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164

3.10 – EXERCÍCIO – pg. 83

1 – Para cada uma das seguintes funções, ache

lim

f

(

x

)

f

(2)

:

x 2

 

x

2

 

(a)

f (x) = 3x

2

lim

x

2

3

x

2 12

 

=

lim

x

2

(

x

2)(3

x

+

6)

=

12

 

x

2

   

x

2

 

(b)

 

f

(

x

) =

1

 

,

x

0

 

x

 
 

1

1

2 x

 
 

lim

x

 

2

= lim

2 x

 

= lim

(

x

2)

 

1

=

1

 
     

x

2

x

2

 

x

2

x

2

 

x

2

 

2 x

 

x

2

4

 
   

2

2

 

(c)

f (x) =

x

 

3

 
 

2

   

8

2)   2

 

4

 
 

2

 

(

 

+

 

x

 

x

x

3

 

4

 

4

 

8

 

lim

x

2

3

 

3

= lim

x

2

 

3

 

=

+

=

 

x

2

 

x

2

3

3

3

(d)

 

f

(

x

)

=

3

x

2

+

5

x

1

lim

3

2

x

+

5

x

1

21

= lim

3

2

x

+

5

x

22

= lim

(

x

2)(3

x

+

11)

     

x

2

x

2

 

x

2

 

x

2 x

2

 

x

2

 

(e)

f

(

x

)

=

x

1

+

1

,

x

≠ −

1

 
 

1

1

 

3

x

1

lim

x

2

x + 1

3

 

= lim

x

2

 

3(

x +

1)

= lim

x

2

2

− + x

 

1

=

1

 

x 2

   

x 2

 

3(

x

+

1)

x 2

9

(f)

f (x) = x

3

 

lim

x

3

8

= lim

(

x

2)(

x

2

+

2

x

+

4)

= 12

 
   

x

2

x

2

 

x

2

 

x

2

 

= 17

2 - Esboçar o gráfico das seguintes funções e dar uma estimativa dos limites indicados

(a)

f

(

x

)

=

(b)

f

(

x

) =

(c)

f

(

x

) =

(d)

f

(

x

) =

165

2 x − 9 ; lim f ( x ) = 6 x − 3
2
x
− 9
; lim
f
(
x
)
= 6
x − 3
x → 3
y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
x
-4
-3
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
-1
-2
-3
3
x
3
x
+
2
9
;
lim 2 f
(
x
)
= −
.
x
2 − 4
x
→−
4
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x -4 -3 -2 -1 1
y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
x
-4
-3
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
-1
-2
-3
x − 1 3 x − 1
x
− 1
3
x
− 1

x

1

x 3 1

;

;

3 lim f ( x ) = . x → 1 2 y 2 1
3
lim
f (
x
) =
.
x → 1
2
y
2
1
x
1
2
3
4
1
lim
f (
x
) =
.
x → 1
3

166

y 2 1 x -2 -1 1 2
y
2
1
x
-2
-1
1
2

3 – Calcular os limites indicados no Exercício 2 e comparar seus resultados com as estimativas obtidas.

4 -

5 -

6 -

7 -

 

x

2

9

 

(

x

3)(

x

+

3)

 

lim

 

= lim

 

=

lim(

x

+

3)

=

6.

 

3

 

x

3

x

 

x

3

x

3

 

x

3

lim

x

3

3

x

+

2

= lim

x

→−

2

(

x

+

2)(

x

1)

2

= lim

x

→− 2

 

(

x

1)

2

9

= −

 

x

→−

2

x

2

4

(

x

+

2)(

x

2)

 

x

2

.

4

lim

x − 1 3 x − 1
x
− 1
3
x
− 1

= lim

u

3

(

1

= lim

u

1)(

u

2

+

u

+

1)

= lim

(

u

2

+

u

+

1)

=

3

       

.

 

x

1

u

1

u

2

1

u

1

(

u

1)(

u

+

1)

 

u

1

(

u +

1)

2

lim

x

1

= lim

x

1

=

1

 
     

.

