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ARPO

ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
ORGANISING
DEPARTMENT
TYPE OF
ACTIVITY'
ISSUING
DEPT.
DOC.
TYPE
REFER TO
SECTION N.
PAGE.
1
OF 7
STAP P 1 M 6090
The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is the property of ENI AGIP.
It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for reasons different from those owing to which it was given.
TITLE
BEST PRACTICES AND MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR DRILLING
AND COMPLETION ACTIVITIES
DISTRIBUTION LIST
Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts
Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units
STAP Archive
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities
NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and
a CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept.
in Eni - Agip Division Headquarter)
Date of issue:
!
"
#
$
% Issued by P. Magarini C. Lanzetta A. Galletta
28-04-2000 28-04-2000 28-04-2000
REVISIONS PREP'D CHK'D APPR'D
28/04/2000
PAGE 2 OF 7
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT
The purpose of the Best Practices and Minimum Requirements is to guide technicians and
engineers, involved in Eni-Agips Drilling & Completion worldwide activities, through the
Manuals & Procedures and the Technical Specifications which are part of the Corporate
Standards.
Such Corporate Standards define the requirements, methodologies and rules that enable to
operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. This, however,
still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local
laws or particular environmental situations.
The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety, quality and costs,
while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common
guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates.
The Best Practices and Minimum Requirements (also defined by the acronym BP&MR) is the
main reference document for the Audits on the Drilling & Completion activities that the
Corporate will be carrying out in the Districts and Affiliates.
IMPLEMENTATION
The Best Practices and Minimum Requirements document addresses all well area activities,
from the initial feasibility study through completion and workover operations. The topics have
been divided in three main sections:
1) PLANNING (PL)
It includes the fundamental actions preceding the well operations, such as feasibility
study, authorisations, operational planning, construction of the location, etc.
2) OPERATIONS (OP)
It address the operations carried out in the well area, such as drilling, well testing,
completion, workover, equipment inspection and waste treatment.
3) REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
This section describes all the reports, forms and documents to be filled in and sent to
the Corporate Drilling & Completion Standards Department in Eni-Agip Division
Headquarters. This should be done either periodically or at the end of each operation.
This will provide a record of the well and where to find all relevant information
necessary for studies, analysis and evaluations of the operations. This will enable
improvement and optimisation of further activities.
For every BP&MR specified, the source (manual, procedure, technical specification) has been
listed, to help finding the entire and associated subjects, if required.
Where the reference column is blank, this means that there are no reference documents
available or they are currently under preparation.
PAGE 3 OF 7
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION
The BP&MR is a live controlled document and, as such, it will only be amended and
improved by the Corporate Company, in accordance with the development of Eni-Agip
Division and Affiliates operational experience. Accordingly, it will be the responsibility of
everyone concerned in the use and application of this manual to review the policies and
related procedures on an ongoing basis.
Locally dictated derogations from BP&MR shall be approved solely in writing by the Manager
of the local Drilling and Completion Department (D&C Dept.) after the District/Affiliate
Manager and the Corporate Drilling & Completion Standards Department in Eni-Agip Division
Head Office have been advised in writing.
The Corporate Drilling & Completion Standards Department will consider such approved
derogations for future amendments and improvements of the BP&MR, when the updating of
the document will be advisable.
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
PAGE 4 OF 7
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090 0
INDEX
ABBREVIATIONS
SECTION 1 PLANNING (PL)
PRELIMINARY (PL.01)
GEOLOGICAL AND DRILLING WELL PROGRAMME (PL.02)
COMPLETION DESIGN (PL.03)
SECTION 2 OPERATIONS (OP)
MOVING AND POSITIONING (OP.01)
DRILLING OPERATIONS (OP.02)
COMPLETION AND WORKOVER OPERATIONS (OP.03)
MATERIALS AND TRANSPORTATION (OP.04)
WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL (OP.05)
SECTION 3 REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
REPORTING AND FEEDBACK FORMS (RF.01)
FINAL DRILLING REPORT (RF.02)
PAGE 5 OF 7
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
ABBREVIATIONS
The following tables contain the abbreviations used in the document:
AC/DC Alternate Current, Direct Current NB Near Bit Stabiliser
AHTS Anchor Handling Towing Supply NDT Non Destructive Test
API American Petroleum Institute NMDC Non Magnetic Drill Collar
BG Background gas NSG North Seeking Gyro
BHA Bottom Hole Assembly NTU Nephelometric Turbidinity Unit
BHP Bottom Hole Pressure OBM Oil Base Mud
BHT Bottom hole temperature OD Outside Diameter
BJ Blast J oint OEDP Open End Drill Pipe
BMT Blue Methylene Test OH Open Hole
BOP Blow Out Preventer OHGP Open Hole Gravel Packing
BPD Barrel Per Day OIM Offshore Installation Manager
BPM Barrels Per Minute OMW Original Mud weight
BPV Back Pressure Valve ORP Origin Reference Point
BSW Base Sediment & Water OWC Oil Water Contact
BUR Build Up Rate P&A Plugged & Abandoned
BWOC By Weight Of Cement P/U Pick-Up
BWOW By Weight Of Water PBR Polished Bore Receptacle
C/L Control Line PCG Pipe Connection Gas
CBL Cement Bond Log PDC Polycristalline Diamond Cutter
CCD Centre to Centre Distance PDM Positive Displacement Motor
CCL Casing Collar Locator PGB Permanent Guide Base
CDP Common Depth Point PI Productivity Index
CET Cement Evaluation Tool PKR Packer
CGR Condensate Gas Ratio PLT Production Logging Tool
CMT Cement POB Personnel On Board
CP Conductor Pipe POOH Pull Out Of Hole
CR Cement Retainer PPB Pounds per Barrel
CRA Corrosion Resistant Alloy PPG Pounds per Gallon
CSG Casing ppm Part Per Million
CT Coiled Tubing PTR Piano Tavola Rotary
CW Current Well PV Plastic Viscosity
DC Drill Collar PVT Pressure Volume Temperature
DE Diatomaceous Earth Q Pump Rate
DHM Down Hole Motor Q/A Q/C Quality Assurance, Quality Control
DHSV Down Hole Safety Valve R/D Rig Down
DIF Drill in Fluid R/U Rig Up
DLS Dog Leg Severity RBP Retrievable Bridge Plug
DLS Dog Leg Severity RCP Reverse Circulating Position (GP)
DM /
D&CM
Drilling & Completion Manager RFT Repeat Formation Test
DOB Diesel Oil Bentonite RIH Run In Hole
DOBC Diesel Oil Bentonite Cement RJ Ring J oint
DOR Drop Off Rate RKB Rotary Kelly Bushing
DP Drill Pipe ROE Radius of Exposure
PAGE 6 OF 7
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
DPHOT Drill Pipe Hang off Tool ROP Rate Of Penetration
DRLG Drilling ROU Radios Of Uncertainty
DST Drill Stem Test ROV Remote Operated Vehicle
DV DV Collar RPM Revolutions Per Minute
E/L Electric Line RPSP Reduced Pump Strokes Pressure
ECD Equivalent Circulation Density RT Rotary Table
ECP External Casing Packer S (HDT) High Resolution Dipmeter
EMS Electronic Multi Shot S/N Serial Number
EMW Equivalent Mud Weight S/O Slack-off
EOC End Of Curvature S/S Short String
EP External Pressure S/V Supply Vassal
ESD Electric Shut-Down System SAFE Slapper Activated Firing Equipment
ESP Electrical Submersible Pump SBA Safe Breathing Area
ETA Expected Arrival Time SBHP Static Bottom Hole Pressure
ETU Endless Tubing Unit SBHT Static Bottom Hole Temperature
FBHP Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure SCBA Self Contained Breathing
Apparatus
FBHT Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature SCC Stress Corrosion Cracking
FC Flow Coupling SCSO Single Completion Seal Flange
FINS Ferranti International Navigation
System
SCSSV Surface Controlled Subsurface
Safety Valve
FPI/BO Free Point Indicator / Back Off SCUBA Self Contained Underwater
Breathing Apparatus
FTHP Flowing Tubing Head Pressure SD Separation Distance
FTHT Flowing Tubing Head Temperature SDE Senior Drilling Engineer
GCT Guidance Continuous Tool SF Safety Factor
GLR Gas Liquid Ratio SG Specific Gravity
GLS Guidelineless Landing Structure SICP Shut-in Casing Pressure
GMS Gyro Multi Shot SIDPP Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure
GOC Gas Oil Contact SIMOP Simultaneous Operations
GOR Gas Oil Ratio SN Seating Nipple
GP Gravel Pack SPM Stroke per Minute
GPM Gallon (US) per Minute SPV Supervisor
GPS Global Positioning System SR Separation Ratio
GR Gamma Ray SRG Surface Readout Gyro
GRA Guidelineless Re-entry Assembly SSC Sulphide Stress Cracking
GSS Gyro Single Shot SSD Sliding Sleeve Door Valve
HAZOP Hazard and Operability SSLV Sub Surface Lubricator Valve
HDT High Resolution Dipmeter SSR Sub surface Release Plugs
HHP Hydraulic Horsepower SSSV Sub Surface Safety Valve
HO Hole Opener SSTT Sub Surface Test Tree
HP/HT High Pressure - High Temperature SSTV Subsea Television
HSI Horsepower per Square Inches ST Steering Tool
HW/HW
DP
Hewi Wate Drill Pipe STD Stand
IADC International Drilling Contractor STG Short trip gas
IBOP Inside Blow Out Preventer STHP Static Tubing Head Pressure
PAGE 7 OF 7
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
ICGP Inside Casing Gravel Packing STHT Static Tubing Head Temperature
ID Inside Diameter STT Surface Test Tree
IFR Imposta Fabbricazione Ridotta SX Sacks
IP Internal Pressure TBG Tubing
IPR Inflow Performance Relationship TCP Tubing Conveyed Perforations
JAM J oint Make-up Torque Analyser TD Total Depth
KMW Kill mud weight TDB Total Drilling Control
KOP Kick Off Point TDS Top Drive System
L/D Lay-Down TFA Total Flow Area
L/S Long String TG Trip Gas
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide TGB Temporary Guide Base
LC 50 Lethal Concentration 50% THA Tubing Head Adapter (bonnet)
LCDT Last Crystal to Dissolve C TOC Top of Cement
LCM Lost Circulation Materials TOL Top of Liner
LCP Lower Circulation Position (GP) TRSV Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve
LEL Lower Explosive Limit TTBP Through Tubing Bridge Plug
LMRP Low Marine Riser Package TVD True Vertical Depth
LN Landing Nipple TW Target Well
LOT Leak Off Test UAR Uncertainty Area Ratio
LQC Log Quality Control UCP Upper Circulating Position
LTA Lost Time Accident UEL Upper Explosion Level
LTT Lower Tell Table (GP) UGF Universal Guide Frame
LWD Log While Drilling UHF Ultra High Frequency
M/D Martin Decker UR Under Reamer
M/U Make-Up UTM Universal Transverse of Mercator
MAASP Max Allowable Annular Surface
Pressure
VBR Variable Bore Rams (BOP)
MD Measured Depth VDL Variable Density Log
MLH Mudline Hanger VHF Very High Frequency
MLS Mudline Suspension VSP Velocity Seismic Profile
MMS Magnetic Multi Shot W/L Wire Line
MODU Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit WBM Water Base Mud
MOP Margin of Overpull WC Water Cut
MPI Magnetic Particle Inspection WHP Well Head Pressure
MSCL Modular Single Completion Land WHSIP Well Head Shut-in Pressure
MSL Mean Sea Level WL Water Loss
MSS Magnetic Single Shot WO Workover
MUT Make Up Torque WOB Weight On Bit
MW Mud Weight WOC Wait On Cement
MWD Measurement While Drilling WOW Wait On Weather
N/D Nipple-Down WP Working Pressure
N/U Nipple-Up XO Cross Over
NACE National Association of Corrosion
Engineers
YP Yield Point
PAGE 1 OF 205
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
SECTION 1
PLANNING (PL)
PAGE 2 OF 205
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
INDEX
PL1. PRELIMINARY 7
PL. 1.1. FEASIBILITY STUDY 7
1. NEW WELL 7
2. WELL RE-ENTRY 7
PL. 1.2. DRILLING & COMPLETION DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES 8
1. DEPARTMENT RESPONSIBILITIES 8
PL. 1.3. RIG SELECTION 10
1. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CONTENTS 10
PL. 1.4. AUTHORISATIONS AND PERMITS 12
1. GENERAL 12
PL. 1.5. TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION 13
1. RIG SITE 13
2. DRILLING & COMPLETION DEPARTMENT 13
PL. 1.6. MAIN CONTRACTORS 14
1. DRILLING CONTRACTOR 14
2. MUD LOGGING 18
3. MUD SERVICE, CHEMICAL SUPPLY, CENTRIFUGES RENTAL 20
4. CEMENTING SERVICE 22
PL. 1.7. ESTIMATED COSTS 25
1. BUDGET 25
2. COSTS 25
PL2. GEOLOGICAL AND DRILLING WELL PROGRAMME 26
PL. 2.1. GEOLOGICAL AND DRILLING WELL PROGRAMME STRUCTURE 27
1. NUMBER OF THE SECTIONS 27
2. PRINT MODEL 27
PL. 2.2. GENERAL INFORMATION (SECTION 1) 28
1. GENERAL 28
2. GENERAL WELL DATA 28
3. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 29
4. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RIG, BOP STACK AND SAFETY
EQUIPMENT 29
5. LIST OF THE MAIN CONTRACTORS 29
6. CONTACTS IN CASE OF EMERGENCY 30
7. REFERENCE MANUALS 30
8. MEASUREMENT UNITS 30
9. SIGNATURE 30
PL. 2.3. LAYOUT OF THE DRILLING PROGRAMME (SECTION 4) 33
1. BASIC REQUIREMENTS 33
PL. 2.4. OPERATIVE SEQUENCE (SECTION 4) 35
1. PRELIMINARY INFORMATIONS 35
2. CONDUCTOR PIPE PHASE 35
3. SURFACE PHASE 36
4. INTERMEDIATE PHASES 36
5. FINAL PHASE 37
PAGE 3 OF 205
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6. TESTING 37
7. TYPE OF COMPLETION 37
8. WELL ABANDONMENT 38
PL. 2.5. SOFTWARE (SECTION 4) 39
1. STANDARDS 39
2. ALTERNATIVES 39
PL. 2.6. PRESSURE GRADIENTS PROGNOSIS (SECTION 4) 40
1. PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION 40
2. DEFINITIONS 41
3. PRESSURE GRADIENTS PREDICTION & EVALUATION 43
PL. 2.7. SHALLOW GAS 48
1. PRELIMINARY SHALLOW GAS INVESTIGATION 48
2. SHALLOW-GAS DRILLING GUIDELINES 48
3. DIVERTER 50
PL. 2.8. CASING SETTING DEPTH 51
1. DETERMINE PROPER SETTING DEPTH FOR EACH CASING TYPE 51
2. GENERAL GUIDELINES ON CASING SETTING DEPTHS 51
3. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 52
PL. 2.9. DIRECTIONAL WELL PLANNING 53
1. PRELIMINARY DIRECTIONAL PLAN INFORMATION 53
2. DEFINITIONS 54
3. SURVEY CALCULATIONS 55
4. SURVEY TOOL SELECTION 56
5. FREQUENCY AND TYPE OF SURVEYS 59
6. ANTI-COLLISION 59
7. BHA ANALYSIS 63
8. REPORTING 64
PL. 2.10. CASING DESIGN 70
1. CASING SETTING DEPTH AND FUNCTIONS OF CASING STRINGS 70
2. CASING AND HOLE SIZES 70
3. CASING DESIGN CRITERIA AND DESIGN FACTORS 70
4. DECREASING IN THE CASING PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES 72
5. DRILLING PROGRAMME CONTENTS 76
PL. 2.11. DRILLING FLUIDS PROGRAMME 80
1. GENERAL 80
2. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION 80
3. GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR A MUD SYSTEM 80
4. SURFACE EQUIPMENT FOR TREATING & HANDLING MUD 81
5. CONTINGENCY PLANS FOR POTENTIAL HOLE PROBLEMS 82
6. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 82
PL. 2.12. HYDRAULIC PROGRAMME 83
1. SOFT WARE 83
2. FLOW REGIME DEFINITION 83
3. FRICTION PRESSURE LOSSES CALCULATION 83
4. BIT NOZZLES SELECTION 84
5. DRILLING PROGRAMME CONTENTS 84
PL. 2.13. WELLHEAD 86
1. GENERAL SERVICE CONDITION (NO SOUR SERVICE) ONSHORE,
OFFSHORE J ACK-UP & FIXED PLATFORMS WELLHEAD SYSTEM 86
2. MATERIAL 86
3. UNITISED WELLHEAD (COMPACT) 87
4. FLANGED WELLHEAD 87
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ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 88
6. PRESSURE TESTS 89
7. DRILLING PROGRAMME CONTENTS 89
8. UNCONVENTIONAL WELLHEAD SYSTEM 89
9. SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEM 89
PL. 2.14. WELL CONTROL 91
1. BOP SELECTION CRITERIA 91
2. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 91
3. BOP & CASING TESTS 92
4. TESTS FREQUENCY 95
5. DURATION OF TESTS 96
6. WELL CONTROL DRILLS 96
7. PRIMARY WELL CONTROL 97
8. SECONDARY WELL CONTROL 98
PL. 2.15. CEMENT PROGRAMME 99
1. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION 99
2. SLURRY DESIGN 99
3. SPACER DESIGN 100
4. HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS 101
5. PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES 101
6. DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT SELECTION 101
7. SURFACE EQUIPMENT SELECTION 102
8. OPERATING PROGRAMME 102
PL. 2.16. DRILL STRING DESIGN 104
1. DESIGN PARAMETERS 104
PL. 2.17. BIT SELECTION & DRILLING PARAMETERS 108
1. FACTORS AFFECTING BIT SELECTION 108
PL. 2.18. EXPECTED DRILLING PROBLEMS & RECOMMENDATIONS 110
1. DRILLING DIFFICULTIES 110
2. SUGGESTIONS 110
3. GENERALITIES 110
4. LOSSES CIRCULATION 110
5. DIFFERENTIAL STICKING 111
6. CAVING HOLE 112
7. HOLE RESTRICTION 113
8. HOLE IRREGULARITIES 113
9. HYDROGEN SULPHIDE GUIDELINES 114
PL. 2.19. WELL ABANDONING 118
1. GENERAL GUIDELINES 118
2. TEMPORARY ABANDONMENT 118
3. PERMANENT ABANDONMENT - PLUGGING 120
PL3. COMPLETION DESIGN 124
PL. 3.1. FUNDAMENTAL 124
1. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 124
2. COMPLETION OBJ ECTIVES 124
3. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION 125
4. RESEVOIR CONSIDERATIONS 125
5. RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST 126
PL. 3.2. RESERVOIR FLUIDS CHARACTERISTICS 130
1. GENERAL 130
2. OIL CHARACTERISTICS 130
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3. GAS CHARACTERISTICS 130
4. GAS CONDENSATE CHARACTERISTICS 131
5. SAMPLING 132
PL. 3.3. RESERVOIR ROCK CHARACTERISTICS 133
1. GENERAL 133
2. AREA OF INTEREST 133
3. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS 133
4. CORE ANALYSIS 134
PL. 3.4. EFFECTS OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 135
1. GENERAL 135
2. DESIGN PARAMETERS 135
3. COMPLETION DESIGN THROUGH FIELD LIFE 135
4. NEAR WELLBORE RESTRICTIONS 135
5. STRATEGY TO MINIMISE THE SKIN EFFECTS 137
6. WELL INFLOW PERFORMANCE 138
PL. 3.5. TUBING PERFORMANCE 141
1. GENERAL 141
2. TEMPERATURE GRADIENT 142
3. PVT DATA CALCULATION 142
4. PVT PARAMETERS TO BE MATCHED 143
5. VALIDATION 144
6. LIMITS 145
7. OPTIMUM TBG SIZE THROUGH FIELD LIFE 145
PL. 3.6. STRESS ANALYSIS 146
1. GENERAL 146
2. PARAMETERS 146
3. CALCULATION METHOD 148
4. SAFETY FACTOR 149
5. OPERATIONAL CASES 149
6. TBG - PACKER INTERACTIONS 150
7. TUBING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 151
PL. 3.7. MATERIAL SELECTION 152
1. CORROSION GENERAL 152
2. CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES 156
3. MATERIAL SELECTION 157
4. CORROSION MONITORING 160
5. ELASTOMER SELECTION 161
6. ELASTOMER PRACTICAL GUIDELINES 161
PL. 3.8. LIFTING DESIGN 163
1. DEFINITION 163
2. BASIC METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT 163
3. SELECTIONCRITERIA 163
4. ROD PUMPING 166
5. GAS LIFTING 167
6. ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMPING 168
7. J ET PUMPING 169
PL. 3.9. COMPLETION AND PACKER FLUIDS 170
1. DEFINITIONS 170
2. COMPLETION FLUID DUTY 171
3. PACKER FLUID 171
4. BRINE PROPERTIES 171
5. FORMATION INTERACTIONS 172
6. BRINE FILTRATION 173
7. FLUID LOSSES 174
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
8. OIL BASE MUD 174
PL. 3.10. PACKERS 175
1. DEFINITIONS 175
2. SINGLE COMPLETION PACKER 175
3. SINGLE SELECTIVE COMPLETION PACKER 180
4. DUAL COMPLETION PACKER 183
5. DUAL SELECTIVE COMPLETION PACKER 184
PL. 3.11. TUBING JOINT 185
1. GENERAL 185
2. J OINT SELECTION 185
PL. 3.12. TUBING SAFETY VALVE 187
1. GENERAL NOTES 187
2. SEALING SYSTEM 189
3. APPLICATION 191
4. SELECTION CRITERIA 191
PL. 3.13. ANNULUS SAFETY VALVE 192
1. GENERAL NOTES 192
2. VALVE TYPES 192
3. APPLICATION 192
4. SELECTION CRITERIA 192
PL. 3.14. LANDING NIPPLES AND SLIDING VALVE 194
1. TUBING HANGER NIPPLE 194
2. INTERMEDIATE DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT 194
3. TAIL PIPE 194
4. NIPPLES SELECTION 194
5. GENERAL 194
6. WORKING PRESSURE 195
PL. 3.15. CHRISTMAS TREE 196
1. GENERAL GUIDELINES 196
2. PRESSURE RATING 196
3. CONFIGURATION 196
4. ACTUATORS 197
5. MATERIALS 198
6. SEALS 198
7. TUBING HANGER 200
8. TUBING HEAD ADAPTER SEAL FLANGE 200
PL. 3.16. WORKOVER AND COMPLETION PROGRAMME 201
1. GENERAL 201
2. PROGRAMME CONTENT 201
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL1. PRELIMINARY
PL. 1.1. FEASIBILITY STUDY
1. NEW WELL Reference
1.1. The Drilling & Completion Department (D&C Dept.) obtain input data
from the Exploration or Reservoir departments, relevant to:
Location co-ordinates.
Targets specifications.
Reference to offset well information.
Potential production.
1.2. The D&C Dept. evaluate all input data in order to be able to:
Determine if any natural or artificial impediments may exist.
Verify the environmental impact.
Select the type of rig (Land, J ack Up or Floater).
Determine the range of pore pressures, which may be
encountered.
Define the type of drilling fluid.
Fix preliminary casing points and if necessary, also produce the
casing design.
Establish a preliminary directional well plan in order to evaluate
collision risks.
Plan the configuration of the well completion.
Carry out an operations optimisation analysis (pre-drilling, early
production, simultaneous production, etc.).
Estimate expected time of operations.
Estimate expected costs.
2. WELL RE-ENTRY Reference
2.1. Other additional information will be obtained, such as:
Purpose of re-entry (reinstate production, workover, abandoning,
etc.).
Well history and status.
Wellhead sketch.
2.2. In addition to the normal evaluations, some additional issues must be
taken into consideration:
Re-establishment of the location (onshore wells).
The ability to approach existing platforms, cluster or single wells
(offshore).
Platform suitability to receive the selected rig.
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 1.2. DRILLING & COMPLETION DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES
1. DEPARTMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
Reference
1.1. The D&C Dept. is activated by the Exploration Department
(exploratory wells) or Project Manager (development wells).
1.2. The D&C Dept. obtain the following from the District Geological
Department:
1.2.1. The Geological Programme to include:
Geological Framework
Seismic Interpretation
Source Rocks
Sealing Rocks
Lithostratigraphic Profile
Reference Wells
Annexes and/or Figures
P-1-M-6100 16.4.2
P-1-N-6001-E 7.2
1.2.2. The Operational Geological Programme to include:
Surface Logging
Samplings
Cuttings
Bottom Hole Cores
Side Wall Cores
Fluids Sampling
Logging While Drilling
Wireline Logging
Seismic Survey
Wireline Testing
Testing
Studies And Drawings
Reference Wells
Annexes and/or Figures
P-1-M-6100 16.4.3
P-12-N-6001-E 7.3
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.3. The D&C Dept. inform the other departments in accordance with their
functions:
Authorisations & permits
Budget cost centre opening
Location preparation
Contracts acquisition
Means of transport selection
Material supplies.
1.4. The D&C Dept. issue technical specification for the Drilling Rig.
1.5. The D&C Dept. activate its Engineering Section to prepare and
distribute the Drilling Programme.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-1-N-6001-E 7.4
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Operating Procedure for Drawing the Well Drilling Program STAP-P-1-N-6001E
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 1.3. RIG SELECTION
1. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CONTENTS
Reference
1.1. General data:
Well name or activity name
Foreseen date for starting activity
Activity time
Well number
J ob number
Eni-Agip District
Location
RKB/sea level
Distance from nearest house
Soundproofing required.
1.2. Type of well:
Exploration wells
Development wells
Single wells
Cluster wells
Number of wells per cluster
Vertical wells
Deviated wells.
1.3. Well characteristics for rig evaluation:
Rig capacity with 5 DP:
Hole diameter
Hole depth
Casing/liner diameter
Casing/liner setting depth
Casing/liner weight in air.
1.4. Type of mud predicted:
If oil based mud predicted, adequate mixing system.
Max predicted mud density.
H
2
S predicted.
P-1-M-6140 6.4
P-1-M-6100 5.8
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1.5. Wellhead for each type of well:
Base flange
Type of flange for casing spool
Type of flange for casing spool
Type of flange for tubing spool
Type of flange for tubing spool.
P-1-M-6140 15
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Geological and Drilling Well Programme STAP-P-2-N-6001-E
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REVISION
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 1.4. AUTHORISATIONS AND PERMITS
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. Authorisations, approvals and documentation necessary to operate in
the various Countries are usually substantially different and depend
upon local laws and rules.
Each District / Affiliate have to issue a complete list, specifying the
type of documents and the competent authority.
1.2. Rig site:
All the authorisations and permits relative to the current activity shall
be available for inspection by any authorised personnel.
1.3. Well Area Department:
All the authorisations and permits relative to the current activity shall
be available for inspection by any authorised personnel.
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REVISION
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 1.5. TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION
1. RIG SITE
Reference
1.1. Below is a list of the technical manuals and documentation that shall
be available on the rig site during any well operations:
1.1.1. 1. Drilling And Completion Activities:
Drilling Data Handbook - IFP
Formulaire du Producteur - IFP.
Composite Catalogue - WORLD OIL
Drilling Design Manual - STAP-P-1-M-6100.
Drilling Procedures Manual - STAP-P-1-M-6140
Well Control Policy - STAP-P-1-M-6150
Directional Control and Surveying Procedures - STAP-P-1-M-
6100
Drilling Fluids Handbook - STAP-P-1-M-6160
Well Test Procedures Manual - STAP-P-1-M-7130
Completion Design Manual - STAP-P-1-M-7100
Completion Procedures Manual - STAP-P-1-M-7120
Specific Technical and Operating Manual for each tool.
1.1.2. 2. Workover And Wireline Activities:
Formulaire du Producteur - IFP
Composite Catalogue - WORLD OIL
Well Control Policy - STAP-P-1-M-6150
Completion Design Manual - STAP-P-1-M-7100
Completion Procedures Manual - STAP-P-1-M-7120
Wireline Procedures Manual - STAP-P-1-M-7110.
Specific technical and operating manual for each tool.
2. DRILLING & COMPLETION DEPARTMENT
Reference
2.1. The D&C Dept. of the District/Affiliate must have available and
updated all the technical manuals and documentation to be sent to rig
site.
2.2. The D&C Dept. have to take care of the updating status of all the
Corporate Eni-Agip manuals sending request to the Drilling &
Completion Standards Department or competent Units in Eni-Agip
Headquarters.
2.3. All technical reports regarding the current activity received from the
rig shall be filed in and then will constitute the Official Well File in
which all the relevant information, related to the well to be used for
further well planning, can be found (see section RF Reporting &
Feedback).
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 1.6. MAIN CONTRACTORS
1. DRILLING CONTRACTOR
Reference
1.1. Rig inspections:
1.1.1. The rig must be inspected by the Company before the operating daily
rate commences.
1.1.2. Any unconformity must be reported and rectified as soon as possible.
Any unconformity should be periodically reported to the Company
base Office.
1.2. Certification
1.2.1. The following certification shall be available on the rig site:
Cranes
Lifting equipment (blocks, brakes, links, etc..) inspection
Handling equipment (pipe wrench, elevators, etc.) inspection
Wire and cables
Air winches (over 200kg pulling force)
Tubular inspection
BOP inspection
1.3. Registers
1.3.1. The following registers shall be available at the rig site:
Diesel
Wire and cables
Oils consumed
Accident at work
Personnel on site
Emergency drills
BOP and choke manifold tests.
1.3.2. The Service Order system must be made aware to all personnel
involved in operations.
1.4. Manuals
1.4.1. The following manuals shall be available on rig site:
Safety manual
Rig components and equipment manuals
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.5. Procedures
1.5.1. Emergency procedures for major scenarios such as:
Fire/explosion
Toxic material release
Man overboard
Well control
Medical emergency
Stability control
Helicopter crash
Rig evacuation
Must be documented and readily accessible at the rig site.
The Emergency Procedures must be readily accessible and made
aware to all supervisory personnel on the rig location.
Appendix E Drilling
Contract Drilling and
Workover safety
requirements to be
complied with by the
Contractor
1.6. Personnel Requirements
1.6.1. All Contractor Personnel at the work site must be fully trained and
currently qualified for their job function in accordance with the
following minimum standards:
Well control and Blow-out Prevention
The rig manager, toolpusher, driller, assistant driller, and subsea
engineer (offshore rig), must posses a current certificate in well
control and blow out prevention (biannual) issued by an industry
training institute recognised by the Company.
Fire fighting
All supervisory personnel should receive training in Basic Fire
Fighting. In addition, those personnel assigned as members of a
fire team on offshore rigs should receive formal fire team
training.
Survival at sea
All personnel working on an offshore rig must receive survival at
sea training given by an industry training institution recognised
by the Company.
First aid
All supervisory personnel must possess a valid First Aid
Certificate.
Hydrogen sulphide
When drilling operations are to take place in an area where H
2
S
is present or potentially a hazard, all rig personnel must undergo
training in the use of breathing apparatus and escape sets.
Appendix E Drilling
Contract Drilling and
Workover safety
requirements to be
complied with by the
Contractor
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.6.2. Regularly scheduled safety meetings are required and every person
has to attend a safety meeting at least once per hitch (work cycle).
Each meeting must be documented, and the minutes must include a
list of the attendees, topics covered, and any safety concerns raised
and the follow-up action to be taken. The minutes of each meeting
have to be passed to the Company Representative.
Appendix E Drilling
Contract Drilling and
Workover safety
requirements to be
complied with by
Contractor
1.6.3. Health certificates for all the personnel shall be available.
1.7. Personnel qualification
1.7.1. The Contractors organisation chart must be available on rig site.
1.7.2. The Contractor will certify that all personnel on duty are qualified for
their job in accordance with the following minimum standards:
Derrickman
One year as floorman and shall have attended courses on
drilling activities and drilling mud.
Assistant Driller
Two years as derrickman and shall have attended courses on
drilling activities and have an adequate basic knowledge of all rig
components. He shall attend theoretical and practical Blowout
prevention courses every two years and obtain a Well Control
Certificate.
Driller
Two years as assistant driller and shall have attended courses
on drilling activities and have an adequate basic knowledge of all
rig components. He shall attend theoretical and practical
Blowout prevention courses every two years and obtain a Well
Control Certificate.
Tourpusher
Four years as a driller and shall have undertaken courses and
examinations for a toolpusher at a recognised educational
Institute. He shall attend theoretical and practical Blow-out
prevention courses every two years and obtain a Well Control
Certificate.
Toolpusher
One year as tourpusher or four years as driller; as per
tourpusher requirements and also have some years of education
in scientific or technical subjects. He shall attend theoretical and
practical Blowout prevention courses every two years and obtain
a Well Control Certificate.
Appendix A - section B
Personnel to be provided
by Contractor
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Rig Manager
Five years as a toolpusher or, if coming from years of education
in a scientific or technical field, a minimum of one years training
after a toolpusher course. He shall attend theoretical and
practical Blowout prevention course every two years and obtain
the Well Control Certificate.
Captain or Barge Master
One year as barge engineer; he shall have attended courses in
ballast control buoyancy and stability. He shall hold years of
education in a scientific or technical subject.
Subsea Engineer
He shall have a through knowledge of, and extensive experience
in, the operation and maintenance of BOP, BOP control and
subsea equipment. He shall have attended appropriate
specialised courses on under water equipment. He shall attend
theoretical and practical Blowout prevention course every two
years and obtain the Well Control Certificate.
He shall also have some years of education in a scientific or
