in water, lubricant is I I o w e v e r ,a c e t a t eo f 5 5 a c e t y rv a l u e i s r c s i s t a n tt o < l c r u s t r i nag' t l
acldecl,arrcl it is dried in warm air. The crintp of the libre is d o e sn o t r e q u i r ed y e i n ga t t e m p e r a t u r elso w e r t h a n g 5 o C .
retained throughout the process.
A c e t y l a t i o n b y t h i s t e c h n i q u ed o e s n o t c a u s ed e g r a d a t i o no f
the cellulose to the extent that normal acetylation in solution . Spttrt-DyeclAcctate. A wide rangc of spun_clyccl
acctatc libres
<locs.'flte acctylatcd viscosc fibrc is strongcr tltan norrnal is now produced.
s c c o n d a r ya c c t a t e d , ry or wet, with lower clongation.
90 9l

Slripping length.Staplcfibre is by chopping

mcntsinto shorrrengrhs, the continuousfila-
Treatment with soap solution will bring about partial stripping wrrichi." uru'oiri"ii*p.J'"ffii"iiy.
38-75 rrn.(l%-3,rf) stapleis cornnronly
of dispersed dyes. Addition of activated carbon will usually producedfor uscon
complete the stripping. A stripping bath containing zinc .r'achinery.7S_l2i.r''r (:_S--i"j'rtrpf. i; t;;;r;J
rvorsted ;;,
sulphoxylateformaldehyde and acetic acid may also be used. and woollen u,,A'JlS_fg0 nrrn (5_7 in)
stapleon spunsilkmachinery.
fiinishing Continuousfilanrentaceiate protlucecl
of filarrre't .is ^l
conrnrercially irr a
The appearance,handle and draping propertiesof acetatefabrics
are generally excellent, and the dimensional stability of- wet fibrenraybeashighaszi rtieifzOa.n;,li;;'ii
Staple 'i:;r,r'Ji,i
o, inii..
non-iextured,fabricsis good. Finishingprocessesdesignedto brittg ..
Thernicroscopicappearance of an acetate
about intprovements in these respects are not often necessary rhat of the rayonsbut is very ;i,;ii;i;'thar filamentdilTcrsfront
filamentis marked uy tongituai'"i i"riJ of rriacerare.
with all-acetatefabrics. ancrricrges.
sectionoutlinois buili up ol.os monv Trre cross-
Filament yarn fabrics made from acetatetend to su{Ier from u, iu" or six rouncrcd
yarn slippage,ancl finishes are used to roughen the surfaceof the If the acetate -;.in",iriy"iy
firaments havenot u.enauri.J
filaments artd createa rustle or scroop. addirionof ritanium dioxide "; ;ih";;igments,
they are clear
Acetatc staplc is a constituentof all manner of blended yarns, and glossy.
especiallywith viscose staple. The acetate providcs drape, solt 'fcnsllc
hanclle, dimensional stability and wrinkle resistance.Blended
yarns ancl fabrics of this type may be subjected to finishing Normal acetatefibre, fornri.g-the
bulk of t'c
ireatments which are intended primarily to affect the viscose , a sa t e n a c i toy ? o b o u fg . ) _ r 1 . 5 output of t'is
t y p eo f f i b r e h
g/rlen).It does not rose,,rtt.'gth-io c N / t c x( t . l _ 1 . 3
fibre, ancl the acetate must be able to withstand the conditions iiiart<ectyas viscoserroes
usect.It shoulcl be remembered that acetateis sensitiveto heat, wlrenwet;the tenacityfallsro f.i_i?rVt.*(0.65_0.75elden).
water and alkali, and linishing processesshould not be used t''e te'siresrre.pih,
of acetate
tr;;;i r)ait:15;0-ft);;i,
which subjectthe nbre to dilute alkali or to water at temperatures ( I B,000-22,000 lb/inz;.
above 80"C. Dry temperaturesshould not exceed 140"C.
The thermopiastic nature of acetate makes possible tlt" Elongation
embossingof atetate and acetateblend fabrics. Patterns may be 23-30 per cent (Standard);35_4j per cent (wct).
embossedon the fabric by passing it, for example, through a
heated calender.
Acetate fibres have a natural sheen which may be destroyed Elastic Properties
by incorporating fincly-tlispersedtitanitrm dioxide in the spinning At,4 per cent elongation,acetatehas a rccovcry
of 4g_65.f,;;;
pcr ccnt.
solution. Modcrn acctatc fibrcs are commonly produced as dttll When stretched further, thc
a bright acetatemay be delustred
gradesin this way. If nccess.rry, becomcspermancntlvdeformc<I .fibre r'inJ.rgoi, plastic ;i
",Ja"., ".it rcturn to its original
by boiling it in watcr, particularlyin soapy water to wltich a length when relcasei. At 5 pcr ""ni
""i"i.,rion, acctatc '35*r*
has an
swelling agent such as phcnol ltas been added. immediate recovery of.54 pct cen-t,;-ari;y.a
cent and a permanent set of I I pcr
figuresfor l0 per ccnt extension or" il,-12'
and 4l per ccnt.
Fine Structurcand APPearance
Specifc Gravlty.
The length ancl finenessof acetate llbres are controlled by the
manufaclurer. Continuous filaments can be made to almost any L30.
92 93

"l r r

Eflect of Moisture ^ . a c i d s ,i n c l u . d i n g- a c e t i c a n c l f o r n r i c a c i d s , w i l l n r a k e
a c e t a t ef i b r e s s w e l l . A t s u f f i c i e n t r yh i g h c o . c e n t r a t i o . s .
as a result of the attraction a.rcous
Watcr is hclcl by ordinrry ccllulose solutionsof forrnic and acetic aciis w'ilr,rirroru. ..iiui;;.-;;;;;.
hy6roxyl- groups on the cellulose
betwcen ttre woter-tovini Alkalis
groups h^Y:.it"^1
rrrolecule.ln accrare,t";;y ;i these hyaroxyl
attraction of acetatelor Alkalis have little effectup to pH 9.5, brrt strong
replacedby acetateg,oupi; the inherent a l k a l i sc a u s e
less than that of viscose or cupram- saponification; the acetate g.oups arc rcplaccd"
*it , .ot..ules is therefore ty fryar"_yj
groups and the cellulosc acetate is grirlually
moniunr rayons' Jf,^,i'e.i-"-i"
water as the rayons' The regcncratedccllulose.
Acetate cloes not absorb as much
about per cent' Immersed in
stanclarclmoisture t.g-uin is -6-5
p e r c e ' t . ( V i s c o s eo, .n t h e Cetrcral
w a t c r , a c c t a t c* i t f s w i i i b y a b o u t 6 - 1 4
o t l . r c rh a n d , s r v c l l sb y 3 5 1 6 6 p e r c e u t , a t t c l c u p r a n r n r o n i u n br y A c e t a t ei s a t t a c k e db y s t r o n g o x i c r i z i n ga g c n t s ,b u t
is not aflcctcd
40-62 Per ccnt.) by normal bleaching soluiions of iyiochiorirc
or p";";1.il
(Peroxide degradesacetate on long stancting.)
The chemical propertics of an lcetatc libre <Jepcnd
. on thc
material' lt becomessticky degreeto which acetategl9up,
Cellulose acetate is a thertnoplastic -Thc have rcplaccd hydroiyl groupr'Jn
is sofi enotrghto deform under pressure' the cellulose moleculc..
ri iso;C. ancl at zos;c. moro tryCroxyt gruup, iir.,;';;;
It nrcltsat about 232"C' rcr'aining, thcgrcatcris thc fibrc's 'ccirulosic'
"i,tru.Lr. r"ru.r.rn
c o m m e r cai acle t a h
t ea sa na c e t yvla l u e
E,|ect ol lTigh TentPerature
high temPeratureswithout EIIect of OrganicSolvents
The fibre will rvithstand prolonged
tiO'C., it retains nruch of
s e r i o u sc l e t e r i o r a t i o uA. f t e r a w e e k a t Acetate swells or dissolvcs,in many solvents,
including accl.one
its original tensilestrengtlt' and other kctones, u".tut., ethyi acctatc," ;i";;;;
. . .mcthyl _
dichloroethylene,cres.ol,p'enol, cntoroform,
FlannrobilitY methylene"ii;;;;;:
ethylenechloride. It '.qinsorublein petroleum
Exposed to a naked che'ricals such as
Cellulose acetate is not readily flammable' white. spirit or petrol. (gasoline),"thyl .tl.,cr,
bcnzene, toluenc,
flamc it will melt a n d b u r n ' rrichlorocrhylcne,carbon rcrrachlorictc,cyclo-
f e:"^|t:I":lllylene,
n x a n o l ,x y l e n e .
l,flect of Age
over prolonged periods'
T h e r e i s a s l i g h t f a l l i n tensile strength Insects
The colour of the fibre renrains M o t h s a n d o t h e r i n s r c l . sd o n o t n o r n r a l l y a t t a c k
a c c t a t e ;g r u b s
Efiect of Sunlight w i l l . b i t e t h r o u g h t h e f i b r e si n a n e f f o r t t o g c t
after 'lii:i-r:"',;
beterioration food.
at'rore attractivc

-p ii
I'i' .::J:'i'.oro,,.aigme'
i,\li:l3l,l,' titaniurn
ts' "J'tigt'i-ro't Micro-orgauisms
dioxicle Fungi and bacteriamay causosurfacc cranragc
ChcrnicalI'roPcrties b u t r e s i s t a n c ei s g c n e r a l l yh i g h .
not affect acetate, but the Elcctrical Propcrlies
D i l u t e s o l u t i o n so f w e a k acicls do solutions'
in concentrated Excellentinsulator.
fibres are dccomPosedbY s t r o n g a c i d s
94 l:
!i, I t: .ll . t..i;. :


