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AS A CLASS, WE ARE GOING TO LEARN HOW TO

SUCCESSFULLY RECORD A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT


INSTRUMENTS.
DURING THESE LESSONS IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU:
TAKE NOTES IN YOUR JOTTERS
TAKE PHOTOS OF MIC PLACEMENTS
ASK QUESTIONS IF ANYTHING DOES NOT MAKE
SENSE
THERE ARE DIFFERENT WAYS OF RECORDING SOUND.
THE SET UP WE USE IS AS FOLLOWS:
Input
Device/s
Recording
Device
Output
Device
Audio
Interface
AN AUDIO INTERFACE WHICH IS USED TO CONNECT
MICS, KEYBOARDS AND ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS
TO THE IMAC.
PROTOOLS IS A TYPE OF DAW (DIGITAL AUDIO
WORKSTATION)
AN ELECTRONIC TOOL FOR RECORDING, EDITING AND
PRODUCING AUDIO FILES.
ALL MICROPHONES ARE TRANDUCERS. THIS MEANS
THEY TURN ACOUSTIC SOUND INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY.
WHEN RECORDING, YOU WILL CHOOSE BETWEEN TWO
DIFFERENT TYPES OF MICROPHONES:

DYNAMIC

CONDENSER

A DYNAMIC MIC CONTAINS A DIAPHRAGM ATTACHED TO A METAL
COIL, WHICH IS PLACED INSIDE A MAGNET. AS SOUND WAVES MAKE
THE DIAPHRAGM VIBRATE, THE COIL MOVES RAPIDLY PRODUCING A
SMALL ELECTRICAL SIGNAL.

THESE MICS ARE ROBUST, INEXPENSIVE & FEEDBACK
RESISTANT. THEY GENERATE THEIR OWN POWER
AND CAN BE USED IN THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS:
GOOD FOR LIVE WORK & IN LOUD SITUATIONS
TO CLOSE-MIC A GUITAR AMPLIFIER
TO CLOSE-MIC DRUMS (KICK, SNARE,TOMS)
TO CLOSE-MIC SAX / TRUMPET ETC IN A SMALL
ROOM OR AS PART OF A LOUD BAND
LIVE VOCALS




A CONDENSER MIC CONTAINS TWO METAL PLATES A TINY DISTANCE
APART. AN ELECTRICAL CHARGE BUILDS UP BETWEEN THEM. WHEN
THE DIAPHRAGM PLATE VIBRATES, THE CHARGE IS DISTURBED AND
ELECTRICITY FLOWS BETWEEN THE TWO.

THESE MICS ARE MORE EXPENSIVE AND MORE DELICATE
THAN A DYNAMIC MIC. THEY ARE MORE SENSITIVE AND
HAVE A VERY GOOD FREQUENCY RANGE. THEY NEED
PHANTOM POWER TO WORK AND CAN BE USED IN THE
FOLLOWING SITUATIONS:
GOOD FOR RECORDING WORK & IN CONTROLLED
SITUATIONS. GOOD FOR STEREO/AMBIENT
RECORDINGS
ACOUSTIC/CLASSICAL GUITAR RECORDING
TO MIC DRUM OVERHEADS
TO MIC SAX / TRUMPET BUT IN CONTROLLED
CONDITIONS
RECORDING VOCALS (NOT LIVE)




POLAR PATTERNS ARE HOW THE MICROPHONE
HEARS SOUND FROM DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS.
EACH MIC HAS ITS OWN SPECIFIC POLAR PATTERN,
AND SOME CAN EVEN CHOOSE BETWEEN PATTERNS
BY THE FLICK OF A SWITCH.
THE 3 MAIN POLAR PATTERNS WE WILL LOOK AT
ARE:
OMNIDIRECTIONAL
CARDIOID
FIGURE-OF-EIGHT




THIS MEANS ALL DIRECTIONS. THIS PATTERN WILL
PICK UP SOUND EQUALLY FROM ALL AROUND IT.




ADVANTAGES
HAS A NATURAL SOUND AND WILL PICK UP ROOM
SOUNDS & REFLECTIONS IF WANTED.
DISADVANTAGES
THERE CAN BE TOO MUCH SPILL AND ROOM SOUND. IN
LIVE SITUATIONS, FEEDBACK IS MORE LIKELY.
COMMON USES
AMBIENT RECORDINGS & AS A CLOSE MIC SETUP
WHERE SPILL CAN BE CONTROLLED.
MOST COMMON MIC TYPE
CONDENSER MICS




PICKS UP SOUND WELL FROM THE FRONT, SOME
FROM THE SIDES AND MUCH LESS FROM BEHIND.
NAMED FROM THE GREEK WORD FOR HEART, DUE
TO ITS SHAPE.




ADVANTAGES
MAINLY FOCUSED TO THE FRONT, SO LITTLE SPILL OR
ROOM NOISE PICKED UP.
DISADVANTAGES
NEEDS TO BE USED WITH CARE FOR CLOSE-MIC VOCALS,
AS A BOXY SOUND CAN RESULT DEPENDING ON THE
ACOUSTIC SPACE.
COMMON USES
CLOSE-MIC RECORDING AND LIVE SOUND IN MANY
SITUATIONS.
MOST COMMON MIC TYPE
CONDENSER




PICKS UP SOUND FROM THE FRONT AND REAR, BUT
VERY LITTLE FROM THE SIDES.