electric/electronic field.
1.7.3. Prior to start with operations, the Curriculum Vitae of the Contractors
rig personnel shall be sent to the Company Base.
1.8. Accident reporting
1.8.1. An accident reporting procedure, consistent with local rules, must be
instituted. The Contractor must report all incidents occurring to
Contractors or ancillary contractors personnel, to the Company on
the day that the incident occurs.
The Contractor must provide the Company with a written report of the
investigation into each such incident within seven days of the
occurrence.
Appendix E Drilling
Contract Drilling and
Workover safety
requirements
1.8.2. On the first work day of each month, the Contractor must provide the
Company with a monthly safety report which includes:
Number of personnel (rig site and support staff) assigned.
Numbers of man-hours worked (rig site and support staff).
Number of fatalities.
Number of lost time accidents (LTA).
Number of days away from work resulting from LTA.
Number of no-lost time accidents.
Number of near misses.
Appendix E Drilling
Contract Drilling and
Workover safety
requirements
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.9. Permit To Work system
1.9.1. A Permit to work procedure for operations such as hot work,
concurrent operations, confined space entry and handling of
radioactive materials must be in place.
Appendix E Drilling
Contract.
1.9.2. The permit system must have a space for the entry of hazard(s)
identified and the precautions to be implemented.
The Permit to Work Procedures must apply to all personnel on the
rig site including the subcontractors and third party personnel.
2. MUD LOGGING
Reference
2.1. Surface logging service
2.1.1. All paper recording shall be collected and filed day by day.
A-1-SS-1722 3-b
2.1.2. Every sensor shall be independent from any other sensor already
existing on the rig.
A-1-SS-1722 3-d
2.1.3. Each measurement system shall be equipped with automatically
operating visual and acoustic alarm.
A-1-SS-1722 3-e
2.1.4. Standard parameters shall be displayed and recorded in a double
data base (function depth and time) with a clear indication of scale
and recorded data.
A-1-SS-1722 3-i
2.1.5. All geological and engineering data shall be loaded on software
furnished by the Company. The aim of this activity is the collection,
QC and entry of well data into the Corporate DB
A-1-SS-1722 3-i
2.1.6. The contractor shall give engineering assistance.
A-1-SS-1722 3-o
2.1.7. Contractor shall inform Company representative about any change of
well conditions, especially for pit level, pressure and mud return from
the well.
A-1-SS-1722 3-p
2.2. Operative service
2.2.1. The operating service, carry out on 24 hours basis, shall be request
when the Company needs geological surveillance and drilling service
with a control of all parameters and recorded data.
A-1-SS-1722 3.1
2.2.2. A team of 4 (four) surface logger; 2 (two) of them can be junior; it is
intended that a surface logger junior can be employed only if on the
rig there is in service a surface logger senior
A-1-SS-1722 3.1
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.3. Reduced service
2.3.1. The company could require a Restricted Service that shall have, at
least, the following configuration:
1 (one) surface logger senior
Surface Logging unit and relevant equipment
Gas detector
Degasser
Standpipe pressure
Pump stroke
Hook load
Mud pit level
Hook movements.
A-1-SS-1722 3.2
2.3.2. Stored data shall be available in ASCII format if requested
A-1-SS-1722 3-g
2.4. Mud logging unit
2.4.1. The unit, installed above a skid and in compliance with local laws,
shall be equipped with a no break generating set able to supply
electric power for at least for 15 minutes; Contractor shall specify the
maximum length, breadth, height and maximum weight.
A-1-SS-1722 4.1-b
2.4.2. All equipment must be intrinsically safe and explosion proof.
A-1-SS-1722 4.1-c
2.4.3. Recommended spare parts and a complete set of spare sensors shall
be always available in the Unit for a prompt intervention by on site
Contractor personnel, in case of a possible malfunction besides, in
case of major malfunctioning, the Contractor shall provide for the
immediate replacement of the faulty equipment
A-1-SS-1722 4.1-f
2.4.4. Mud logging unit shall be pressurised.
2.5. Personnel
2.5.1. A Senior Surface Logger is required to have a minimum of three
years experience working on surface logging service company
A-1-SS-1722 2.1
2.5.2. A J unior Surface Logger is required to have a minimum of one year
experience working on surface logging service company.
A-1-SS-1722 2.1
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.5.3. Senior Surface Logger and J unior Surface Logger:
Well control course issued by Company IWCF approved.
Survival course (for offshore activity) issued by Company
approved.
A-1-SS-1722 2.1
2.5.4. Personnel qualification cards shall be duly and accurately filled in
(Annex 9.3), and full details on courses attended, and certificates
shall be provided.
A-1-SS-1722 2.3
2.6. Radioactive sources
2.6.1. In absence of local lows or regulations the following criteria could be
a Worldwide guideline:
1. Certification to able the use of radioactive sources released from
competent authority
2. Particulars of the deputy Qualified Expert or his representative
3. Radioactive safety detailed report drawn up by Qualified expert
4. Procedure to adopt in case of tools failure
5. Particulars of the Qualified Doctor for the Medical Surveillance
6. Statement that the radioactive source operative activity will be
performed by suitable personnel with medical examination
performed in the last 6 months
7. Classification of personnel in terms of radioactive exposure.
8. Declaration stating that land transports are carried out using
vehicles owned by Contractor
Policy for to perform operations by radioactive sources
3. MUD SERVICE, CHEMICAL SUPPLY, CENTRIFUGES RENTAL
Reference
3.1. Personnel
3.1.1. Senior Fluid Engineer is required to have a minimum of 5 (five) years
field experience as Fluid Engineer.
A-1-SS-1719 4.1
3.1.1.1.
He shall be in possession of the following certificates:
Mud engineer course
Completion fluid course
Survival course (for offshore activity) issued by approved
Company
Basic well control course IWCF or IADC Wellcap approved
A-1-SS-1719 4.1
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.1.2. Fluid Engineer is required to have a minimum of one years field
experience as Fluid Engineer.
A-1-SS-1719 4.2
3.1.2.1.
He shall be in possession of the following certificates:
Mud engineer course
Completion fluid course
Survival course (for offshore activity) issued by approved
Company
Basic well control course IWCF or IADC Wellcap approved
A-1-SS-1719 4.2
3.1.3. Technical Supervisor is required to have a minimum of eight years
field experience as Fluid Engineer.
A-1-SS-1719 4.3
3.1.4. Laboratory technician is required to have at minimum three years
experience in laboratory test as per API RP 13I Standard Procedure
for Laboratory Testing Drilling Fluid and as per API RP 13J Testing
Heavy Brines
A-1-SS-1719 4.4
3.1.5. During the activity, the Contractor shall supply the following
documentation:
Fluid program (if requested)
Daily mud report.
End phase mud report.
Final well mud report.
A-1-SS-1719 6
3.2. Mud chemicals identification
3.2.1. For each product , contractor shall furnish the following informations:
Commercial name
Chemical name and composition
Products classification
Product application and recommended concentration
Type of packing (sacks, drums etc.)
Material safety data sheet.
A-1-SS-1719 5.5
3.2.2. Contractor shall also inform of any possible danger in using the
products offered (HSE information).
A-1-SS-1719 5.5
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3. Equipment
3.3.1. Contractor shall have the availability, when needed a specific
technical support, of a laboratory able to perform tests according with
API RP 13B-1, 13B-2 (Standard Procedure for Field Testing Drilling
Fluids) and with API RP13I-2 (Standard Procedure for Laboratory
Testing Drilling Fluids).
A-1-SS-1719 5.3
3.3.2. The main performance request is:
G factor up to 3.000
must be able to work on 5 microns size solids
high speed
must be able to treat up to 18m
3
/h
RPM up to 3.300
3.3.3. On request, Contractor must be able to provide centrifuges with
independent generator.
A-1-SS-1719 5.4.1
3.3.4. Nothing shall relieve the contractor of the responsibility for performing
such analysis, tests, inspections and other activities that he considers
necessary to ensure that the product, and workmanship are
satisfactory for the service intended, or as may be required by
common usage or good practice.
A-1-SS-1719 3
4. CEMENTING SERVICE
Reference
4.1. Engineering
4.1.1. The contractor shall provide an adeguate service for engineering
support which shall include the following duties:
A-1-SS-1729 5.1
4.1.2. Drawing up of cement slurry programmes
Supplying all the laboratory equipment necessary for testing
slurries, spacers and API tests on chemical products including
quality control on cement,
Computer monitoring for cementing operations, real time
acquisition of data (delivery, pressure, density) for the possible
of a subsequent processing of the data recorded,
Drawing up of reports concerning the works carried out and
relevant evaluation.
Drawing up a final well report.
A-1-SS-1729 5.1
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.2. Personnel
4.2.1. The Contractor shall supply professional curricula for all personnel he
intends to use, indicating background, training and work experience.
A-1-SS-1729 5.2
4.2.2. All personnel involved in offshore operations shall hold a survival at
sea certificate issued by a Company-approved Organisation or
Institute.
A-1-SS-1729 5.2
4.2.3. An operator is required to have a adeguate skill acquired through an
appropriate training course and with at least five years of field
experience
A-1-SS-1729 5.2.1
4.2.4. Helper is required to have an adequate skill acquired through an
appropriate training course.
A-1-SS-1729 5.2.2
4.2.5. Contractor will guarantee availability of a technical supervisor from a
base close to the area of operation.
A-1-SS-1729 5.2.3
4.2.6. Contractor shall provide a laboratory technician to perform the
required tests on cement, cement additives and cement slurry.
A-1-SS-1729 5.2.4
4.3. Equipment
4.3.1. The design of equipment and units shall ensure safety operations.
A-1-SS-1729 5.3
4.3.2. Cement Pumping Unit must be provided with:
Twin triplex pumping units for pumping the cement slurry.
The pumping unit working pressure shall be 10,000 psi and 500
HHP.
The engines will be equipped with spark arresting air filters and
air inlet shut-off valve
The unit shall include two displacement tanks of
1,500/1,600litres capacity each.
The tanks will be provided with appropriate level gauges
calibrated in liters.
Cement pump pressure gauge 15,000 psi fitted with a pre-select
pump cut out system.
A-1-SS-1729 5.3.1
4.3.3. Recirculation Mixing System shall grant mixing of the cement slurry
and its recirculation before it is pumped into the well.
It will include a 1,300-1,500ft basin divided into two parts, each
supplied with a mixer.
A-1-SS-1729 5.3.2
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.4. Batch Mixer shall grant the surface mixing of determined quantities
of cement slurry, spacers and/or other fluids. It will consist of tanks of
capacity ranging from 3 to 30m
3
, each one self sufficient, provided
with agitators, centrifugal pump and gauge to measure the pumped
quantities.
A-1-SS-1729 5.3.3
4.5. Documentation
4.5.1. Contractor will prepare and submit for approval, before the execution
of each service, a detailed Operations Program.
A-1-SS-1729 6.2
4.5.2. After the execution of the service, Contractor shall provide to
Company Operations a J ob Report
A-1-SS-1729 6.3
4.5.3. At the end of the operations, Contractor shall prepare the final report
which shall include all the J ob Report, Operation Program and final
considerations and suggestions, reason for the deviation from the
program
A-1-SS-1729 6.4
Reference List:
Standard Specifications for Drilling and Completion Fluid Services STAP-A-1-SS-1719
Technical Specifications for Surface Logging STAP-A-1-SS-1722
Cementing and Pumping Service for Drilling Completion
and Workover Activity STAP-A-1-SS-1729
Drilling Contract Drilling and Workover safety requirements. Appendix E
Drilling Contract Personnel to be provided by Contractor. Appendix A section B
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 1.7. ESTIMATED COSTS
1. BUDGET
Reference
1.1. The Well Area Department, requested by the Project or Exploration
Manager, will make cost estimation of the planned well (based on the
best information available at the time), this will be inserted into the yearly
budget.
2. COSTS
Reference
2.1. Before starting the activity, the Well Area Department, requested by the
Project or Exploration Manager, will make a cost estimation of the
forthcoming well. It will be split by class of cost, based on the progress
chart included in the drilling (or completion, or workover) program, on the
selected rig rates and on the other acquired contracts.
2.2. The Estimated Cost shall include:
Materials (casings, wellhead, mud, etc.)
Services (contractors)
Standard costs (supply vessels, helicopters, transports, etc.)
Logs (from District Geological Department)
Supervision and operative base costs.
2.3. Project or Exploration Manager, after receiving the Estimated Cost, will
check the conformity with the original budget (at this point a budget
revision may be made) and will start the procedure for the J ob centre
opening.
2.4. After J ob Centre opening the Estimated Costs can be input in S3C (if
available)
2.5. Draw-up a Progress Cost Chart (depth versus cost) and follow up the
actual daily costs comparing the same with the previously estimated
costs, in order to evaluate the activity performance.
2.6. Follow up daily and cumulative costs and compare with budget.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL2. GEOLOGICAL AND DRILLING WELL PROGRAMME
The purpose of this document is to provide general guidelines in order to correctly plan a well
and prepare a proper Geological and Drilling Well Programme.
It gives the best practices covering all aspects in planning a well, in an orderly sequence of
steps that must be followed when a Geological and Drilling Well Programme is being
prepared.
The Geological and Drilling Well Programme defines the objectives/targets of the well, reports
the basic engineering data, specifies equipment and procedures necessary to drill safely a
well, provides a realistic forecast of its final cost.
The last column in the document indicates the available reference documents covering the
particular topic.
The list of reference documents and available computer programmes are reported at the end
of each section.
Continuous references to operating document sections are necessary for further investigation
by the user.
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.1. GEOLOGICAL AND DRILLING WELL PROGRAMME STRUCTURE
1. NUMBER OF THE SECTIONS
Reference
1.1. The Geological and Drilling Well Programme, from now on defined
as G&DWP, comprises of four sections:
GENERAL INFORMATION (Section 1)
GEOLOGICAL PROGRAMME (Section 2)
OPERATION GEOLOGY PROGRAMME (Section 3)
DRILLING PROGRAMME (Section 4)
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E
(introduction)
1.2. The G&DWP will be drawn in accordance with local regulations, and
ENI Agip District or affiliate internal rules, taking into account:
1. IGUs Operation Geology Procedures (Specific Agip Rules Nr.
1.4.15.3-8; Procedure Di Geologia Operativa Vers. 0.0 07/94
GESO)
2. FGUs Subsurface & Operation Geology Procedures.
3. STAP-P-1-M-6060 (Best Practices and Minimum Requirements
for Drilling & Completion Activities) and all the documents
concerning the planning and execution of the well, cited in the
same BP&MR.
4. Operative Procedure for drafting the Well Drilling Programme,
STAP-P-1-N-6001E
5. Procedures for well seismic acquisition
6. Procedure for the location of offshore and onshore wells
7. Local law and legislative decrees
8. Well Name Designation
9. Rules for Management and Control of Technical Documents
10. Standardisation of documents
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E
(introduction)
2. PRINT MODEL
Reference
2.1. Whenever Microsoft Office products are available in the Eni Agip
districts or Affiliates, for preparing each section of the G&DWP, it is
recommended to use the model built in WORD 6, titled
WLPR_ING.dot
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 1
2.2. The four sections composing the G&DWP, are identified by the name
of the well.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 3
2.3. In order to make the Well Drilling Programme easily manageable
either in E-Mail or with shared network disks, the graphic
representations must be in an electronic format
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 5
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Operative Procedure for Preparing the Geological and Drilling
Well Programme STAP-P-2-N-6001E
PAGE 28 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.2. GENERAL INFORMATION (SECTION 1)
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. This section will be written in close co-operation by the Drilling &
Completion and Subsurface Geology Departments of the Affiliate.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1
1.2. All depths, both for offshore and on-shore wells must be referred to
the Rotary Table.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6002E 7.1
1.3. Section 1 comprises the chapters numbered and titled as follows:
1.1. GENERAL WELL DATA
1.2. WELL TARGET
1.3. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
1.4. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RIG, BOP STACK
AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT
1.5. LIST OF THE MAIN CONTRACTORS
1.6. CONTACTS IN CASE OF EMERGENCY
1.7. REFERENCE MANUALS
1.8. MEASUREMENT UNITS
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1
2. GENERAL WELL DATA
Reference
2.1. The ENI Agip District or Affiliates Drilling & Completion Department
will give the Well Profile, the Time Vs Depth Diagram, and the
Location Layout.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.1
2.2. Identificative Well Data
2.2.1. Affiliate or District in charge
Name and acronym of the well
Initial classification (LAHEE)
Expected Final depth
Permission/concession
Operator
Older of the Permit/ Lease (shares specified as %)
Municipal Authority (on-shore wells)
Province (on-shore wells)
Harbour-master office (off-shore wells)
Zone (off-shore wells)
Distance Rig/coast (off-shore wells)
Distance Rig/operative base
Altitude (on-shore wells)
Sea Depth (off-shore wells)
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.1
PAGE 29 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.3. Well Profile
2.3.1. The Well Profile contains a Table showing, against the depth (total
vertical depth), at least the following data:
Pore pressure gradient
Formation fracture gradient
Overburden gradient
Mud weight
MAASP
Max differential pressure
Drilling balance pressure
Casings setting depth
Static temperature gradient
2.3.2. Diagram showing all above information, including expected lithology.
3. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
Reference
3.1. Will be written in close co-operation between the Drilling &
Completion and Subsurface Geology Departments.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.3
3.1.1. LWD operation joint Considerations:
The more suitable tools.
Their positioning in the BHA.
The drilling parameters to be used.
The stabilisers are correctly positioned in the BHA, according to
LWD tools.
The maximum admissible flow through the LWD tools must not
be exceeded, otherwise substantial erosion damage will occur
inside the tool.
Limiting the solid content in the mud in order not to exceed the
LWD tools limitations.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.2
3.1.2. To highlight the possible operative problems envisaged
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.3
4. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RIG, BOP STACK AND
SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Reference
4.1. Contains the information of Tables PL.02.02-1 and PL.02.02-2
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.4.1
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.4.2
5. LIST OF THE MAIN CONTRACTORS
Reference
5.1. Will be written by the Affiliates Drilling & Completion Department in
co-operation with the Subsurface Geology Department.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.5
PAGE 30 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6. CONTACTS IN CASE OF EMERGENCY
Reference
6.1. Will be written by the ENI Agip District or Affiliates Drilling &
Completion Department and shows:
1. The flow chart of emergency contacts
2. The telephone numbers of the people in charge of the
emergency.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.6
7. REFERENCE MANUALS
Reference
7.1. Will be written by the ENI Agip District or Affiliates Drilling &
Completion Department. It consists of a list of basic manuals to be
referred for planning and implementation phases of the well.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.7
8. MEASUREMENT UNITS
Reference
8.1. Will be written in strict co-operation between the ENI Agip District or
Affiliates Drilling & Completion and Subsurface Geology
Departments. It will contain a list of the units of measurement of the
main parameters used in the Geological Operation and Drilling
sections.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.8
9. SIGNATURE
Reference
9.1. The names and signatures of the technicians and managers involved
in the preparation and control of the section will always be specified.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.9
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Operative Procedure for Preparing the Geological and Drilling
Well Programme STAP-P-2-N-6001E
PAGE 31 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
ITEM DESCRIPTION
Contractor
Rig name
Rig type
Rotary table elevation on ground level Only on-shore rigs
Rotary table elevation on sea level Only off-shore rigs
Number of places available Only off-shore rigs
Power installed
Drawwork Type
Rig potential with 5 DPs
Max. operative water depth Only off-shore rigs
Clear height rotary beams/ground level Only on-shore rigs
Top Drive System type
Swivel assembly working pressure If without Top Drive System
Dynamic hook load
Set back capacity
Deck load Only for semisub rigs
Total load Only for semisub rigs
Rotary table diameter
Rotary table capacity
Stand pipe working pressure
Mud Pumps number and type
Available liner size
Total mud capacity
Shaleshaker number and type
Drinking water storing capacity Only for off-shore rigs
Industrial water storing capacity
Gasoil storing capacity
Barite storing capacity
Bentonite storing capacity
Cement storing capacity
Table PL 2.1 - Rig Characteristics
PAGE 32 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
ITEM DESCRIPTION
Diverter type
Diverter size
Diverter working pressure
BOP stack type
BOP size
BOP working pressure
Choke Manifold size and working pressure
Kill Lines size and working pressure
Choke Lines size and working pressure
BOP Control Panel type
BOP Control Panel location
Inside BOP type
Inside BOP location
Table PL 2.2 - BOP Stack and Safety Equipment
PAGE 33 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.3. LAYOUT OF THE DRILLING PROGRAMME (SECTION 4)
1. BASIC REQUIREMENTS
Reference
1.1. The Drilling Program must accomplish with basic requirement setforth
in the Geological Program in terms of total depth, targets and
reservoir specified needs.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-1-N-6001E 6
1.2. Particularly, paragraphs 4.2.1 (Forecast on pressure and temperature
gradients) and 4.2.2 (Drilling problems) will be made in co-operation
between Drilling & Completion and Geology District/Afiiliate
Departments
P-1-M-6100 16
P-1-M-6100 16.4.4
1.3. All depths, both for offshore and on-shore wells must be referred to
the rotary table. If the rotary table elevation is not yet available, it will
be assumed based on past experiences with similar drilling rig types
P-1-M-6100 16
P-1-N-6001E 6
1.4. Section 4 will comprise the sub-sections numbered and titled as
follows:
List of contents:
4.1 OPERATIVE SEQUENCE
4.1.1. Preliminaries
4.1.2. Conductor pipe phase
4.1.3. Surface hole phase
4.1.4. Intermediate phases
4.1.5. Final phase
4.1.6. Testing
4.1.7. Completion
4.1.8. Well abandoning
4.3 WELL PLANNING
4.2.1. Pressure and temperature gradients forecast
4.2.2. Drilling problems
4.2.3. Casing setting depths
4.2.4. Casing design
4.2.5. Mud programme
4.2.6. Cementing programme
4.2.7. BOP
4.2.8. Wellhead
4.2.9. Hydraulic programme
4.2.10. B.H.A. and stabilisation
4.2.11. Bits and Drilling Parameters
4.2.12. Well trajectory (directional drilling plan)
Annexes and/or figures
P-1-M-6100 16
P-1-N-6001E 6.1
PAGE 34 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.5. The Drilling Programme index and numbering of sections must be laid
down as shown above; whenever a topic is not applicable to the
actual programme, the relevant sections/paragraphs shall be marked
with not applicable.
P-1-M-6100 16
P-1-N-6001E 6.1
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Operating Procedure for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
PAGE 35 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.4. OPERATIVE SEQUENCE (SECTION 4)
1. PRELIMINARY INFORMATIONS
Reference
1.1. It will detail operations to be undertaken before the spud-in.
P-1-M-6100 16
2. CONDUCTOR PIPE PHASE
Reference
2.1. The following information must be provided:
1. Driven conductor pipe:
Type of Pile Hammer
Diameter of the CP
Weight of the CP
Steel grade of the CP
Connection Type
Expected driving depth
Refusal point (1,000 strokes/m)
Remarks/off-set driving data if available
2. Drilled conductor pipe:
Diameter of the bit
Drilling procedures for hole cleaning
Final phase depth
Diameter of the CP
Weight of the CP
Steel grade of the CP
Connection type
Cementing procedures
Remarks
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.2
PAGE 36 OF 205
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3. SURFACE PHASE
Reference
3.1. The following minimum information must be included:
Description of difficulties and reference to a specific paragraph
for further details
Description of shallow gas, anticollision procedures (if
applicable)
Hole size and other requirements (hole opened-underreamed)
Measured shoe depth and, (if applicable) vertical depth at the
end of the phase
Diameter, steel grade and weight of the casing
Brief description of operations (drilling, casing run, cementing)
Mud type and density and their adjustment for the entire phase
length
Survey and directional drilling requirements, if any
Well head test pressure value
Diverter/BOP stack installation
Remarks
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.3
4. INTERMEDIATE PHASES
Reference
4.1. The following minimum information must be included:
Description of difficulties and reference to a specific paragraph
for further details
Reference to anticollision procedures (if applicable)
Hole size and other requirements (hole opened-underreamed)
Measured depth and, (if applicable) vertical depth at shoe depth
Eventual coring requirements and logging programme
Diameter, steel grade and weight of the casing or liner
Estimated fracture gradient below the previous casing shoe
Requirements for FIT. or LOT. (if applicable)
Brief description of operations (drilling, casing run, cementing)
Mud type and density and their adjustment for the entire phase
length
Survey and directional drilling requirements, if any
Hanging casing in well head (with or without overpull)
Value of the liner head seal test pressure (if applicable)
Casing and well head test pressure value
BOP stack test
Remarks
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.4
PAGE 37 OF 205
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. FINAL PHASE
Reference
5.1. The following information is included:
Description of difficulties and reference to a specific paragraph
for further details
Reference to anticollision procedures (if applicable)
Hole size and other requirements tied with drilling operations in
target/reservoir (e.g. target details, eventual use of non
damaging fluids, depth of multiple targets, etc.)
Vertical and measured total depth
Brief description of operations (drilling, casing run, cementing)
Eventual requirements for coring and/or testing operations
Logging programme
Diameter, steel grade and weight of the casing or liner
Estimated fracture gradient below the previous casing shoe
Requirements for FIT or LOT (if applicable)
Mud type and density and their adjustment for the entire phase
length
Survey and directional drilling requirements, if any
Hanging casing in well head (if applicable, with or without
overpull)
Hanging of liner and liner head seal test pressure (if applicable)
Casing and well head test pressure values
BOP stack test
Remarks
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.5
6. TESTING
Reference
6.1. On the basis of information available during the planning phase this
paragraph should describe operations related to the well testing.
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.6
7. TYPE OF COMPLETION
Reference
7.1. On the basis of information available during the planning phase, this
paragraph should describe the sequence of operations and main
information on the type of the foreseen completion.
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.7
PAGE 38 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
8. WELL ABANDONMENT
Reference
8.1. On the basis of information available during the planning phase sets
out a programme for well abandoning, describing the operations to
perform for the abandonment (temporary or permanent) of the well,
including the following minimum information:
Open hole abandonment procedures
Tested intervals perforations squeeze-off procedures
Temporary abandonment of opened producing intervals
Setting of bridge plugs - cement retainers
Sequence and height of cement plugs and their eventual testing
In-hole fluids characteristics
Eventual temporary completion/killing string composition
Eventual casing cutting and recovery specifications
Well head/mud line temporay abandonment/recovery
Surface restoration, if any.
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.8
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Operating Procedure for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
PAGE 39 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.5. SOFTWARE (SECTION 4)
1. STANDARDS
Reference
As concerns:
Analysis of pressure and temperature gradients
The casing point,
Choke margin and differential pressure,
Casing design,
Hydraulic programme,
The design and control of directional drilling.
Reference should be made to the use of calculation models and formats
of the IWIS system if available.
P-1-N-6001E 6.3
2. ALTERNATIVES
Reference
2.1. COMPASS for the design of directional drilling and anticollision analysis
for wells.
P-1-N-6001E 6.3
2.2. Concerning the evaluation of stresses induced:
In the drilling string,
In casing and liners
Estimates can be derived from Maurer Engineering Inc.s Torque & Drag -
Casing Wear software.
P-1-N-6001E 6.3
2.2.1. These evaluations must be run for all the deviated/deep wells and duly
checked for calibration while drilling.
P-1-N-6001E 6.3
Reference List:
Operating Procedure for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
PAGE 40 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.6. PRESSURE GRADIENTS PROGNOSIS (SECTION 4)
1. PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION
Reference
1.1. Geological data
1.1.1. Structure map.
1.1.2. Lithological column.
1.2. Seismic data
1.2.1. Seismic data can be used to estimate the formation pressure and
give an indication of any pore pressure abnormalities. In all cases, it
must be considered an approximate solution.
P-1-M-6130 3.6
1.2.2. Offshore seismic data
1
can be used to determine the possible
presence of shallow gas.
P-1-M-6130 3.6
1.2.3. Seismic data are usually given as vertical average velocity (RMS-
velocity, m/s), Vs two way travel time (10
-3
sec), for a single
CDP
2
(Common Depth Point).
P-1-M-6130 3.6
1.3. Offset/reference well data
1.3.1. Drilling records - Drilling reports:
The drilling parameters, the recording and interpretation of which only
give a qualitative evaluation of overpressure (i.e., its possible
presence and the location of its top), include the following:
Drilling rate
Torque
Overpull
Caving and hole tightening
Pump pressure and flow rate
Level in mud pits
Amount of cuttings at shale-shaker
Mud pH and resistivity
Resistivity of shales collected at shale-shaker
Amount of gas present (gas shows)
Mud temperature
Montmorillonite percentage.
ARPO-02/A
P-1-M-6130 4.1