t h a t i n c r e a s e dc o n t i n u o u s l yu n t i l l g 6 9 - 1 9 1 0 .
In general,modern acetatefabrics can be treated in nruch the
san'roway as natural fibres and the rayons.'fhcy can bc dyccl ancl
cN/tex finished,washed and dry-cleaned,ancl will withstanclall ihe co.-
ditions that are met in ordinary commercial ancl dorncstic use.
It must be remembered,howcver, that acctatcis funclarncntallv
dillcrent in its chemical structure from thc rayons ancl natural
fibres. It therefore dillers in its behaviour in nrany ways, and
these diflerencesmust be taken iuto account in thc handling of
Acetate is thermoplastic, for example, and it must not bc
subjectedto high temperatures.It will deform tunderprcssureat
This tendencyfor acetate fibres to soften on bcing hcateclis
madeuse of in t h e p r o c e s s i n go f a c e t a t cg o o d s . F a b r i c s c a n b c
cmbosscdwith p a l t c r n s t h a t a r c i n r p r c s s c do n t h c w a r m c d
The rclativcly low moisture absorptionof acctatcfibrcs rcndcrs
Vo 30 40 .so a c e t a t cl e s s l i a b l c t o d a m a g c b y s t a i n i n gw i t h m i r n y s u b s t a n c c s .
(% rloNcertot't,
Fruit juices, ink, food and othcr watcr-iorubre stai.s are clsilv
sponged or washed out.
. Acetate fabrics dry rapidly, and are particularly suitable for
b a t h i n g s u i t s ,r a i n w e a r a n d u m b r e l l a s .
Cellulose acetate does not concluct hcat readily; acctate
Other ProPertics garments are cool in summer and warm in winter.
natural .lustre and a pleasant Acetate has little natural colour; the dyer can procluceacctatc
Acetate yarns have a.n attractive
is har<Jerthan that of the rayons' fabrics in a range of shadcs varying from a dJicatc tint to a
handle.The surfaceof-tft" fibr"
heat' .
Acetate is a poor conductor of decp, heavy colour.
yarns and f"b;i* ;;t non-toxic' and do not irritate the The richnessand variety of shades,allied with the softncssancl
pliability of the acetatefibre, have hclpcd to makc acctateinto a
skin. 'bcauty'
f i b r e . A c e t a t eg a r m e n t sc l r a p cw e l l a n c lh a v c a n a t t r a c t i v c
ACETATE IN USE h a n d l c ;t h c y a r c s o f t , a n d n c v c r h a r s h .T h e y r c t a i n t h c i r s h a p ci f
h a n d l e dw i t h r e a s o n a b l ec a r e a n d < l o n o t e a s i l y w r i n k l c .
commercial use was an excltlng
Thc introcluctionof acetoteinto Acetate fabrics have an unusuaily attractivc crrapc. Acctatc
*oriJ.-rri" chemical structure of the fibre is
event in the textile satins will fall naturally in grace[ul folcls; tafrctas retain thcir
of any natural fibre or of any
funclanrentallydifrererii iiom that crispnessunder sevcreconditions of wear.
The propertics of acctatc
of the regcncrated ""iruior" rayons.
diffcrcnt. lrom tltosc of any fibrc in lYashing
were, itt consequence;;;tt;
It was' in this respect'a step
"."lt ift. tinro of its introduction' T h c r e l a t i v e l y l o w m o i s t u r c a b s o r p t i o no I a c c t n t c f i b r e s c o n _
iotuota, thc completely synthetic t r i b u t e st o t h e g o o d d i m e n s i o n a sl t a b i l i t yo I a c c t a t ef a b r i c s w h c n
r t a t u r a lu t t , " i i u # t t i o f c e l l u l o s ea.c e t a t e 'c o ' m b i n e dw i t h
w e t c o n ) p a r e ct ol v i s c o s ef a b r i c s .
s u s t a i n e da d e n r a t t df o r a c e t a t e
it, "rif"i"pia"ii.tt pioptiii"t'

Trt '-l r-1 'I

shapeappreciably END USES
Acetatefabricsclo not shrinkor losetheir by boiling
rvhen rvashecl. They ;r;- ;;t affecte<l significantly Acetate lilament varns,areused in
ntany types of rvomcn,sdrcss-
;;;;, ;;t;";" delustringmav occur' Lustre is generallv restored rvrar,from rinirigs,
ri'gerieand gow'i t" rritiiiiu'l;it;';i.,',i
A;;t" ruutiJt wili withstanclorclinarvsoap.solutions' blouscs' Staplefibreis usecr
in fuller i-,ot"riolr;blendcdwith otrrer
;;;;;"j;;. should be
iit.tg""t. and bleaJet, t'ut alkaline conditions fibres,acetat.e.staple providesu *iA" vuri"ty of drcssfabrics.
providesresilience It
avoided. and resistance to shrin[agein suchbrcncrs.
Washingof acetategarmentsplgs:^njs. no difficulties'eitherby r.
and neutralsoap
f,^nJoi ,iuchine.War"m(40"C', 104"F')water nq
,]::, socks.and pyjamas.. Srallc fibre gocsinro rnanyblcnjs
inouto L" ut'a' Agitation. should be sentle and tlrat are spun into suitings,shirt fabricsaid
;;";.;;t;;;i wet or thev matcriaili;. ;;;;t;
not u" *tung o9l ot. twisted when wear.
;;;;;it";ust 'tiey shJulclbe kept flat as far as possible' Ma'y fine householcl
ii^v i.i"i" creascs. ancrfurnisrri.g textiles,a.crnraterials nrc
nradefronr acctate,ancl_ thc gooclelcciricalinsulatio"
Note of rhe fibre rravecarriedin irito th" ;i;;i;i"or ;r;;;;;ii;;
poults'satins'brocades - inoustiy.'ii"ii ,r.i
Many fabricsfor eveningwcar' such as. andelaborate
as the insulatcdcoveringfor electric;il;.
;;;i;fi;t^t, ar" macle fro-n, Evening
acetate' dresses
the constructionand decora-
;i;1.;'t-h;;14be dry clcanedbecause at home'
tion of thc fabric nluk. unsuitablc
tl'ttn't for washing

givena cold rinse
Acetategarmentsdry reaclily'They shoulclbe
ioiro*'J bv a (15
short.spin seconds)'-Tumbler
;;j;;;;:;i;;l;s, is run cold before
Ityi"g-it t"tisfictory prouiO"athat.the drier
Drying temftraturesshould not exceed 105'C'
with a warm iron (HI-CC
Acetate fabrics should be ironecl
pressurecloth' and^to
s"rii"g zi. ii it pr"r.inule to use a damp
ii trieir.t
t"rnp.ratur"s. than about 120"C.
;;;^;"" iii"l.u.rr, ,i;;.
tne cettuiJse-""ti"it may beg-in to soften and the
are used,
pressure.of tho iron' The surface
ilt;;-y -i;;;; be Oeformedby the plastic lilaments
;i';; raurtc.w't b""o*l glazed as the
are flattened.
4.5 kg/cnrz
ln commerciallaundering,coveredpressesat INTI{ODUCTION
(65 lb) steanlpressure aresatisfactory'
Dry Cleaning
early attemptsto creverop
textilcfibresfronr ccturoscacctatc
wcrcconcernedvery largelywith the material
Acetatefibre is sensitive to many typesof solvent(seeStructure
-n'tuit obtaincclbt .;;rr:
u" taken in bringingany plcteacetylatio'of ceiluiose.
Trrisis cerruiose
unJ lrop.rti.s),
';l".ni "ni great care triacctatc,iir'*lii"i,
thc threeavailablehycl.roxylgroupsof
"rst"f. into contact with acetatefabrics' Perchloro- cellulosc
"' -"-"
cacirglucoseunit of thc
anclpetroleurn' arc'ailicetyi;i;j.
"irivi.ii., lri.hloroctliylencor carbontctrachloride
(".g. solvent)
Sioctctarcl may be used in dry cleaning'
98 99.
A: N A 1 . UR A L I ' O L Y M I l l l . I r t B l t E s

Cellulose triacetate is not soluble in acetone, which dissolves arrdnorv produce a singlc triacetatcfibre, the traclcnrark ,-I'riccl,
cellulose acetate,and few solvents were known for it during the bcing retained, with British Celanescas thc produccr.
early years oI the present century. At that time, when attempts 1954, Cel,aneseCorporation o[ Americi began
rverc being made to produce acetate fibres by dry spinning -ln -anclproduction
of a triacetatefibre under the Lradenarnc .Arncl', production
solutions of cellulose acetate,the most satisfactory solvent avail- of triacetate fibres is now proceeclirrgin sevcraf countrics.
able for the triacetate was chloroform. And lilament yarns were
produced experimentally by dry spinning solutions of cellulose
triacetatein chloroform.
This experimental work continued up to the outbreak of Worl<l Sce page 83.
War I. In 1914,the I ustron Company, in the U.S.A., began to
produce triacetate yarns in quantities of up to 300 lb. per day
by dry spinning chloroform solutions. This production continuetl 'fhe
on a very modest basis until 1927, when it was discontinued. infornration in the section which follows rclatcsparticularly
Trvo factors contributed to failure of this early triacetatefibre to the British fibre 'Tricel,, which rnay be taken as a typical
project, (l) the use of chloroform as solvent was expensiveand cxamplc of a modern triacetatc fibre.
dangerous,and (2) the triacetate lilaments could not be dyed
satisfactorilyrvith thc dycstufls thcn availablc. PI{ODUCl-ION
Despite this setback, interest in cellulose triacetate was kept
alive by the succcss of the closely related secondary cellulose Experiencegained in the rnarrufactuleoI scconcllrryccllulosc
'I'he acctatewas put to good.use in tlrc cotnrncLcialdcvcioplrrcnt
acctate process. development of special dyestuffs for o[
secondary acetate fibres went a long way towards solving that ccllulosetriacetate.Thc production of triacetateis, iri cflect,
difliculty for triacetate, and eventually methylene chloride was stagein the production of the scconclaryacctate.
found to be a satisfactory solvent for triacetate.This solvent was
more suitablc than chloroform as the basis for a commercial llarv Mnterials
dry sp.inningprocess.
Cellulosein the fornr oI purified cotton lintcrs or wood pulp.
With this successagainst the two biggest barriers to triacetate
Iibre production, it became apparent that the libre might have
very significant practical advantages over secondary acetate. Prclrcalmcnt
Cellulose tr.iacetatefibres were found to have a relatively low The celluloseis pretreatedin aceticacicl/watervapout.
watcr inrbibition and moisture rcgain, plus a high degree of
chernicalinertness.They had a high mclting point, below which Acclylalion
heating produced irreversible physical changes which improved
This may be carricd out in such a way that thc cellulosctrjacctntc
the chemical and physical stabilty of the fibre. These changes
cither goes into solution as it is formcd, or rc(ains thc structurc
enablcd triacetatcfibres to be heat set.
of thc original cellulosc.
Alter scveral years' rescarch work, Courtaulds Ltd., U.K.,
began the commercial developmentof cellulosetriacctatefibrcs
'JPS', was (a) Solution Proccss
in 1950. fhe rcsultant fibre, first referred to as
announced undcr the trade mark 'Courplcta' in 1954. In that Prctreated ccllulose is acctylatcd by trcatnrcrrt rvith
ycar, British CelancseLtd. announccd that they werc to intro- acctic
anhydride and sulphuric acid in thc prc..n." of acetic
ircitl. As
ducc ''friccl' triacetatc fibre. Later, Courtaulds and British tlc acctylation procceds,ccllulose triacctatc js fornrccl,
an<.1 it
Celancsc linkcd their research eflort and production experience dissolvcs.Thc solutiorris ripcncd, nragnesiunracctatc and