 

x

1

x

3

1

x

1

(

x

1)(

x

2

+

x

+

1)

 

3

 

3

x

+ 1

= lim

(

x

+

1)(

x

2

x

+

1)

=

(

1)

2

(

1)

+

1

= −

3

 

1

2

x

1

x

→− 1

(

x

1)(

x

+

1)

1

1

2

.

t

3

+

4

t

2

+

4

t

= lim

t

→− 2

(

t

+

2)(

t

2

+

2 t )

=

4

4

=

0

= 0

 

2

(

t

+

2)(

t

3)

(

t

+

2)(

t

3)

2

3

5

 

.

2

x

+

3

x

10

= lim

(

x

2)(

x

+

5)

= lim

x + 5

=

 

2

+

5

 

=

7

= 1

 

2

3

x

2

5

x

2

x

2

(

x

2)(3

x

+

1)

x

2

3

x +

1

3

2

+

1

7

.

2

t

2

3

t

5

= lim

(2

t

5)(

t

+

1)

=

5

+

1

=

7

     

.

5

2

t

5

t

5

(2

t

5)

2

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Nos exercícios de 4 a 27 calcule os limites.

lim

x →−

lim

t →−

lim

x

lim

t

8

-

lim

2

x

+

(1

a

)

x

a

= lim

(

x

a

)(

x

+

1)

=

a

+

1 .

167

9

x

a

lim

x

a

3 +

x

17

x

2

20

=

x

lim

a

(

x

(

x

a

4)(3

x

)

5)

=

12

5

=

7

=

1 .

 
 

-

x

4

4 x

2

x

36

25

+

x

4

(

x

4)(4

x

9)

16

9

7

10

-

 

lim

x

→−

2

x

+

6

x

+

5

=

lim

x

→− 1

(

x

+ 1)(

x

+

5)

=

1

+

5

4

= −

 

1

x

2

3

x

4

(

x

+ 1)(

x

4)

 

1

4

5

.

 

11

lim

2

x

1

=

lim

(

x

1)(

x

+

1)

=

1

1

=

2

= − 2

 

-

12

x

→−

1

lim

x

2 + 2

3

x

+

2

x

4

= lim

(

x

x

→− 1

(

x

+

1)(

x

2)(

x

+

2)

+

=

2)

4 .

 

1 +

2

1

.

-

x

2

x 2

x

2

 

(

x

2)

   

13

-

lim

2

x

5

x

+

6

=

lim

(

x

2)(

x

3)

=

2

3

=

1

=

1

     

.

 

x

2

2

x

12

x

+

20

 

x

2

(

x

2)(

x

10)

2

10

8

8

lim

(2

+

h

)

4

16

= lim

h

4

+

8

h

3

+

24

h

2

+

32

h

+

16

16

= lim

h / ( h

3

+

8

h

2

+

24

h

+

32)

14

-

     

h

0

h

h

0

h

h

0

 

h /

15

lim

(4

+

t

)

2

16

= lim

16

+

8

t

+

t

2

16

= lim

t / (8

+

t

)

=

8

 

= 32

-

t

0

t

t

0

 

t

t

0

t /

.

 
25 + 3 t − 5
25
+
3
t
5
 

25

+

3

t / −

25

 

3

16 -

 

lim

= lim

 

=

 
t / ( 25 + 3 t + 5) 10
t / (
25
+
3
t
+
5)
10

.

 

t

0

t

t

0

 
2 a + bt − a
2
a
+
bt
a
 

a

2

+

bt / −

a

2

b

 

17 lim

-

=

lim

, a>0.

 
 

t

0

t

t

0

= 2 2 a t / ( a + bt + a )
=
2
2
a
t /
(
a
+
bt
+
a
)
 
 
h − 1
h
− 1

h

1

1

18 lim

-

= lim

 
 

.