1 In this case, a high resolution seismic is performed, which usually investigates formations down to 500 meters depth below the
seabed.
2 When the relative position of the shot points and geophone locations are known, is possible to identify a series of seismic traces
that are reflected from approximately the same position on reflecting bed, this position is known as common depth point (CDP).
PAGE 41 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.3.2. Drilling records - Mud logs:
lithology of formations drilled
gas shows
mud weights
ROP
drilling parameters
bit records
formation temperature
other relevant parameters (torque, mud temperature, etc.).
P-1-M-6130 4.2
1.3.3. Leak off tests/FIT data, recorded in terms of equivalent mud weight.
P-1-M-6140 11
1.3.4. Wireline or LWD logs:
Resistivity (induction)
Sonic
Density.
P-1-M-6130 5.2
1.3.5. RFT/DST data.
The repeat formation test (RFT), and drill stem testing are direct
measurements that provide accurate information on pressure values.
P-1-M-7130
1.3.6. Interpreted formation pressure profile.
Wireline logs interpretation, sigmalog or similar.
P-1-N-6001E 6.3.1
2. DEFINITIONS
Reference
2.1. Kick tolerance volume
2.1.1. Kick tolerance is the term used to define the maximum kick volume
which can be safely controlled by any well control method with
constant BHP without fracturing the formation below the last casing
shoe. The most dangerous situation is when the top of the kick
reaches the casing shoe.
P-1-M-6110 2.2
2.1.2. Kick tolerance volume at total depth: (hypothesis vertical well)
( ) [ ] ( ) ( )
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] gradient (gas) influx S.G. G
depth total m H
weight mud
l
kg
G
depth total at pressure formation
cm
kg
P depth shoe m H
shoe at gradient fracture formation
10m
kg/cm
G
shoe the beneath capacity annular
m
l
C
m V
G G
P 10 G H G G H
P
H G C
V
g
m
2
p s
2
fs
a
3
H i,
g m
p m m fs s
p
s fs a 4
H i,
10

1
]
1

1
]
1


1
]
1


P-1-M-6110 12.2
PAGE 42 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.2. Leak off tests (LOT)/Formation Integrity Tests
P-1-M-6140 11
2.2.1. A Leak-Off Test (LOT) will be performed On Wild-Cat wells at each
casing shoe after setting the surface casing. LOTs are also
recommended to be carried out on both appraisal and development
wells.
P-1-M-6140 11
2.2.2. Leak Off Tests and Formation Integrity Tests (FIT), also termed the
Limit Test, are for formation strength pressure tests made just below
the casing seat prior to drilling ahead.
P-1-M-6140 11
2.2.3. Record and plot pressure values vs. cumulative volume (bbls,
1
/
4
bbl
scale), pumping at
1
/
2
bpm constant rate in 17
1
/
2
(16) hole sections
and
1
/
4
bpm in 12
1
/
4
hole sections.
P-1-M-6140 11
2.2.4. LOT pressure doesnt exceed the pressure to which the casing was
tested.
P-1-M-6140 11
2.2.5. Stop pumping when a deviation from linear trend is recorded (two or
three points).
Pump uniform volumes of mud and wait for the pressure to stabilise.
Flow rates range from
1
/
8
bbl/min (20l/min) up to a maximum of
1bbl/min (160 l/min), however values of 0.25bbl (12
1
/
4
and smaller
holes) or 0.50bbl (17
1
/
2
hole) are commonly used. Wait for two
minutes, or the time required for the pressure to stabilise.
P-1-M-6140 11
2.2.6. The leak off point is the last point on the straight line.
P-1-M-6140 11.1
2.2.7. When stop pumping, allow the pressure to stabilise: standing
pressure.
P-1-M-6140 11.1
2.2.8. Calculate the formation strength in terms of Equivalent Mud Weight
using the lowest between leak off point pressure and stabilised
pressure.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.
2.2.9. LOT/FIT Test procedure.
P-1-M-6140 11.1
PAGE 43 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.3. Fracture gradient
P-1-M-6130 2.1.5.
2.3.1. Equations used by the Company for fracture gradient calculation,
once overburden gradients and pore pressure gradients have been
defined are:
When dealing with elastic formations, the fracture gradient G
fr
is
obtained by an equation derived from the more general Terzaghi
equation:
Terzaghi equation:
( )
p ov p fr
G G
1
2
G G

+
If the drilling fluid is water or wherever water deeply invades the
formation, G
fr
is given by:
( )
p ov p fr
G G 2 G G +
With plastic formations, such as clays, marls, etc.:
ov fr
G G
G
fr
=fracture pressure gradient.
G
ov
=overburden gradient.
G
p
=formation pressure gradient.
=Poissons module
P-1-M-6130 2.1.5.
Equation 2.18
Equation 2.19
Equation 2.20
2.3.2. The Poissons modulus may have the following values:
=0.25 for clean sands, sandstone and carbonate rocks down to
medium depth.
=0.28 for shaly sands, sandstone and carbonate rocks at great
depth.
P-1-M-6130 2.1.5.
3. PRESSURE GRADIENTS PREDICTION & EVALUATION
Reference
3.1. Seismic data
3.1.1. The seismic data transformed, in accordance with what has been
discussed above, in terms of depths, interval velocities and/or interval
transit times, at this point are ready to be used for pressure gradient
calculation, that is of:
Overburden gradient
Pore pressure gradient
Fracture gradient.
P-1-M-6130 3.6.2
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3.1.2. Two methods of analysis of the data can be applied; these are:
1. Plotting of Interval Velocity versus Depth or, more commonly,
Interval Transit Times versus Depth graphs;
2. Method of Interval Velocity/Theoretical Velocity Ratio, V
1
/V
2
.
P-1-M-6130 3.6.2
3.1.3. The first purpose of interpretation is to determine interval transit time
3
(ITT) trend. The normally pressurised shales will be plotted as a
trend line on depth vs. ln (ITT) graph. An increase in ITT values away
from the trend line will indicate the presence of abnormal pressures.
(A draw back in using this method is the difficulty of determining the
correct trend line.)
P-1-M-6130 3.6.2
3.1.4. The second step of interpretation is the pressure gradient
calculations:
Overburden gradient
Pore pressure gradient, calculation is based on equivalent depth
method
Fracture gradient.
3.2. Wireline logs
3.2.1. Induction and sonic logs are used to identify any deviation from the
normal compaction trend. The pressure transition is usually clearly
indicated by increased conductivity and sonic transit time.
P-1-M-6130 5.2
3.2.2. Sonic log
3.2.2.1.
Sonic log method (SL): also termed t shale, is the most widely used
as, from experience, it gives the most reliability. It consists of the
plotting, on a semilog graphic (depth in decimal scale and transit time
in logaritmical scale) of the t values (transit time) at relative depths.
The t value (transit time) is read on sonic log in the shale points
where they are cleanest, t value lowers with the depth increase in
normal compaction zones and increases with the depth in
overpressure zones.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.5
3.2.2.2.
Several plots for wells drilled in the same area can be used to
determine the average regional trend line.
3.2.2.3.
Once the top of the overpressures is fixed, the next phase concerns
the pore pressure gradient calculation as a function of depth. The
method generally used is based on the principle of equivalent depth
P-1-M-6130 3.6.2

3 Interval transit time is given in [sec/ft].
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.2.3. Resistivity logs
3.2.3.1.
Under a normal pressure environment shale resistivity will increase
with depth as porosity decreases
4
.
P-1-M-6130 4.2.15
3.2.3.2.
Shale resistivities are plotted on semi-log scale versus depth (vertical
depth). The normal trend line can be straight or curved. Only
resistivity values obtained in good clean shales must be used.
P-1-M-6130 4.2.15
3.2.3.3.
Limitations in using resistivity plots are:
Establishing the shape and position of the normal trend
Variations in pore water salinity can give false abnormal
pressure indications.
P-1-M-6130 5.2.2
3.2.3.4.
Several methods can be used to estimate the magnitude of any
abnormal pressure.
3.2.4. Density logs
3.2.4.1.
The bulk density readings (g/cc), must be plotted on semi-log scale
versus depth, a straight normal trend in shales is observed. A
decrease in shale bulk density away from the normal trend will
indicate overpressure.
P-1-M-6130 5.2.2
3.2.4.2.
The equivalent depth method can then be used to calculate the value
of any overpressure.
3.3. Methods while drilling
3.3.1. Real time indicators
P-1-M-6100 2.2.3
3.3.1.1.
Penetration rate:
The corrected d exponent and Eni-Agip Sigmalog eliminate the
effects of drilling parameter variations and give a representative
measure of formation drillability. The TDC Engineer is responsible for
continuous monitoring and shall immediately report to Company
Drilling Supervisor, if any change occur. A copy of corrected Eni-Agip
sigma-log/d-exponent shall be sent on daily basis to Company Drilling
Office.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.3
P-1-M-6130 4.2.3
P-1-M-6130 4.2.4

4 Formation resistively depends primarily on porosity and salinity of the pore water. Temperature also has a minor influence.
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3.1.2.
Drilling break:
Any time a drilling break is noticed, drilling is to be suspended and a
flow check shall be carried out.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.3
3.3.1.3.
Torque:
Torque sometimes increases when an abnormally pressured shale
section is penetrated.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.3
3.3.1.4.
Tight hole on connections:
A tight hole when making connections can indicate that an abnormal
pressure shale is being penetrated using low mud weight.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.3
3.3.1.5.
Hole fill:
During connections cave ins may have settled preventing the bit from
returning to bottom. Wall instability in an area of abnormal pressure
may cause sloughing.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.3
3.3.1.6.
MWD:
MWD can provide a wide range of bottom hole drilling parameters
and formation evaluation: bottom hole weight on bit, torque at bit,
gamma ray, resistivity, mud pressure and temperature. If the true
weight and torque at bit are known, drilling rate can be normalised
with more accuracy.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.3
3.3.2. Indicators depending on lag time
3.3.2.1.
Mud gas:
Background gas.
Drilling gas.
Gas shows.
Trip gas.
Connection gas.
Mud weight out & involved total volume.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.4
P-1-M-6130 4.2.16
3.3.2.2.
Mud temperature:
Measurement of mud temperature can also be used to detect under
compacted zones and, under ideal conditions, or to anticipate their
approach. This is because temperature gradients observed in under
compacted series are, in general, abnormally high compared with
overlying normally pressured sequences.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.4
P-1-M-6130 4.2.18
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3.3.2.3.
Mud resistivity/chlorides:
When a salinity contrast exists between mud filtrate and formation
fluid, is possible to detect overpressure zones by monitoring levels of
mud chlorides.
P-1-M-6130 4.2.14
3.3.2.4.
Cutting analysis:
Lithology
Shale density
Shale factor
Shape, size and volume of cuttings.
P-1-M-6100 2.2.4
P-1-M-6130 4.2.11
3.3.2.5.
In the mud logging a technical specifications document is included in
the detection and evaluation of formation pressure that must be done
with sigma-log/dc-exponent method.
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Overpressure Evaluation Manual STAP-P-1-M-6130
Operating Procedure for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
Well Testing Manual STAP-P-1-M-7130
Casing Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6110
Dally Report (Drilling) ARPO-02/A
Well Control Training Manual sect.12.4
Software:
IWIS (ADIS) applications
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.7. SHALLOW GAS
1. PRELIMINARY SHALLOW GAS INVESTIGATION
Reference
1.1. Possibility of encountering shallow gas
1.1.1. Well proposals shall always include a statement on the possibility of
encountering shallow gas.
Statement contents:
1. Assessments drawn from the shallow gas survey
2. All relevant seismic surveys
3. All offset well data records
4. Geological probability of a shallow cap rock.
P-1-M-6150 9.1
1.1.2. Pilot holes may be drilled, up to the conductor string depth, as part of
a preliminary shallow gas investigation programme prior to spudding
a well where platforms are planned to be installed, in areas with high
probability of shallow gas or only a little geological information is
available.
P-1-M-6150 9.1
1.1.3. A rig that can move away safely in case of shallow gas blow out
should be used to drill pilot holes (mobile offshore drilling unit or a
dedicate soil boring vessel).
P-1-M-6150 9.1
1.2. Gas pocket pressure
1.2.1. The amount of overpressure at the top of the shallow gas
accumulation depends on the vertical thickness of the gas column (h):
p=0.1 (1.03-Ggas) h
P-1-M-6150 9
2. SHALLOW-GAS DRILLING GUIDELINES
Reference
2.1. Decision-making guidelines
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1
2.1.1. The following drilling practices may be modified for development wells
where it is confirmed that no shallow gas is expected.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1
2.2. Pilot hole
2.2.1. It should be drilled in areas with potential shallow gas.
Pilot holes may be drilled, up to the conductor string depth, as
part of a preliminary shallow gas investigation programme, in
areas with high probability of shallow gas or only a little
geological information is available.
Generally, it is recommended that a drill 12
1
/
4
or smaller pilot
hole is drilled.
P-1-M-6150 9.1
P-1-M-6150 9.3
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2.3. Penetration rate
2.3.1. Restrict the penetration rate (recommended ROP =one joint/hr).
Particular care should be taken to avoid an excessive build-up of
solids in the hole.
Drilling with heavier mud returns could also obscure indications
of drilling through higher pressured formations.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-b
2.4. Swabbing
2.4.1. Pumping at the optimum circulating rate is recommended for all
upward pipe movements (e.g. making connections and tripping).
In larger hole sizes especially (i.e. larger than 12
1
/
4
), it is
important to check that the circulation rate is sufficiently high and
the pulling speed sufficiently low to ensure that no swabbing will
occur.
A top drive system will facilitate efficient pumping while tripping
out of hole operations.
The minimum required number of stabilisers should be used.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-c
2.5. Drilling Fluid
2.5.1. Accurate measurement and control of drilling fluid.
Properly calibrated and functioning gas detection equipment and
a separate flowmeter are essential in top hole drilling.
Flow checks must be made before tripping.
When any anomaly appears on the MWD log (if a MWD data
transmission system is used) and at any specific depth referred
to in the drilling programme (taken from the shallow seismic
survey), it is recommended to flow check at each connection
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-d
2.6. Float Valve
2.6.1. A float valve must be installed in all bottom hole assemblies, which
are used in top hole drilling. The float valve is the only down hole
mechanical barrier available.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-e
2.7. BHA
2.7.1. BHAs, used for kick-off operations, have flow restrictions which will
considerably reduce the maximum possible flow through the
drillstring. Dynamic well killing operation will then be very unlikely.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-f
2.8. Shallow Kick-offs
2.8.1. Shallow kick-offs should be avoided in areas with probable shallow
gas.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-f
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.9. Stock
2.9.1. A stock of kill mud based on hole size, and for off-shore rigs, water
depth and riser size shall be prepared before commencement of
drilling.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-g
2.10. Pre-spud meeting
2.10.1. Before spudding the well, a meeting should be held in order to alert
key personnel (Drilling Contractor personnel, mud engineer, mud-
logging operator included).
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-h
3. DIVERTER
Reference
3.1. Specific contingency plans
3.1.1. Specific contingency plans for dealing with emergencies which may
occur during diverter operations should be prepared for each rig and
each well.
P1M6150 9.4
3.2. Main Types of Diverter
3.2.1. Main types of diverter:
Surface diverter.
Marine diverter.
Subsea diverter, which is not common and available only on few
rigs.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.1
3.3. Diverter Test (before start of operations).
3.3.1. Before start of drilling operations perform a diverter test.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.3
3.4. Operation without the riser
3.4.1. Riserless drilling is considered to be the safest way to cope with the
shallow gas problem since the vessel can quickly move away from a
subsea blow-out.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.5
3.4.2. Water depth has some influence on buoyancy loss, but it has greater
influence on vessel instability, especially at very shallow water depth.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.5
3.5. Conductor pipe
3.5.1. Running and cementing the 30 casing in a pre-drilled hole, after
having drilled a pilot hole, is the recommended technique in areas
where shallow gas might be encountered.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.6
Reference List:
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.8. CASING SETTING DEPTH
1. DETERMINE PROPER SETTING DEPTH FOR EACH CASING TYPE
Reference
1.1. Preliminary information
1.1.1. When planning, all available information should be carefully
documented and considered to obtain knowledge of the various
uncertainties.
P-1-M-6110 3
P-1-M-6100 3
1.1.2. The selection of casing setting depths is based on:
Total depth of well.
Pore pressures.
Fracture gradients.
The probability of shallow gas pockets.
Problem zones.
Depth of potential prospects.
Time limits on open hole drilling.
Casing programme compatibility with existing wellhead systems.
Casing programme compatibility with planned completion
programme (production well).
Casing availability (grade and dimensions).
Economy, i.e. time consumption to drill the hole, run casing and
cost of equipment.
P-1-M-6110 3
P-1-M-6100 3
2. GENERAL GUIDELINES ON CASING SETTING DEPTHS
Reference
2.1. Conductor Pipe
2.1.1. The driving depth of the conductor pipe which is specified in the
Drilling Programme is established with the following formula:
1.03)] - GOV ( x 0.67 + MW - [1.03
H] x 103 - H) + (E x [MW
= H
Hi
i
where:
Hi = Minimum driving depth (m) from seabed
E = Elevation (m) distance from bell nipple and sea level
H = Water depth (m)
MW = Maximum mud weight (kg/l) to be used
GOVhi = integrated density of sediments (kg/dm
3
/10m)
P-1-M-6140 4.1.2
2.1.2. Drive the conductor pipe till the final depth or the refusal point of
about 1000-1100 blows/meter.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.2
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2.2. Surface Casing
2.2.1. The depth should be great enough to provide a fracture gradient
sufficient enough to allow drilling to the next casing setting point and
to provide reasonable assurance that broaching to the surface will not
occur in the event of BOP closure to contain a kick.
P-1-M-6110 3.2
P-1-M-6100 3.2
2.3. Intermediate Casing
2.3.1. In general practice, drilling is allowed until the mud weight is within
50gr/l of the fracture gradient measured by conducting a leak-off test
at the previous casing shoe.
P-1-M-6100 3.3
3. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
Reference
3.1.1. Evaluate kick tolerance volume at the end of each hole section.
PL.02.01 2.1
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Casing Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6110
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Software:
CASCADE-IWIS (ADIS)
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.9. DIRECTIONAL WELL PLANNING
1. PRELIMINARY DIRECTIONAL PLAN INFORMATION
Reference
1.1. The SDE will ensure that the Directional Contractor is provided with
all data necessary for an initial well profile.
P-1-M-6120 3.5
1.2. The well deviation diagram (plan and vertical section) is included,
along with output tables.
In the case of cluster wells, diagrams and tables for vertical wells are
also given.
P-1-N-6001E 6.3.12
1.3. Preliminary Specification
1.3.1. The following information will be specified :
Surface and target co-ordinates - UTM or geographical
Local reference co-ordinates - platform centre, slot
Orientation of the wells bay (if applicable)
Displacement among the slots (if applicable)
Consider the wells position in the template, cluster, platform
slots
Expected lithology - with a clear indication of subsea or RKB
depths
Total well TVD - with a clear indication of subsea or RKB depths
Inclination at target
Shape and size of target(s) - restrictions, if applicable
Preliminary casing programme
Type of drilling fluid
Potential drilling problems which may affect the directional
profile.
Definitive survey data of all well bores which may constitute a
collision risk.
P-1-M-6120 3.5
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1.4. Topographic References
1.4.1. Will comprise the following information:
Reference meridian
Starting latitude (geographic) N/S
Starting longitude (geographic) E/W
Latitude at the targets (geographic) N/S
Longitude at the targets (geographic) E/W
Starting latitude (metric) N/S
Starting longitude (metric) E/W
Latitude at the targets (metric)
Longitude at the targets (metric)
Type of projection
Semi-major axis
Squared eccentricity (1/F)
Central meridian
False East
False North
Scale Factor
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.1
2. DEFINITIONS
Reference
2.1. UTM (Universal Transverse of Mercator)
2.1.1. The co-ordinates for each UTM grid sector are given in metres with
the origins (i.e. the zero value) at a line 500,000m West of the centre
meridian to avoid negative values and at the equator. The co-
ordinates are given as Eastings and Northings.
P-1-M-6100 12.2.1
P-1-M-6140 9.2.1
2.2. Convergence angle
2.2.1. The convergence angle is the angle between UTM North (Grid North)
and True North (Geographic North). In carrying out the projection
there is some distortion of the axes such that UTM North is slightly
offset from Geographic (True) North. This small difference is
significant over large distance and so must be taken into account
when converting co-ordinates from one system to another.
P-1-M-6100 12.2.1
P-1-M-6140 9.2.1
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.3. Origin Reference Point
2.3.1. Is the origin which will be used for the horizontal co-ordinates e.g.
latitude and departure of the well to be drilled. This will be the zero
point on the horizontal well plan used to plot the well while drilling.
P-1-M-6120 3.2.4
2.3.1.1.
Isolated wells:
The initial ORP will be the planned RKB location.
P-1-M-6120 3.4.3
2.3.1.2.
Template wells:
The ORP is the designated template centre.
P-1-M-6120 3.4.3
2.3.1.3.
Platform wells:
The ORP is the slot area centre or a designated slot.
P-1-M-6120 3.4.3
2.3.2. Onshore cluster wells:
The ORP is a designated slot.
P-1-M-6120 3.4.3
2.4. Local Magnetic Declination Correction
2.4.1. The magnetic declination will be individually calculated for each new
location.
Since it is a time based measurement, the date used for the
calculation will be an estimated mid-point for the drilling operation
period. Subsequent surveys will require the re-calculation of magnetic
declination if taken more than six months after the well is drilled.
It is obtained from actual geomagnetic field maps.
P-1-M-6120 4.4.12
P-1-M-6140 9.1
P-1-M-6100 12.1
3. SURVEY CALCULATIONS
Reference
3.1. Calculation techniques
3.1.1. Eni-Agip standard survey calculation method:
minimum radius of curvature method
P-1-M-6120 4.4.4
P-1-M-6120 3.4.1
3.2. Source of survey errors
3.2.1. Algorithm used to calculate position.
3.2.2. Survey tool uncertainty.
Tab. OP.02.02-3
Tab. OP.02.02-4
P-1-M-6120 4.4.4
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3. Surveying requirements
3.3.1. General Surveying Requirements:
All magnetic surveys will have to be reported after being
corrected for magnetic declination. Magnetic declination must be
specified.
For other surveys, ensure that magnetic declination is
considered while aligning.
Gyro survey output does not need to be corrected for magnetic
declination.
The depth of a survey is the survey instrument depth not the bit
depth. This applies to MWD and survey tools.
Azimuth will be referenced to true North.
Bottom hole location will be extrapolated from the last survey.
This will normally not be more than 30m. To confirm the bottom
hole location the dipmeter can be used as it can survey down to
around 5m from TD if hole conditions allow.
For drilling purposes depth will always be quoted as drilled depth and
not confused with wireline depth.
P-1-M-6120 4.4.1
4. SURVEY TOOL SELECTION
Reference
4.1. Approved surveying tools
4.1.1. Magnetic Survey Tool List
MSS Magnetic single shot (film)
MMS Magnetic multishot
EMS Electronic magnetic multishot
MWD Measurement while drilling
HDT High resolution dipmeter
Gyroscopic Survey Tool List
GSS Gyro single shot (film)
GMS Gyro multishot
SRG Surface reading gyro
NSG North seeking gyro (FINDER)
GCT Guidance continuous tool
FINDS Ferranti Inertial Navigation System
P-1-M-6120 4.2.9
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4.1.2. Survey programme for vertical holes:
TOTCO will be acceptable only in vertical wells for surface holes
if inclination is less then 1.5
MSS (magnetic multishot) is the standard.
MWD will be run if economically and technically justified.
GSS will not be run below 400m
In cased hole: gyro multi shot (GMS) is the standard.
If anticollision is a critical concern the NSG/GTC or the FINDS
will be used
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
P-1-M-6120 4.7
P-1-M-6120 4.8
P-1-M-6120 4.6.2
4.2. Factors affecting survey tool selection
4.2.1. Maximum inclination.
Survey accuracy requirement will differ between vertical and deviated
wells.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.2. Casing size.
FINDS inertial surveying system can be run only in 13
3
/
8
" casing or
larger.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.3. Survey depth.
GSS will not be run deeper than 400m due to excessive drift rates.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.4. Hole inclination.
Maximum inclination for GSS, GMS and SRG is 70 (stability limit).
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.5. Potential drilling problems:
Differential sticking problems precludes the use of wireline based
surveys with drillpipe in open hole (GSS, SRG, MSS and EMS).
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.6. High pressure reservoirs:
In an isolated deviated well, GMS or SRG will be run in the previous
casing to establish minimum uncertainty before drilling through a high
pressure zone (in case of a blow out and a relief well is required). A
more accurate tool (NSG/GCT) may be used for accuracy
improvement.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.7. Temperature limitation.
Maximum borehole temperature must be within specification for the
survey tools proposed for the programme.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.2.8. Well proximity.
Template/platform wells, which are drilled in the neighbourhood of
other wells, must maintain a minimum separation with respect to the
other wells. This may require additional surveys (e.g. NSG in drill
pipe) more often than with individual wells.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.9. Survey accuracy.
Installations will be most crowded immediately below the
platform/template and will require greater survey accuracy to fix well
bore locations. The most accurate tools (FINDS or NSG) may be
necessary for minimum uncertainty in critical situations.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.10. Magnetic Influence.
Magnetic based surveying instruments will not be used, in any
situation, as the prime source of well location calculations when within
8m of any adjacent casing string.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.2.11. Target size and depth:
The accuracy of the surveying tools used on a well will be such that
the total horizontal uncertainty at target depth is reasonable
compared to the target size. The smaller and the deeper the target,
the more stringent the survey requirements.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4.3. Non-magnetic drill collars requirements
4.3.1. See proper charts in reference documents.
Non-magnetic stabilisers will be the only type permitted for use
between NMDC's.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
P-1-M-6140 9.4.1
4.4. Quality control
4.4.1. Magnetic Survey Tools:
Magnetic azimuth values will be considered invalid when the survey
instrument is within 8m of an adjacent casing shoe:
When magnetic influence is expected from adjacent casing (or when
the well is separated less than 8m horizontally from an adjacent
casing string), provision will be made to run a gyro based survey tool
on top of the MWD.
Survey repeatability should be within 0.5 inclination and 2 azimuth
(above 10