_I : I - I r l

being addcd to replace any sulphate groups on the cellulose lYct Spinning
molecule by acetategroups, and the cellulosetriacetateis pre- As in the case of secondarycellulose
c i p i t a t e d b y d i l u t i n g t h e s o l u t i o n r v i t h r v a t e r .T h e c e l l u l o s e acetate,solutionsof thc
triacetatemay be spun into coagulating
triacetateis washed until free of acid, and dried. The triacetate baths which contain
water or other liquids which bring
produced in this way has an acetyl value of 61.5 per cent. about precipitationof the
A modificationof this solutionprocessmakebuseof methylene
chloride as solvent instead of acctic acid. Smaller amounts of l\lelt Spinning
sulphuric acid catalyst arc necded,and a mild hydrolysis pro-
Cellulose triacetate is a thermoplastic nraterial,
duces a triacetateof 62 per cent acetyl content and higher, up triacetatemay be spun into nta-ents Uy
and molten
to the maximum. mclt spinningprocesscs.
(b) N on-solutiort Proccss
.^._loittwirh orher fibres,anclrhe techuiques
I::,".;::" jt:.19: ar.,.in g.n".al,
Pretreated cellulose is steeped in benzene or other liquid
capable of swellingcellulosetriacetatewithout dissolvingit, and
l:'.9,._T'i::11t. suitable i;; i;;;",*"i;;:
is then treated with acetic anhydride and perchloric acid (or g, spinn
inf r,,,1,l;bi'i;;-co,"i
r,.'rrri.o uut.
aragof triacetate
othcr acid) catalyst. Acetylation procceds, but the ccllulosc ,'l::,.:il:':1r:u rnakesil ,il"irotl.
ro re(lucc
triacetatedocs nol. dissolveas it is fornrcd. lt rctains thc shape toa nriniriru'r i. wi'Ci'g.o,,ir,,,iL,ir'
of the or'iginalcellulose.
The triacetateis washed until acid-freeand tlien dricd. High Triacetate
r r r.rLcL.rLiiyarns
yarns are
are a little
lltt.le more diflicult to size owing
thc lower moisture take-up as comp , to
rnolecularweight triacetatenray be obtained more easily by this parcd
arcd wwith
ith acelrin Siznc h,,c^,1 acetiltc.Sizes
rncthod. ort polyvinyl alcohol, acrylates,ana,''.,eiliacryiaicl-are biscrl
r o r c o l t r u t u o u st l l a n r e n tv a n r , a n d n r o d i f i e d
s t a r c h-'
a n c lp o l y v i n y l
alcohol,are satisfacrorywith cotton-.p;;
Dry Spinning ;;;r.-'
A relativelyhigh humidity facilitatesttrc piocessing
Ccllulosetriacetatefrom many batchesis blendedand dissolvcd ---""' oI triacc-
ti\te yarns, for exarnplein knitting
in methylene chloride containing a little alcohol, to form a 20 o. w.uving.
per cent solution.'lhe solLrtionis thcn filteredand deacrated,and Dcsizing
punrped to the spinneret.
-fhe jets Watcr-solublesizes are gcnerally used,
of solution emergefrom the spinneretinto a vertical and these are rcnro vcrl
ounng scouring.Enzynre treatrnent
spinningtube whcre they meet a streanrof hot air. The methylene will remove starch.
chloridc evaDoratcs. leavins solid filarnentso[ cellulosetriacetate. Scouring
I'he filarnentsare lecl over an oiler rvhich applies antistatic
lubricant, anrl are collectediu the sanrervay as seconilaryaoettLe Fabrjcs.neecl a thorough scouring
to rentove dirt which is
fillrnc n ts. acquircd during proccssirrg.Surfacc-a c t i v c
pnosplratc, a g c rtr u r r t l t r i s o d i r r r r i
If continuousfilanrentyarn is rcquircd, tlre filanrcntsfrom the with or without soap,ntay b e u s c dc { T c c t i v c l y
(160'F.). at 70"C.
s p i n n e r e at r e c o l l c c t c do n t o b o b b i n sb y a c a p o r r i n g s p i n n i n g
rnechanism, rvhich appliesa twist.
Il lcaching
If staplc is bcing produced,the filamentsfronr a nunrber o[
multi-holed spinneretsare brought together into a tow. This is friacctatewill withstandnormal bleaching
conclitions, an<j it
c r i n r p c dr r c c h a n i c a l l ya n d t h c n c u t i n t o s t a p i c o f t h e r c q u i r c d may bc blcachcdefiecrivcly
with hypoclrior:i.
lcrrcth. sodiurnchloritc,hycJrogcn Gi:i"o. alkatirrc),
pcroxicleo. p.rn".ti"'-icid. Sodiurn
102 r03

chlorite is reconrmendcd.When triacetateis blcnded with other alkalino solutions than has.acctatc
fibrc. It is not dclustrcd by
fibres,fabrics rnay be scourcdand blcachcd,as a rule, by using boiling soap solutions.and has goo,f
Jiin",rriu,,,,l.tubility rul,.,,
techniquessuitable for the other componentsof the blend. hcat set (see below).
Triacetate fibrc withstands alkaline conditions much better Blends of triacetate with cellulosic
than acetate. rvith rcsin finishesto re.uce -"iriri"'r.".iii"i,arc cornnronly lrcatctl
fibrc anct to impart a firrncr L;;.11..-'6;;;l,itv .r r^c ccllulosic
Dycing finishing is neceslarv in rho",,-";.;":^;^^"::::::.' conrrot oI thc
Tr.iacetatefabrics can be dyed with most disperse dyestufls. In poorpliat ,.t.ntioo'o,ilitlfi;Tfii":"o nrucltrcsin cartcausc
g c n e r a l ,I r i g h e rd y e i n g t e n r p e r a t u r easr e u s e c l9, 0 - 9 B o C o r e v e r t
u p t o I l 0 - 1 2 0 " C . C a r e f u ls e l e c t i o no f d y e s t u f f si s e s s e n t i awl h e r t IIeat Setting
high tenrperaturetechniquesare usecl. In the production of cellulose.lriacetatc,
'lhe thc hydroxyl grotrpsof
use of swelling agcntsor pressure-dyeing techniqueswith the cellulose molecule h.1""
machinesyield excelleutresults. accrategroups.These bulky, .b;9;;;;il;; ,,i,;;., cnrircry by
Sanderson-type hyclroplrbfri.grui,p; havc changcd
' .
Triacetatefibre does not stain easily,and vat or sulphur dye- lhc characterof the matcrralin several
wirys.Thc Iong nrolccrrlcs
stufls may be used with blends to dye the cellulosecomponent. nrc no longer able ro nack togeth^er-as;iiil,;i;
';,1 as rlrc originll
Whcre thesedyes are used,howevcr,dyeing is donc by the two- ccllulosc.molecules,anri the po"wcrftil
bath nrcthod;thc trincctatcis dycd by dispcrscclycsin thc sccond ^y<lroxyl groups
i;;;;;f ',, r^"r io' bctwcc'
is no rorrgcr
tt,.r. to l,oliitir. iitt,,..rrrorccurcs
bath. Dircct cotton dycs can be uscd on thc cotton or viscosc tiglrtlytogcthcr.Whcnccllulosc t,i...t"i.'lr'i,.*i"|, ".p."l.ttyi,,
component,cross-dyeingblended or melangefabrics in a single theprcsence of steam.thelong.;i";;i;;;;"'iii"
bath. frectyretativeto eacliothcr;;lluio;;-i;i^;;;.;;. ro movo,rorc
Blcnds of triacetateand wool nray be dyed similarly by normal Cellutosetriacetate rhcr'ro'tirsric.
nns, howevei,-;-;;;;;;ll;rricaI
cross-dyeingmethods.Linritations will be inrposedby the fact than secondarycelluloseacetate. nrolcculc
The triacciatc rnoleculchns a
that wool is very much more sensitive to conditions than srrccessionof
triacetate. .large ncctate groups atto"trcii'lii- r"gu lar intcrvals
th" molecule, whereas secondary
:-l,o:,-g ccllulosc acctate hts a
Triacetate fabrics can be printed in the same generalway as
acetate.Dispersecolours or vat rlyes may be used.'I'heresistancc
ol triacetateto stainingrneansthat there is little risk of rnarking
T;f,,ii:.#f .,]l
lilLi:[,?:, rl; *::**
of rnoleculcsinto rcsular order is
thr;; ,;;-;".dily aclrievcd
during rvashing-off. with.cctlutosetriacctalethan wi th
;;;;j.;;;;.i, i".
Whcn cellulosetriacerarei. t,;"i;l;tir;'ilil.:u
Finishing nrovcment frcccrornof
of rhemoleculcs enablcsrh;m i" ;lj;;; thcir posirions
Triacetateis an attractivefibre with a good handle and excellent with respectto one anothcr.i"i;;"-;f;ir;:,"I,ii.,;,
draping qualitics.It is scldonrnecessaryto apply finishesto bring during spinningare relic-ve<t,. wcrc crrscd
;il iil il;",.'-r"il"'r.,r* can align
about inrprovcmcrrtsin thcse rcspccts.Softcncrs arc somctirrcs lhcmsclvcs nrorc prccisclyrnto cryslallincrcoiorrs
used, and silicone finishcs may be applied to increase water rncsccl)angcs in lhc inlcrnl.lstructurcof tiic hcllc<l
rcpcllcncy. bring about changcsin the charact".-"f-,f,"'liiri.. lrincctatc
'friacetate tiglrtcr
fibresare oftcn used in blcndswith other fibres,and nrolccular struc^turcis lcss rcatlily.p.n"tini.j bi' ,noi.tr,r.,
finishcsmay be uscd to a{Iect the charactcr of other fibres in rrc a.rou.t of water t'at trr.e-'riilr. n,,.t
. u i i ir t o i i i s t r i r r i r r i s r r c t r .
the blend. Il is neccssary,thercfore, that the triacetateshould l\foistureregairrfalls lrom.4.5To
i"'irr",i'i i.ii.'n, woultl bc
stand up to conditions used in thcse finishing treatments.As r cxpcctecl, this increaseclreslstance to rvatcrpcnetratio.is accorrr-
rulc, tlrc triacctltc will causclittlc dilliculty in this rcspcct.Tritcc- prrrica.by rcduccttatrsorption
J ;i;;;l,iri;."'.1;
tatc has a rnuch greatcrresistanceto thc cllectso[ hot water antl lini.iittyi,';;;;ils,("., *r,i.r,arealreatty s,.,'t.t
104 105