ADVANTAGES
GOOD FOR ELIMINATING SPILL FROM THE SIDES.
DISADVANTAGES
COULD PICK UP A LITTLE UNWANTED SOUND FROM
BEHIND.
COMMON USES
RECORDING TWO VOCALISTS EITHER SIDE OF THE
MIC, OR AN INTERVIEW INVOLVING TWO PEOPLE.
MOST COMMON MIC TYPE
CONDENSER




WHEN A MICROPHONE IS POSITIONED BETWEEN 2-
30 CM FROM AN INSTRUMENT, IT IS SAID TO BE
CLOSE MICD.
CLOSE MICING HELPS TO REDUCE PROBLEMS WITH
SPILL FROM OTHER INSTRUMENTS, BUT CAN LEAD
TO OTHER PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOUND LEVEL.



THIS OCCURS WHEN UNWANTED EXTERNAL SOUNDS
ARE PICKED UP BY A MICROPHONE.
CLOSE MICING OR USING A MORE DIRECTIONAL
(CARDIOID) MIC CAN HELP TO AVOID THIS.



CAUSED BY A BLAST OF AIR FROM A PLOSIVE SUCH
AS A B OR P SOUND.
WHEN THIS SUDDEN RUSH OF HAIR HITS THE
DIAPHRAGM OF A MIC, IT CAUSES A LOW-
FREQUENCY THUMPING SOUND.
THIS CAN BE OVERCOME BY MOVING FURTHER
FROM THE MIC OR USING A POP SHIELD.



A SOUND WITH AN EXAGGERATED S AND SH
SOUNDS NOTICEABLE ON VOCAL SOUNDS CYMBALS.




JACK LEAD
USED TO CONNECT GUITAR, BASS, KEYBOARD,
ELECTRIC PIANO ETC TO AMPS OR MBOX / DI BOX.
CAN BE AVAILABLE IN MONO OR STEREO AND ARE
UNBALANCED.
XLR LEAD
THE MOST COMMON LEAD TO CONNECT TO A
MICROPHONE. IT IS A BALANCED LEAD AND HAS A
MALE CONNECTOR AND A FEMALE CONNECTOR.
THE JOURNEY A SIGNAL WILL TAKE FROM CAPTURE
THROUGH TO MONITORING VIA SPEAKERS OR
HEADPHONES.
IN TERMS OF RECORDING AUDIO, THE SIGNAL PATH
IS ABOUT CONNECTING DIFFERENT PIECES OF
EQUIPMENT TOGETHER.
THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE SIGNAL PATH FLOWING
FROM EACH INSTRUMENT/MIC TO THE MIXING DESK
AND WHAT LEAD WOULD BE USED.
BEFORE HITTING RECORD, MAKE SURE YOU HAVE A
STRONG SIGNAL, BUT WITHOUT DISTORTION. THIS IS
IMPORTANT REGARDLESS IF YOU ARE RECORDING
USING DI OR USING A MIC.
IF YOU ARE USING INSTRUMENTS THAT NEED TUNED
(GUITAR, BASS GUITAR ETC) MAKE SURE YOU HAVE
TUNED THEM BEFORE YOU START RECORDING.
ALWAYS START WITH A CLICK TRACK. THIS ENSURES
THAT ALL YOUR INSTRUMENTS WILL KEEP THE SAME
TEMPO THROUGHOUT AND MAKES ANY EDITING
MUCH EASIER.
TIDY AS YOU GO. MESSY CABLES ETC CAN CAUSE
TRIP HAZARDS.
NEVER EAT OR DRINK NEAR ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT.
CHECK VOLUME LEVELS BEFORE HITTING PLAY.
HEARING CAN BE PERMANENTLY DAMAGED
THROUGH MONITORING AT EXCESSIVE LEVELS.
NEVER USE ANY EQUIPMENT THAT HAS WORN
CABLES OR BROKEN PLUGS.
ALL EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE POWERED UP AND
DOWN AT THE START AND END OF EACH SESSION.

IT IS VERY IMPORTANT WHEN USING SPEAKERS
THAT THEY ARE TURNED ON LAST AND OFF FIRST!

THIS WILL PREVENT LOUD BANGS GOING
THROUGH THE SPEAKERS WHEN EQUIPMENT IS
TURNED OFF, SAVING THEM FROM PERMANENT
DAMAGE.
Condenser mics are a must for recording acoustic
guitars. There are two possible ways we will look at
today:

OPTION 1 LARGE DIAPHRAM CONDENSER MIC
POSITION THIS AROUND 50CM AWAY POINTING AT THE
JOIN BETWEEN THE NECK AND THE BODY OF THE GUITAR.