inclination).
MWD: survey repeatability should be within 0.5 inclination and 2
azimuth (above 10 inclination).
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
PAGE 59 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. FREQUENCY AND TYPE OF SURVEYS
Reference
5.1. Standard minimum survey programme for vertical exploration wells:
(Refer to Figure PL 2.3 )
P-1-M-6120 4.7
5.2. Standard minimum survey programme for directional wells:
(Refer to Table PL 2.4)
P-1-M-6120 4.8
6. ANTI-COLLISION
Reference
6.1. Objectives
6.1.1. Anti-collision procedures will be implemented, in all cases where is a
potential collision risk according to the policies outlined in this manual.
The prime reasons for specifying an anti-collision policy are to:
Ensure a consistent method is used to evaluate and reduce
collision risks between wells.
Establish a common procedure for developing multi-well sites
which takes into account actual well trajectory and trajectories of
already existing wells.
Establish a common procedure that discriminates between
interference from completed/producing wells and
plugged/abandoned/uncompleted wells.
P-1-M-6120 5.1
6.2. Definitions
6.2.1. Current Well (CW):
The well being planned or drilled.
P-1-M-6120 5.2.5
6.2.2. Target Well (TW):
Any well being considered for anti-collision purposes or proximity
calculations.
P-1-M-6120 5.2.5
6.2.3. Radius of Uncertainty (ROU):
The ROU is the radius of a sphere, at a specific vertical depth, which
has the probability of containing the well-path. It is a cumulative
calculation based on the product of the Horizontal Uncertainty Factor
of the survey instrument used to that point and the surveyed depth to
that point.
P-1-M-6120 5.2.5
6.2.4. Uncertainty Factor (UF):
The UF is a coefficient, given in metres/thousand meters surveyed,
that reflects the increase in radius of uncertainty of the well path with
depth and depends only on the type of survey instrument and on the
hole inclination.
P-1-M-6120 5.2.4
PAGE 60 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6.2.5. Separation ratio (SR):
Separation Ratio >1 =No interference between ROUs.
Separation Ratio <1 =Interference between ROUs.
SR = CCD/(CW ROU +TW ROU)
P-1-M-6120 5.2.8
6.2.6. Separation Distance (SD):
The SD is the distance, in the plane of the expected closest
approach, between ROU of the CW and the TW at a given vertical
depth.
SD =CCD -[ROU (CW) +ROW(TW) ]
P-1-M-6120 5.2.7
6.2.7. Centre To Centre Distance (CCD):
The CCD is the distance, in the plane of the expected closest
approach, between the centres of CW and TW paths at a given
vertical depth.
P-1-M-6120 5.2.8
6.2.8. Curve A - Threshold of separation:
Is the curve that, at any depth represent the condition SR =1
At any depth define the distance of potential collision.
P-1-M-6120 5.2-F5.2
6.2.9. Curve B - Threshold of alert:
Is the curve where, at any depth, the condition SR =coefficient B.
Usually coefficient. B =1.5
P-1-M-6120 5.2-F5.2
6.2.10. Curve C - Threshold of danger:
Is the curve where, at any depth, condition SR =coefficient C
Usually coefficient. C =2
P-1-M-6120 5.2-F5.2
6.2.11. Zone X - Field of danger:
The field between Curve C and Curve B
P-1-M-6120 5.2-F5.2
6.2.12. Zone Y - Field of alert:
The field between Curve B and Curve A
P-1-M-6120 5.2-F5.2
6.2.13. Zone Z - Field of Potential Collision:
The field delimited by Curve A
P-1-M-6120 5.2-F5.2
PAGE 61 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6.3. Proximity calculation
6.3.1. The values of coefficients B and C could be reduced on the basis of a
probabilistic analysis of the occurrence of potential well collision
situations. The Uncertainty Area Ratio (UAR) concept could be used
to evaluate the probability of the occurrence of potential well collision
situations. The UAR is the ratio of the sum of the two Uncertainty
Area to the sum of the two hole sizes.
( )
( )
TWOD + CWOD
TWROU + CWROU
= UAR
2 2
2 2
where:
CWOD = the outside diameter of the current well
TWOD= the outside diameter of the target well
P-1-M-6120 5.2.10
6.4. Responsibilities (well planning stage)
6.4.1. The DM will have overall responsibility for the maintenance of safe
operations while drilling in proximity to other wells.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-a
P-1-M-6120 5.2.9
6.5. Planning wells with interference between existing
producing/completed wells and new wells
6.5.1. Directional Well Plans in which trajectories fall into zone X is only
allowed when the target well (TW) has been properly plugged.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-b
6.5.2. The SDE will define any CWs falling within the zone X, during the well
planning stage and will prepare necessary recommendation
according to the following guideline:
The TW directional data must be of reliable source and quality.
Planning the CW, relevant anti-collision analysis are performed.
Proximity calculation and projection are done regularly at the
wellsite while drilling the CW in order to confirm the CW position
within zone X.
While drilling within zone X to assure adequate quality and
frequency of the surveys, MWD will be used.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-c
6.5.3. The SDE will prepare a contingency plan for plugging appropriate
TWs.
The contingency plan will specify procedures, timing and
responsibilities of other Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates departments
in suspending the appropriate TWs and will be included in the well
programme for the CW.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-d
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-e
PAGE 62 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6.5.4. Planning directional wells in which trajectories fall into the zone Y are
not allowed as a part of normal procedure.
Dispensation will require approval by the DM and must be clearly
stated and documented.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-f
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-g
6.5.5. Planning and drilling with separation falling in the zone Z is
unacceptable under any circumstance.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-n
6.6. Planning wells with interference between existing, non
completed/plugged & abandoned wells and new wells
P-1-M-6120 5.5.2
6.6.1. Planning new wells within zone Y is allowed when the target well
(TW) is a plugged and abandoned, suspended or not completed well.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-b
6.6.2. During the well planning stage, the SDE will define any CWs falling
within the zone Y and will prepare necessary recommendation
according to the following guidelines:
The TW directional data must be of reliable source and quality.
Planning the CW, relevant anti-collision analysis is performed.
Proximity calculation and projection are done regularly at the
wellsite while drilling the CW in order to confirm the CW position
within zone Y.
While drilling within zone Y to assure adequate quality and
frequency of the surveys, MWD will be used.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-d
6.6.3. Planning and drilling with separation falling in the zone Z is
unacceptable under any circumstance.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-c
6.7. Suspension of wells
6.7.1. Suspension of target wells (TW):
(Refer to Figure PL 2.3 )
P-1-M-6120 5.6
Figure. 5.6
6.7.2. Suspension of current well (CW):
(Refer to Figure PL 2.3 )
P-1-M-6120 5.7
Figure. 5.6
6.8. Projection technique
6.8.1. Additional hole uncertainty due to maximum dogleg potential of the
assembly will be added to the ROU of the current well.
P-1-M-6120 5.3.4
PAGE 63 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6.9. Planning a multi-well site
6.9.1. Reduce potential well collision situations:
The slot allocations will account for final target displacement and
direction. Higher displacement wells will be drilled from the outer
slots whenever possible.
The kick-off points of wells will be spaced vertically depending
on final target displacement. Larger displacement wells will be
kicked off at shallower depths whenever possible.
If crossing of trajectories is unavoidable, the tangent section on
both wells should be achieved while drilling whenever possible.
The drilling order of wells will be such that the eventual shut-in
time requirement of adjacent wells is kept to a minimum.
P-1-M-6120 5.4
6.9.2. Spacing of wells for the surface vertical phases will not be subjected
to SR <1 limit, in case drilling is planned/performed from a multi-well
site where all the surface phases have to be drilled subsequently at
once time.
P-1-M-6120 5.4
6.9.3. Antic collision procedures will apply, for the surface vertical phase, in
case drilling is planned/performed from a multi-well site where
production from adjacent wells is on going or during any production
while drilling activity.
P-1-M-6120 5.4
6.10. Well site procedure
6.10.1. Proximity calculations will be done at regular intervals depending on
the risk of collision but, at least twice daily while drilling.
P-1-M-6120 5.8-5
6.10.2. Proximity calculations and projections are to be performed on each
survey
P-1-M-6120 5.8-8
6.10.3. Unless required for directional control, the use of drilling motors will
be avoided while drilling in this situation. If motor use is unavoidable
then a low torque motor will be the preferred option
P-1-M-6120 5.8-15
6.10.4. Whenever possible use PDC bits instead of tricone bits
P-1-M-6120 5.8-16
7. BHA ANALYSIS
Reference
7.1. Bottom hole assembly response
7.1.1. Common holding assemblies.
P-1-M-6140 9.4.4
7.1.2. Drop off assemblies.
P-1-M-6140 9.4.4
PAGE 64 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
8. REPORTING
Reference
8.1. Survey
8.1.1. Surveys of all wells will be filed in printed copy and in electronic
format.
Data must be available on floppy disks (two copies) formatted
according to Eni-Agip specification. Write protected form is
suggested.
P-1-M-6120 6.1.1
8.1.2. SDE will be responsible for the correct archival and retention of
survey files and final report.
P-1-M-6120 6.3
8.1.3. Standard Eni-Agip reporting form: survey calculation's output.
P-1-M-6120 6.4
8.2. Final report by directional contractor.
8.2.1. Contents of final report.
P-1-M-6120 6.5
8.3. Contractors evaluation.
8.3.1. Planning requirements:
Minimum required software capabilities.
P-1-M-6120 3.4.1
Reference List:
Directional Control & Surveying Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6120
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Operating Procedure for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
Operative procedure for Preparing the Geological and
Drilling Well Programme STAP-P-2-N-6001E
Software:
3-D IWIS (ADIS)
Compass
P
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P
L
A
N
N
I
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G

(
P
L
)
FREQUENCY AND TYPE OF SURVEYS Vertical Wells
Platform/Cluster Template Wells Individual Wells
While Drilling After Casing set While Drilling After Casing set
Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency
30 C.P. Tocto
(template)
Bottom
GMS/SRG 30m
MSS
Tocto
At shoe
20 -13 3/8
Surface CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
13 3/8
intermediate
CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
9 5/8 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
7 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
5 Liner MSS/MWD
HDT/MMS
As required GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
Note:
1. Records after casing set may be omitted if it is not dictated by local condition, legislation, the well is clear of other
wells and good survey have been taken in open hole.
2. If SDD ( Straight Drilling Device) is in use to keep the well in vertical condition, we can suppose the well vertical
and the others survey records should be omitted.
T
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e

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.
3

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P
L
A
N
N
I
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G

(
P
L
)
FREQUENCY AND TYPE OF SURVEYS Deviated wells
Platform/Cluster Template Wells Individual Wells
While Drilling After Casing set While Drilling After Casing set
Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency
30 C.P. Tocto Bottom
GMS/SRG 30m
MSS
Tocto
At shoe GMS/SRG 30m
20 -13 3/8
Surface CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
13 3/8
intermediate
CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
9 5/8 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
7 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
5 Liner MSS/MWD
HDT/MMS
As required GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
Note:
1. Records after casing set may be omitted if it is not dictated by local condition, legislation, the well is clear of other
wells and good survey have been taken in open hole.
2. Records after casing set may be omitted if a cross-check with a second MWD tool or equivalent
T
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PAGE 67 OF 205
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Figure PL 2.1 - Anti-Collision Responsibilities (when there is Interference Between Existing
Completed/Productive Wells and New Wells)
PAGE 68 OF 205
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Figure PL 2.2 - Anti-Collision Responsibilities (when there is Interference Between Existing
Non Completed/Plugged & Abandoned Wells and New Wells)
PAGE 69 OF 205
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Figure PL 2.3 - Anti-Collision during Well Suspension
PAGE 70 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.10. CASING DESIGN
1. CASING SETTING DEPTH AND FUNCTIONS OF CASING STRINGS Reference
1.1. Determine proper setting depth for each casing type.
1.2. Define the purpose of each casing string.
PL.02.08
1.3. Safety requirements.
2. CASING AND HOLE SIZES
Reference
2.1. Define each casing diameter according to hole sizes.
2.1.1. Casing selection chart.
30 x 1 conductor pipe is assumed as standard.
P-1-M-6110 3.6
2.2. Exploration well
2.2.1. The 6 hole should be planned as contingency
P-1-M-6110 3.6
2.2.2. Evaluate hole size-casing clearance.
2.2.3. Avoid all the problems connected with too large/small clearance.
P-1-M-6110 3.6
2.2.4. Size of tubing & completion equipment.
3. CASING DESIGN CRITERIA AND DESIGN FACTORS
Reference
3.1. Guidelines
3.1.1. Casing design is actually a stress analysis procedure. The objective is
to produce a pressure vessel which can withstand a variety of
external, internal, thermal, and self weight loading, while at the same
time being subjected to wear and corrosion.
P-1-M-6110 7
3.2. Max acting burst pressure
3.2.1. Refer to Table PL 2.5
3.2.2. If it is foreseen that future stimulation or hydraulic fracturing
operations may be necessary, the fracture pressure at perforation
depth and at the wellhead pressure minus the hydrostatic head in the
casing plus a safety margin of 70kg/cm
2
(1,000psi), will be assumed.
P-1-M-6110 8.1.2
3.3. Max acting collapse pressure
3.3.1. Refer to Table PL 2.6
PAGE 71 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3.2. Biaxial stress:
Total tension load affects burst and collapse resistance of the casing,
(effects of axial stress on burst resistance are considered negligible).
P-1-M-6110 8.4.1
3.3.2.1.
Reduced collapse resistance in biaxial stress must be considered.
P-1-M-6110 8.4.1
3.3.3. Prevention of casing collapse in salt sections must be considered.
P-1-M-6110 8.7
3.3.3.1.
Eni-Agip design procedures assume uniform external pressure
exerted by salt on the casing equal to overburden pressure.
P-1-M-6110 8.7.3
3.4. Total TENSION load
3.4.1. Total tension load is given by adding to the weight of casing in air:
(Refer to Table PL 2.7)
3.4.2. Buoyancy force (negative) while running casing.
P-1-M-6110 8.3.2
3.4.3. Bending forces in deviated wells (curved section of hole).
P-1-M-6110 8.5.1
3.4.3.1.
Determination of bending effect
5
.
P-1-M-6110 8.5.2
3.4.4. Tension load due to bump plug after displacing cement does not
affect biaxial stress evaluation.
Take in to account eventual pressurisation about both opening
/closing DV operations and setting ECP.
P-1-M-6110 8.3.3-3
3.4.5. Others parameters affecting total tension load:
3.4.5.1.
Drag forces in deviated wells.
P-1-N-6001E 6.3.10
3.4.5.2.
Shock loads (dynamic stresses), due to arresting casing in slips.
P-1-M-6110 11
3.4.5.3.
Internal pressure tests
6
.
The worst situation assumes the casing totally free to move.
P-1-M-6110 11.3
3.4.5.4.
Changes in the magnitude of the buoyancy forces.
P-1-M-6110 8.3.2
3.4.6. Evaluate safe allowable pull.
It is normal to consider an overpull contingency of 100000lbs.
P-1-M-6110 11.1

5 B =15,52 OD Af ; TB : additional tension [kg] OD : outside diameter [in]
: build-up/drop-off rate [deg/30m] Af : cross section area [cm
2
]
TB =218 OD Af ; TB : [lb] OD : [in]
: [deg/100ft] Af : [in
2
]
6 The test pressure shall not exceed 70% of the API minimum internal yield pressure of the weakest casing in the string. The test
pressure shall remain stable for 15 minutes.
PAGE 72 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.5. Required & actual design factors
3.5.1. Burst required design factor. Refer to Table PL 2.5
P-1-M-6110 8.1.2
3.5.2. Collapse required design factor. Refer to Table PL 2.6
P-1-M-6110 8.2.1
3.5.3. Tension required design factor. Refer to Table PL 2.7
P-1-M-6110 8.3.3
4. DECREASING IN THE CASING PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES
Reference
4.1. Casing wear
4.1.1. Reduction in collapse resistance due to wear will be critical at shallow
depths, the reduction in burst resistance will be critical at the lower
end of the casing string.
P-1-M-6110 8.6
4.1.2. Eni-Agip design procedure.
In vertical well, casing wear is usually in the first few joints below
the wellhead or intervals with a high dogleg severity.
Considerations should be given to increase the grade or wall
thickness of the first few joints below the wellhead.
In deviated wells, wear will be over the build-up and drop-off
sections. The casing over these depths can be of a higher grade
or greater wall thickness.
P-1-M-6110 8.6.8
4.1.3. The percentage casing wear at each point along the casing is then
calculated from the volumetric wear. Eni-Agip acceptable casing wear
limit is </=7%.
P-1-M-6110 8.6.1
4.1.4. The volume of casing worn away by the rotating tool joint equals:
P
S x N x D x L x F x x 60
v

where:
V=Wear volume per foot (in
3
/ft)
F=Wear factor (ins
2
/lbs)
L=Lateral load on drill pipe per foot (lbs/ft)
D=Tool joint diameter (ins)
N=Rotary speed (RPM)
S=Drilling distance (ft)
P=Penetration rate (ft/hr)
P-1-M-6110 8.6.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.1.5. Prediction of casing wear
4.1.5.1.
Wear factor evaluation:
It is depending on drilling fluid characteristic and tool joint type.
P-1-M-6110 8.6.4
4.1.6. Detection of casing wear:
Use of magnets in mud flow return system.
Run a calliper survey tool.
P-1-M-6110 8.6.5
4.1.7. Practices to reduce casing wear:
Use drill pipe without hard facing.
Keep sand content low.
Use of rubber drill pipe casing protectors.
Use DHM, turbines.
Keep doglegs at a minimum.
Use oil based mud.
P-1-M-6110 8.6.6
4.1.8. Recommended approach to casing wear problems at well planning
stage:
1. Design the casing.
2. At the wear points, calculate the allowable reduction in wall-
thickness so that the burst (or collapse) resistance of the casing
just equals to burst (or collapse) load, including the appropriate
Design Factor.
3. Estimate the wear rate in terms of loss of wall-thickness per
operating day.
P-1-M-6110 8.6.7
4.2. Corrosive environment
4.2.1. Carbon dioxide (CO
2
):
Partial pressure > 30psi - usually indicates corrosion.
Partial pressure 3 30psi - may indicate corrosion.
Partial pressure < 3psi - no corrosion.
P-1-M-6110 9.1.3
4.2.2. Hydrogen sulphide (H
2
S):
The combination of H
2
S with CO
2
is more aggressive than H
2
S and is
frequently found in oilfield environments. Attack due to presence of
dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as sour corrosion.
P-1-M-6110 9.1.3
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.2.3. Factors affecting corrosion rates:
Temperature
Pressure
pH
Fluids velocity.
P-1-M-6110 9.1.3
4.2.4. Acceptable casing for sour service Vs operating temperature.
P-1-M-6110 Table 9.B
4.2.5. Eni-Agip design procedure.
4.2.5.1.
CO
2
corrosion:
Exploration wells - no influence on material selection.
Producing wells - selection of high alloy chromium steels
resistant to corrosion, inhibitor injection.
P-1-M-6110 9.8.1
4.2.5.2.
H
2
S environment:
Exploration wells:
with high probability of encountering H
2
S, it should be
considered to limit casing yield strength according to API-5CT
and NACE standard MR-01-75.
Producing wells:
casing and tubing material will be selected according to the
amount of H
2
S and other corrosive media present.
P-1-M-6110 9.8.2
4.3. Temperature effects
4.3.1. High temperature service
4.3.1.1.
Reduction in yield strength.
P-1-M-6110 10.1
4.3.1.2.
Graph modulus of elasticity of casing Vs temperature.
P-1-M-6110 10.1
4.3.2. Low temperature service:
Use high ductility steel to prevent brittle failures during transport and
handling.
P-1-M-6110 10.2
PAGE 75 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.4. Buckling & compression
4.4.1. Buckling
4.4.1.1.
Buckling effect may occur in the uncemented portion of a casing
string, if (after the cement has set):
Internal pressure increases.
Annular fluid density reduction.
Casing is landed with less than full hanging weight.
Temperature increases.
P-1-M-6110 11.4.1
4.4.1.2.
Buckling of long uncemented portions of the casing string (in vertical
wells), can be prevented by:
Cementing the casing up to the neutral point.
Pre-tensioning the casing on landing.
Rigidly centralising the casing below the neutral point.
P-1-M-6110 11.4.1
4.4.2. Compression
4.4.2.1.
Wells with the wellhead at ground level or sea bed.
The surface casing must be cemented to surface / seabed.
P-1-M-6110 11.4.2
4.4.2.2.
Wells with the wellhead above sea level (no mudline suspension).
The surface casing must be designed for compression loads.
Every joint of the surface casing must be centralised.
P-1-M-6110 11.4.2
4.4.2.3.
Wells with mudline suspension.
The weight of the casing is taken at the seabed, but the wellhead is
above seabed.
The C.P. must be cemented to seabed.
The tieback strings may be subject to buckling, a full structural
analysis should be carried out (commissioned).
P-1-M-6110 11.4.1
P-1-M-6140 15.5
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. DRILLING PROGRAMME CONTENTS
Reference
5.1. If the procedures for calculating casing stress are not directly based
on the corporate Casing Design Manual, reasons must be given in
an introductory sub-paragraph.
The present paragraph shall include:
1. Stress diagrams, with relative reports.
2. A table summarising the following, minimum information for
each casing:
Casing diameter (inches)
Casing function (surface, intermediate, production)
Type and category of steel
Casing weight (lb/ft)
Type of connection
Depth interval
Maximum stress (Buckling, Tearing, Tensile stress)
Nominal resistance (Buckling, Tearing, Tensile stress)
Safety factor required (Buckling, Tearing, Tensile stress)
Safety factor (Buckling, Tearing, Tensile stress)
3. Hang-off load (if applicable)
P-1-M-6001E 6.3.4
5.2. Design operational programme for casing running.
5.2.1. Recommended casing running speed to optimise surge pressure due
to pipe motion.
A-1-M-1000 4
5.2.2. Tension load applied on casing string while is landed on the casing
spool.
5.2.3. Always, check maximum planned pull against rig capacity, also
according to cantilever position.
Reference List:
Casing Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6110
Operating Procedures for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Software:
CASCADE-IWIS (ADIS)
PAGE 77 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
BURST PRESSURE (IP-EP)
Internal Pressure External Pressure
Wellhead Bottom-hole
SURFACE
CASING
P-1-M-6110-8.1.2
Working pressure rating of
BOP equipment7 or wellhead
but with a minimum of
140Kg/cm
2
Predicted fracture
gradient below the
casing shoe.
Surface wellhead:
= hydrostatic pressure
of a column of drilling
mud.
Subsea wellhead:
= Water Depth x
Seawater Density x 0.1
(if atm) seawater (1,03
kg/dm
3
).8
INTERMEDIATE
CASING
P-1-M-6110-8.1.2
Surface wellheads:
60% of difference between
fracture pressure at casing
shoe and gas column
pressure to the wellhead.
Subsea wellheads: as 60% of
the value obtained as the
difference between the
fracture pressure at the
casing shoe and the pressure
of a gas column to the
wellhead minus the seawater
pressure.
Predicted fracture
gradient of formation
below the casing shoe.
Formation pressure
With a subsea
wellhead, at the
wellhead, hydrostatic
seawater pressure
should be considered.
PRODUCTION
CASING
P-1-M-6110-8.1.2
Wellhead burst limit =
difference between the pore
pressure of the reservoir fluid
and the hydrostatic pressure
produced by a column of fluid
9
Wellhead pressure
burst limit plus annulus
hydrostatic pressure
exerted by the
completion fluid.
Formation pressure.
With a subsea
wellhead, at the
wellhead, hydrostatic
seawater pressure
should be considered
Stimulation or
hydraulic
fracturing
operations.
Fracture pressure at
perforations depth minus
hydrostatic pressure plus
safety margin of 1000 psi.
Fracture pressure at
perforations depth.
1.05 H40 - J 55 - K55
DESIGN FACTOR
P-1-M-6110-7.2.1
1.10 C75 - L80 - N80 - C90
- C95 - P110
Casing grade
1.20 Q125
Table PL 2.5 - Burst Pressure
When testing or producing through a liner, the casing above the liner will be a part of the
production string and must be designed according to this.

7 If an oversize BOP is selected: (IP)wellhead=60% [(fracture pressure at casing shoe)-(hydrostatic pressure of gas column to
surface)]; methane gas with density of 0,3 kg/dm
3
is normally used.
8 At shoe =(Shoe Depth - Air Gap) x Seawater Density x 0.1 (if atm)
Usually gas (density =0.3kg/dm
3
). Actual gas/oil gradients can be used if information on these are known and available.
PAGE 78 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
COLLAPSE PRESSURE (EP-IP)
Internal Pressure External Pressure
SURFACE CASING
P-1-M-6110-8.2.1
The casing for onshore operation
is considered completely empty.
In offshore wells with subsea
wellheads, the internal pressure
assumes that the mud level drops
due to a thief zone
Surface wellhead:
External pressure equal to the
hydrostatic pressure of a column of
drilling mud.
Subsea wellhead:
At the wellhead - Water Depth x
Seawater Density x 0.1 (if atm).
At the shoe - (Shoe Depth - Air Gap) x
Seawater Density x 0.1 (if atm).
INTERMEDIATE
CASING
P-1-M-6110-8.2.1
The mud level inside the casing
dropping to an equilibrium level
where the mud hydrostatic equals
the pore pressure of the thief zone
When thief zones cannot be
confirmed assume the casing to be
half-empty and the remaining part
of casing full of heaviest mud
scheduled to drill the section below
the shoe.
Hydrostatic pressure of mud in which
casing is run.
The uniform external pressure exerted
by salt on the casing or cement
sheath through overburden pressure,
should be given a value equal to the
true vertical depth of the relative point.
PRODUCTION
CASING
P-1-M-6110-8.2.1
The casing string is considered
completely empty.
Hydrostatic pressure of mud in which
casing is run.
DESIGN FACTOR
P-1-M-6110-7.2.1
1.10 All casing grade
Table PL 2.6 - Collapse Pressure
The reduced collapse resistance in biaxial stress (tension/collapse) should be considered.
When testing or producing through a liner, the casing above the liner will be a part of the
production string and must be designed according to this.
PAGE 79 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
TENSION (P1M6110-8.3)
4.
Deviated wells : "bending effect"
3.
Add additional load due to bumping the plug
2.
Calculate casing string weight in mud
1.
Calculate casing string weight in air
DESIGN FACTOR 1.70 C95 Casing grade
P1M6110-7.2.1 1.80 >C95
Table PL 2.7 Tension
PAGE 80 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.11. DRILLING FLUIDS PROGRAMME
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. The mud programme is drawn up for each phase on the basis of the
following aspects:
Geological information about chemical, physical and natural
characteristics of the expected lithology sequence and depths.
Drilling site: specify on-shore and offshore characteristics.
Environmental aspects: concerning waste disposal procedures
in compliance with local, current legislation.
Drilling programme: resuming the expected pressure
gradients, casing profiles, deviation design, hydraulic
programme, time Vs depth diagram, drilling difficulties and rig
equipment.
Minimum stock of mud products at the rigsite and at base
Required fluids volumes
P-1-N-6001E
1.2. The mud programme shall be submitted to the Company Drilling
Office for approval before to integrate into the Drilling Programme.
P-1-M-6100 5.1
1.3. No variation from the mud programme is permitted without previous
discussion with and approval of the Company Shore Base Drilling
office.
P-1-M-6100 5.1
1.4. The hydrostatic pressure applied by the mud must be greater than the
highest formation pressures to effect pressure control.
P-1-M-6100 5.2.2
2. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION
Reference
2.1. Pore pressure profile.
P-1-M-6100 5.2.2
2.2. Temperature profile.
P-1-M-6100 5.2.2
2.3. Lithology column.
P-1-M-6100 5.2.5
2.4. Expected hole problems.
2.5. Directional well profile.
2.6. Environmental pollution constraints.
3. GENERAL PARAMETERS FOR A MUD SYSTEM
Reference
3.1. Drilling fluid type in each hole section.
3.2. Mud weight in each hole section[kg/l].
PAGE 81 OF 205
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3. Chemical & physical properties.
3.3.1. Funnel viscosity [seconds/lt.].
3.3.2. Plastic viscosity [centipoise], [centipoise @ ....C], for
OBM.
3.3.3. Yield point [g/100cm
2
].
3.3.4. Gel strengths / 0-10-10 [g/100cm
2
],[g/100 cm
2
@ ... C], for
OBM.
3.3.5. Water losses [cc./30min @.... C].
3.3.6. Filter cake [millimetres].
3.3.7. Filtrate HP-HT [cc /30 min @ 300 F & 500psi].
3.3.8. Solids content [% volume].
3.3.9. Sand content [% volume].
3.3.10. pH.
3.3.11. BMT [kg/m
3
].
3.3.12. Oil / water ratio.
3.3.13. Oil content for OBM [% volume].
3.3.14. Electrical stability (only OBM) [volt] .
3.3.15. POM (OBM MUD +LC) [H
2
SO
4
N/10].
4. SURFACE EQUIPMENT FOR TREATING & HANDLING MUD
Reference
4.1. Solids control equipment
4.1.1. Shale shakers:
Arrangement (in series/parallel).
Size of screens.
4.1.2. Mud cleaners.
4.1.3. Centrifuges:
Arrangement (in series/parallel).
High/low volume.
PAGE 82 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. CONTINGENCY PLANS FOR POTENTIAL HOLE PROBLEMS
Reference
5.1. Material selection
5.1.1. Lost circulation materials (fine/medium).
5.1.2. Spotting fluids (high/low density).
5.1.3. Detergents/lubricants.
5.1.4. Corrosion control agents.
5.1.5. High filtration pills.
6. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
Reference
6.1. Minimum stocks.
6.2. Special safety actions.
Reference List:
Drilling Fluids Operation Manual STAP-P-1-M-6160
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Operating Procedure for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
PAGE 83 OF 205
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.12. HYDRAULIC PROGRAMME
1. SOFT WARE
Reference
1.1. The Eni-Agip IWIS (ADIS) software programme is currently used for
all hydraulic programmes and provides all the necessary information
to be input into the Geological Drilling Programme.
P-1-M-6100 6
2. FLOW REGIME DEFINITION
Reference
2.1. Optimum flow rate evaluation in each hole section
10
2.1.1. Control of hole erosion.
P-1-M-6100 6.3
2.1.2. Cuttings removal
P-1-M-6100 6.3
2.1.3. Hole cleaning.
P-1-M-6100 6.3
2.1.4. Mud formation invasion.
P-1-M-6100 6.3
3. FRICTION PRESSURE LOSSES CALCULATION
Reference
3.1. Preliminary information
3.1.1. Rheological model definition.
P-1-M-6100 6.4
3.1.2. Geometrical system data.
P-1-M-6100 6.4
3.1.3. Mud weight.
P-1-M-6100 6.4
3.1.4. Flow rate.
P-1-M-6100 6.4
3.2. Frictional pressure drop
3.2.1. Pressure drop in surface equipment.
P-1-M-6100 6.4.1
3.2.2. Pressure drop in pipe.
P-1-M-6100 6.4.2
3.2.3. Specific pressure drop (MWD, downhole motor).
P-1-M-6100 6.4.3
3.2.4. Pressure drop in annulus.
P-1-M-6100 6.4.6
3.2.5. Pressure drop across the bit.
P-1-M-6100 6.4.4
3.3. Surge/swab pressure Vs tripping speed.