' I ' I ' I ' I ' - [ ' l - ' '-T --t

F.F.F.NF TT h F.FF,T'}}}T

on heating to presenceof moistureduring settingtendsto increase plasticity

This change in the characterof triacetatefibre of the triacetate, and lower temperatures may bc userl, c.g.
biio* tn" melting point is called heat setting' It
,";;;;"i;;; 125-130'C. for several minutcs.
lnlportant- iraracteristic of triacetate and
has bccome a lnost
;il"r"-ti;;;tplastic fibies, provicling a rncans of stabilizing .lleat settingis commonly followed by dccatizing,or trcarmcnt
yarns' againstsubse' with steam at atmospheric pressure. rclie-vesprocessing
fabrics and garnrents'especiallyof teitured strains.jn the fabric, improving crease-rccovcry
praciical use' and faun<tcrin!
nr.'ii'a. iotiitution riuring
',li'"-'iiiu..t"te properties.
fabric is'heated under conditions which bring
will assume Plcating
rb*; r;;,i;;, ihe molecules of cellulose triacetate
a nrinimum of strain' And they The conditions used in heat setting permancnt pleats dcpen<l
tt o." potitio'n. that represent
thcse positions when the fabric is cooled again, upon the blend and the constructionof the fabric. ihe following
*iii t"ia to holcl
to heat and/or moisture such as examplesindicatc the conditionsthat may be uscd:
""""-liift" fabric is su-bjectecl
it"n"ount"rr<!rtringnormaluse'Thernoleculcswillgiveup 1 0 0 7 ot.r i a c e t a t e :
ih"ir set positions only if the fibre is hcated
to temperaturcs _ l i g h t w e i g h tf a b r i c s : 0 . ? - 1 . 0 k g / c r n 2 ( 1 0 _ 1 5
a further t?t:n.^)^ .l: - mm; heavyweight fabrics 1.0_ 1.4 kg/cnr2
If this should happen' Lo.l
itioii". itt"" that userlin setting' ( l5-20 lb/inl) for 30 min;
of rnolecular arrangenlcnt nlight taKe.place'
ad'lustrnent 677o triacetatel33vocotton: 1.4 kglcm2 (15 lb/in2) for 25_30
"'ii"..,"," i^6ti" is heat set whilst being held{iat, therefore'
and creasing,irrrd nrin:
l, *lii.".qrir" a builri' rcsista.ceto wrinkling 60% triaceta,tcl40l/o wool: 0.? kg/crrr2 (10 lb/ln2) for 20 rrrln.
on to its heat set structure uuder norrnal
iir" "uifitv to hold
of use. It can be made into garments which have
"ury-.ur" characteristics,and require no- iro.ning.' STI{UCTURE AND PROPERTIES
s.ttiug may be taken a- stagc further-by distorting
before sctting is
fuUii" "r-utely into a rcquired ihape .thc Irine Structurcand Appcarancc
setting- treatment to hold the
carried out, and then using ihe Triacetateis of bulbouscross-section.
The fibrcsshow longittrdinal
^-;rnpfi,. in its n-ew shape' lf a fabric is folded for striations.
molecules in
and then heated to set tlie triacetate' the-
positions that.relieve the strains set
the fibres wilt take up new TcnsileSlrcnglh
"uui"a by folding, and will setlle into situations
irv ,n" A-i.,"iii"n, Tenacity: 10.6-12.4 cN/tex (1.2-1.4 g/den) ,Jry;6.2_7.1
be held unless and
li ,nini*urn strain.Theseiositions will then
higher than that at cN/tex (0.7-0.8 g/cien) wet. Ratio w;t/dt:
u",if-,f* nU.. is heated to a temperature .
Loop tenacityd
70% approx.
, r y : 8 . 8 - 9 . 7 c N / t e x( 1 . 0 _ l . f
setting took Place.
which -t".rtiiique ilUenl.
Knot tenacityd
, ry: 8.8*9.2 cN/tex(1.0_l.l
iriit ofhcat sctting is used.to set pleats and creascs idoni.
p";;;;;;;ii; in triacetate garrnints, and to set three-dimensional
shapes in brassieres, .orft"" titti iite like' Once they have been [longation
n e w s h a p ed u r i n g a l l t l t e
h e a t s c t , t h e s eg a r n r e n t t - " t ^ i n t h e i r 25-30 pcr ccnt dry; 30-40 pcr ccnt wct.
-liave encourttcrecl irr norrnaluse' I lcat
.""aiii"i t "r heit anclI'tloisturc stability'
remarkable clinrensional Ini(ial Modulus
set triacetate garments
some 30 to 388.5 cN/tex (44 glden).
The temperatureused in heat setting is ustally
which might subsequently te encountered' SpccificGrnvi(y
+O;C, trigt er than that
example' to
""t"frfv ]" lr"ning. Fabrics rt'tay b". subjected'{or t.32.
of 20-30seconds'
i.'"p.i^,r*, or ico-zao"c.foi pcriocls
r06 107
I I A N D B O O KO F T E X T I L E F I B R E S A : N A T U R A Lp O L yr vEt R F T o R E S
Effcct of Moislure Chcmicalpropertics
Regain before heat treatment: 4.5 per cent; after heat treatment:
2.5-3.0per cent. Acids
The Iibre retains 70 per cent of its strength when wet. Triacctatc is resistantto dilute acids,
Triacetate is not delustred by boiling water, to which it is highly but is attackcd by strong
acids in high concentration.
Thcrrual Propertics
has an app.reciably grenter resisrancc
I:".lll: -Acir-,sir..t
to saporrificntion
Triacetatc is tlrermoplastic. It di{Iers frorrr acctatc in its heat tlran acctate. For this rca.sonit
can,rot bc ty soup
setting characteristics.Heat treatment of triacetate increasesthe sotutionor phenol. It resis.rs
crystallinity and molecular orientation of the fibre. The effect arecommonly .airui" ^rLri* l"iriion, suchas
is to set the fibre in a dimensionallystable state; the softening ing,but is auacked "tfi"r'*., proccss-
anclhy<lrolyzeJ uy'f,""ilil"g'"ir,"rir.
point of the fibre is raised, and its water imbibition and desree
of swelling are lowered. Getrcral
After heat treatment, triacetats has a softening point of 225.C.,
a fabric glazing point of 240'C. and a melting point of 300.C. Triacetate has a.good resistance
to thc chcnricnlscncountcrctl
Properly set fabrics have a safe ironing temperature of 200.C. proccssing.
nnttrcxritcusc.tr is ,;i';ii;i;;
lry con)mon bleachinc sigrrificnntty
ngcnts.and conAitions,- l,rJuding hypo_
tes, pcracciic acid.rnd hyttrogcn
EIJect ol lligh Temperature :l]l::il:r:_.1]t".i
culonte rs recomrncndcdas a blcaching , -'-"
lcroxirJc. Sortiurrr
After trvo weeks exposureat 130'C., triacetateretained 6g per
cent of its strcngth under conditions in which nylon retained trllcca of OrgnnicSolycrrls
20 per cent and cotton 38 per cent of their tensile strengths.
Triacetatedissolvesin methylenechloride,
acid, acet.icacid, dioxan an<l m. ...,oi. chloroforrn,
-ii-'iu' formic
EfJect of Lolv Tcttrpcraturc acetone,ethylenedichloride.anrlt.i"htorociirvi.nc] swcllcd by
Triacetate yarn retains its softnessand resiliencyat extremely r_rio..t,rtcis
low temperatures. :^1-lt::1",1
carbon .bv.methvlaredspirits,b;";;;;;-;;i,.nc, xyrcnc,
rerchloroethylcnc nn,f niosi-iry.frocrrbons.
Trichloroethylcne'm'usrnor t " u."J-in'il';il;;,,s,
F larnnnbili ty preferably carriccl out with. pcrchlor""tfrif.,r"" wlrictris
solventssuch as white sprr.rt. ". pclrolcunl
Triacctatcmclts and shrivelsto a nrolten bead when it is ignitcd.
Fabricswill burn as rcadily as acetateif thcy arc of opcn wcavc.
Dllect of Agc friacctateis not attackerlby.mothsor nlost
larvaewhich commonlyotto"t t.*tit" tropicat
"""''' inscctsor
Triacetate is highly resistant to ageing. n;;;;"
Ellcct of Sunlight
Triacelateis.highly rcsistantto attack
Triacctate is highly resistant.On exposure to severe outdoor by rnicro.organ isnrs.pro-
I o n g e db u r i a l i n s o i l c a u s c sn o t o * .
weathcringthere is little loss in strength and no ycllowing. of-irr";l;i;,,;;., no rlricro_
biological at{ack can bc clctcctecl.oo..
""t- ffi.ilr"."

trL,Li-l .-lr--lrIrl . T - l
Ilcctrical Propcrties .I'RIACETATE
fhe electrical resistanceof triacetate yarn is very high, and in
its unlubricated fornr it is superior to most textile fibres other The chemical relationship between triacetatc and acetatc is a
than glass, polyesters, polyolefins and lluorocarbons. The anti- closeone. Yet it is only in their tensilepropcrtiesthat thc two
static finish which is given to the fibre before processinghelps to fibres bear any real resemblanceto each otircr.
reduce the ellects of static to a minimum iri garmentsand fabrics. - _In many respects, triacetate behaves more like a synthctic
Triacetate is very receptive to such finishes. fibre than a semi-syntheticfibre. It posscsscsthe thcrnroplastic
propertiesand the low moisture absorption that wc nssociatcrvith
Handle synthetic fibres.
The low moisture absorption of triacetate is rellccteclin the
Triacetate which has been heat set has a crisp, firm handle which fact that the fibre retains some 70 per ccnt of its strcngth whcn
is particularly suitable for certain types of fabric including su.it- wet. Fabrics made from triacctate are casily washecland wiil dry
ings and ta{Ietas. The handle does not match that of acetate quickly.
fibre for garments to be worn next to the skin, such as lingerie
The heat setting characteristics of triacctatc are of grcat
and underwear. practical value. When fabrics are heat set they arc rendcred frce
from shrinkage, and acquire excellent dinrensional stabilitv.
Thcy arc sct pcrnrancntlyin the dcsircd shapc. Morcovcr, lrcnt
Ircatntcntincrcascsthc fastnessof thc dycstultsto washing nnd
light if they have been applied prior to Leat treatmenr.
1.4 Heat treatment is used to pro<tucepermancnt efTcctsin fabrics
made from triacetate. tPermanent pleats are put into wovcn
fabrics of all types, and permanent embosscclcfiects into knittcd
and woven materials. The permanency of pleats in blcndcd
fabrics dependsupon the amount of triacetati in the blcnd. ln
l.o two-component blends with cellulosic fibrcs, for exarnplc, n
& minimum of 67 per cent of triacetateis reouired.
g o'8
-The high melting point of triacetatcprouid", a widc margin
of safety in high ternperaturetrcatment usccl in clothing nraiu-
r,i 0.6 facture and laundering.
Triacetate fabrics have little tendency to shrink even bcfore
o.4 heat treatment.As a result, tighter constructionsarc rcquircd in
triacetateand triacetateblended fabrics than in equivalcnl fabrics
of acctate.
Triacetate docs not shrink and tightcn up thc fabric during
subsequentdycing and finishing.

srRArN (% ELoNGATtoN) \Yasbing

Triacetate is not affected by hot water, soap solutions or rnilcl
alkalis such as are used in laundering.Gainrents which hnve
been heat set are dimensionally stable and do not shrink.
' A rnel' 7'riacetateFibre.
Launderingof triacetatepresentsno problcms.
lt0 llt


Clothes ntade with triacetate resist soiling and are generally
- Triacetate'snon_staininr
complctely washablc, quick drying and easy to iron. Fabrics r", r"ur.Joir,';ffffi i:i,[:?;;';,:.'"0' it parricurarrv
uscf ur
made fronr triacetate should bc rvashedin warm (40'C., 104'F.)
u#",.1'""Jf;,:"?l"of?,Jlg., obraina
:rlects. blcin rabricsrrr
water using detcrgent or soap flakes. Garmcnts with complicated
.,,,ri,t. nair":1";l J;'i'r""",;:o
pleatsshould preferably be washedby hand, but many garments
with sinrpleplcats and most non-pleatedgarmentsmay be given wrtn ii T'iJnJHfi?,.,
corron.Blendetl*,,,1,ygo,, :,,I.":,li
a nrinimunr machinc wash. whlch the warmth of wo tri"""t"i"-!r."iJcs fabrics
'I'riacetate in
should never be bleached. Squeezing or wringing a'd drip dry propcrries"ii.t:.;,"#:t"ed with thc hcat sctiiril
should be avoided.
Triacetate dries quickly and easily, rcsenrbl.ingfulty synthetic
fibres in this respect.After washing, pleated garments should be
given a hand-hot (48'C., 118"F.) rinse and drip dr.ieclin their
proper shape. Other garments may be drip dried or given a
cold rinse and a short spin (15 scconds)followed by line drying.
Tumblcr drying is rcconrnrcndcdfor triacctatebut it is csscntial
to run the drier cold before switching ol[.