OPTION 2 2X SMALL DIAPHRAM CONDENSER MICS
POSITION ONE AROUND 30CM AWAY POINTING AT THE
JOIN BETWEEN THE NECK AND THE BODY OF THE GUITAR.
POSITION THE 2
ND
MIC HALFWAY UP THE FRETBOARD
FOR A STEREO EFFECT.

YOU CAN RECORD AN ELECTRIC GUITAR STRAIGHT INTO
YOUR MBOX THE SAME WAY AS YOU RECORD
KEYBOARDS.
HOWEVER, TODAY WE WILL LOOK AT MICING AN AMP.

AS AN AMP CAN BE VERY LOUD, WE WILL USE A
DYNAMIC MIC INSTEAD OF THE MORE SENSITIVE
CONDENSER.
POSITION THE MIC JUST OFF CENTRE AND AROUND
15CM AWAY.


HOWEVER, WHEN RECORDING AN AMP, BE SURE
THE GUITAR IS TURNED AWAY FROM IT TO AVOID
HUM CAUSED BY THE GUITAR ACTING AS AN AERIAL.
USING THE AMP TECHNIQUE AS WELL AS A DI
RECORDING AT THE SAME TIME CAN ALSO WORK
WELL.


YOU CAN ALSO RECORD A BASS GUITAR BY MICING
A BASS AMP IN EXACTLY THE SAME WAY AS THE
ELECTRIC GUITAR.
TODAY WE WILL LOOK AT RECORDING THE BASS
GUITAR USING THE DI METHOD.


USING A JACK LEAD, PLUG THE BASS GUITAR INTO
THE FRONT OF THE MBOX.
ADJUST YOUR GAIN ACCORDINGLY.
(IF THE LIGHT IS RED, LOWER YOUR GAIN.)


RECORDING DRUMS CAN SEEM VERY COMPLICATED
AS IT REQUIRES MORE THAN ONE MIC, DIFFERENT
MIC PLACEMENTS AND A GOOD BEFORE YOU BEGIN
TO MIX IT IN WITH THE REST OF YOUR TRACKS.


TO RECORD TODAY, WE ARE GOING TO USE THE GLYN
JOHNS TECHNIQUE.
GLYN JOHNS IS A BRITISH RECORDING ENGINEER
WHO RECORDED BANDS AND ARTISTS SUCH AS ERIC
CLAPTON, THE ROLLING STONES, THE WHO, THE
EAGLES AND MANY MORE.



THIS TECHNIQUE CAN ACHIEVE PROFESSIONAL RESULTS
WITHOUT USING A HUGE AMOUNT OF MICS.
TO RECORD THIS WAY YOU WILL NEED 4 MICS:
A KICK DRUM MIC
A SNARE DRUM MIC
2X OVERHEAD CONDENSER MICS



POSITION YOUR OVERHEADS
YOU WILL NEED A TAPE MEASURE TO POSITION THESE
PROPERLY AND KEEP YOUR OVERHEADS IN PHASE. IF THE MIC
SIGNAL PATHS CROSS OVER, THEY CAN SLIP OUT OF PHASE,
MAKING YOUR DRUMS SOUND WASHY AND OFF-BALANCE.



STARTING WITH 1 OVERHEAD MIC, POSITION IT 40
INCHES FROM DEAD-CENTRE OF THE SNARE DRUM,
FACING DIRECTLY DOWN TO WHERE THE KICK DRUM
PEDAL IS LOCATED.


POSITION YOUR OVERHEADS
NOW TAKE YOUR 2
ND
OVERHEAD MIC. THIS WILL BE
POSITIONED TO THE DRUMMERS RIGHT-HAND SIDE, WITH
THE MIC DIAPHRAGM POINTING TOWARDS THE HI-HAT, OVER
THE TOP OF THE FLOOR TOM AND SNARE DRUM. TAKE THE
TAPE MEASURE AND POSITION THE MICS DIAPHRAGM
EXACTLY 40 INCHES FROM THE CENTRE OF THE SNARE.


POSITION YOUR SPOT MICS
THESE ARE MUCH MORE STRAIGHT FORWARD. THE
SNARE MIC SLIPS ONTO THE RIM OF THE SNARE AND
THE BASS DRUM MIC ON A SMALL MIC STAND, A
FEW INCHES FROM THE OUTSIDE HEAD OF THE BASS
DRUM.

PANNING YOUR MIX
PAN YOUR KICK AND SNARE MICS CENTRE.
THEN PAN THE OVERHEAD ABOVE THE SNARE
HALFWAY TO THE RIGHT.
NOW PAN YOUR OTHER OVERHEAD MIC, THE ONE
NEAR THE FLOOR TOM, TO THE FAR LEFT.
THIS GIVES A DEPTH AND STEREO IMAGE TO THE
OVERALL KIT.


USING A LARGE DIAPHRAGM CONDENSER MIC, PLACE
THE MICROPHONE BETWEEN 6 AND 9 INCHES FROM THE
MOUTH (CLOSE MICING).
USE A POP SHIELD TO PREVENT POPPING/BLASTING.
TRY TO TURN DOWN HEADPHONE VOLUME AS MUCH
AS POSSIBLE TO AVOID SPILLAGE / LEAKING.