10 Common flow rate:
hole size [ins] 17
1
/2 15 12
1
/4 9
7
/8 8
1
/2 7
7
/8 6
3
/4 6
flow rate [l/min] 30004000 28003500 22002600 15001900 12001600 12001600 8001000 600800
PAGE 84 OF 205
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4. BIT NOZZLES SELECTION
Reference
4.1. Optimise jet-impact force.
4.2. Maximise hydraulic bit horsepower.
4.2.1. 1. Evaluate suitable pump rate & max operating pressure (check
pressure rating of all surface equipment).
2. Calculate the friction pressure loss in surface equipment, pipe &
annulus.
3. Calculate the amount of pressure available for friction pressure
drop across the bit;
4. Solve the bit pressure drop equation for the flow area.
P-1-M-6100 6.4.4
4.2.2. Eni-Agip design criteria assume (rotary drilling using roller cone bits):
Max available pump pressure equal to 90% of nominal pump
pressure.
Min nozzle velocity 100 m/s.
Hole section 8
1
/
2
HSI=8 9 (HHP/in
2
).
Hole section 12
1
/
4
HSI=5 6 (HHP/in
2
).
Hole section 17
1
/
2
(16) HSI=3 4 (HHP/in
2
).
P-1-M-6100 6.4.4
5. DRILLING PROGRAMME CONTENTS
Reference
5.1. For each hole section & depth interval, the drilling programme should
contain the following information:
P-1-N-6001E
5.1.1. Mud data
5.1.1.1.
Mud weight.
5.1.1.2.
Plastic viscosity.
5.1.1.3.
Yield point.
5.1.1.4.
Gel strengths.
5.1.2. Pump data (for each pump)
5.1.2.1.
Pump type.
5.1.2.2.
Volumetric efficiency.
5.1.2.3.
Mechanical efficiency.
5.1.2.4.
Liner size.
5.1.2.5.
Max pressure & flow rate.
PAGE 85 OF 205
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5.1.2.6.
Max hydraulic power.
5.1.3. Flow rate.
5.1.4. Bit nozzles
5.1.4.1.
J ets size.
5.1.4.2.
Total flow area.
5.1.4.3.
J ets velocity.
5.1.5. Hydraulic system data
5.1.5.1.
Pressure drop:
Total, surface, pipes, annulus, specific drillstring components & bit
nozzles.
5.1.5.2.
Hydraulic power.
Total & bit, including:
Percentage of bit hydraulic power on total hydraulic power.
Bit hydraulic power/ins
2
(HSI).
5.1.6. Impact force.
5.1.7. Equivalent circulating density.
5.1.8. Annular velocity
5.1.8.1.
Min & max according to flow rate value.
Software:
Hydraulic programme-IWIS (ADIS)
PAGE 86 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.13. WELLHEAD
1. GENERAL SERVICE CONDITION (NO SOUR SERVICE) ONSHORE,
OFFSHORE JACK-UP & FIXED PLATFORMS WELLHEAD SYSTEM
Reference
1.1. The standard for exploration and development well are Multibowl
Wellhead (unitized).
However the Flanged Wellhead could be an option only for
exploration wells, when particular well difficulties are anticipated or
when a tie back or a mud-line system is in use.
M-1-M-5020 2.3
1.2. Pressure Classification
1.2.1. AGIP specification divides wellhead equipment into two classes:
Class-A: equipment designed to operate up to 5,000psi WP
Class-B: equipment designed to operate up to 10,000psi WP
M-1-M-5020 2.1.1
P-1-M-6100 8.2
M-1-SS-5701E 1.1
1.3. Pressure Rating
1.3.1. Definition of Working Pressure for Unitised Wellhead Housing is
based on following criteria:
WP=Static Bottom Hole Pressure (SBHP) or
WP= Max Static Tubing Head Pressure x S.F. (STHP x Safety
Factor)
For gas wells S.F. =1.1
For oil wells S.F. =1.3 (recommended)
M-1-M-5020 2.1.2
1.3.2. Pressure rating definition, for spool of a Flanged Wellhead, is based
on maximum anticipated surface pressure.
M-1-M-5020 2.1.2
2. MATERIAL
Reference
2.1. General Service
2.1.1. Casing Head & casing spool:
Temperature Classification Class P (-29C/+82C) - as per API
6A
Material Class DD - Sour Service - as per API 6A as defined by
NACE MR-01-75
M-1-M-5020 2.2.1
P-1-M-6100 8.2.1
2.2. Sour Service
2.2.1. To be defined according to the specific service condition.
PAGE 87 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3. UNITISED WELLHEAD (COMPACT)
Reference
3.1. Unitised wellhead components
3.1.1. Wellhead Housing (with lateral flanged outlet for control line):
Diam e WP Bottom Casing Hanger Top
13
5
/
8
5,000psi slip lock 13
3
/
8
9
5
/
8
-7-tbg Hub profile
or pup joint 10
welded/on
13
5
/
8
10,000psi slip lock 13
3
/
8
9
5
/
8
-7-tbg Hub profile
or pup joint 10
welded/on
18
3
/
4
5.000 psi slip lock 18
5
/
8
Suitable to install Hub profile
(option depend or pup joint 10
on csg programme) a 13
5
/
8
Housing welded/on
M-1-M-5020 2.3.1
4. FLANGED WELLHEAD
Reference
4.1. Flanged wellhead components
4.1.1. Casing head
4.1.1.1.
Ref. No. Top flange Max working pressure Bottom ( csg).
1.1 26
3
/
4
3,000psi 24
1
/
2

1.2 21
1
/
4
5,000psi 20 & 18
5
/
8

1.3 13
5
/
8
5,000psi 13
3
/
8
& 9
5
/
8

M-1-M-5020 2.3.2
4.1.2. Casing head spool
4.1.2.1.
Ref. No. Bottom Max WP Top Max WP
flange flange
2.1 13
5
/
8
5,000 psi 13
5
/
8
5,000 psi
2.2 13
5
/
8
5,000 psi 13
5
/
8
10,000 psi
2.3 13
5
/
8
10,000 psi 13
5
/
8
10,000 psi
2.4 21
1
/
4
5,000 psi 13
5
/
8
5,000 psi
2.5 21
1
/
4
5,000 psi 13
5
/
8
10,000 psi
2.6 26
3
/
4
3,000 psi 21
1
/
4
5,000 psi
M-1-M-5020 2.3.2
4.1.3. Other wellhead components.
M-1-SS-5701E 1.2.2
(TABLES 5-6-7)
4.1.3.1.
Outlets for casing head/spool (flanged system) and housing (unitised
system).
The standard are two outlets studded 2
1
/
16
, threaded for VR plug with
the same WP of the casing spool or of the housing.
PAGE 88 OF 205
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.1.3.2.
Cutting operation on c.p. or on casing will be done with mechanical
device.
4.1.3.3.
Sealing material: Elastomer selected according to well
environments.
4.1.3.4.
Painting: Suitable for offshore environment.
4.1.3.5.
Standardised completion equipment including sequences of casing
head / spool is reported in Table PL 2.8
M-1-SS-5701E 1.2.1
(FIG.1-10)
4.1.3.6.
Abbreviations used in Table PL 2.8
MSCL modular single completion land
DCSFSL dual completion seal flange solid block land
SCSO single completion seal flange offshore
DCSO dual completion solid block offshore
M-1-SS-5701E 1.5
4.1.4. Eni-Agip standards give a minimum tubing spool bottom flange
=135/8.
5. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
Reference
5.1. General service:
Operating context: (NACE MR-01-75)
Range of operating temperature: 29 - 82 C
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide: <7psia
Hydrogen sulphide partial pressure: <0,05psia.
P-1-M-6100 8.2.1
5.2. Chemical composition:
Casing head: AISI 4130 AISI 4125
Casing spool: AISI 4140 AISI 4135
M-1-SS-5701E 1.5
5.3. Sour service:
Metallic material specification
Chemical composition
Hardness: HRC <22
M-1-SS-5701E 1.5
5.4. Marine Environment:
Protection from marine environment: use coating suitable for salt
spray fog.
PAGE 89 OF 205
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6. PRESSURE TESTS
Reference
6.1. Hydraulic oil must be used.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.3
6.2. Pressure test value doesnt exceed 70% casing collapse resistance.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.3
6.3. During primary & secondary packing groups test, previous casing
spool valve must be kept open.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.5-4
6.4. All pressure tests should be kept for at least 15 minutes.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.5-4
7. DRILLING PROGRAMME CONTENTS
Reference
Includes the following, minimum information:
Manufacturer
Base flange: size, working pressure
Casing spool: size, working pressure
Tubing spool: size, working pressure
Well head components
Height of individual components and total height of well head
Part number of all components
Amounts
The well head diagram will also be included
Remarks
In the case of cluster wells, a sketch showing the orientation of the
various well heads with respect to true North will be included
P-1-N-6001E 6.3.8
8. UNCONVENTIONAL WELLHEAD SYSTEM
Reference
8.1.1. Mudline casing suspension system: The system makes possible the
temporary abandonment of the well in a short time and without casing
cutting.
P-1-M-6100 8.5
9. SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEM
Reference
9.1. Functional requirements
M-1-SS-5708 4
9.2. Engineering requirements
M-1-SS-5708 5
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Operating Procedures for Drawing the Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-M-6001E
Specification for Surface Wellhead and Christmas Tree Standard
Equipment STAP-M-1-SS-5701E
Specification for 10,000 and 15,000 WP Subsea Wellhead System STAP-M-1-SS-5708
Standardisation of Surface Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment STAP-M-1-M-5020
PAGE 90 OF 205
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
A
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a
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-
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-
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7
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R
Table PL 2.8 - Typical Outlines for single and duel completions class A and B
PAGE 91 OF 205
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.14. WELL CONTROL
1. BOP SELECTION CRITERIA
Reference
1.1. Pressure rating
1.1.1. The working pressure of any blow-out preventer shall exceed the
maximum anticipated surface pressure to which it may be subjected
P-1-M-6110 12.1
1.2. Eni-Agip BOP-selection criteria
1.2.1. The maximum theoretical pressure at the casing head occurs when
the well is full of gas and the fracture pressure has been reached at
the weakest point (generally the last casing shoe).
P-1-M-6110 12.1
1.2.2. Production test operations: see point 1.2.1
1.2.3. Drilling operations: 60% of maximum theoretical head pressure has
been chosen as limit value.
P-1-M-6110 12.1
1.2.4. A first approximate determination of BOP size for a wildcat well is
given in the graph reported on the Casing design manual, both for
drilling operations and production tests. The anticipated casing setting
depths and pore pressure values are the required information.
P-1-M-6110 12.1
P-1-M-6100 9.1
2. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
Reference
2.1. Minimum BOP stack requirements
2.1.1. Land rigs, J ack-up / Fixed platforms:
5,000psi WP stack should have at least 2 ram type preventer (1
blind or shear ram type and 1 pipe ram type) and 1 bag
preventer
10,000psi WP stack should have at least 3 ram type preventers
(1 blind or shear ram type and 2 pipe ram type) and 1 bag
preventer
15,000psi WP stack should have at least 4 ram type preventers
(1 blind or shear ram type and 3 pipe ram type) and 1 bag
preventer
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1
2.1.2. Land rigs: the shear rams installation will be evaluate with reference
to local law or deduced by risk analysis computations.
M-1-M-5005 1.1
2.1.3. The pipe rams preventers shall be equipped, at all times, with the
correct sized rams to match string in use.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-b
PAGE 92 OF 205
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.1.4. Floating drilling rigs:
A 10,000psi working pressure stack should have at least:
4 ram-type preventers (1 shear ram and 3 pipe rams,)
1 or preferably 2 x 5,000psi annular-type preventers (one
annular retrievable on Lower Marine Riser Package.)
A 15,000psi working pressure stack should have at least:
4 ram-type preventers (1 shear ram and 3 pipe rams).
2 x 10,000psi annular type preventers (one annular retrievable
on Lower Marine Riser Package.)
P-1-M-6150 6.1.2
2.2. Diverter general requirements
2.2.1. The diverter must be equipped with two lines facing opposite
directions (offshore applications).
Minimum diverter outlets 12 ID
Diverter valves shall be full opening valves, preferably ball
valves, and pneumatically or hydraulically actuated. The use of
butterfly valves is forbidden.
P-1-M-6150 6.6-b-e-g
2.3. Choke / kill lines & manifold
2.3.1. Choke / kill lines, choke manifold shall have a working pressure rating
equal or greater than preventers in use.
P-1-M-6150 6.3-a
2.3.2. Minimum diameter:
Choke line diameter 3 ID
Kill line diameter 2 ID
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-g
2.4. Inside pipe shut-off devices
2.4.1. While drilling shallow holes a float valve is used.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-e
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5-1
M-1-M-5012 2.5
2.4.2. Blowout equipment available on drill floor:
Additional lower kelly cock, kept in open position at all time.
Gray type inside BOP, with appropriate connection for pipe in
use.
Drop-in type back pressure valve.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-b-d-e
3. BOP & CASING TESTS
Reference
3.1. Land, Jack-Ups And Fixed Platforms BOP Pre-Deployment Tests
3.1.1. All BOP stacks will be pressure tested at their rated working pressure,
prior to use, on test stumps.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.1
PAGE 93 OF 205
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.2. Floating Rig BOP Surface Test
3.2.1. The complete BOP stack assembly shall be tested at the surface on
test stumps:
At low pressure of 300psi (21kg/cm2).
At their rated working pressure
P-1-M-6150 7.3
3.3. Ram type preventer tests after installation on the wellhead
3.3.1. Pipe rams shall be tested with open-end cup testers to a low pressure
of 300psi (21kg/cm
2
) and to a high pressure at least equal to the
maximum anticipated wellhead pressure.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2
3.3.2. In all cases, the maximum test pressure for each BOP test will not
exceed 70% of the rated WP of the lowest rated item of equipment in
the wellhead assembly, casing or preventer stack assembly,
whichever is the lower.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2
3.3.3. An open-end cup tester is required or a blind test plug may be
always used for BOP testing before or after the shoe is drilled
out.
Tests will be carried out with water.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.3
3.3.4. The accumulator system should be capable of closing each ram BOP
within 30 sec
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-a
3.4. Bag type annular preventer tests
3.4.1. The preventer will be tested to low pressure (300 psi), and to a high
pressure at least equal to the maximum anticipated wellhead
pressure.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2
3.4.2. Closing time on 5 DP should not exceed 30secs for annular
preventers smaller than 18
3
/
4
nominal bore and 45secs for annular
preventers of 18
3
/
4
and larger
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-a
3.5. Blind/Shear ram type preventer tests after installation on the
wellhead
3.5.1. Blind/shear rams shall be tested using blind plug testers to the same
pressure as stated above for pipe rams.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2
3.5.2. Where a plug tester is not available, blind/shear rams will be tested
against the casing each time a new casing string has been set prior
to drilling out the cement. In this case the testing pressure will not be
succeed 1,500psi (105kg/cm
2
).
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2
PAGE 94 OF 205
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.6. Floating BOP Test During and After Installation
3.6.1. While running BOP stacks on the riser joints, the choke/kill and
buster lines from surface to the fail-safe shall be pressure tested to
their rated working pressure.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1-1
3.6.2. After the BOP stack is landed on the wellhead, a full function test on
both pods shall be carried out.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1-2
3.7. Floating BOP and Seal Assembly Test After Setting Casing.
3.7.1. The seal assembly shall be pressure tested to a maximum pressure,
equal to the maximum anticipated wellhead pressure, or 70% of the
internal yield pressure of the weakest item of equipment, whichever is
the lower.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.2-1
3.7.2. All BOP components, shall be pressure tested to a low pressure of
300psi (21kg/cm
2
) and to a minimum pressure equal to the maximum
anticipated wellhead pressure, or 70% of the internal yield pressure of
the weakest item of equipment, whichever is the lower.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.2-3
3.8. Kill/choke lines & manifold tests
3.8.1. Every time tests are carried out on the BOP stack, the associated
equipment shall also be tested, with water.
After the first BOP installation, the equipment shall be tested at their
rated working pressure.
On routine tests, they will be tested at to least the same pressure
applied for the BOP test.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.4-c
P-1-M-6150 7.5
3.9. Casing tests
3.9.1. In all cases the test pressure will be no higher than 70% of API
minimum internal yield pressure of the weakest casing in the string or
to 70% of the BOP working pressure.
P-1-M-6150 7.5
3.10. BOP operating equipment
3.10.1. All BOP operating equipment hoses, control panels, regulator
connections, shall be regularly checked and tested to the maximum
manufacturers recommended values for closing and opening BOP.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.3
3.11. Diverter tests
3.11.1. They mainly consist on function test and closing time evaluation.
Closing time (on 5 DP):
30 seconds : diverter type < 20
45 seconds : diverter type 20
P-1-M-6150 9.4.3
PAGE 95 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4. TESTS FREQUENCY
Reference
4.1. BOP-stack
4.1.1. After installing stack on well head.
Any time a new casing string is run and cemented.
Once every 14 days.
Prior to run a DST or production test assembly.
Any time required by Company.
P-1-M-6150 7.4
4.2. Kill/choke lines, choke manifold, rig floor and cementing
manifold
4.2.1. Every time tests are carried out on the BOP stack, the associated
equipment shall also be tested, with water (see point 4.1.1).:
P-1-M-6150 7.4.4
4.3. Casing
4.3.1. Each casing shall be pressure tested at the following times:
When cement plug bumps on bottom with a pressure stated in
the drilling programme.
When testing blind/shear rams of the BOP stack against the
casing.
After having drilled out a DV collar.
P-1-M-6150 7.5
4.3.2. A cemented liner overlap will be positively tested applying a pressure
greater than the lea-off pressure of the previous casing. If there is
any doubt, an inflow test could be carried out, with a sufficient
drawdown to test the liner top to the most severe negative differential
pressure that will exist during the life of the well.
P-1-M-6150 7.6
4.4. BOP operating equipment
4.4.1. Every time BOP stack is nippled up, and after repairing operations.
P-1-M-6150 7.5
4.5. Function tests
4.5.1. 1. The pipe ram and BOP valves should be operated at least once
every shift.
2. Blind/shear rams shall be operated every round trip in the hole.
3. The annular preventer shall be operated when the scheduled
routine BOP tests are performed.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.2
PAGE 96 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. DURATION OF TESTS
Reference
5.1. The BOP 300psi low-pressure tests will be performed first. They are
to be held for a min period of 5min
P-1-M-6150 7.4.1
5.2. High-pressure tests are held for a minimum of 10mins. The maximum
acceptable pressure drop over this 10mins period is 100psi.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.1
6. WELL CONTROL DRILLS
Reference
6.1. Familiarity drills
6.1.1. The purpose of these drills is to familiarise rig personnel with the
various equipment and with the techniques that will be employed in
the event of a kick.
P-1-M-6150 7.1.1.b
6.1.2. These tests shall be carried out on an each shift basis, at the
beginning of any new activity, any time experienced personnel are
replaced with new recruits, especially when key position personnel
are involved such as the Toolpusher, Driller and Assistant Driller.
Drills shall be repeated until every crew member gains the correct
experience and training.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
6.2. Emergency On-the-rig drills
6.2.1. Simulate potential blowout situation. Drilling Contractors crew should
follow the close-in procedure according to the current operations (bit
on bottom, tripping).
P-1-M-6150 8.1.1
6.2.2. Potential fire on wellsite and rig location abandonment simulation.
P-1-M-6150 8.2.1
6.2.3. Tests shall be executed on each shift basis every week.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
6.3. Pit drills
6.3.1. Simulate changes in the pit level indicator. Drilling Contractors crew
should follow the close-in procedure according to the current
operations (bit on bottom, tripping).
P-1-M-6150 8.3.1
6.3.2. Tests shall be carried out:
Each shift basis every fortnight.
When the well is nearing or entering high-pressure zones.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
6.4. Choke Manipulation drill
6.4.1. The test shall be carried out before drill out the shoe track at
intermediate casing string
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
PAGE 97 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6.5. Drills evaluation
6.5.1. Drills evaluation is mainly based on performing time. Correct timing
should be defined in Drilling Contractors procedures according to the
equipment.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
6.5.2. Pit drills:
Not more than 2.5 minutes from a readable change in drilling fluid
volume to the time the well is closed-in or drill pipe started running
back in hole if during trip.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
6.5.3. On-the-rig drills :
One minute time from giving the alarm signal to have the preventer
closed.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
7. PRIMARY WELL CONTROL
Reference
7.1. General remarks
7.1.1. Underbalance drilling operations, which are not admitted on wildcat
wells, shall be approved by Company Operative Base Drilling
Superintendent through a detailed drilling programme.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.1
7.1.2. Primary well control is mainly based on prediction of formation
pressure. It depends on correct mud weight evaluation and proper
operating practices.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.1
7.2. Trip margin & equivalent mud weight
7.2.1. If while tripping out a swabbing is noted (the well is not flowing):
Stop the trip
Run back to bottom
Circulate bottom up
Resume tripping carefully.
P-1-M-6150 2.2.3
7.3. Mud volume control
7.3.1. A minimum kill mud volume of 70m
3
at 1.4kg/ft shall be stocked while
drilling surface hole without BOP-stack. Anyway, at least minimum
mud volume must be equal to three times internal drillstring volume.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-n
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-g
PAGE 98 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
7.4. Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure (MAASP)
7.4.1. The MAASP is representative of a specific drilling section, it depends
on the following factors:
Last casing shoe depth
mud weight
Minimum formation fracture gradient below the casing shoe
minimum last casing burst pressure resistance.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.4
7.5. Circulating pressure at reduced pumping rate
7.5.1. Reduced pump stroke pressure (RPSP).
Normal circulation flowrate reduced to Q/3 in 12
1
/
4
hole and Q/2 in
8
1
/
2
hole.
RPSP must be taken at the following times as a minimum:
Once per tour, or every 300m (1,000ft) intervals.
When there is any significant changes in the mud weight or mud
properties.
Whenever changes occur in the dimension and characteristics of
the string, i.e. change in BHA, jet size, jet plugged or jet lost, etc
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
7.5.2. On floater rigs, the RPSP shall be measured by circulating, first
through the riser and then through the choke/kill line.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
7.6. Drilling break
7.6.1. Any time a drilling break is noticed:
Drilling shall be stopped immediately
Static control shall be carried out.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.3
8. SECONDARY WELL CONTROL
Reference
8.1. Well control decision tree
8.2. Well shut-in procedures
P-1-M-6150 3
8.3. Killing procedures
P-1-M-6150 5
Reference List:
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Casing Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6110
PAGE 99 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.15. CEMENT PROGRAMME
1. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION
Reference
1.1. In a cementing job the factors, that guide the selection of the
additives for the control of the slurry, flow properties and thickening
time are:
The annular configuration
Wellbore conditions
The mud type and density
Temperature gradient
P-1-M-6100 7.8
2. SLURRY DESIGN
Reference
2.1. Total slurry volume calculation (lead/tail slurry volumes)
2.1.1. Always a percentage increment in volume must be considered for the
open hole section. In absence of relevant data, can be assumed:
Surface casing: 100 %
Intermediate casing: 50 %
Production casing: 30 %.
P-1-M-6100 7.8.1
2.1.2. If logs are available, assume a percentage increment in volume equal
to 10%.
P-1-M-6100 7.8.1
2.2. Slurry density evaluation.
2.2.1. Circulating bottom hole and static temperatures need to be
considered as well as the temperature differential between the bottom
and top of the cement column.
P-1-M-61007.8.3
2.2.2. Circulating temperatures by calculation in accordance with
temperature schedules published in API 10 Specification
P-1-M-6100 7.8.3
2.2.3. One rule of thumb which should apply to the slurry design, is to
ensure that the static temperature at the top of the cement exceeds
the circulating bottom hole temperature
P-1-M-6100 7.8.3
2.3. Type & amount of cement
2.3.1. The cement type selection is mainly based on estimated bottom hole
temperature.
P-1-M-6100 7.1.1
2.4. Amount & composition of mix water.
P-1-M-6100 7.1.2
PAGE 100 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.5. Amount & type of additives
2.5.1. Weighting/lightening agents (barite, hematite, diatom, bentonite).
P-1-M-6100 7.2.3/4
2.5.2. Retarders.
P-1-M-6100 7.2.2
2.5.3. Accelerators.
P-1-M-6100 7.2.1
2.5.4. Fluid loss reducers.
2.5.5. Friction reducers.
2.6. Slurry rheology properties evaluation.
P-1-M-6100 7.5
2.7. Slurry fluid loss evaluation.
P-1-M-6100 7.5
2.8. Slurry thickening time.
P-1-M-6100 7.8.4
2.9. Slurry settlement properties.
P-1-M-6100 7.8.4
2.10. Slurry compressive strength.
P-1-M-6100 7.5
2.11. Laboratory tests
2.11.1. Before start with job on rig site, laboratory tests shall be performed
using samples of actual cement, water and additives.
P-1-M-6100 7.6
3. SPACER DESIGN
Reference
3.1. Spacer volume calculation
3.1.1. Unless an effective mud density is required to control the formation
pressure, all cement jobs shall be flushed with a water spacer.
The spacer volume shall be equivalent to, more or less, tree minutes
of contact time or 150m of annulus capacity.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-6
P-1-M-6100 7.4
3.2. Spacer density evaluation
3.2.1. The best spacer is a spacer that has a density higher than the mud
but less than the cement slurry.
P-1-M-6100 7.4
3.3. Chemical composition
3.3.1. The spacer fluid must be compatible with both the mud and the slurry
system, laboratory test shall be carried out.
P-1-M-6100 7.4
3.4
Spacer fluid rheology properties evaluation
P-1-M-6100 7.4
PAGE 101 OF 205
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4. HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS
Reference
4.1. Flow rates for cement displacement
4.1.1. Displace at maximum allowable flow-rate. Normally turbulent flow in
the annulus is preferred, in any case always monitor return.
4.2. Estimated pressure profile
4.2.1. Plot versus time/volume the following parameters:
Surface circulating pressure
Bottom hole pressure
Previous casing shoe pressure
Any critical zone.
5. PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES
Reference
5.1. Single or multistage cementing operation
5.1.1. Perform second stage operations as soon as cement setting time of
first stage is expired (at least twice the time thickening time). Lab test
is recommended.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.2-7
5.2. Inner string
5.2.1. All surface casing will be cemented through inner string.
5.3. Liner cementing operation.
5.3.1. Under normal conditions, the liner will be hung with a 100 to 150m
overlap into the previous casing. If a smaller overlap is necessary due
to a particular situation, it shall never be less than 50m
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-3
5.3.2. If the rat hole exceeds the overlap length, set a cement plug at a
distance from the liner shoe setting depth shorter than the overlap
itself.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-3
5.4. Tie-back string cementing operation.
5.5. Casing cementing operation in sub-sea wells.
6. DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT SELECTION
Reference
6.1. Casing shoe
6.1.1. Guide shoe.
6.1.2. Float shoe.
PAGE 102 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6.2. Collar
6.2.1. Float collar.
6.2.2. Multistage collar.
6.3. Casing centralisation programme
6.3.1. Number & type of centralisers.
6.3.2. Number & type of scratchers.
6.3.3. In floating rig-drilling operations the number of centralisers must be
limited. Avoid the use of scratchers.
6.4. Cementing plugs
6.4.1. Non rotating PDC drillable plugs are recommended.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-8
7. SURFACE EQUIPMENT SELECTION
Reference
7.1. Type & pressure rating of cementing head.
7.1.1. As alternative the circulating head can be requested with a bottom
quick seal connection (without thread).
A-1-SS-1729 5.3.7
7.2. Number of cementing units.
7.2.1. It must be provided with twin triplex pumping units for pumping the
cement slurry, for high pressure mixing and for general pumping
operations
A-1-SS-1729 5.3.1-1
7.3. Number & volume of available tanks
7.3.1. It is recommended to mix slurry in advance using batch mixer.
7.4. Layout of surface cementing equipment.
8. OPERATING PROGRAMME
Reference
8.1. Summary of operations
8.1.1. Testing pressure for surface lines: 5,000psi.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-4
8.1.2. Stop displacement in advance only if pressure exceeds 70% of
casing burst pressure or 5,000psi, whichever is less.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-20
PAGE 103 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
8.1.3. Prior to mix cement, water shall be checked. When mixing cement,
samples of slurry shall be collected. Also take mixing water samples
and dry cement samples from each tank used.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-11
8.1.4. In jack-ups and fixed platforms drilling operations, at end of surface
casing cementing job, carefully wash the annulus between CP and
surface casing to at least 5meters below the sea bottom, in order to
allow well abandoning operations according to specifications
11
.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-28
8.2. Displacement
8.2.1. The displacement volume (for 30 CP and surface casing)
should be 1 bbls less than the theoretical volume.
Max over displacement volume equal to
1
/
2
of shoe-collar
volume.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-28
8.3. Surface pressure at bump plug
8.3.1. The bumping pressure values are always given in the Drilling
Programme.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-23
8.4. Parameters recording
8.4.1. Record all mixing, displacing and bumping operations (pressure, flow
rate, total volume versus time).
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-29
8.5. Total Job time
8.5.1. Compare total job time (including mixing time), to pumpability time.
8.6. Time for W.O.C.
8.6.1. According to laboratory tests results (if done) or 2-3 times
thickening time (check the samples, for surface jobs).
Check always annulus level.
Whenever it is possible close BOP and pressurise up to 100-
200psi according to weakest fracturing point.
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Cementing and Pumping Service For Drilling Completion
and Workover Activity STAP-A-1-SS-1729

11 In order to have the sea bed free from any obstructions, it is recommended in well abandonment operations to recover at least 5
meters of casing strings below the seabed.
PAGE 104 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.16. DRILL STRING DESIGN
1. DESIGN PARAMETERS
Reference
1.1. Anticipated total depth.
1.1.1. The design of the drill string for static tensile loads requires sufficient
strength in drill pipe to support the submerged weight of drill pipe and
drill collar below.
P-1-M-6100 10.11
1.1.1.1.
b c c dp dp
K )] W L ( + ) W L [( = P
where:
P = Submerged load
L
dp
= Length of drill pipe in feet
L
c
= Length of drill collar in feet
W
dp
= Weight per foot of drill pipe in air
W
c
= Weight per foot of drill collar in air
K
b
= Buoyancy factor
P-1-M-6100 10.11
1.2. Hole size.
1.2.1. Drill string acceptability (Refer to Table PL 2.9)
P-1-M-6100 10.8
1.3. BHA Buckling
1.3.1. In the design of BHA, it is important to determine the critical values of
weight on bit at which buckling occurs.
P-1-M-6100 10.9.
1.4. Formation type & dip.
1.4.1. Crooked hole drilling tendencies.
Standard packed hole assembly should be:
Bit +Near Bit Stab +Short DC (7ft =2.5m) +String Stab +K Monel
DC +String Stab +2 DC +String Stab
P-1-M-6100 10.12
1.4.1.1.
Mild crooked hole.
P-1-M-6140 8.5-a
1.4.1.2.
Medium crooked hole.
P-1-M-6140 8.5-a
1.4.1.3.
Severe crooked hole.
P-1-M-6140 8.5-a
PAGE 105 OF 205
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.4.2. Formation firmness.
Degree of drillability of the formations.
Hard to medium hard formations
- Abrasive
- Non abrasive
Medium hard to soft formations
P-1-M-6140 8.5-b
1.5. Hole deviation
1.5.1. Hole angle control.
Packed bottom hole assembly.
Pendulum bottom hole assembly.
P-1-M-6140 8.3
1.5.2. BHA analysis in directional drilling
PL.02.01-8.1
1.6. Concentrations in bending stresses
1.6.1. The (I/C)
ratio
12
is assumed as criterion to evaluate the resistance at
bending.
Soft formation (I/C)
ratio
<5,5
Hard formation (I/C)
ratio
<3,5
P-1-M-6100 10.8
P-1-M-6140 8.8
1.7. Margin of overpull (MOP)
13
.
1.7.1. The minimum recommended value of MOP is 6,0000lbs
P-1-M-6100 10.11
P-1-M-6140 8.11
1.8. Torque & drag evaluation
1.8.1. Software applications.
1.9. Differential sticking.
1.10. Hydraulic requirements.
PL.02.13