Triacctatc garnlcnts should be ironed damp on the reverse siclc
with a warm iron (FILCC Setting 2) or a steam iron.

Dry Cleaning
Trichloroethylencmust not be uscd. Perchloroethylene
or pctro-
lcum solvents(e.g.Stoddard solvent) are recommended.

is establishedin warpknit garments in underwear anct
lingerie rvhich retains its shape, and in woven and knitted fabrics
which do not shrink or cockle.Triacetateis being usedwith wool
to confer its non-shrink charactcristicson the blend, ancl is
blendcd with cotton and viscose to produce cloths which arc
conrplctelystable and fornr pcrmanent plcats.
Triacetate's drip-dry properties, and the fact that many triace-
tatc fabrics nccd no ironing, have establishedit as a libre for
use in ease-of-careskirts and dresses.On the other hand, its high
nreltirrgpoint pcrmits it to be used in blcnds or applicationswheie
high ironiug temperaturesare likely to be usccl,such as mixtures
rvith linen, or in industrial applications.

I tL

',fi ._l .*l --r ! -t '



In producing wool, silk ancr other aninral fibres,
Naturc nrirkcs
use of the long-chain moleculcs of proteins.'Tlicse
arc thc
organic substanccs ih;i ;i;y a"vitat rolc in
the-structure and processcs of living matter.
Only.a minor proportionof the'availabie proteinis uscdfor
producingnaturallibresin this way, anclit has
lonf bccn
that suitablenon-librousproteins"outa p"rtrops -fr"i" t'e
to bring them into libroui form. p.","ii.
the.primary requirementof a fibre-fornri"gr"rr.i^ii.".motcculcs,
moleculesmust be broughtinto some --^' But thc
."ri .i-.'f ie""lcnt with
cachotherif they are to frovidc o nUr"-.
r n m!rnyprotcins,{heIongmolccules arc coilcdinto a cor'pirct
ball,with coils- bciugrinkcrrtogcthcrin prn."srrv.iicriicnlborrds.
If the moleculesof theseso-inlted
st;i,,i;;;r;;i,;,, arc ro bc


GLYCINE NH2Ct12cooll
THREONINE c H ! c H o H .C H N H ? . C O O H o

- - - o

- - - i:-f r-r r----_---'i t-|.\

P r o l e i n .m o l e c u l e s a r e f o r n r c d b y l i n k i n g t o g c t h e r
moleculcs in diflcrcnt proporriorrf and i,'' iifr;i;ii';;q;.ii... s n r a l l a r r r i r r oa c i r l
acidssholn rt," ",uiuu
above,for ciarnplc,coukiU" ri^-t".i'iiil,i,ii,i,i"r^trt"*"yr,
two examplcsbeinggiven.
t4 l' I 15

brought into alignment in such a way as to form a fibre, they CASEIN FIBRES
must lirst be subjectedto some treatmentthat destroysthe cross-
links and permits the molcculesto be uncoiled.This processis INTRODUCTION
called dcnaturirtg.
When a globular protein has been denaturedsuccessfully,it As long ago as 1898,solutionsof cascinwcrc being spun cxpcri_
may then be possible to dissolve the protein and extrude the nrentally to form fibres. casein solutions wcre forcc-crtirrougli firrc
solution through the fine holes of a spinneret.As the jets of jcts into hardening baths, forming soli<lfilanrcnts
in whiih ttrc
solution emergc,the protcin is coagulatedto form solid filanrcnts. long casein moleculcs had been givcn suflicicnt oricntation
In this way, it is possibleto make useful fibresfrom certain types hold toge.therin typical fibre forrn. These carly cascin librcs wcrc
of protcin. commercially of little value. They wcre briitlc antl hnrcl, arrcl
Ii a protein is to be of value as a raw material for nraking lacked the resilicnceand durability ncc<lcdfor tcxtilc usc..Ihcy
textile fibrcs, it must be availablc in adcquate quautity, and it swclled to a high degree in watcr and.tcndcd to stick togcthcr.
nrust be cheap.A uumber of proteinssatisfy thesebasic require- During the early 1930s an Italian chcnrist, Antonio l:crrctti,
nrents; thcy are conrmonly by-products fronr some industrial experinrentedwith casein Iibrcs to try ancl ovcrcome thcir <.lrarv-
proccss. Anrong them nrc casein, zein, arachin and soyabean backs.He was successful,making cas"in libres which wcrc plilblc
Drotcin. and had many of the propcrticsassociatcdwilh wool.
Cascin is availablc in thc skimrncd nrilk which rctnlins I ftcr _..Ircrrcttisold his patcnts to n largc Itnlian rnyorr lirrrr _ Srrin
butterfat has been retnoved;zein is obtainedfrom nraizc,and is a Viscosa - who devclopcd thc largc-scalenranufucturc of cascirr
by-procluctin starch manufacture; arachin (groundnut protcin) fibrcs under the tradc-nameof .Lanitat', In I936, thc output of
and soyabeanprotein are left behind after the extraction of oil w a s a b o u t 3 0 0 t o n l r c s ,b y t h c f o l l o r v i n gy e : r r ' i t h u t l
for margirrineand cooking fats. le^r"]gd 1,200 tonnes,antl in 1939 tlrc productioricapacityrvrs
'I'hcse proteins
have all bectr ttsed with varying degrees oI 1 0 , 0 0 0t o n n e sa y e a r .
successfor producing protein fibres, brrt only casein libres havc Casein fibres have since bcen produced un<tcrvarious nanrcsirr
surviveclto becontea commerciallyimportant product. a number of countries, e.B. ,Lanital' in Ilclgium antl Francc,
In gencral, rcgeucratedprotein fibrcs tend to be weak' The in lJritain, 'Merinova' - an ilut)rovcclforru ol' tlrc.
' L a r r i t a l-'
rnoleculesdo not align thenrselvcswith prccision and regularity original i n I t a l y ,a n t l ' W i p o l a n i' n i , o l i t n t l .
to form crystalline regions .in the libre, and they cannot hold
N ote
tightly togetherto provide the tensilestrengththat is characteristic
of fibres with crystallinestructure. Infornrationin the sectionwhich follows is bascdupon ,Fibrolunc'
producedcomrnerciallyby CourtauldsLtcl. in the'UK. Altlioirglr
Like wool, regencratedprotcin fibrcs will stretch easily; but,
production has be-ensuspended,.Fibrolane'canbc rcglrtlctl as-l
unlike rvool, they do not have tlre elasticitythat enablesthem to
return to their fornrer lengtl-rafter bcing stretched. typical exampleof a conlnercial protein fibre.

Federal 7'rade ConrtrrissionDclinitiort

The gcncric lerrn azlon was adopted by the U.S. Federal Trade
Commission for fibres of the rcgcneratedprotein type, the oflicial An outlincof the productionproccssis shownon pagc I19.
definition being as lollows :
Azlon. A Ilanttfactttred fibrc in which thc fibre-fornling Rarv Material
substanccis conrposcd of any rcgcueratcdnaturally-occurring Cascinis obtainedby tlrc acid trcatnrcnt
of s k i r u n r cndr i l k .T l r c
protclns. cascincoagulates
as a curd which is washcdantl dricd,and thcrr

L{ '_1 '*I --1 -I n ' ' r l ' [ ,-I-

.F F.F.F T F F.F T T F.F,F.T}}
grou.ndto a fine powder.35 litres(7.7 gallons) of skinrmed
produce a b o u tI k g ( 2 . 2 | b )o f c a s e i n .
ahd wttat
Casein is blended to minimize the effect of variations in quality,
and is tben dissolvedin sodium
.hydroxide solution (causticsodaj.
The solution is allowed to ripen until it reaches a suitable
viscosity, and is then filtered ancl deaerated.

Thc spinningsolutionis wet spun by cxtrusionthrough spinnerets
into a coagulating bath containing, for example, sulphuric
(2^parts), formaldehyde (5 parts), glucose (2d parts)-
and water
( 100 parts). The jets of solution coagulate into
filaments in a
rnannersirnilar to.the coagulationof viscose-filaments.
stretched to some degreeduring coagulation.
Up to this stage,caseinspinningis simplcr than that of viscosc
rayon, as the conditionsare not so critical. But subsequentpro-
cessingmay become more jnvolved, as it is necessaryto
treat the
fibre cbemicallyin order to harden it. SPINNING
thc. solution is forced through jctr into an
.The newly-coagulatedcasein filaments are soft and weak, and acrd coagutating bath and drawn ofi ovar
.break.easily if handled. The spinning processhas aligned the
roller a5 continuous tibrs
casein molecules to some extent, but they are not organiled
crystal structurescomparable with those of cellulose.
trates readily into the case.infilamcnt, pushing apart the SHORTPIECES
caseinmoleculesand softeningand swelling.thefilament.
The ellect of water on untreated casein ii such as to render it
of little use as a textile fibre. If casein lilaments are to be of
practical textile use,.they must be treated in such a
way as to
enable the long molecules to holcl together in the presence of
water, retain.ingan adequate degree of strength and dimensional
.c9mm91 with all proteins, casein is a highly reactive
rnatcrial,and it is possibleto makc use of this acti-vrtyto cre.ltc
cross-links betwecn adjacent cascin moleculcs. Such crosslinks
tie the casein molecules together, and prevent thcm being
apart by water molecules. Crosslinkecl casein acquires
increabed resistance to the elTect of water, retaining a higher
degree of tensile strength and resistanceto swelling.