 

h

1

h

1

h

1

= ( h − 1)( h + 1) 2
=
(
h
1)(
h
+
1)
2

19 lim

-

2 2( h − 8) + h
2
2(
h
8)
+
h
 

= lim

 

2(

h

2

8)

h

2

 

= lim

 

2

h

2

16

h

2

=

h

→−

4

h + 4

h

→−

4

(

h

+ 4)(

h + 4)( 2( h

2(

h

2

8)

h

)

h

→− 4

( h

+

4)(

4)( 2(

2(

h

2

8)

h

)

   

(

h

+

4)(

h

4)

8

 
 

= lim

 

=

= − 1 .

h →− 4

(

h

+ 4)(

h + 4)( 2( h

2(

h

2

8

h

)

 

8

20 -

21

-

22 -

lim

h 0

lim

x

0

lim

x

0

3 8 + h − 2 h
3 8
+
h −
2
h

3

u

lim

u

2

=

8

+ h h = u u 2

u

3

8

u 2 +

u

u

3

8

= lim

u

2

( 2)(

2

2

u

+

4)

=

1

12

2 + u u 3 − 8 = lim u → 2 ( 2)( − 2

x

= lim

x

0

1 / + x − 1 / / − 1 = − x ( 1
1 / + x − 1 /
/
− 1
=
− x
(
1
+
x
+
1)
2
/

.

/ + x − 1 / / − 1 = − x ( 1 + x

2

x

2

x

+

+

2

a

b

2

a

b

=

lim

x

0

(

2

x

+

2

a

2

a

)(

2 2 x + b
2
2
x
+
b

+

b

)

(

2

x

+

b

2

b

2

)(

+ 2 a − 2 a )( 2 2 x + b + b ) (

x

2

+

2

a

+

a

)

= lim

x

0

23 -

lim

x

a

3 3 x − a
3
3
x
a

x

a

Fazendo:

x u

=

a b

=

3

3

com b 0

e

a 0

temos:

.

/ b

2

b

=

/ a

2

a

lim

u

b

u

b

=

u

3

b

3

u

b

lim

u

b

(

u

b

)(

u

2

+

bu

+

b

2

)

=

1

1

=

b

2

+

b

2

+

b

2

3

b

2

.

=

1

. 3 2 3 a
.
3
2
3
a
3 x − 1 x
3
x
− 1
x

24 lim 4

-

x

1

1 x = u

Fazendo

12

3 x − 1 x − 1
3
x
− 1
x
− 1

lim 4

x

1

= lim

u

1

,

4

u

0

temos:

(

u

1

u

3

= lim

1

u

u

1)(

u

3

+

u

2

+

u

+

1)

1

(

u

1)(

u

2

+

u

+

1)

=

4

3

.

25 lim

-

x

1

3
3

2

x

2

3

x

+

1

(

x

1)

2

Fazendo

lim

x

1

3
3

3 x = u ,

2

x

2

3

x

+

1

(

x

1)

2

temos:

= lim

u

1

u

2

2

u

+

1

(

u

3

1)

2

= lim

u

1

(

u

1)(

u

1)

(

u

1)

2

(

u

2

+

u

+

1)

2

=

,

a b

,

1

9

.

>

0 .

168

26 lim

-

x

4

27 lim

-

x

0

3 5 − + x 1 5 − − x
3 5
− + x
1 5
− − x

= lim

x

4

(9

5

x

)(1

+

5 − x
5
x

(1

5

+

x

)(3

+

x → 4 (9 − 5 − x )(1 + 5 − x (1 − 5

5

+

x

= lim

x

4

(4

x

)(1

+

5 − x )
5
x
)

(

4

+

x

)(3

+

= lim x → 4 (4 − x )(1 + 5 − x ) ( −

5

+

x

)

=

1 + x − 1 − x x
1
+
x
1
x
x

= lim

x

0

/

1

+

x

− /

1 +

x

x

( 1
(
1

+

x

)

+

1
1

x

)

= lim

x

0

2 x

x

( 1
(
1

+

x

)

+

1
1

x

)

2

6

=

2

2

=

=

1

3

1 .

.

169