12 I, moment of inertia; ( )
ID
4
OD
4
64
I

C, radius of tube;
2
OD
C
(I/C)ratio (I/C)large pipe/(I/C)small pipe
13 MOP=Pa-P
P, acting tension load
Pa,max allowable design tension load; Pa=90% Pt
Pt, theoretical max tension load
PAGE 106 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.11. Casing wear.
1.11.1. Software applications.
PL.02.05 4.1
1.12. Drill stem corrosion & sulphide stress cracking.
P-1-M-6110 9.2.1
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Casing Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6110
PAGE 107 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Hole Size
(ins)
Drill Collar/Drill Pipe
(ins)
I/C I/C Ratio Remarks
DC 9
1
/
2
x 3 83.8 1.5
DC 8
1
/
4
x 21
3
/
16
55.9 9.8
DP 5 x 19.5lbs/ft 5.7 - Not
DC 9
1
/
2
x 3 83.8 1.5 Recommended
DC 8
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
55.9 7.1
DP 5
1
/
2
x 19.5lbs/ft 7.8 1.4
DP 5x 19.5lbs/ft 5.7 -
17
1
/
2
DC 9
1
/
2
x 3 83.8 1.5 OK for
DC 8
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
55.9 5.2 SOFT
HWDP 5 x 42.6lbs/ft 10.7 1.9 Formations
DP 5 x 19.5lbs/ft 5.7 -
DC 9
1
/
2
x 3 83.8 1.5
DC
81
/
4
2
13
/
16