Many methods of increasing the water resistince of casein
have been developed, and several techniqueshave been used
Casain Fibre FIow Clnrt
I lB I19
successfullyin practice' The processis coluntortly clescribed lVorstcdSyslent
'harclening',in that it minimized the softening ellects of water'
For use on the worstedsystem,cascinfibrc is procluccd in 3.9,
Trcatmcn-[ivith Iormatclehydcforms thc basis of many hardening 5 . . 0a r r d d t c x( 3 k , 4 t / 2 , . 9< l e n ) , 1 0 0
.10 a r r t l1 5 0 n r r n( 4 a n d( r i n j
techniqucs. staple.Thesefibresare blendedwith rnerinoor finc cross_bretl
ln a typical casein libre production process' bunches of fila- rvools,or rayonstaple,for the rvorsted industry.
nrents are^collectedtogcther into a tow as they leave the coagula-
ting bath, and are tlten stcepedin formaldehydesolution' The FIax Systenr
filn-nrentsmay be subjected to further strctching at this stage'
After treatment, the tow is washed and dried, crinrped mechani-
Ctrt tow is conrnronly uscdon thissystcmin ortlcrto rcduccncp
cally, and then cut into staple.The staplemay .be-nradeinto tops f o r r n a t i o ne,. g .5 . 0 a n d 1 0 . 0d t e x( 4 . 5a n d9 d c n )c u t t o t 5 0 n r n r
-blending ( 6 i n ) s t a p l e . ' l ' h insr a y b e b l e n d e cfl o, r c x a r r r p l e
for witl-rwool, or may be blcnded during the carding w,i t h 5 . 0 r l t e x
(.411clen)cut viscosetow or bright rayon stapte.antl proocssed
into yarn withoutcornbing.
C o a r s ef i b r e s e , . g . 2 0 , 3 3 d t e x ( 1 8 , 3 0 d e n ) , 2 0 0r r r r n( B i n )
PROCESSING staple,may be usedon the flax andjute systcnxof proccssirrg iri
t h e p r o d u c t i o no f c a r p c ty a r n s .F i b r c so f t h e s ec l i r u c r r s i oanrsc
u s u a l l yb l e n d e dw i t h 2 0 a . n t5l 6 d t e x( l B a n d5 0 t l e r r n) l i r t tr a y o n
Caseinfibre is producedalmostcntirclyas stitplc,tow or top' A s t a p l co f a s i r n i l t rs t n p l cl e r r g t l rn,o r r n asl t i r p l cf l b r cl r n r l r o t c r r t
smallamountof fibreis usedfor 100per centcaseingoods,but t o w b e i n g - u s efdo r b l e n d so f t h i s t y p e i n i r n o u r r t o sf'up to 50
most caseinfibre is blendedwith wool, cotton,rayon, nylon and p e rc e n to f c a s e i n .
other syntheticstaPlefibres.
Blenriscontaining caseinmay be spunon all the usualsystems' Sizing
Cotlon Syslent Warps made of staple fibre blend yarns containirrgc:rscinnray
For useon the cotton anclnrocliliedcotton systems, caseinfibre bo sized satisfactorilyfrom back-beams,cither by the ,Cotton
is oroducecl, for exanrple, in 3.9 dtex (3.5 clen),50 rnnt(2 in) or SlasherSystem'or by the 'Rayon SlasherSystern'.Short warps
65',n,u Qi in) staple,ancl5.0 dtex (4.5 den),65 nrm (2% itt) carr be prepared by section warping and sizcd bclrns, to bcaiu
itrpt.- Vir.ote' staple'is comutonlyble.nclecl caicin for on a normal multi-cylinder rayon sizing machine.
sDiirnineon the coitom systern, a typical and highly successful It is important that the constitucntsof thc size uscd shoul<l
fr-i..a fi,ti"g l/3 casein,i dt.* (4.5 ien),.65. ntnt (2tA in) and be readily removable,i.e. they shoul<Ibe complctely rcmovablc
2 / 3 v i s c o s e ' s t a p t e ,c: l.tfe x( 3 d e n ) ,6 5 m m ( 2 %i n ) ' from the woven fabric by a mild scouringtrcatrnentwhich corn-
plies with the conditionssugges(cd.
lVoollen Systertr Among the morc common readily rcmovablc sizing ntatcrials
For use on the woollen systetn,caseinfibre is produced,lor suitable for use with casein blcnd yarns arc:
exanrple,irr 5.0 dtex (4.5 ilen), 50 and -55 ntrn (.2 an<I2tA in) l. Tho water-solubleccllulosccthcrs,and
s t a r r l ca, n t t l 0 d t e x ( 9 d c n ) , 6 5 a r t t l 1 0 0 n r n r ( 2 % a n d 4 i n )
2. The water-solublestarchcs (i.c. rnodificd starchcs,starclr
staple.For carpet blends,ireavierdeniers,are produced,e'g'
cthers and starch cstcrs).
2 0 ' d t e x( 1 8 d e r i )a n c 3l 3 d t e x ( 3 0 d e n ) ,l l 5 n r r t r( 4 % i n ) s t a p l e '
Illencle<l yarnsspunon the woollcnsystcmcomlnoulycorrtain The starch should contairra lubricarrt,a rvater-dispcrsible
about { caicin anrl } wool or rayon staple.Highcr proportions (i.e. one containing a mineral or vcgctablc oil clissolvedor
of caseitr - up to l' - arc uscdin producingblcndedcarpetyarns clispcrscd.in a sulphonated oil) being the rnost satisfactory.
containingcoarserfibres. Such a lubricant is readily compatiblc with tn aqucoussolution
l?0 l2l

TTT F F h F T I T h E E E E E E E E I:
I of one of the starch or cellulosc derivatives referred to above, Dycilrg
and is, ntoreover, easily removed from the woven fabric.
Using a Rayon Slasher, rayon/casein blends yarns may be Casein absorbs moisture readily and does not havc a highly
dried after sizing,at a maximum cylinder temperatureof I10.C. orientated structure. Dyes can penetrate into thc fibre witfiorit
Casein blends with acetate or other thermoplastic fibres should difiiculty.
be dried at a maximum cylin<Jersurface teritperatureof 100.C. In general, casein can bc dyed with dyestu{Is use<lfor wool.
Using a Cotton Slasher, the maximum temperatures should Acid, basic, direct and disperse dyes are use<l where good
be some 5"C. lower in cach case. wash.ing-fastnessis not a prinre essential.Carbolan and Ncolan
It is preferable to aim at obtaining a stretch during the sizing dyes give superior wash fastness.
operation of not more than 3-4 pcr cent. and to have sonre It is essential to employ modifie<l techniqucs in the tlycing
5-7 per ccnt of size on the warp yarns for satisfactory weaving. processesif the desirable propertics of cascin fibre are to
preserved.In particular,it is neccssaryto establishcarcful control
over pH and temperature. Bullerecl systems should bc use<jto
keep the pH of the dye liquor betweenpFI 4 and 6.
There are no special difiiculties in weaving blend yarns, e.g. of
casein and rayon staple contairringup to { of casein,either as
singles- suitablysized,or as unsizedfolded yarns. Casein Staple Fibre ond Continuous Tow
Caseinstapleis commonly dycd for cvcntuirlusc ns prcsscdfclts,
Desizing needleloomcarpets,or in woollen blends to bc usc<|,ior exnn.,pl",
in coatings. For these purposes aggrcgateclor nrctallizcd iciri
Enzyme products may be used, preferabty at pH 4.0 to 6.0. If
dyes.are mainly uscd. Selectedchrontc tlycs providc a high
water soluble sizeshave been used,desizingis not neccssary.
standardof fastness.
Continuous tow is dyed for various purposcs,nncl lcvclling or
Scouring aggregateddyes will usually provide thc rcquircd fastness.I,Icavicr
Syntbetic detergents should be used, preferably under acid deniers require less dye per unit weight titan finer dcnicrs, ancl
conditions,e.g.pll 6.0 at the same time are more readily penetratedby <tyeliquois.
Casein taken from thc balc is clean ancl alrnosi ncuiral, ancl
Illcaching tvi_flnoJ, as a rule, require scouring or treatment before <lycing.
After dyeing, the fibre should be rinscd and given a soft nnish,
In common with all wet processing,bleaching should be carried
followed by the applicationof antistaticagent. Continuous tow
out if possible under rvedkly acid conditions, e.g. pH 4.0-6.0, as
is usually given the soft finish, but antisiatic agent is seldom
casein fibres retain maximum strength and minimum swelling
under theseconditions.
Hypochlorite bleachesshould not be used.
Bleaclring may be carried out with two volumes hydrogen Caseinllltool Blends, Staplc Fibre or Tops
peroxide buffered to pll 8.0 rvith I kg/24 litres sodiunr Blends of wool and cascin arc sometinrcstlyccl in thc forrn of
pyrophosphate.Alternatively, an acid stabilizer nray be used. staple fibre in the woollen trade, or as tops for thc worstcd tradc.
Bleaching can usually be ellected cold, by steepingovernight. The procedure is similar to that usccl with cnscin alonc, but
If alkaline processingis used, it must be followed by careful greatercare is neededin dye selectionto producc a satisfactory
washing and acidificatiorrwith acetic acid. solid shadeon both fibres in the blcnct.
Optical bleachingagents miry be applied as for other fibres It is preferableto convert tops to hankcd sliver ancl dyc in
and blends. nrachinesof the Obermaier type.
l22 t,{' t23
ln dyeing these blends,it may be neccssaryto raise the tem- under slightly acid conditionsd uring.
perature sufliciently to ensure adequate dye fastnesson the wool _scouring. fhc clyc liquor
is therefore adjusted to pH 6 Utf, uiitti"l.iu:"
conlponent. --'
i.i.l, the goods
receiving a final treatrnent ut pl-I q aftcr
Casein/wool blends are also dyed as yarn or fabric, and as JV.i,ig.-
various forms of felt. Dyes cornmonly used include levelling, Drying
aggregated,metallized acid or chrone dyes, and dyeing of yarns
is carried out in the Hussong machine or in package form, and After dyeing, loose stock yarns may be centrifugallyhydro-
extractedbcfore bcing dried,and.
piece goods in the winch. in convcntionalniiini.-
Levelling acid dyes for carpet yarns, certain woollen-type labrics may bc hydro-cxtractcdby opcn
lo.vcn witlth suction
cloths and felts, are selectedfrom those of this class with neutral nrachine,or.by centrifuging^in open width.
if basket typc extnrc-
dyeing properties. Dyeing is carried out at pH 4, f.or f hour at lors are used,excessiverunning timc shoulcl
ouoia.a to prcvcnt
thc boil, and thereaftersliglrtly bclow the boil. development of creases and- crack
rnn.Lr. rpec<I watcr
Aggregated or metallized acid dyes, or chrome dyes, provide manglesare not reconrmended.
a higher standard of wet fastnessfor hosiery yarns, particularly A recontmended drvins proce<lureis cither
to tlry on a slack
in darker shades,and for some worstcd-typecloths. Most of thc drier, followecl by stenteiing, or to
<!ry and finish on an ovcr-
aggregatedor metallizedacid dyes are applicableat pH 6, and fced stenrer. Ir is essentialto allow
"r'o;;qr',;;;;;rinkage fronr
dycing is usually carried out at 90-95'C. grcy to finisheddimcnsions.
Selectedchrorne dyes are suitable for dark shades of high
wet fastness,using either the chromate or the after chrome I'rintirrg
methodsof dyeing. Casein blend fabrics rnay be printcd
vcry cfl'cctivcly.Coo<I
rcsults nccessitatcthorough preparatiorr.
CascinlCellulosic Fibrc Il lends If--singcingis rrcccssary,
a ltglrt treatnrcrrtwith a low burncr will
sullicc.A thorouglrscorii
Blends of caseinrvith cellulosiclibre may be dyed in the yarn is essential.
form for thc hosiery and carpet trades,but thcy are more cont- Casein fi_b-rcis generally white, and. bleaching
monly dycd as [a b rics. necessary.If required. however, a rt il<.lpcrborite not usually
Yarns are dyed on the Hussong nrachine, or may be package bleach should be used una.. "ont.oii.;-.;;;i;;;;: or pcroxide
dyed on cone or chcese;fabrics are usually dycd on a winch.
the fabric should b" G;;';;';i'c rins, un<tcr
For nrost general purposes,these blends are dyed to solid **lt-::_f'_"!.'ing,
mlnlntum warp tension, followed by white room
shadeswith direct dyes and the addition, if necessary, of aggre- a stable width. Alternatively, tlie fof.i"rnny-fr" stcutcring to
gated acid dyes. As a rule, Class B direct dyes are of greatest a-ri.d dircct on an
enclosedstenter. In all casls, high t".p.iitr."r*
interest; they have the least aflinity for casein and permit the -brr.hi;;-.1;;;tl oild ou"r_,t.yi,,g
should be avoided. Whire room
use of acid dyes on the latter. b*""unn"..r."ry,
but if employed, care shoulcl be takcn
Suitablcacid dyes are drawn fronr the aggregatedor metallized &;;iJ;.;;rcing a hairy
classesof dye. In general, dyeing at high tcntperatureswill ,Fabrics
favour thc absorption of dircct dye by the casein, but thc -containing casein may. be printc<l by block, scrccrr,
rollcr, surlacc roller, and rno<Jificcl
pnp., irilnr# nr"cilrous.ncitt,
relative rate of dyeing on a ccllulosic fibre and casein can bc chrome,mordant,nroi",'uot'of'p-ig,.r,.n,
controllcd by carelul addition of salt and CalsoleneOil HS. It B:rt;;.11r..,, .ry.. ulny
is also possiblcto produce other attractiveclTectsby dyeing thc Acid.or dircct dycs shoul<Ibc appliedin
casc,inonly with aggregatedand metallizedacid dyes. potentiallyacid paste.In.sonre..or.i, a slightlyacid or
Cellulosicblends,being dyed with direct dyes, do not usually
it ,nny b""n""".s[ry ro
modify thc viscosityof tnc pnrrtrngpaste
rcquire bullercd systenrs,as they have alrcady been proccssed in orclcr
"wolt to obtain
definitionsimilar to that obraincd*iri
i.y"i,, o, .ottou
t24 t25

- t.,l r I r I 'l r-t

TErrr t t t t t F.Frr t I t t t t I
fabrics. Casein blends will require a less viscous paste, for
containingcaseinfibre lencl thenrsclvcs
example, than 100 per cent rayon fabric, and slightly more -..,1,i!ri"j
rarsrng.Bestresultsare obtaincdby using rcadily to
viscouspaste than that used with 100 per cent cotton. and dry raisingprocesses ,,'rl"*.r^," of raising,
The rninimum amount of alkali should be used on alt print are recommcndcd.
mixtures,but vat dyes may be pr.intedby the potassiumcarbonate
formosui method and naphthols may be applied in the usual
nlanncr, bullering being advisable.In many cascs,it is preferable Case.inwill withstanclthe carbonizing
treatment when carricd oul
to use the Rapidogen form of azoic combination. In general, wirh the minimum srrengrh.
of .ufpirii"'""id'r;c;ssary ror
normal printing proceduresnray be followed, but it may be cflcctive rernoval of vegctzrble thc
rn"tt"r. afi.r'"ir..,nr"nt,
necessaryto modify the printing mixtures slightly in the case of bewellrinse<l thc
"na ",rlu.t".r'i"ou'o wirhsodium
certain dyes, knowledge of which can be obtained frorn ordinarv i]:1il:fl'":"'.
.be ",:..":9 out beforcor afrcr <rycing;
s w a t c hp r i n t i n g .
,j:r??l1"g if
Normal ageing and steaming proceduresmay be followed, thegenerai'
iiJ.".l3'li'"1#T"':'"i";i:Jif: t'n'r'n.ior"ir,"
but unnecessary and excessive steaming should be avoided,
espccially in the presence of alkali. After ageing or steaming
the fabric should be washedoff quickly and not allowed to stand llilling
ovcrnight.The fabric should not be finishcd.inan alkaline statc. Cascin fibre itsclf clocsrrot
display any nrilling propcr.tics,
blcnds 'Ji,.r,
of cascinwirh orr,., niii_,r.itiil';,;;;r: nn<J
Stripping staplcor nylon, shoulclnot bc processcd o. .uyou
-i' -''ii
in rrrillingntacltirrcs.
Partial strippirrgof blends of caseinwith wool or rayon staple
rnay be achievedby working the rnaterialat approximately80.C. ,nltl'ff "lt -;:'"':lJ'fr ,:"""' "v.u"andr".1'iu?""nu,pr",on
in a clean liquor containing 5 per cent of CalsoleneOil HS thc hcavier type of nn"tllu-ll3:'irrg
rniling. The ;1&.";r;"lir"" dcsigncdonlv for
calculated on the weight of material. ;oJ':'..il0'"'"'
lf more severe stripping is required, this may be carried out ^.ll shrinkbe remenrberecr
that brendsof caseinancrwool wiil

lHffi ,,,.:;:"bu;
in a Iiquor containinga neutral solution.of sodium hydrosulphite
at approxinratcly50'C. i","i;Ji; ;;;;;i;; y,,lli,"[ ::il,,,:ll *l:
Initial small-scaleexperinrentaIstrippings should always be . A sui(ablenrillingrncdiumis a rni*t,',r"-oi'i'il, o[ soap
carried out. I part of synrhetic
dercrpent. to
c..or" n.,iili,,!'_'";";: carric<I
only.the requirccl
df ti
"' ";,;i,Y**
imornt of fr"e ai-taii'io sanonify


Crease-resist linishesntay be applied to blends containingcasein

fibre, using telnperatureswhich are preferably not higher than
generalfor most feltedstructurcs.
washingoff is essentialaftcr scotrring
160"C. (320"F.) for approximately2f minutes.The polymeriza- ";:il,,i'#T;ff,;",:o"l::0"',T'j;,lii,Xi
o".. bascii
or nrilling,
tion may be carried out .in a convcntionalbaking charnber,and ;1, l;j;1at
it should be followed by lhorough rvashing with a neutral
The final percentage of added resin, calculated on the bone :l;::',:"'.li!y*:' l*i"'i;
dry weight of fabric, should preferably not exceed8 per cent.
I{andlc rnay be inrproved by adding proprietary softcning
strortdprocccdu'ril r'c pH .-ir..t'""i" l*it.t;l jU
agents to the last wet proccss bcfore drying. pI{ 4. i""i,,iliir"' is abour


Vcry little. Similar to wool.
liinc Slruclurcand Appcarlncc
The filanrcntsarc snrooth-surfaced,with faint striations. Cross- Chcntical propcr(ics
scctionis bean-shapcd to almostround,with a dappledelTcctdue
to pitting. Acids
Caseincan be spunin the form of fine lilaments,with diametcrs
Cascin is stable to acids of modcratc strcngth
of 20-30u.. "pcr undcr nornrrl
conditions. It can be carbonizcrt with coiJ
The naturalcolouris white. i cent sulphuric
acid solution.
TcnsileStrcngth _.,Caseinfibre disintegrates in strong nrineral acids. It rcsists
dilutc mineral acids a-nclweak. organ-ic o"i.tr,
C a s e i nf i b r e h a sa t e n a c i t yo f 9 . 7 - 8 . 0 c N / t e x( l . l - 0 . 9 g / d e n ) "u.n at elevatccl
temperatures;some loss of strength and embrittlcnlenI
clry.Wren wet, the fibreslose much of their strength;tenacity nlay occur
after boiling for long periocls.
fallsto 5.3-2.6 cN/tex(0.6-0.3 g/den).
Liko wool, cascin is scnsitivc to nlknli.
60-70per cent,wet or dry. Mild nlknlis such ns
sodium bicarbonate and disoclium hy,lrogcn- piiosptrat"
little effect.at low ternperatures. travc
Spccilic Gravi{y Stron! atizrtis,'sucnas causlic
soda or soda ash causesevercswelling a-ndwill
uttimot.ty disintc_
1.30. grate the fibre.

Iiflcct of l\loisturc General

Caseirrtends to absorb moisture readily, and the fibres become The chemical structure of casein fibre bcars
sontc rcscnrblance
srvollen and soft. They may become plastic and sticky as the to that of wool. Both fibrcs are proteins, but
tcmperatureis raised.Regain under standardconditionsis about struction of the protein of casein clillcrs'from
ilr"i "t wool. In
14 per cent (cf. wool). casein itself there are no sulphur bridges zuch
as thcre are in
wool keratin. Bridges of dillerent cheriical
typ., ur" built into
Thcrmal Propcrlics the casein during Lreatment with formaldetiyic
Ji aluminium
Casein fibres generally soften on heating, particularly when wet. salts.
Hydrogen peroxide can be safely used as
bleach. At high
E{Ject of I{igh Tentperature temperaturesit will cause some yellowing.
The fibres become brittle and yellow on prolonged heating at
over 100"C. Dccompositionis appreciableat 150'C. ElTcctof OrganicSolvcnls
Dry cleaningsolventsdo not causcdanrage.
Caseinfibres burn slowly in air. Flantmabilityis similar to wool. Insccts
Caseinfibre is not attackedby.nroth grubs to thc
Iillcc( of Agc srme degrecf,s
wool. Danrage may bc caused, howJvcr, whc'
tiic"cas.in fibrc
V c r y r c s i s tnat . is blendedwith wool.