55.9 2.5 OK For HARD


DC 6
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
22.7 1.9 Formations
DP 5 x 19.5lbs/ft 5.7 -
Note: For every hard formations, add HWDP
DC
91
/
2
x 3 83.8 1.5
12
1
/
4
DC 8
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
55.9 2.5 OK For HARD
DC 6
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
22.7 3.9 Formations
DP 5 x 19.5lbs/ft 5.7 -
Note: For every hard formations, add HWDP
DC
91
/
2
x 3 83.8 1.5
12
1
/
4
DC 8
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
55.9 5.2 OK For SOFT
HWDP 5 x 42.6lbs/ft 10.7 1.9 Formations
DP 5 x 19.5 lbs/ft 5.7 -
DC 6
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
22.7 Not
DP 5 x 19.5lbs/ft 5.7 3.9 Recommended
8
5
/
8
DC 6
1
/
4
x 2
13
/
16
22.7
HWDP 5 x 42.6lbs/ft 10.7 Recommended
DP 5 x 19.5lbs/ft 5.7
Table PL 2.9 - Drill String Acceptability
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.17. BIT SELECTION & DRILLING PARAMETERS
1. FACTORS AFFECTING BIT SELECTION
Reference
1.1. Main factors to consider and evaluate
1.1.1. Bit cost
Method of drilling (turbine, rotary, air)
Formation type and properties
Mud system
Rig cost
P-1-M-6100 11.1
1.2. To optimise the drilling operations.
1.2.1. Monitoring the drilling performance and conditions on the prospect
well so that the performance is equal to or above the average in the
area.
P-1-M-6100 11.1
1.2.2. Implementing a bit weight-rotary speed programme based on
theoretical calculations that will improve the performance above the
existing best performances in the area.
P-1-M-6100 11.1
1.3. Parameters involved in the selection of drill bits
1.3.1. In hard and abrasive formations roller bits in IADC code range 6-1-7
or higher are usually more successful.
P-1-M-6100 11.4.1
1.3.2. Oil based mud is actually believed to enhance the performance of
PDC bits since they inhibit clay hydration and stickiness.
P-1-M-6100 11.4.2
1.4. Directional drilling considerations
1.4.1. Rotary drilling to right-hand walk is increased when using roller bits
are used as cone offset from the bit centre increases.
P-1-M-6100 11.4.3
1.4.2. PDC bits with their relatively lower bit weights and no cones, hence
cone offset problems are favoured.
P-1-M-6100 11.4.3
1.5. Rotating system
1.5.1. Rotary table / top drive system.
1.5.2. Down-hole motor
1.5.2.1.
Using turbine, bits with long life expectancies should be used such as
PDC, diamond and journal bearing insert bits.
P-1-M-6100 11.4.4
1.5.2.2.
Turbine drilling may have a tendency to left-hand walk. This is
controlled by the turbine used, bit gauge length, and BHA stabilisation
P-1-M-6100 11.4.3
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.6. Geological requirements
1.6.1. Minimum cutting size.
1.7. Mud type
1.7.1. Oil based mud is actually believed to enhance the performance of
PDC bits since they inhibit clay hydration and stickiness.
P-1-M-6100 11.4.2
1.8. Available bit records analysis.
1.9. Drilling cost optimisation
1.9.1. Representative bit-cost curves.
P-1-M-6100 11.6
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
PAGE 110 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.18. EXPECTED DRILLING PROBLEMS & RECOMMENDATIONS
1. DRILLING DIFFICULTIES
Reference
Describe the drilling difficulties encountered in reference wells,
detailed by phases.
P-1-M-6001E
2. SUGGESTIONS
Reference
Suggestions must be provided in order to prevent or manage at best
all the expectable difficulties.
P-1-M-6001E
3. GENERALITIES
Reference
3.1. In the operative sequence of the drilling programme, for each phase
in a specific paragraph will be reported the drilling problems that will
include a specific contingency plan to cover each of them.
P-1-N-6001E 6.2
4. LOSSES CIRCULATION
Reference
4.1. Preventive measures
4.1.1. Mud characteristics
4.1.1.1.
Particularly in surface holes, maintain high mud viscosity values.
OP.02 12-9.1.2
4.1.1.2.
Keep the mud weight as low as possible providing for adequate
overbalance.
P-1-M-6140 17.1-1
4.1.1.3.
Maintain low yield point and gel strengths.
P-1-M-6140 17.1-1
4.1.2. Drilling parameters
4.1.2.1.
Avoid high circulation rates.
P-1-M-6140 17.1-4
4.1.2.2.
Always start pumping slowly.
4.1.3. Miscellaneous
4.1.3.1.
Use bit nozzles larger than 14/32.
P-1-M-6140 17.1-9
4.1.3.2.
While tripping: minimise surge pressure.
P-1-M-6140 17.1-5
4.2. Remedial actions
4.2.1. Refer to Figure PL 2.4
P-1-M-6160 6.1
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. DIFFERENTIAL STICKING
Reference
5.1. Preventive measures
5.1.1. Mud characteristics.
5.1.1.1.
Use mud with minimum solids content and low filtrate in order to have
a thin wall cake.
P-1-M-6160 7.1
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-3
5.1.1.2.
Reduce the friction factor adding mud lubricants.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-4
5.1.1.3.
Reduce mud weight as much as possible, maintaining the minimum
differential pressure necessary for a safe trip margin.
P-1-M-6160 7.1
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-1
5.1.2. BHA composition
5.1.2.1.
Reduce the potential contact surface by using spiral type drill collars.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-2
5.1.2.2.
Use a minimum number of drill collars, insert stabilisers according to
well situation.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-2
5.1.2.3.
Whenever it is possible replace drill collars with HWDP.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-2
5.1.2.4.
Consider the use of a drilling jar/bumper.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-6
5.2. Remedial actions
5.2.1. Oil pills
5.2.1.1.
Light oil pills.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
P-1-M-6160 7.1
5.2.1.2.
Heavy oil pills used for specific gravity greater than 1350 g/l.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
P-1-M-6160 7.1
5.2.1.3.
Operational planning:
volume evaluation
Hydrostatic pressure balance
Displacement techniques.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
P-1-M-6160 7.1
5.2.2. Acid pills
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
5.2.2.1.
The use of acid pills can be successful if the string gets stuck across
of a carbonate formation. This method should be carried out only if
others will be ineffective, unless former experiences.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
P-1-M-6160 7.1
5.2.2.2.
The proper amount of corrosion inhibitor must be used and the acid
pill will be spaced with oil or water ahead and behind.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5.2.2.3.
Operational planning see point 3.2.1.3.
Whenever acid is handled, the appropriate safety measures shall be
adopted
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
6. CAVING HOLE
Reference
6.1. Preventive measures
6.1.1. Mud characteristics
6.1.1.1.
Possible mud changes are:
Reduce water losses.
Lower pH value to 8.5 to 9 (if needed).
Use inhibited mud.
Use inhibited mud and polymer.
Add mud stabilising compounds (mainly sodium asphalt
sulphonate).
Increase the mud weight.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
6.1.2. BHA composition (to avoid stuck pipe)
6.1.2.1.
Possible BHA changes are:
Use bits without nozzles, particularly when reaming, to avoid scouring
the well.
Use the minimum acceptable number of stabilisers.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
P-1-M-6160 7.1
6.1.3. Drilling parameters
6.1.3.1.
Possible changes in parameters are:
Reduce rotary speed, if possible, to 80rpm or less.
Reduce the mud flow rate to obtain laminar flow in the annulus
between hole and drill collars.
Avoid long circulation times across unstable sections.
Do not rotate pipe when tripping. Use a spinner or chain out.
Trip out with care to avoid swabbing. If any swabbing occurs,
pull out with the kelly on.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
6.1.3.2.
If the string gets stuck in front of carbonate formation: spot an acid
pill, see point 3.2.2.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
P-1-M-6160 7.1
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
7. HOLE RESTRICTION
Reference
7.1. Preventive measures
7.1.1. Mud characteristics
7.1.2. Reduce mud filtrate and solids content.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
P-1-M-6160 7.1
7.1.3. Increase mud weight if possible.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
P-1-M-6160 7.1
7.1.4. Use inhibited mud.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
P-1-M-6160 7.1
7.1.5. Drilling parameters:
7.1.6. Increase flow rate.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
P-1-M-6160 7.1
7.1.7. Miscellaneous
7.1.7.1.
Follow accurately sigmalog development..
7.1.7.2.
Make frequent wiper trips.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
7.2. Remedial actions
P-1-M-6140 16.2
7.2.1. Spot oil-based mud or oil containing a surfactant around the BHA.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
P-1-M-6160 7.1
7.2.2. Work the pipe applying slack-off if the string has become stuck
pulling out, and overpull if it stuck while running in.
P-1-M-6140 16.2.1
7.2.3. Increase the mud weight, if possible.
P-1-M-6140 16.2.3
7.2.4. Use a drilling jar/bumper.
P-1-M-6140 16.2.4
7.2.5. If the string gets stuck in front of carbonate formation: spot an acid
pill, see point 3.2.2.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
P-1-M-6160 7.1
8. HOLE IRREGULARITIES
Reference
8.1. Preventive measures
8.1.1. Bottom hole assembly
8.1.1.1.
The formation of dog legs can be prevented by the use of packed
bottom hole assemblies.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
P-1-M-6160 7.1
8.1.1.2.
Dog legs can be eliminated by using very stiff BHA's and reamers.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
8.1.2. Miscellaneous
8.1.2.1.
A key seat can be eliminated by reaming it with a key seat wiper or an
under-gauge stabiliser installed on the top of the drill collars.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
P-1-M-6160 7.1
8.1.2.2.
Always ream a whole interval drilled with the previous bit.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
8.1.2.3.
Always ream the cored section, even if a full gauge core bit was used.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
8.2. Remedial actions (stuck pipe)
8.2.1. Work the pipe applying slack-off if dog leg or key seat (the string
becomes stuck pulling out) and overpull if running a new BHA (the
string becomes stuck while running in the hole).
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1.1
8.2.2. Spot oil-based mud or oil containing a surfactant around the BHA.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
P-1-M-6160 7.1
8.2.3. If the stuck point is in a calcareous section, spot an acid pill. (see
point 3.2.2).
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
P-1-M-6160 7.1
9. HYDROGEN SULPHIDE GUIDELINES
Reference
9.1. Generalities
9.1.1. It is compulsory that the Drilling Contractor has an Emergency Safety
Plan including a specific procedure for the presence of H
2
S.
P-1-M-6150 10.1
P-1-M-6160 4.1.4
9.1.2. Adoption of safety measures while circulating bottom-up.
P-1-M-7130 20.6.3
P-1-M-6150 10
9.2. Drillsite location
9.2.1. Surface elevation / wind direction / access road / briefing area.
P-1-M-6150 10.1
9.3. Material specifications sour service
9.3.1. Tubular goods / wellhead / blowout preventer equipment / choke
manifolds.
P-1-M-6110 9
9.3.2. Drill pipe inspections.
9.4. Drilling fluids
9.4.1. Use H
2
S scavengers.
P-1-M-6150 10.9.6
9.4.2. Use corrosion inhibitors.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
9.5. Safety requirements for particular operations
9.5.1. Core Recovery In Presence Of H
2
S
After coring in a H
2
S bearing formation, it is necessary to wear the
Cascade System masks (if available ), or Self Breathing Apparatus
with 30-45min bottles, during the whole core recovery operation, both
using a rubber type core barrel or a inner tube core barrel.
P-1-M-6150 10.2.3
9.5.2. Drill stem testing.
9.5.3. Logging and perforating.
9.6. Rig safety equipment
9.6.1. H
2
S detection system
9.6.1.1.
H
2
S detection in air.
P-1-M-6150 10.10.1
P-1-M-7130 20.2.1
9.6.1.2.
The system measuring capacity must be 0-50ppm in air.
Danger thresholds are set as follows:
Pre Alarm: for a concentration between 10ppm and 20ppm in
air;
Alarm: for a concentration upper of 20ppm. in air
P-1-M-6150 10.10.2
9.6.2. Breathing apparatuses.
P-1-M-7130 20.7.2/4
P-1-M-6150 10.11
9.6.3. Wind direction indicators.
P-1-M-7130 20.7.6
P-1-M-6150 10.14
9.6.4. Ventilation equipment.
P-1-M-7130 20.7.3
P-1-M-6150 10.14
9.6.5. Inspection and maintenance of detection/protection systems.
P-1-M-6150 10.16
9.7. Alarm & emergency drills
9.7.1. Results shall be reported on the IADC daily drilling report and on the
dedicated form. It is important to measure the time required for
personnel gathering and being accounted at the meeting point.
P-1-M-6150 10.9.3
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
9.7.2. Drills frequency
9.7.2.1.
Alert or emergency drills when the presence of H
2
S is either
predictable or ascertained are to be performed weekly (during a trip),
no-routine drills shall be performed before:
Entering in a H
2
S zone
Coring job
DST or well testing
Drilling an overpressured zone.
P-1-M-6150 10.9.3
9.8. Operating procedures
9.8.1. Pre Alarm: for a concentration between 10ppm and 20ppm in air;
P-1-M-7130 20.5.2
P-1-M-6150 10.3.2
9.8.2. Alarm: for a concentration upper of 20ppm. in air
P-1-M-7130 20.5.3
P-1-M-6150 10.3.3
9.8.3. Emergency conditions.
P-1-M-6150 10.4.1
Reference List:
Well Test Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7130
Well Control Policy STAP-P-1-M-6150
Drilling Procedures Manual SPAP-P-1-M-6140
Operating Procedure For Drawing The Well Drilling Programme STAP-P-1-N-6001E
PAGE 117 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Figure PL 2.4- Lost circulation control techniques
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PAGE 118 OF 205
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 2.19. WELL ABANDONING
1. GENERAL GUIDELINES
Reference
1.1. Consent for well abandonment
1.1.1. On the basis of information available during the planning phase set
out a program for well abandoning (temporary or permanent)
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.8
1.2. Purposes in well abandoning operations
1.2.1. To ensure full and permanent isolation of formation fluids and
different pressure regimes.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
1.2.2. To free, in offshore operations, the seabed from any obstructions.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
1.3. Abandonment programme contents
1.3.1. Well identification data.
P-2-N-6001E 7.1.1
1.3.2. The operations to perform for the abandonment (temporary or
permanent) of the well, including the following minimum information:
Open hole abandonment procedures
Tested intervals perforations squeeze-off procedures
Temporary abandonment of opened producing intervals
Setting of bridge plugs - cement retainers
Sequence and height of cement plugs and their eventual testing
In-hole fluids characteristics
Eventual temporary completion/killing string composition
Eventual casing cutting and recovery specifications
Well head/mud line temporay abandonment/recovery
Surface restoration, if any.
P-1-N-6001E 6.2.8
2. TEMPORARY ABANDONMENT
2.1. During drilling operations
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.1. All hydrocarbon zones shall be individually isolated by means of a
mechanical plug. Them a cement plug shall be set at last 50-
100metres in length into the casing and between 20-50meters below
ground level/sea bed.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.2. Last casing string above open hole section shall be sealed with a
cement plug extending at least 50metrers above and below the
casing shoe.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.3. The top of cement plug shall be located and verified by mechanical
loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.1.4. If hole/formation conditions make cementing difficult, a mechanical
plug must be positioned in the lower part of casing (not more than 50
meters above the shoe).
P-1-M-6100 14.1.1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.5. A cement plug at least 20meters long shall be placed on top of
mechanical plug.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.6. A cement plug, at least 50-100meters long, shall be set with its top
placed at least 20-50meters below the ground level / seabed.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.7. The top of cement plug shall be located and verified by mechanical
loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.8. In case a liner has been set, a cement plug shall be placed, it is
extending at least 50meters above and below the top liner.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
2.2. Plugging programme before a production test
2.2.1. Open hole with permeable zones containing fluid: all zones shall be
individually isolated with cement plugs. Each plug shall be located at
least 50 meters above and below the zone.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
2.2.2. The top of each cement plug shall be located and verified by
mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.2.3. Last casing string above open hole section shall be sealed with a
cement plug, it is extending at least 50meters above and below the
casing shoe.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.2.4. The top of each cement plug shall be located and verified by
mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.2.5. If hole/formation conditions make cementing difficult, a mechanical
plug must be positioned in the lower part of casing (not more than
50meters above the shoe).
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.2.6. A cement plug at least 20meters long shall be placed on top of
mechanical plug.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.2.7. The above mentioned plugs shall be verified by mechanical loading
and pressure tested.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-1
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.3. Plugging Programme after a production test
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2.2
2.3.1. Uninteresting perforated zones. All intervals shall be isolated by
means of a mechanical plug and shall be squeeze cemented.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
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REVISION
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.3.2. If the injection through formation is expected to be negative, a cement
plug shall be placed with its upper and lower ends located at least 50
meters above and below the perforated zone respectively, or down to
the nearest plug if the distance is less than 50meters.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
2.3.3. A bridge plug shall be placed on top of cement plug.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2.2
2.3.4. All the plugs shall be tested.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
2.3.5. Interesting perforated zones.
These intervals shall be isolated by means of mechanical plug.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
2.3.6. A cement plug, at least 20meters long, shall be set above the bridge
plug.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
2.3.7. A cement plug, 50-100meters long, shall be set between 5-50meters
below the seabed (jack-up rigs & fixed platforms).
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
2.3.8. The top of the cement plug shall be located and verified by
mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2-2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
3. PERMANENT ABANDONMENT PLUGGING
Reference
3.1. General information
3.1.1. When static bottom hole temperature exceeds 110C, use Geoterm
type cement.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-1
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-1
3.1.2. Water spacers should be used ahead and behind the slurry. The
spacers should be normally 100 m long
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-2
3.1.3. The slurry volume should be calculated using a calliper log, if
available. When a calliper log is not available, use a slurry volume
excess based on local experience. Plugs exceeding 200 meters in
length should not be set in one stage.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-3
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-3
3.1.4. If the hole is badly washed out or when potential losses are expected,
it is preferable to set two short plugs instead of one long one.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-4
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-4
3.1.5. All cement plugs shall be set using a tubing stinger
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-5
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-5
3.1.6. As soon as the plug is set, pull out slowly 30-50 m above theoretical
top and circulate
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-8
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-8
3.1.7. Using drilling or workover rig each cement plug shall be located and
verified, (WOB: 20,000-40,000 lbs, depending on hole size).
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-11
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-11
3.1.8. Slurry volume calculations in squeeze cement jobs assume roughly,
100 litres slurry/meters perforated formation.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
3.1.9. A cement plug, at least 150 meters long, shall be placed with its top
50 meters below the seabed (off-shore), or ground level (on-shore).
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.1.10. After setting the surface plug, each surface casing and conductor
pipe shall be cut at least 5m below seabed, using mechanical cutters.
P-1M-6140 14.2.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.2. Explorative wells
3.2.1. Open hole
3.2.1.1.
All permeable zones shall be plugged individually to avoid any cross
flow.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.2.1.2.
Cement plugs shall be set with top and bottom at least 50 meters
above and below each zone.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.2.1.3.
The top of the cement plugs shall be located and verified by
mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.2.2. Casing shoe
3.2.2.1.
Last casing string above open hole shall be sealed with a cement
plug, it shall extend at least 50meters above and below the shoe
depth.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.2.2.2.
Plug shall be tested by mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.2.3. Liner head
3.2.3.1.
At the hanging point of the liner a cement plug shall be set, it is
extending at least 50meters above and below the top of liner.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.2.4. Casing cutting
3.2.4.1.
The casing shall be cut at least 100meters above the shoe of the
previous casing string and a cement plug shall be placed in such
manner that extends at least 50 mertres above and below the casing
cut point.
P-1-M-6100 14.3
P-1-M-6140 14.3
3.3. Completed wells
3.3.1. Onshore Wells with pressure in the annulus casing/casing
3.3.1.1.
Case I (Casing with top of cement below the surface) Open hole
Phase one:
3.3.1.1.1.
By pulling unit to retrive both packer and completion string
3.3.1.1.2.
By coiled tubing to seal the last casing string above open hole with a
cement plug: it shall extend at least 50 meters above and below the
shoe depth.
3.3.1.1.3.
If it is impossible to retrieve the packer a cement squeeze will be
performed in the formation below the packer.
3.3.1.1.4.
Proceed with cutting and retrieving of the completion string above the
packer.
3.3.1.1.5.
If the squeeze is not allowed, in HPHT wells, a bridge plug will be set
in the completion string below the packer, the completion string
above the packer will be retrieved and a cement plug on the packer
wil be performed
3.3.1.1.6.
In the other wells, if the squeeze is not allowed, to retrieve the
completion string above the packer and to perform a cement plug on
the packer.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3.1.2.
Case I (Casing with top of cement below the surface) perforated
casing zones Phase one:
3.3.1.2.1.
Perforated zones shall be isolated with mechanical plug and shall be
squeeze cemented.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.3.1.2.2.
Before to setting either cement or mechanical plugs, clear the internal
of the casing using taper mill
3.3.1.2.3.
A cement retainer will be set maximum 10-15meters above the
perforations.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.3.1.2.4.
A 50 m long cement plug shall be placed above the cement retainer,
the length of this plug may be reduced to avoid any interference with
any upper perforated intervals
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
3.3.1.2.5.
Instead of point 3.3.1.2.1, a cement plug shall be placed with upper
and lower ends located at least 50meters above and below the
perforated zone. This solution must be considered as a contingency.
3.3.1.3.
Case I (Casing with top of cement below the surface) Phase two:
3.3.1.3.1.
In both cases Open hole and Cased hole, 20/30 day later, return on
the well with a workover rig and verify the hydraulic seal of the
plugging previously performed.
3.3.1.3.2.
The workover rig will be selected with particular attention to the well
site dimensions.
3.3.1.3.3.
The well site will guarantee as safety distance that the derrick
downfall radius is free from houses, electrical lines, roads and any
logistic structures (engine area, office bunk houses, etc.)
3.3.1.3.4.
If it is impossible to respect the safety distance, the Responsible for
the Operations has faculty of derogation.
3.3.1.3.5.
All casing will be retrieved as much as possible.
3.3.1.3.6.
The casing shall be cut at least 100 m above the shoe of the previous
casing string and a cement plug shall be placed in such a way to
cover the casing at least 50 m above and below the casing cut point.
P-1-M-6100 14.3
P-1-M-6140 14.3
3.3.1.4.
Case II (Casing with top of cement at the surface) Phase one:
3.3.1.4.1.
Some as per case I Phase one.
3.3.1.5.
Case II (Casing with top of cement at the surface) Phase two:
3.3.1.5.1.
If the annulus casing/casing is cemented, in order to insulate the
pressures, windows will be made in zones suitable to allow the
positioning of inflatable packer.
3.3.1.5.2.
Subsequently a 50 m long cement plug shall be placed above the
inlettable bridge plug.
3.3.2. Onshore Wells without pressure in the annulus casing/casing
3.3.2.1.
When the cement top is above the shoe of the previous casing, the
utilisation of drilling rig unit can be avoided and the well abandoning
operations will be carried out utilizing the best technique available
considering both economic and operative constraints
3.3.2.2.
The cement plug test will be performed by pressurising the top of the
plug with a 1500 psi differential pressure.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3.2.3.
If the top of cement is under the shoe of the previous casing, it will be
mandatory to carry out a cement plug 100 m long in the annulus
casing/casing by circulating through the casing perforations
3.3.2.4.
Several levels with the same hydraulic regime (homogeneous
formations, pressure and production fluid) can be plugged by means
of two cement plugs, provided the lower extends at least 50 m below
the bottom of the deeper level and the upper extends at least 50 m
above the top of the higher level
3.3.2.5.
Between such two plugs it will be placed a fluid with the same
characteristics of that one used during the running of the production
casing.
3.3.2.6.
If SBHP is lower than hydrostatic pressure of the production fluid, all
annuli will be cemented to surface and the completion string will be
totaly abandoned in the well.
3.3.2.7.
In the other situations, the completion string will be rercovered up to
50 m under the shoe of the surface casing or in any cases not deeper
than 250 m from surface.
3.3.3. Offshore Wells with pressure in the annulus casing/casing
3.3.3.1.
The use of workover rig is mandatory
3.3.3.2.
Both for explorative and completed offshore wells the well
abandonment will be carried out following the procedure (above
specified) for onshore well, making distintion between the two cases
(pressure or not in the annulus), but performing the operation in one
unique phase.
3.3.4. Offshore Wells without pressure in the annulus casing/casing
3.3.4.1.
The use of workover rig is mandatory
3.3.4.2.
Both for explorative and completed offshore wells the well
abandonment will be carried out following the procedure (above
specified) for onshore well, making distintion between the two cases
(pressure or not in the annulus), but performing the operation in one
unique phase.
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL3. COMPLETION DESIGN
PL. 3.1. FUNDAMENTAL
1. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
Reference
1.1. The approach to completion design must be interdiscipline, involving
Reservoir Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Production
Engineering and Drilling Engineering. This is vital in order to obtain
the optimum completion design
P-1-M-7100 1.1
1.2. Many of the decisions made by the various disciplines are interrelated
and impact on the decisions made by other disciplines. For instance,
the decision on the well architecture may subsequently be changed
due to the availability of well servicing or workover techniques. This
does not mean that the process is sequential and many decisions can
be made from studies and analysis run in parallel.
P-1-M-7100 1.1
1.3. The design process consists of three phases:
Conceptual
Detailed design
Procurement.
The process of well preparation and installation of completions is fully
described in the Completions Procedures manual.
P-1-M-7100 1.1
1.4. As more information is gleamed from further development wells and
as conditions change, the statement of requirements need to
reviewed and altered to modify the conceptual design for future wells.
This provides a system of ongoing completion optimisation to suit
changing conditions, increased knowledge of the field and incorporate
new technologies.
P-1-M-7100 1.1
2. COMPLETION OBJECTIVES
Reference
2.1. The fundamental objectives for a completion are:
Achieve a desired (optimum) level of production or injection.
Provide adequate maintenance and surveillance programmes.
Be as simple as possible to increase reliability.
Provide adequate safety in accordance with legislative or
company requirements and industry common practices.
Be as flexible as possible for future operational changes in well
function.
In conjunction with other wells, effectively contribute to the whole
development plan reservoir plan.
Achieve the optimum production rates reliably at the lowest
capital and operating costs.
P-1-M-7100 1.2
2.2. These may be summarised as to safely provide maximum long term
profitability. This, however, in reality is not simple and many critical
decisions are needed to balance long term and short term cash flow
and sometimes compromises are made.
P-1-M-7100 1.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPLETION
Reference
3.1. The main function of a completion is to produce hydrocarbons to
surface or deliver injection fluids to formations. This is its primary
function, however a completion must also satisfy a great many other
functions required for safety, optimising production, servicing,
pressure monitoring and reservoir maintenance.
These main functional requirements must be built into the conceptual
design and include:
Protecting the production casing from formation pressure.
Protecting the casing from corrosion attack by well fluids.
Preventing hydrocarbon escape if there is a surface leak.
Inhibiting scale or corrosion.
Producing single or multiple zones.
Perforating (underbalanced or overbalanced).
Permanent downhole pressure monitoring.
P-1-M-7100 1.3
4. RESEVOIR CONSIDERATIONS
Reference
4.1. Hydrocarbon data
P-1-M-7100 2.3
4.1.1. The practical approach to the study of reservoir fluid behaviour is to
anticipate pressure and temperature changes in the reservoir and at
surface during production, and to measure, by laboratory tests, the
changes occurring in the reservoir samples. The results of these tests
then provide the basic fluid data for estimates of fluid recovery by
various methods of reservoir operations and also to estimate
reservoir parameters through transient pressure testing.
P-1-M-7100 2.3
4.1.2. Two general methods are used to obtain samples of reservoir oil for
laboratory examination purposes, by means of subsurface samplers
and by obtaining surface samples of separator liquid and gas. The
surface samples are then recombined in the laboratory in proportions
equal the gas-oil ratio measured at the separator during well testing.
P-1-M-7100 2.3
4.2. Oil Property Correlation
4.2.1. Several generalisations of oil sample data are available to permit
correlations of oil properties to be made (refer to the Company Well
Test Manual for sampling techniques).
P-1-M-7100 2.3.1
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. RESERVOIR/PRODUCTION FORECAST
Reference
5.1. To obtain the optimum performance from a well, it is first necessary to
determine its full potential and which way this can be fully exploited
within any technical or economic constraints. The determination of the
wells performance entails analysing the following:
In-flow performance
Near wellbore performance and design
Multiphase flow of tubing performance
Artificial lift.
P-1-M-7100 2.4
5.2. The process of this analysis is shown in
Figure PL 3.1 which requires continuous repetition during field life to
account for changing conditions.
P-1-M-7100 2.4
5.3. Inflow Performance
P-1-M-7100 2.4
5.3.1. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) provides the flow potential
of the reservoir into the wellbore against the resistance to flow of the
formation and near wellbore region. The theoretical IPR is an
idealistic assumption of flow performance without pressure drop due
to skin effect in the near wellbore region and governed only by the
size, shape and permeability of the producing zone and the properties
of the produced fluids. The basic theory of this is described in this
section along with some simplified IPR relationships from observed
field data.
P-1-M-7100 2.4
5.4. Near wellbore performance and design
P-1-M-7100 2.4
5.4.1. Flow behaviour in the near wellbore region may cause a dramatic
effect on the IPR curve which results in greatly reduced flow
capability. This is characterised by a damaged IPR curve and the
amount of damage or skin effect, is mainly caused by the drilling and
completion practices. Good drilling and completion practices can or
may minimise this damage allowing use of the idealised IPR curve to
be used for completion design.
P-1-M-7100 2.4
5.5. Multiphase flow of tubing performance
P-1-M-7100 2.4
5.5.1. Some completion designs to deal with reservoir conditions, such as
gravel packs for unconsolidated sands, will also cause reduced IPR
curves which must be anticipated during the design phase. Two
phase flow, velocity effects in gas wells, high rate or high GOR oil
wells, in undamaged near wellbore regions also reduce the IPR
curve. Alternatively, stimulation procedures which can provide a
negative skin are desirable as this increases production.
P-1-M-7100 2.4
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5.6. Artificial lift
5.6.1. A well will not flow naturally if the IPR and TPC curves do not
intersect and in this case artificial lift could be used to provide the
pressure differential between the curves (Refer to
Figure PL 3.2). An artificial lift system places an injection of energy
into the flow system which displaces the TPC curve downwards.
In a pumping well, the displacement is dependent on the pump
performance curve (i.e. pump differential versus rate) which is plotted
below the well performance curves as shown in
Figure PL 3.2. This results in a combined outflow performance curve
termed the pump intake curve.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.5
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Figure PL 3.1 - Process of Determining Optimum Well Performance
Selecting, or optimising, the tubing size is necessary to optimise the well performance over
the life of the well and should include the potential benefits of artificial lift systems and/or
stimulation to reduce near wellbore skin effects.
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Figure PL 3.2 - IPR/TCP
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.2. RESERVOIR FLUIDS CHARACTERISTICS
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. The practical approach to the study of reservoir fluid behaviour is to
anticipate pressure and temperature changes in the reservoir and at
surface during production, and to measure, by laboratory tests, the
changes occurring in the reservoir samples. The results of these tests
then provide the basic fluid data for estimates of fluid recovery by
various methods of reservoir operations and also to estimate
reservoir parameters through transient pressure testing.
P-1-M-7100 2.3
2. OIL CHARACTERISTICS
Reference
2.1. Oil density.
2.2. Gas gravity.
2.3. Volume factor.
2.4. Bubble point.
2.5. Viscosity.
2.6. Pour point.
2.7. Compressibility.
2.8. Gas-oil ratio.
2.9. Chemical composition.
2.10. Asphaltenes deposition curve
2.11. Corrosive agents content.
2.12. Scale deposition capability.
2.13. Water density.
2.14. Water salinity.
2.15. Water pH.
3. GAS CHARACTERISTICS
Reference
3.1. Gas gravity.
3.2. Volume factor.
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3. Viscosity.
3.4. Chemical composition.
3.5. Corrosive agents content.
3.6. Hydrate forming capability.
3.7. Water density.
3.8. Water salinity.
3.9. Water pH.
4. GAS CONDENSATE CHARACTERISTICS
Reference
4.1. Gas gravity.
4.2. Condensate density.
4.3. Dew point.
4.4. Volume factor.
4.5. Viscosity.
4.6. Chemical composition.
4.7. Corrosive agents content.
4.8. Condensate-gas ratio.
4.9. Chemical composition.
4.10. Asphaltenes deposition curve.
4.11. Hydrate forming capability.
4.12. Water density.
4.13. Water salinity.
4.14. Water pH.
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. SAMPLING
Reference
5.1. Bottom hole and/or surface reservoir fluid sampling should be always
planned during the well testing executed on exploratory and appraisal
wells in order to get a PVT study before final completion design carry
on.
5.2. The PVT study should contain FLASH vaporisation data for tubing
PVT calculation. (P & T tubing range).
5.3. The PVT study should contain DIFFERENTIAL vaporisation data for
reservoir PVT calculation.
5.4. Bottom hole sampling shall be executed at stabilised flow parameters
and at depth where FBHP is greater than bubble point.
5.5. When FBHP is lower than bubble point a multirate test shall be
performed to obtain the real GOR and a surface sampling shall be
performed.
5.6. Surface sampling shall be executed at stabilised flow parameters at
relevant pressure & temperature separator conditions and well head
parameters shall be recorded at same time.
5.7. Field measurement of H
2
S concentration shall be always referred to
the sampling point conditions. (first stage separator; second stage
separator; tank gas).
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.3. RESERVOIR ROCK CHARACTERISTICS
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. Within Completion engineering rock characteristics are primarily
concerned with the way in which the rock system will react to the
completion and production process.
1.2. Drilling and completion fluid and their interactions with the reservoir
rock can cause formation damage
1.3. Production can cause sand problems with depletion in poor
consolidated formations
1.4. Low permeability reservoir may need fracturing.
2. AREA OF INTEREST
Reference
2.1. Choice of completion fluids.
2.2. Matrix stimulation engineering.
2.3. Frac. job engineering.
2.4. Sand control engineering.
2.5. Cement squeezing.
2.6. Temporary plugging of depleted reservoir.
3. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
Reference
3.1. Porosity.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.1
3.2. Permeability.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.2
3.3. Relative permeability.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.3
3.4. Grain size and shape (sand control).
3.5. Wettability.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.4
3.6. Clay content.
3.7. Cementing material.
3.8. Mechanical properties (frac jobs).
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4. CORE ANALYSIS
Reference
4.1. The Completion engineer should check the availability of formation
cores, and address the request to core in case of lack of the
information essential to the particular design in progress.
4.2. The core study should be addressed to the Well Area Laboratories
and a synthesis of results should take part of the Completion design
study.
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.4. EFFECTS OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. The driving mechanisms and thermodynamics of the hydrocarbons in
the reservoir is a matter of reservoir engineering that should decide
the reservoir depletion strategy and address to the completion
engineering the information of concern to the completion design.
1.2. In an oil reservoir, primary production results from existing pressure in
the reservoir. There are three basic drive mechanisms:
Dissolved gas
Gas cap
Water drive.
Most reservoirs in actuality produce by a combination of all three
mechanisms.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.7
2. DESIGN PARAMETERS
Reference
2.1. The effect of the drive mechanism on the producing characteristics
must be evaluated in the completion design process, and also for
later re-completions, to systematically recover reservoir
hydrocarbons. Figure PL 3.3 and Figure PL 3.4, show typical
reservoir pressures versus production trends and gas-oil ratio
production trends for the three basic drive mechanisms.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.7
3. COMPLETION DESIGN THROUGH FIELD LIFE
Reference
3.1. Natural flow to artificial lift design should be considered.
3.2. Production to injection status should be considered.
3.3. Sand consolidation or control should be considered.
4. NEAR WELLBORE RESTRICTIONS
Reference
4.1. The well performance at bottom hole is given by the summation of the
reservoir performance and the near wellbore performance. The near
wellbore performance may be reduced by different causes that shall
be considered.
4.2. Formation damage skin
4.2.1. Formation skin occur when the permeability in the near wellbore
region is reduced as a result of various fluid-fluid and fluid-rock
interactions. This is often due to the invasion of solids or incompatible
fluids during drilling or completion.
4.2.2. Particles in wellbore fluids can block pore throats.
4.2.3. Trapped water can cause shale swelling.
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4.2.4. Trapped water can reduce relative permeability to hydrocarbons.
4.3. Perforation skin
4.3.1. Perforation skin occurs when the radial flow of reservoir deviates to a
spherical/cylindrical flow through the crashed zone around the
perforation tunnel.
This is more significant where the shot penetration does not cross the
damaged zone and where the effective shot density is reduced
because some perforation tunnel is plugged or collapsed.
4.4. Partial completion skin
4.4.1. Partial completion skin occurs when less than about 85 % of the total
net pay thickness is open. In that case the flow converge to the
perforated interval to enter the wellbore and cause additional
pressure losses.
4.4.2. Partial completion skin, called also geometrical skin, can be very
large especially in high anisotropy formations and should be generally
avoided. However a zone may be intentionally partly perforated to
avoid gas or water coning.
4.5. Multiphase flow skin
4.5.1. Multiphase skin occur when multiphase flow occur in the near
wellbore area and the relative permeability to the main fluid is
reduced. That can happen in oil wells producing below bubble point
and in gas wells producing below dew point.
The effect of the multiphase pressure drop depends on how the
relative permeability to gas and liquid varies with saturation.
4.6. Gravel packing skin
4.6.1. The Gravel packing skin occur when screens and sized gravel sand
are positioned in front of the pay zone to inhibit formation sand from
invading the gravel pack. Additional pressure drop should be given by
poor perforation filling allowing the tunnel to collapse and/or when
sand gravel intermixing occur.
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4.7. Rate dependent skin
4.7.1. The Rate dependent skin, also called non-Darcy skin, occur when the
high velocity of the fluids in the near wellbore area causes turbulence
and associated pressure drop. The magnitude of the non-Darcy effect
should be very large and shall be taken into account in gas wells
producing more than 10,000Nm/day and oil wells producing more
than 50m
3
/day per perforated meter.
4.8. Reduction of permeability during production
4.8.1. Obstructions may occur also during production phase and caused by
the following.
4.8.2. Produced fines.
4.8.3. Scales.
4.8.4. Asphaltenes.
5. STRATEGY TO MINIMISE THE SKIN EFFECTS
Reference
5.1. In a radial flow situation, where fluids move towards the well from all
directions, most of the pressure drop in the reservoir occurs fairly
close to the wellbore. In a uniform sand, the pressure drop across the
last 15ft of the formation surrounding the wellbore is about one half of
the total pressure drop from the well to a point 500ft away in the
reservoir. Obviously flow velocities increase tremendously as fluid
approaches the wellbore. This area around the wellbore is the critical
area and as much as possible should be done to prevent damage or
flow restrictions in this critical area.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.6
5.2. If a well is to be perforated overbalanced, then strict control over the
fluid used to ensure it is compatible with the reservoir formation,
formation fluids and must also be clean to prevent formation damage.
P-1-M-7100 9.3.1
5.3. Phasing
P-1-M-7100 9.3.1
5.4. Gun stand-off
P-1-M-7100 9.3.1
5.5. Use of clean tubular goods.
5.6. Maximise the perforated zone within the net pay.
P-1-M-7100 9.3.1
5.7. Use of underbalance perforating practice.
P-1-M-7100 9.3.2
5.8. Use of maximum shot density.
P-1-M-7100 9.3.1
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5.9. Perforating tunnels should be large and deep enough to prevent any
restriction to flow.
P-1-M-7100 2.2.6
5.10. Gravel Pack Completions
Due to the problem of flow restriction the important factors are:
Hole diameter to achieve adequate flow area.
Shot density to achieve adequate flow area.
Debris removal.
Shot phasing.
Penetration.
This in conjunction with correct gravel pack procedures is essential
for to prevent high skin factors.
P-1-M-7100 9.3.1
5.11. Specific chemical treating of the near wellbore area to remove
formation damage.
5.12. Limit brine volume losses in depleted reservoir and use surface
tension reducer.
6. WELL INFLOW PERFORMANCE
Reference
6.1. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) provides the flow potential
of the reservoir into the wellbore against the resistance to flow of the
formation and near wellbore region. The theoretical IPR is an
idealistic assumption of flow performance without pressure drop due
to skin effect in the near wellbore region and governed only by the
size, shape and permeability of the producing zone and the properties
of the produced fluids.
P-1-M-7100 2.4
6.2. The equation used shall take into account all the Darcy and non-
Darcy effects.
6.3. Where inflow relationship passes through the bubble point, a straight
line IPR is drawn above the bubble point and the curved IPR signifies
the two phase flow below this point. For this, Vogels equation is
combined with the PI to develop a general IPR equation. This has
been published by Brown. When the BHFP is above the bubble point
use the normal straight line equation:
( )
wf R o
p p J q
and when it drops below the bubble point use the modified Vogel
equation:
( )
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
2
b
wf
b
wf b
wf R o
p
p
8 . 0
p
p
2 . 0 1
8 . 1
J p
p p J q
P-1-M-7100 2.4.1
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6.4. Fetkovich recognised that many oil wells could be handled in the
same way as gas wells using the curved IPR:
( )
n
2
wf
2
R o
p p C q
where:
C = Linear deliverability coefficient
n = Deliverability exponent (0.5 to 1.0)
P-1-M-7100 2.4.1
6.5. Blount and J ones presented an alternative generalised IPR equation
which was an extension to the Forcheimer equation to include the
non-Darcy flow effects:
2
wf R
bq aq p p +
P-1-M-7100 2.4.1
6.6. Forcheimer equation for gas wells should be used for pressure below
2,000psi and where the drawdown is small as in high permeability
wells:
2
g g wf R
Aq Aq p p +
P-1-M-7100 2.4.1
6.7. When the z value is not constant the pseudo pressure m(p) shall be
used instead of P.
Pseudo pressure m(p) shall be used when pressure is above 2,000psi
and in low permeability wells where drawdown greater than 500psi is
expected.
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
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Figure PL 3.3 - Reservoir Pressure Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms
Figure PL 3.4 - Gas-Oil Ratios Trends For Various Drive Mechanisms
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PL. 3.5. TUBING PERFORMANCE
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. The relationship between pressure and temperature drop in wells and
PVT behaviour is complex. Pressure drop is determined using
empirical and semi-empirical correlations and carried out on
computer software programmes.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
1.2. Calculating pressure drop in tubing involve numerical integration of
the steady-state pressure gradient equation over the entire tubing
length. It consists of the following three components:
Hydrostatic head
Wall friction
Fluid acceleration.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
1.3. The acceleration term is usually negligible except in system involving
significant fluid expansion (gas wells when near atmospheric
pressure).
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
1.4. The friction losses are controlled by fluid viscosity and geometric
factor (pipe diameter and roughness) and normally accounts for