r28 t29

- l r l r I r I r l r - r I - I r r r l

Micro-orgauisms CASEIN FII]RES IN USE

Casein libres are attackcd by mildews, particularly when moist. 'fhe
iow strengthof caseinfibre anclits sensitivityto watcr have
rcstrictedits use, but it has found a number of applications
Elcctrical Propertics importance in certain textile fields.
Diclectricstrengthof caseinfibrcs is Iow. Casein fibres are produced almost entirely as staple, and arc
intendedprimarily as blend fibres for mixtuie with wool, cotton,
rayon,.acetate,nylon and other synthetic staple libres.
Other Propcrtics In blends with cotton and rayon staple, cascin brings warmth,
Cascin fibre resembleswool in having a soft warm handle. The rcsilie,nceand a full, soft handle. Being of excellent colour,
fibres are naturally crimped, and yarns have a characteristic it make.s.possiblethe production of good whitcs, ancl prolongej
rvarnrthand fullnessof handle. wcar trials have shown that the whitencssof fabrics madc
Casein fibrcs provide good thermal insulation. They are thcse ya-rns is preserved throughout the life of the garnrcnt,
resilient,like wool. irrespective of the numbcr of washes it is civcn.
Biends containing one part casein to two prrts rayon staplc
or cotton have been found particuhrly satisiactory.1.will arr<l
float rvcavcsbring out r.nrxinrurnsuppi.nussin thj flbric, nnd
lhc crease_resistanceis good. This rnay bc strcngthcncd where
rcquired,for examplein suitings,by applicrtion oia crcasc_rcsist
finish. Shrink-resist finishes are aiso- uscd where ncccssary ro
improve the shape,stability or resistanceto shrinkageon wasliing.
Most of the casein libre producecltoday is used in blenclswitlr
wool. Casein has a soft handle and warmth thlt nrakc
particularly suitablefor this purpose,and it enablcsthe
to produce a yarn of lower cost.
Casein lilamentscan be spun to very fine diamcter,enabling
them to blend with thc finest qualitics of wool. Cascin librc oT
20p diameter is as fine and soft as the 70s wool used for making
baby clothes. Casein of 30p diameter is equivalent to 50s wool.
The proportion of case.inused in blends with wool will <tcocn<j
upon the eflectrequired;one third caseinis gencrallysatisfaciory.
Casein may increasethe shrinkagein linishing in so*. .on-
structions,and allowanceshould be made for this in the sctting
of the cloth.

Carmcnts containing cascin fibre should be washcd with carc,
and treatcdas gentlyas wool. Flarshconditionssuch as cotton will
withstandmust not be used.High temperatures and strongly acicl
or alkaline conditions must be avoidLd. Ncutral dcrcrgcnrsare
Caseirt ('Merirtova') preferable for washing.
t30 l3l
Fabrics containing casein blended with wool are obviously
rnd.similar blends, also .introclucing
nylon. Thc conrbination
wool-like in appcaranccand handlc, and thcy will automat.ically
c;rscinand corton for kniucct fabrts i ri"*s gl"i'iicxibiliry o f
be trcatccland washcdas wool, causingno difficultics.Blcnds o[ of
garnrcntdesign and knittcd structurc,
cascinrvith cotton will gcnerally be wool-like in handle,and will
Caseinblendcdwith wool,.coilon, rayon staplc,
bc treatedas rvool, but such materialsshould be suitably labelled nylotr an<!
othcrfibrcshasmany possibirities in inc ncttroi-'.,rcutn,.
to avoid any possibilityof harsh treatrnentduring washing. t uitt..t
pilc fabrics,Raschclcloths,coatings,blankctfabrics,ctc.
Drying Fclts
Garnrentsshould be dried as wool, care being taken to avoid Onc of the earliestusesfor caseinl.ibrcwas in thc
high temperaturcs. mrking of
fclt for hats.Caseinfibresdo not have'a;;iy';,,;i"""
like wool
Iibres.,but they will soften and.stick togcthlr in
*ornl *ot"r,
fornringa feltedmass.Mixed *itn *ooi, ?or"i,, iil..,
wiil rnake
The full, soft handle of garments containing casein will be the wool felt more readilv.
nraintainedif they are only very slightly damp, or almost dry,
before being ironed or pressed.Wool settingsshould be used,
i.e. warm iron (HLCC Sctting 2). Prc.rscdFclts
Dry Clcaning Dlcndsof caseinanclwool arc rnade.intopresscd
fclts for usc as
floor coverings.The compact fclting ot'tfi"- frf",rO givcs
Casein is not aflected by dry cleaning solvents,and garments ,,.:lglL-".19 high
properriesi"c"sso.y foi rioo. covcring.
containingcaseinnay be dry cleanedas readily as wool. lr..d-wearing
used lor this purposeincreases
-^,r-:-yrt the rate of milling, ar;l
rcouces costs.
End Uses
Kttittittg Y arns BIcndsof rvooland caseinare usedin corrvcntional and tuftcd
Cascirr and rvool blends are used for fingcring and nrachiuc carpcts.The caseincontribulcsa high dcgrceof rcsiliencc, gooJ
knitting yarns, the whitenessof caseinlending itself to the pro- coveringpower (low fibre dcnsity),w"rnith, "*""li",rt
soil resis-
duction of pastel shades. lancedue to the smoothcross_seCtion, and rclativclylow pricc.
The caseinis obtainablefor this purposcin purc white natural
Knitted Fabrics colour,or in a largerangeof spun-clye<t
Pile carpetsare nrade with 50 per ccnt cascinblcn<lcd
Worsted spun yarns containing blends of between 30 per cent with
rvoolor rayon staple.
and 50 per cent casein with wool are very suitable for knitted
jerscy fabrics rvhere a soft full lrandle is required, together with . Blendsof cascinand rayon stapleare widcly uscdfor necdle-
loomcarpeting. The caseinprovidcssoftncss,6ultanrfwarmlh,
a widc range of solid dycd shades,fronr dark colours to pastcls.
and 50/50blcndsof cascin.arr<lrayonstaplc"onr1rur" favourably
Casein/wool blends are used for knitted berets,in which a
with an all-wool carpct in hanile, appcararrciano wcariug
dcgrcc of nrilling is required to produce the necessaryfelted
For interlock outerwear, 'T' shirts, cardigans,jumpers etc., ResilientFillings and padtlings
interestingefTcctsntay bc obtaincd with cotton-spunblcnds of
Cascinfibre has cxcellcntinsulationpropcrtics,
and good corn-
{ cascin,+ cotton; } casein,;}rayon staple(spun-dyed), } cotton, prcssibility
and resilicnce.
The lattcrpropcrtics
dcpcndto a largc

' I ' [ rJ r l .--l

: ' - - - -


extcnt on denier and staple length, and by suitablesclectiono f

fibre dimensions the characteristics of linished articles mav be CROUNDNUT PROTEIN FIBRE ('ARDIL)
obtained to suit requircments.
The natural protein fibres,silk and wool, possessso many attrac-
tive propertiesthat they have always scived as quality
hbres in
thc tcxtile trade. But animal_der.ivcd fibres are, by ihcir very
nature, expensive.They are subject to all the unicrtainties
,nnerentrn anything of animal origin. They are expensive,
vary greatly in quality. Moreover, in the case of-
productionoccupiesland that could be devotcd growing
to food.
The proteins frorn which theseanimal Iibres are riradecorne,
the lirst place, from proteins in
.the plants that are eaten by
food. These plant proteins difler from animal proteins
ln tne detalledstructure of thcir molecules.Dut all protiins
basically sim.ilar in chenrical design. All protein
molcculcs arc
in.the.form of long threadsof atonrs.plant prot"inr,
as wcll as
animal protcins,are thereloreable to satisfy thc nrst
of a fibre-forming material.
The successfulproduction of-.Lanital', ,Fibrolane,,
ancl other
case.infibres showed that non-fibrous ariinrafjroicin
to bringthenriritoifibrousfoiirr.
Thersjs no reasonwhy the same thing'shouldnot be donc
in the
caseof protein derived from plants.
lltet Spinning
In 1935, ProfessorsW. T. Astbury and A. C. Chibnall
to Imperial Chemical Industries itd., that nb.es "oufa
bc made
by dissolvingvegetableprotcin in urea and extrudinl
ilre solution
rnrougnsprnneretsinto coagulatingbaths.At that time
I.C.I. was
engaged.in researchdesigned to aisist in thc devclopment
o[ thc
world s tessprosperousareas,with a view to finding
new usesfor
their products. One of the most likely sourcesof veietable protcin
for libre production was ground-nuts,which g.oil
o. a sttplc
product in many of the hot, humict regions of
ilte wort<t.
Groundnuts (peanuts, Monkey nuts) irc usea in large quantities
as a source of the arachis oil required for making
The meal remaining after removal of the oil "onlin,
i- higt,
proportion of protein. This protein was regardcd
as a potcntiaiiy
suitable source of vegetable protein fibre.-

t34 t35
Experintentswere cnrricd out, and a processwas developedfor
Extractcdnreal-produce<lby the normal cxtractiorrproccss
nraking the pcanut protein fibre which becanteknorvn as.Ardil'. uscd
In rne production of arachis oil
(-fhe fibrc was llrst nrade at Ardeer irr Scotland.) is subjccted to too high a
temperature,which leads to a deterioratloi,
Ily 1938,plans wcrc nrade for pilot-plant production, but thc oi1fr" propcrticsof
the protein.
war held up further progress.Experimental production of 'Ardil'
About 50 per cent of the extractedmcal
eventually began in i946. Conrntercialmanufacttrrefollowed. a consistsof protcin,
the actual prorein contentvary.ingu".oiAlilg
factory being built at Dumfries. By I 951 'Ardil' was .inproduction tl"iLc nraturityof
the seedsand the conditionsund"i which
at the factory, rvith a planned output of 9 rnillion kg. a year. ttii nr. g.o*u.
Production of 'Ardil' rvas suspendcdiu 1957.
protcinis cxtracte<I f.; iii;',,;; by dissolving
,, lr.--rro.ynd,ru1
It ln causticsodasolution,the residueafter
valuablecattle food which.,containl-*;;-3 citractionbcing a
In the sectionrvhich Iollows, information on grourrdnutfibres is
from.glutelinsinsolublern the causticsoda. i"r"".n, nirrogcrr
based upon the fibre 'Ardil', as it was whcn production ceased Acidificationof the nro-teinsotrtion pr""ipitatcs
whichis rhe raw materiil rro'n *r,iiri thc proteirr,
in 1957. nrir;[''.,;;;;

PII.ODUCTION Spinning Solution

Croundnutproteindissolvcs. in lqrrcous
Ilarv I\hlcriul trrcn,an.rrnonir,cnuslic
sod., and solutions of
Croundnuts are the seedsof a sub-tropicalannual plant,Araclis sulphonare. -clctcrgc.is
In rhe manufa.tu;;-;i n;;; jiir,; bcrrz'rc
caustic.soda ""'' sorurio'so[
Itypogaca1., which is cultivated in lndia, China, West Africa, wercusedto dissolvetir" pr"i.i".
Bornco and the southernstatcsof U.S.A. . A,.solutjonof grounclnu_t
proteinin <jilutccausticsodasolutior.r
is allowed to maturc un<tcicontrollcJ
-'fhe,groundnut plant grorvsto a height of about 26 crn (10 in). """afil"lu for 24 hours.
After fertilization the stalk of the ovary elongates,pierces thc During.the maturario