around 10 % of overall head losses.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
1.5. The gravitational component accounts for around 90 % of the overall
head losses and is proportional to the density of the fluid mixture at
each point in the tubing and is a complex function of the relative
velocity of the phases present.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
1.6. The geometrical distribution of the gas and liquid in the pipe
constitute the flow pattern or flow regime. The flow patterns are
governed by the flow rates of each phase, the tubing diameter and to
a lesser extent PVT fluid properties.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
1.7. Flow patterns are identified using empirical flow pattern maps. Each
flow regime has different pressure gradients that should be calculated
by the use of different empirical correlation for liquid hold-up and
friction factor.
1.8. Typical pressure gradients in wells for different flow patterns are:
Single phase oil = 0.36psi/ft
Bubble flow = 0.25psi/ft
Slug flow = 0.20psi/ft
Mist flow = 0.1 - 0.2psi/ft
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
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2. TEMPERATURE GRADIENT
Reference
2.1. The temperature profile shall be considered in the outflow
performance calculation.
2.2. Computer calculation should be performed to predict both steady
state or transient temperature changes overtime.
2.3. A temperature prediction method shall be always validated with
measured data.
2.4. Some wells have produced fluids with special properties that are very
sensitive to temperatures and more complex heat transfer
calculations are required. These are:
Gas condensate wells with retrograde condensate.
High pour point crude oil wells.
Wells in which hydrate formation can occur.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
3. PVT DATA CALCULATION
Reference
3.1. Due to the complexity of the relationship between pressure and
temperature drop in wells and PVT behaviour all calculation shall be
performed on a computer.
3.2. The software to be used within Well Area Engineering is PROSPER
that allows the use of the most accepted correlation in the industry or
WPM already in use in Reservoir engineering.
3.3. To predict pressure and temperature changes from the reservoir,
along the wellbore, it is necessary, at an early stage, to accurately
predict fluid properties as the pressure and temperature changes.
3.4. Minimum data
3.4.1. Oil
3.4.1.1.
Solution GOR.
3.4.1.2.
Separator condition (P&T).
3.4.1.3.
Oil gravity.
3.4.1.4.
Water salinity.
3.4.1.5.
Gas gravity.
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3.4.2. Dry & wet gas
3.4.2.1.
Gas gravity.
3.4.2.2.
Water salinity.
3.4.2.3.
Separator condition (P&T).
3.4.2.4.
Condensate/Gas ratio.
3.4.2.5.
Water/Gas ratio.
3.4.3. Retrograde condensate
3.4.3.1.
Separator condition (P&T).
3.4.3.2.
Separator GOR and gas gravity.
3.4.3.3.
Tank GOR and gas gravity.
3.4.3.4.
Condensate gravity.
3.4.3.5.
Dewpoint at reservoir condition.
3.4.3.6.
Reservoir condition (P&T).
3.4.3.7.
Water/Gas ratio.
3.4.3.8.
Water salinity.
4. PVT PARAMETERS TO BE MATCHED
Reference
4.1. For a best fluid properties prediction FLASH PVT data shall be
matched.
4.2. If only Differential liberation PVT data is available it shall be corrected
to FLASH conditions.
4.3. Oil
4.3.1. Bubble point.
4.3.2. GOR.
4.3.3. Oil formation volume factor.
4.3.4. Oil viscosity.
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4.4. Dry & wet gas
4.4.1. Z factor.
4.4.2. Gas formation volume factor.
4.4.3. Gas viscosity.
4.4.4. CGR (condensate/gas ratio).
4.5. Retrograde condensate
4.5.1. Dew point.
4.5.2. CGR.
4.5.3. Z factor.
4.5.4. Gas viscosity.
4.5.5. Gas formation volume factor.
5. VALIDATION
Reference
5.1. After that a solid PVT table is obtained the TBG performance shall be
calculated.
5.2. Several correlations for predicting pressure gradients in oil wells are
available. Validation with actual field data is the only reliable method
for choosing the best correlation for a particular case and within a
particular range of fluids rate.
5.3. Try to get more than a flowing gradient at different flow rate from well
testing.
5.4. Do not tune calculated value with measured data by changing the
TBG roughness or friction factor multiplier. Act on the gravitational
term rather than on frictional.
5.5. Always check the shape of the TBG performance curve and do not
consider operating point (intersection IPR/TCP) on the left of the
minimum of the curve to avoid instability.
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6. LIMITS
Reference
6.1. In gas wells, liquid loading can also be predicted using simplified
methods presented with Turner et al which are independent of
pressure drop calculations. These methods have been reviewed by
Lea and Tighe. For wells producing high gas-water or gas-
condensate ratios, it is recommended that tubing size be assessed
using these methods in addition to lift curve methods and that the
most conservative approach be adopted.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
6.2. Erosion in completions occurs when there are high velocities and if
there are solids particles in the flow stream. The most common points
for erosion is where there are restrictions that cause increased
velocities. The API have published a method in API RP 14E, to
determine the threshold velocities for erosion to occur in piping
systems but the validity of this for all conditions is questionable.
P-1-M-7100 2.4.4
6.3. The choice of the optimum tubing size should be taken into account
the AGIP standardisation in terms of:
6.3.1. Well head diameter.
6.3.2. Subsurface safety valve diameter.
6.3.3. Production casing diameter.
6.4. The maximum tubing OD for a particular design shall consider the
clearance CSG / TBG in order to be able to washover and fish a
broken tubing by standard overshot.
7. OPTIMUM TBG SIZE THROUGH FIELD LIFE
Reference
7.1. Optimum TBG size should change with changing reservoir condition
and different configurations should be evaluated through time.
7.1.1. Compromise diameter.
7.1.2. Workover to substitute the tubing.
7.1.3. Concentric TBG installation.
Reference list:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
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PL. 3.6. STRESS ANALYSIS
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. All completion tubing strings will have tubing movement calculations
conducted to ascertain the maximum load applied to the string and/or
completion tubing movement to be catered for in the completion
design.
All tubing strings should be designed for stress, preferably using an
appropriate up to date computer programme. Currently Eni-Agip
Division and Affiliates recommended programme is the Enertech WS-
Tube programme to the latest version.
P-1-M-7100 7.1
1.2. The triaxial equivalent stress must be computed from the axial, radial,
hoop, and torsional shear stresses.
1.3. The effective axial force shall be computed by summing the actual
axial force and the force that causes the same outer fiber stress that
is induced by the curvature due to buckling and hole doglegs.
1.4. Hoop and radial stresses shall be computed using Lames formulas at
the OD and ID.
1.5. Shear stress shall be computed from the torque and polar moment of
inertia.
1.6. Stresses shall be computed on the side with compressive bending
stresses and on the side with tensile bending stresses, to insure the
worst stress conditions have been identified.
2. PARAMETERS
Reference
2.1. During completion tubing design process, it is necessary to calculate
the variations in length for the stresses applied under load conditions.
When these have been determined it will confirm the suitability of the
selected tubing.
Tubing movement occurs due to only two reasons:
Temperature changes
Change in pressure induced forces.
P-1-M-7100 7.2
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2.2. The well data and parameters required (or already determined) to
produce an accurate tubing movement/stress analysis and, hence,
selection of a tubing are:
Casing design profile
Casing programme contingency profile
Tubing size from optimisation analysis
Pressure gradient
Temperature gradient
Reservoir fluids specific gravities
Completion fluid specific gravities
Production/injection or stimulation forecast.
P-1-M-7100 7.3
2.3. Movement can only occur if the tubing is free to move. If the tubing is
not free to move and is anchored to a packer then stress will be
subjected to the tubing string and packer.
Tubing movement upward (contraction) is assumed to be negative
and downward (lengthening) is positive.
P-1-M-7100 7.2
2.4. The optimum tubing size, determined by nodal analysis conducted by
the reservoir engineers, is required and is the basis of all the
calculations.
The tubing movement/stress calculations will then determine the
tubing weight or any change in grade required to meet with the
applied SF for stress.
P-1-M-7100 7.3.2
2.5. Bottom-hole Pressure:
Accurate initial and prognosed future formation pressures both static
and dynamic are fundamental to tubing movement/stress
calculations. These pressures can be obtained from previous well
exploration test data or appraisal well test reports.
P-1-M-7100 7.3.3
2.6. Temperatures (Static and Flowing):
Accurate well temperature data are vital in tubing movement/stress
analysis as the temperature effect is usually the effect which causes
the greatest tubing movement.
P-1-M-7100 7.3.4
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2.7. Temperature changes cause expansion and contraction in metals,
which is a significant factor in tubing strings. All metals have a
particular expansion rate that is termed the Co-efficient of thermal
expansion.
The co-efficient of liner expansion for tubular steels is usually 6.9 x
10
-6
in/in/F.
P-1-M-7100 7.2.2
2.8. When a well is completed, either with a tubing seal unit in a packer
bore or a tubing movement device, it will have completion fluid in both
the tubing and the annulus, this is referred to as the initial condition.
All subsequent conditions are calculated from this initial condition.
P-1-M-7100 7.4
2.9. The prediction of temperatures and pressures is of high concern to
the tubing design and a lot of care shall be given in the choice of the
operational parameters.
2.10. Production operations normally yield tubing elongations and injection
operations normally yields tubing contractions.
2.11. Usually injection or cold operations are the most critical for the stress
behaviour.
3. CALCULATION METHOD
Reference
3.1. For each operation the tubing movement and the relevant stresses
shall be calculated as per the method described in the AGIP
procedure.
P-1-M-7100 7.10
3.2. Effects to consider:
3.2.1. Piston (Hooke).
P-1-M-7100 7.4.1
3.2.2. Buckling.
P-1-M-7100 7.4.2
3.2.3. Ballooning.
P-1-M-7100 7.4.3
3.2.4. Temperature.
P-1-M-7100 7.4.4
3.3. The completion shall be divided into as many sections as any
changes in material, tubing OD, tubing ID, casing ID, internal fluid
level, external fluid level.
3.4. The stress at bottom and top of every section shall be calculated.
3.5. All tubing strings should be designed for stress, preferably using an
appropriate up to date computer programme. Currently Eni-Agip
Division and Affiliates recommended programme is the Enertech WS-
Tube programme to the latest version.
P-1-M-7100 7.1
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4. SAFETY FACTOR
Reference
4.1. A completion strings safety factor is defined as the ratio between the
yield stress and the maximum value of the stress obtained.
P-1-M-7100 7.10.2
4.2. Carbon and CRA Steels up to 13%Cr
The acceptable SF for these types of materials is: 1.25
P-1-M-7100 7.10.2
4.3. Cold Worked (CW) CRA Steels
The acceptable SF for these types of materials which include
duplex, super-austenitic and Incoloy is: 1.35
P-1-M-7100 7.10.2
4.4. Uniaxial and biaxial safety factor
P-1-M-7100 7.10.2
4.4.1. If triaxial safety factor is not computed
4.4.1.1.
Tensile safety factor =1.6
4.4.1.2.
Burst safety factor =1.3
4.4.1.3.
Collapse safety factor =1.125 (not for tensile cases)
4.4.2. Use biaxial stress calculation for Collapse when Tension is applied.
5. OPERATIONAL CASES
Reference
5.1. Minimum operational cases to be evaluate
5.1.1. Packer setting.
P-1-M-7100 7.6.2
5.1.2. Production and shut-in at initial reservoir conditions.
P-1-M-7100 7.7.4
P-1-M-7100 7.7.5
5.1.3. Tubing leaking.
5.1.4. Production and shut-in at final reservoir conditions.
5.1.5. Injection of treatment or killing fluids.
5.1.6. Packer or anchor unsetting.
5.2. Injection strategy
5.2.1. Whenever an injection operational case under investigation yields
materials stress greater than the minimum accepted one, changes in
the operating procedure shall be investigated prior to change the best
tubing diameter derived from outflow performance.
Consideration shall be given but not limited to the following cases:
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5.2.2. Warming up the treatment fluids.
5.2.3. Increase treatment fluid viscosity.
5.2.4. Reduce treatment flow rate.
5.2.5. Reduce treatment volume.
5.2.6. Increase casing pressure.
5.2.7. Use of dynamic tubing/packer connection.
5.3. Production strategy
5.3.1. Production operational cases may yield thermal elongations that
make the tubing buckle into a helix.
5.3.2. The pitch of the helix shall be calculated to make prevision of free
passage of tools.
5.3.3. Applied casing pressure can reduce this buckling effect and straight
the tubing reducing wire line or coiled TBG overpulling.
5.3.4. Applied casing pressure must balance the effect of reducing buckling
and the increasing of compression and packer loads.
6. TBG - PACKER INTERACTIONS
Reference
6.1. With free moving packer/tubing seals systems, the calculations are
made for the selection of an appropriate length of seal assembly,
PBR or ELTSR with anchored packer/tubing systems.
P-1-M-7100 7.5
6.2. In some completions the tubing is firmly fixed to the packer,
preventing any movement of the string when well conditions vary. In
this situation the tubing-packer forces generated by the presence of
the anchoring must be determined so as to be able to confirm if the
tubing-packer anchoring system and the packer have sufficient
strength to safely withstand all the forces exerted.
P-1-M-7100 7.6
6.3. The packer shall withstand the force imposed by the tubing
movement and the differential pressure.
6.4. When available the use of Packer Envelopes is suggested to insure
the packer works within the design limits.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
7. TUBING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Reference
7.1. Mechanical properties that must be considered
7.1.1. Minimum yield stress.
7.1.2. Ultimate yield stress.
7.1.3. Thermal expansion coefficient.
7.1.4. Young modulus.
7.1.5. Weakening of yield strength with temperatures.
7.2. CRA material and high alloy steel should have anisotropic behaviour.
The derating of yield in relationship the direction of stress shall be
considered when anisotropic material is used.
7.3. When reduction in tubing thickness is expected due to corrosion the
expected final tubing thickness shall be also considered.
7.4. The connections to be used shall be qualified according to the
requirements as set in the Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates procedure
Connection Procedure Evaluation.
The use of premium connections for tubing is mandatory.
The use of premium connections for production casing is
advised but not mandatory.
M-1-M-5006
P-1-M-7100 7.9.1
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Test Procedure for Connection Evaluation STAP M-1-M-5006
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.7. MATERIAL SELECTION
1. CORROSION GENERAL
Reference
1.1. In general, the ideal material is determined by the results of corrosion
studies carried out prior to the tubing design stage, especially when
the severity of the conditions suggest the use of expensive CRA
materials.
P-1-M-7100 7.8.1
1.2. The existence, if any, of the following conditions alone, or in any
combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and
perpetuation of corrosion:
P-1-M-7100 6.2
1.2.1. Oxygen (O
2
):
Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity
potential. It can cause severe corrosion at very low concentrations of
less than 1.0ppm.
The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure,
temperature and chloride content. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water
than in fresh water.
Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels.
P-1-M-7100 6.2
1.2.2. Hydrogen Sulphide (H
2
S):
Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved
behaves as a weak acid and usually causes pitting. Attack due to the
presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as sour
corrosion.
The combination of H
2
S and CO
2
is more aggressive than H
2
S alone
and is frequently found in oilfield environments.
Other serious problems which may result from H
2
S corrosion are
hydrogen blistering and sulphide stress cracking.
It should be pointed out that H
2
S also can be generated by introduced
micro-organisms.
P-1-M-7100 6.2
1.2.3. Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
):
When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid,
decreases the pH of the water and increase its corrosivity. It is not as
corrosive as oxygen, but usually also results in pitting.
The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are
pressure, temperature and composition of the water. Pressure
increases the solubility to lower the pH, temperature decreases the
solubility to raise the pH.
Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly
called sweet corrosion.
P-1-M-7100 6.2
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.2.4. Temperature:
Like most chemical reactions, corrosion rates generally increase with
increasing temperature.
P-1-M-7100 6.2
1.2.5. Pressure
Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion
reactions are no exception.
In oilfield systems, the primary importance of pressure is its effect on
dissolved gases. More gas goes into solution as the pressure is
increased this may in turn increase the corrosivity of the solution.
P-1-M-7100 6.2
1.2.6. Velocity of fluids within the environment:
Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates, but
pitting is more likely. Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as
the corrosion scale is removed from the casing exposing fresh metal
for further corrosion.
High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas
bubbles can lead to erosion, corrosion, impingement or cavitation.
P-1-M-7100 6.2
1.3. Corrosion cell minimum environment
1.3.1. An electrolyte.
1.3.2. An oxidising agent.
1.3.3. A conductive path in the metal.
1.4. Corrosion of steel does take place to the fact that an electrochemical
process occurs between an anode area which loose material and a
cathode area, on the surface of the metal, in contact with the water.
There are many reasons that this could happen:
1.5. Steel itself is not a pure element but an alloy. The iron carbide, when
in contact with pure iron, will form a cell and become the cathode thus
causing the anode to corrode.
1.6. The formation of scale in isolated areas can lead to a corrosion cell
being formed.
Bacteria, especially slime forming bacteria, can cause corrosion cells
to form if only isolated areas are covered.
1.7. The use of different metals in contact is an obvious way to cause a
corrosion cell.
1.8. Water effect
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.9. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC)
P-1-M-7100 6.3.1
1.9.1. The SSC phenomenon occurs usually at temperatures of below 80C
and with the presence of stress in the material. The H
2
S comes into
contact with H
2
O, which is an essential element in this form of
corrosion by freeing the H
+
ion. Higher temperatures, e.g. above 80C
inhibit the SSC phenomenon, therefore knowledge of temperature
gradients is very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since
differing materials can be chosen for various depths.
Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being
investigated. In gas wells, gas saturation with water will produce
condensate water and therefore create the conditions for SSC. In oil
wells, two separate cases need to be considered, vertical and
deviated wells:
P-1-M-7100 6.3.1
1.9.2. In vertical oil wells, generally corrosion occurs only when the water
cut becomes higher than 15% which is the threshold or commonly
defined as the critical level and it is necessary to analyse the water
cut profile throughout the producing life of the well.
P-1-M-7100 6.3.1
1.9.3. In highly deviated wells (i.e. deviations >80
o
), the risk of corrosion by
H
2
S is higher since the water, even if in very small quantities,
deposits on the surface of the tubulars and so the problem can be
likened to the gas well case where the critical threshold for the water
cut drops to 1% (WC <1%).
P-1-M-7100 6.3.1
1.9.4. The water does not take part in the corrosion process if emulsified in
the oil phase. The water phase must wet the metal wall to set up a
corrosion cell.
1.9.5. Condition to get water wet walls
1.9.5.1.
Gas well with WC <1 %
1.9.5.2.
Vertical oil well with WC >15 %
1.9.5.3.
Horizontal or high deviated wells with WC >1 %
1.9.6. Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict
corrosion, the following relationships have been found:
Less than 3psi will not result in corrosion
Between 3 and 30psi may result in corrosion
Greater than 30psi will result in corrosion
P-1-M-7100 6.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
1.9.7. The problem of carbon dioxide attack is much worse in gas
production than in oil production. In the oil tubular the surface of the
steel may be protected by the oil flowing through it. In gas production
droplets of saline water will accumulate on the surface of the steel,
resulting in small anodes and large cathode causing rapid localised
corrosion.
1.10. Hydrogen sulphide
1.10.1. Hydrogen sulphide is soluble in water and acts as a weak acid
producing iron sulphide which is cathodic to steel that corrode and
tends to form a scale on steel thus further promoting the corrosion
reaction.
1.10.2. Free hydrogen is generated by the reaction that may enter the steel
structure causing embrittlement. Low hardness material (22 HRC
max) shall be used where this phenomena can occur.
1.11. Stress corrosion cracking
1.11.1. Hydrogen sulphide and a tensile stress can act in concert to provide
cracks in a susceptible material in particular environment. This form
of attack is named stress corrosion cracking (SCC).
The tensile stress can be residual, applied or a combination of the
two. The important factor in stress corrosion cracking which makes
this form of attack so damaging, is that cracks propagate at much
lower values of stress than would cause failure if the corrodent was
not present. Stress corrosion cracking can occur in a system which
previously has not shown no sign of any corrosion problem, if the
operating condition are changed.
1.11.2. The susceptibility to SSC decrease with increasing pH. This decrease
starts at a pH of approximately 6 and above a pH of 9.5 SSC
generally do not occur.
1.11.3. At temperature above 80C the SSC is not a concern. That allow to
use different material in relationship with the well temperature and
depth.
1.11.4. Stress corrosion cracking can occur also in presence of chloride or
bromide ions, particularly in hot conditions. These ions can be
present in formation water, injection water and brines used as
completion, workover and packer fluids.
1.11.5. Certain corrosion resistant alloys (CRA), especially austenitic
stainless steel, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2. CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES
Reference
2.1. Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more
of the following
P-1-M-7100 6.2
2.1.1. Control of the environment:
pH
Temperature
Pressure
Chloride concentration
CO
2
concentration
H
2
S concentration
H
2
O concentration
Flow rate
Inhibitors
P-1-M-7100 6.2
2.1.2. Surface treatment:
Plastic coating
Plating
P-1-M-7100 6.2
2.1.3. Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the steel:
Addition of the alloying elements micro structure
P-1-M-7100 6.2
2.2. Corrosion Inhibitors
P-1-M-7100 6.5
2.2.1. An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical
reaction. Thus, a corrosion inhibitor is a substance which, when
added to an environment, decreases the rate of attack by the
environmental on a metal.
Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids,
cooling waters, steam or other environments, either continuously or
intermittently to prevent serious corrosion.
There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil
and gas wells:
Batch treatment (tubing displacement, standard batch, extended
batch)
Continuous treatment
Squeeze treatment
Atomised inhibitor squeeze - weighted liquids
Capsules
Sticks.
P-1-M-7100 6.5
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.3. Coating
2.3.1. Coating prevents contact of the metal by corrosive fluids. Internally
coating tubing, however, is relatively expensive and has several
disadvantages.
2.3.2. Easily damaged by wireline tools..
2.3.3. Imperfect coating may result in severe localised corrosion.
2.3.4. Requirement for a Seal Ring TO protect each connection which is
not coated
2.3.5. Coated tubing does not eliminate the need to protect trees and
flowlines.
2.4. Gas removal
2.4.1. Removal of corrosive gases has most application in water injection
systems. Even 1 ppm dissolved oxygen corrodes steel several times
faster than oxygen free water.
2.4.2. Methods
2.4.2.1.
Use of chemical scavengers.
2.4.2.2.
Vacuum deaeration.
2.4.2.3.
The choice between the two methods shall be made in accordance
with the topside facilities engineer.
2.5. Corrosion resistant alloy
2.5.1. The use of high cost alloy materials shall be in long term the cheapest
method to manage corrosion because of their resistance that may
reduce the needs of workover and the risk associated with a failed
completion
3. MATERIAL SELECTION
Reference
3.1. The material selection of tubing shall be made upon the following
diagram:
P-1-M-7100 6.8
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
10
-
1
10
-
2
10
-
3
10
-
4
100
FBHT <= 150 C
and Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
13% Cr
150 > FBHT <= 200 C
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
22% Cr
200<FBHT<=250 C
25% Cr-SA
or
25% Cr
C- STEEL
J 55
N 80
P 110
FBHT<= 250 C
and
Cl
-
<= 20000 ppm
25% Cr-CW
FBHT<=250 C
and
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
25% Cr-CW
200<FBHT<=250 C
and
Cl
-
> 50000 ppm
28 % Cr
or
INCOLOY- 825
(*)
FBHT <= 200 C
Cl
-
<=50000 ppm
22 % Cr-SA
or
25 % Cr-SA
28 % Cr
INCOLOY- 825
FBHT <= 250 C
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
25 % Cr-SA
or
28 % Cr
INCOLOY- 825
FBHT<= 250 C
Cl
-
> 50000 ppm
28 % Cr
INCOLOY- 825
FBHT < 200 C
28 % Cr
or
INCOLOY-825
LOW ALLOY STEEL
L 80 mod
C 90 T1
C 95 T1
10
1
100 10 1 10
-
1 10
-
2 10
-
3 10
-
4
pH
2
S (atm)
pCO
2
(atm)
(*)
FBHT<= 150 C
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
13 % Cr 80 Ksi max
or 22 % Cr 25 % Cr
FBHT <= 200 C
Cl
-
> 50000 ppm
22 % Cr- CW 25 % Cr -CW
150 < FBHT <= 200 C
Cl
-
< 50000 ppm
22 % Cr 25 % Cr
200 < FBHT <= 250 C
Cl
-
< 50000 ppm
25 % Cr-CW
200 < FBHT <= 250
Cl
-
> 50000 ppm
25 % Cr-CW
FBHT < = 65 C
L 80
or
L 80 mod;C 90 T1
T 95 T1
FBHT >80 C
J55 K55 N80-1 C95
P110-1 (only oil)
or
L80 mod C90 T1
65 < FBHT<= 80C
J 55 K 55 N80-1
or
L 80 mod C90 T1
T 95 T1
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.2. For the down hole equipment the selection shall be made as per the
following diagram
P-1-M-7100 6.5
10
-
1
10
-
2
10
-
3
10
-
4
100
FBHT <= 100 C
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
9 Cr 1 Mo
100 < FBHT <= 150 C
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
13 % Cr 80 ksi max
150 > FBHT<= 250 C
25% Cr-CW
or
25% Cr
INCONEL 718
INCOLOY 825
C-STEEL
or
AISI 41XX
200 < FBHT<= 250 C
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
25 % Cr
or
INCONEL 718
INCOLOY 825
200 < FBHT<=250 C
Cl
-
> 50000 ppm
28 % Cr
or
INCONEL 718
INCOLOY 825
(*)
FBHT <= 200 C
Cl
-
<=50000 ppm
22 % Cr-SA
25 % Cr-SA
28 % Cr
INCOLOY 825
INCONEL 718
200 < FBHT <= 250 C
Cl
-
<= 50000 ppm
25 % Cr-SA
28 % Cr
INCOLOY 825
INCONEL 718
FBHT<= 250 C
Cl
-
> 50000 ppm
28 % Cr
INCOLOY- 825
INCONEL 718
FBHT < 200 C
28 % Cr
or
INCOLOY 825
INCONEL 718
AISI 41XX
22 HRC max
10
1
100 10 1 10
-
1 10
-
2 10
-
3 10
-
4
pH
2
S (atm)
pCO
2
(atm)
(*)
150 <FBHT <=200 C
Cl
-
<=50000 ppm
22 % Cr 25 % Cr
INCONEL 718
INCOLOY 825
200 <FBHT <=250 C
Cl
-
>50000 ppm
25 % Cr
INCONEL 718
INCOLOY 825
100 <FBHT <=200 C
Cl
-
>50000 ppm
22 % Cr-CW 25 % Cr-CW
INCONEL 718
INCOLOY 825
200 >FBHT <=250 C
Cl
-
>50000 ppm
25 % Cr-CW
INCONEL 718
INCOLOY 825
FBHT < = 65 C
AISI 41XX
22 HRC max
65 < FBHT <=80 C
C-STEEL 80 Ksi max
AISI 41XX
FBHT > 80 C
C-STEEL 110 Ksi max
AISI 41XX
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4. CORROSION MONITORING
Reference
4.1. Where any kind of corrosion is expected a corrosion monitoring
should be planned during the field exploitation.
Field sources to get information about corrosion to consider are:
4.2. Coupon exposure test
4.2.1. Coupon exposure tester should be applied where wireline tools are
planned in the completion or in a specific wireline mandrel. Weight
loss, area of coupon and exposure time are used to calculate
corrosion rate reported in mils (0.001inch) per year (MPY). A low
MPY rate can be serious if concentrated pitting is occurring, while a
high MPY loss with a general area type of loss may be fairly
insignificant.
4.2.2. Both MPY and pitting penetration shall be reported to evaluate the
corrosion problem.
4.3. Tubular inspection logs
4.3.1. Casing inspection logs are magnetic flux leakage detection tools and
are available from various service companies. They use the distorted
magnetic field around an anomaly in the pipe wall, such as a
corrosion pit, to create a signal which is recorded on a log.
4.3.2. A single recording of the tubing wall may be not used for a good
corrosion evaluation. Multiple recording at different time and their
relative comparison shall give a better understanding of the corrosion
process in act.
4.4. Inspection of tools recovered during workover
4.4.1. Whenever a workover is planned for any contingency reason a visual
inspection of the tubing and the downhole equipment shall be
performed to detect any kind of visible corrosion.
4.4.2. The failed equipment shall be addressed to the Corrosion Dept which
is in charge to evaluate the corrosion process that took part and
suggest the solution to problem.
4.5. Equipment failure records useful data
4.5.1. Source of equipment.
4.5.2. Metal type and characteristic. Material traceability data (ROM,
Supplier)
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4.5.3. Characteristic of the environment. Well production and intervention
historical data.
4.5.4. Dynamic flow data.
4.5.5. Operating time before failure.
5. ELASTOMER SELECTION
Reference
5.1. Elastomer (and other components of the sealing unit) shall be chosen
up the following but not limited consideration.
5.1.1. Temperature.
5.1.2. Pressure.
5.1.3. Pressure and temperature cycling.
5.1.4. Dynamic or static seal.
5.1.5. Wetting fluids.
5.1.6. H
2
S.
5.1.7. CO
2.
5.1.8. Chloride, Bromide.
5.1.9. Corrosion inhibitors.
6. ELASTOMER PRACTICAL GUIDELINES
Reference
6.1. The effect of a chemical reaction doubles for every 10C temperature
rise. The lifetime roughly doubles for every 10C drop.
6.2. Make sure that the upper temperature is within the capability of the
seal material.
6.3. The seal material must be compatible with the fluid environments.
6.4. Do not use Zinc Bromide brine with Nitriles.
6.5. Be careful with Vitons if amine inhibitors are present. It may better to
use Aflas.
6.6. Methanol can affect Vitons. Use Aflas or Nitrile if possible.
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6.7. Do not use EPDM where hydrocarbons are present.
6.8. For really aggressive, hot and sour conditions, the best choice is the
expensive Kalrez (to 260C) or Chemraz (20% cheaper and better
properties over -20 to 230 C).
6.9. Consider use of T-seals with back-up rings if pressure exceeds 1500
psi, or pressure exceeds the modulus of the material.
6.10. Consider whether there is likely to be gas dissolved into the seal,
which may be subjected to rapid decompression. There are special
grades with improved decompression resistance available.
6.11. Seal stacks form good solutions to wide ranging service. They allow
use of varying hardness or differing materials in the stack, and the
outer rings may be sacrificial for the sake of the main inner seal.
6.12. Elastomers with higher chemical and temperature resistance (Aflas
and Kalrez) achieve this resistance often at the expense of elasticity.
This compromises their ability to seal with temperature fluctuation.
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP P-1-M-7100
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.8. LIFTING DESIGN
1. DEFINITION
Reference
1.1. The application of artificial lift simply displaces the TPC curve
downwards so that a lower bottom-hole flowing pressure is achieved.
In simple terms, the artificial lift injects energy into the system.
P-1-M-7100 10
2. BASIC METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT
Reference
2.1. Rod pumping.
P-1-M-7100 10.4
2.2. Electrical Submersible Pumping.
P-1-M-7100 10.2
2.3. Gas lifting.
P-1-M-7100 10.1
2.4. Hydraulic Pumping Systems
P-1-M-7100 10.3
2.5. Screw Pump System.
P-1-M-7100 10.5
2.6. Plunger Lift.
P-1-M-7100 10.6
3. SELECTIONCRITERIA
Reference
3.1. Design Considerations and Overall Comparisons:
Capital Cost
Downhole Equipment
Efficiency
Flexibility
Miscellaneous Problems
Operating Costs
Reliability
Salvage Value
System (total)
Usage/Outlook
P-1-M-7100 10.7.1
3.2. Operating Conditions Summary:
Casing size limits
Depth limits
Intake Capacity
Noise Level
Obtrusiveness
Prime mover flexibility
Surveillance
Testing
Time Cycle
P-1-M-7100 10.7.2
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.3. There are more than one method of artificial lift in a given well or
group of wells. Each method may be classified from excellent to poor
in accomplishing separate objectives as listed below
ROD P ESP GAS L. HYD P
Sand Fair Fair Excellent Fair
Paraffin Poor Good Poor Good
High GOR Fair Fair Excellent Fair
High Volume Poor Excellent Good Good
Depth Fair Fair Good Excellent
Simple Design Yes Yes No No
3.4. Long time choice criteria
3.4.1. The long-range recovery plan of the reservoir must be evaluated.
3.4.2. In the initial stages, reservoir pressure and GLR are generally high,
so gas lift is favoured.
3.4.3. As both pressure and GLR decline, (GLR may increase), gas lift loses
its advantage and ESP become more appropriate.
3.4.4. Finally for very low pressure or low productivity Rod or Hydraulic
pumping are suited.
3.5. Well productivity
3.5.1. Rate >20,000bbl/d - ESP or Gas lifting.
3.5.2. Rate between 2,000 - 1,000bbl/d - Any except Rod pumping.
3.5.3. Rate between 200 - 1,000bbl/d Any.
3.5.4. Rate <200 bbl/d - Any except ESP.
3.6. Flowing bottom hole pressure
3.6.1. Gas lifting is questionable when pressure drops below about one-third
of the hydrostatic pressure at the depth in question because the
amount of gas required to lift the liquid became excessive.
3.6.2. The other methods can operate down to very low pressure with gas
venting perhaps becoming a necessity.
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.7. Water cut
3.7.1. Water cut directly influences the total production rate and the
pressure losses. Generally high water cut production is common in
high production well.
3.7.2. ESP is suggested with high WC.
3.7.3. Gas lifting is suggested with high WC.
3.8. Viscosity
3.8.1. Viscosities less than 10 cp are not a factor in determining the lift
method. However consideration shall be made for different methods.
3.8.2. For highly viscous crudes sucker rods will not fall freely, therefore
effective stroke is reduced and the rods may become overloaded.
Long stroke, low speed unit shall be preferred in this case.
3.8.3. J et pumping may have application in that a low viscous power fluid
can be mixed downhole with the viscous crude.
3.8.4. Gas lift may cause additional problems such as hydrate or paraffin
plugging due to the cooling effect of the gas expanding through the
gas lift valves.
3.8.5. High viscosity may deteriorate ESP efficiency.
3.9. Formation volume factor
3.9.1. Formation volume factor must be considered for all type of artificial
lift, since any bottom hole pumping must be designed to pump the
additional volume at the bottom of hole.
3.10. Depth criteria
3.10.1. Sucker rod are capable of lifting from depth around 3000 m but
horsepower, stroke length, rod size and stretch, load and drag friction
limit design and they tend to be low in volumetric efficiency.
3.10.2. ESP require high fluid heads and at depth, with elevated temperature,
experience motor and/or cable failure.
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4. ROD PUMPING
Reference
4.1. The most common pumping system on low rate land wells is the rod
or beam pumping. It is usually limited to shallow wells (<8,000ft)
producing less than 500stb/d although they can produce up to
2,000stb/d.
P-1-M-7100 10.4
4.2. On land and where enough space around wellhead is available the
rod pumping is suggested for shallow to medium deep well.
4.3. The annulus is usually left open and used to vent any free gas that is
separated downhole. Tubing is used as the production conduit and
contains the rods preventing wear and corrosion to the annulus.
P-1-M-7100 10.4
4.4. Where high GOR is expected a gas anchor shall be installed or the
pump shall be installed below perforation.
4.5. The tubing is usually anchored to the casing and pulled into tension to
reduce tubing movement, buckling and, hence rod wear.
P-1-M-7100 10.4
4.6. The load on the polished rod can be estimated from dynamometer
surveys, which measure the rod load versus displacement at the
surface and serves the most effective means of diagnosing pump
problems.
P-1-M-7100 10.4
4.7. Where paraffine is expected rod with paraffin scratcher and rod
rotating device is suggested.
4.8. System design is very complex and is an iterative process normally
carried out by computer software. API have produced a programme
to generate a set of design curves published in API RP11L and
provided some general results in Bulletins 11L3 and 11L4 which are a
useful starting point for design.
P-1-M-7100 10.4
4.9. Where the well is naturally flowing and rod pumping is foreseen later
on, the use of TBG anchoring and pump seating nipple is suggested.
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. GAS LIFTING
Reference
5.1. The main advantage of gas lift is flexibility. It is applicable in a wide
range of rate and depth and the design may be changed by wireline
operations.
5.2. Gas lifting is adaptable to deviated well both onshore and offshore but
the design may be more critical in high deviated well due to the flow
pattern that may occur in the tubing.
5.3. Care shall be given to hydrates and freezing problem that may occur
in the supply line.
5.4. In recent times, much higher gas supply pressures have been used to
enable deeper valves to be reached or reduce the number of
mandrels and valves required. This increased pressure, however,
applies more pressure on the annulus casing, hence gas tight or
premium connections are generally selected.
P-1-M-7100 10.1.1
5.5. Where the production casing joint is inadequate or the supply gas is
corrosive a dual string completion for injection and production is
recommended. Local regulations are TO be considered (I.E. HS&E
requires a SCSSV on the annulus)
5.6. Where the well is naturally flowing and the gas lifting is foreseen later
on the preinstallation of spaced gas lift mandrels equipped with
dummy valves should be planned.
5.7. In continuous gas lift, it is desirable to position the lower gas injection
point as deep as possible in the well, however this is limited by:
Available gas lift pressure
The flowing tubing pressure at the intended offtake rate
The depth of the packer and deepest gas lift mandrel
The differential required to close the upper valves closed (+/-
20psi) and to ensure that injection at the operating GLV is
stable (between 50 and 500psi)
P-1-M-7100 10.1
5.8. The supply gas pressure design shall take into account the friction
loss term and at least 20psi/valve for closing upper valves and 100-
500 psi margin for stable injection through the operating valve.
5.9. Gas lift design is an iterative and complex process which is normally
carried out on computer. The software in use in AGIP Well Area
Engineering is Prosper.
5.10. Consider that the main gas lift trouble should be the incorrect valve
spacing and the leaking in upper valves.
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6. ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMPING
Reference
6.1. ESP is an easy operation lift method applicable in any location except
where the cost of workover is high.
6.2. ESPs greatest application is in moving large volume of low GOR
(<100scf/stb) fluids. They are particularly popular for high rate
undersaturated oil wells, high water cut wells and water supply wells.
Their main limitation is gas production but improved downhole
separators and procedures can now handle GORs up to 1,000scf/stb.
P-1-M-7100 10.2
6.3. If possible, the installation should be designed to facilitate downhole
separation of free gas and vented up the annulus which is necessary
when the gas volume exceeds the pump operating limit (typically +/-
10% of the total fluid volume). On offshore installations, gas
production up the annulus may be a significant problem. Annular
safety valves or dual string with SCSSVs shall be considered.
P-1-M-7100 10.2
6.4. Most pump installations are on the end of tubing and positioned
above the perforations or open hole. The motor is situated at the
bottom of the assembly so that the well flow around the motor will
dissipate the heat generated. If the pump has to be positioned below
the interval, a shroud is used to draw the produced fluid down past
the motor. Bottom discharge pumps are used in powered dump flood
wells.
P-1-M-7100 10.2
6.5. The key to an efficient ESP design is heat removal and insulation
material selection for the actual operating temperatures and
environment, especially when temperatures are in the region of
250
o
F. The clearance between the pump and the casing should be
small enough that a flow velocity of a minimum of 1ft/sec is achieved.
In large casings, a shroud must be used to provide this rate.
Centralisation of the pump is also critical.
P-1-M-7100 10.2.2
6.6. Cable selection and splicing procedure shall take into account the
well temperature and the well fluids characteristic including the
presence of corrosion inhibitors.
6.7. Cable failure may occur and require pulling the tubing to repair. High
temperature, corrosion and poor handling on splicing lead to cable
failure.
6.8. The electric power supply shall be stable to avoid unwanted pump
stops.
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6.9. A motor electric protection device shall be installed in the main power
line to avoid current drop or rise more than 20% of the actual value.
6.10. It is normal procedure to select the largest pump that will fit into the
production casing (especially if this was catered for in the planning
stage). Small casing or liners will obviously limit the pump size
selection.
P-1-M-7100 10.2.1
6.11. Application with variable speed driver reduce starting loads and
increase system life and flexibility from around 50 to 190% of nominal
rate.
6.12. The ESP design is a complex process, which is normally carried out
on computer. The software in use in Eni/Agip Well Area Engineering
is PROSPER or AUTOGRAPH.
7. JET PUMPING
Reference
7.1. The jet pump uses no moving parts and imparts momentum into the
fluid using the Venturi effect with a jet, throat and diffuser. The size of
these can be varied to pump volumes of 100-15,000stb/d although
free pump systems are limited to 8,000stb/d with 4
1
/
2
tubing.
P-1-M-7100 10.3
7.2. The pumps can be installed and retrieved by wireline or pumping
method using swab cups, hence providing lower servicing costs.
P-1-M-7100 10.3
7.3. As there is no moving parts, the pump is not as sensitive to damage
and lower quality power fluids can be used and can be used in higher
GOR wells up to 3,000scf/stb.
P-1-M-7100 10.3
7.4. Pump efficiency is low at 33-66% and large production rates can only
be achieved in high rate installations.
P-1-M-7100 10.3
7.5. Initial capital cost is high because topside facilities must be provided
to treat the mixture of power and produced fluid.
7.6. Down time in production may be caused by corrosion and abrasive
fluid that will damage the nozzle as well as the maintenance of
surface equipment.
7.7. Since the production must accelerate to a fairly high velocity to enter
the throat, cavitation is a potential problem that shall be considered.
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP P-1-M-7100
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PL. 3.9. COMPLETION AND PACKER FLUIDS
1. DEFINITIONS
Reference
1.1. Completion Fluid:
It is the fluid in the well during the installation (or the removal) of the
completion (300psi minimum overbalance). The hydrostatic of the
completion fluid has to control the formation pressure.
M-1-M-5015 2.1
1.2. Packer Fluid:
It is the fluid in the annulus CSG/TBG above the upper packer after
the packer has been set. Packer fluid can be either the same fluid
used while running the completion (completion fluid) or any other fluid
displaced in the annulus above the upper packer after the completion
operation. In some special applications HP wells, Packer fluid could
be non kill weight fluid.
M-1-M-5015 2.2
1.3. Safety Barrier Status Of Completion Fluid:
The completion fluid continues to be a barrier until its specific gravity
remains adequate to the formation pressure.
During well testing, after packer setting, the annulus completion fluid
is an indirect barrier because two operations (opening circulating
valve and BOP pipe rams shut-in) are required to establish the fluid
circulation to kill the well.
M-1-M-5015 2.2
1.4. Safety Barrier Status Of Packer Fluid:
The packer fluid cannot be considered a barrier. Main reasons are:
Rheological properties and circulating capability cannot be
ensured for a long term period.
In evenience of leakage from the tubing string, the tubing pressure
could be higher than the hydrostatic pressure in the annulus
(whichever is the density of the packer fluid). The pressure
accumulated into the annulus could impair the casing integrity
(especially in HP/HT wells).
M-1-M-5015 2.2
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2. COMPLETION FLUID DUTY
Reference
2.1. The completion fluid, usually a brine, is chosen for its compatibility
with the formation and its fluids so as not to cause any formation
damage. It should be selected to provide an overbalance at the top of
the reservoir. It also must be selected for its stability over long time
periods and not suffer from dehydration or deterioration.
P-1-M-7100 7.3.6
2.2. Limit settling of solids if any present.
2.3. Provide carrying capacity to remove solids.
2.4. The information required to make a considered selection may be
obtained from the IWIS database (which holds all the data regarding
the drilling of the well), well tests carried out earlier and other sources
which may be useful in the decision making process.
P-1-M-7100 7.3.6
3. PACKER FLUID
Reference
3.1. Packer fluid duty
3.1.1. Limit settling of solids if any present.
3.1.2. Minimise corrosion rate.
3.1.3. Stable with temperature and time.
3.1.4. Environmental and operational safety.
3.2. Packer fluid choice
3.2.1. Water base drilling mud, should be avoided.
3.2.2. Water, Brine or OBM mud should be preferred.
4. BRINE PROPERTIES
Reference
4.1. Brines characteristic should minimise hydration, swelling and / or
dispersion of formation clays. When the fluid weight is not a concern
typical concentration of the most common brine to inhibit clay
hydration are:
4.1.1. Na Cl 5-10 %
4.1.2. Ca Cl
2
1-3 %
4.1.3. KCl 1-3 %
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4.2. Brine parameters
4.2.1. Brine type at a relevant density shall take into account the following
parameters:
4.2.1.1.
Freezing point. and Crystallisation temperature
4.2.1.2.
Corrosive properties.
4.3. Fluid density variation with temperature, it shall be taken into
consideration the reduction of fluid density caused by temperature
4.4. Brine density attainable
4.4.1. Na Cl 1- 1.17 kg/l
4.4.2. Ca Cl
2
1 - 1.38 kg/l
4.4.3. Na Cl and Ca Cl
2
1.19 - 1.4 kg/l
4.4.4. KCl 1 - 1.16 kg/l
4.4.5. Ca Cl
2
and Ca Br
2
1.4 - 1.8 kg/l
4.4.6. Solution density is a function of temperature. Thus density at surface
conditions may have to increased to obtain desired hydrostatic
pressure downhole. Average temperature and relevant density should
be adopted.
5. FORMATION INTERACTIONS
Reference
5.1. Consideration shall be given to brine/formation interactions
5.1.1. The quality of the fluid used during a completion and workover
operation cannot be over-emphasised as the productivity is governed
not only by the damage caused by visible contaminants such as
solids but also the damage caused by invisible contaminants such as
calcium ions, sulphate ions and dissolved iron. It is, therefore,
essential that all of these and other similar contaminants are
controlled to as low a level as feasible and, wherever possible,
completely removed.
P-1-M-7120 4.7.2
5.1.2. Incompatibility with formation fluids.
5.1.3. Entrained solids.
5.1.4. Water blocks.
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5.1.5. Emulsion blocks.
5.1.6. Interference with TDT logging readings.
5.1.7. Completion fluid brines and additives may not be compatible with
reservoir interstitial water. Rock permeability cam be plugged by
precipitates formed when incompatible waters are intermingled. For
example barium sulfate will precipitate when solutions containing
barium ion and sulphate ion are intermixed. Barium is sometimes
present in formation water and sulphate ion is present in seawater
and in fluids containing calcium lignosulfunate fluid loss additive or as
impurity in some sacked Na Cl.
5.1.8. Completion fluids that are reported solid free can contain solid
particles that can cause deep bed formation plugging. Sources of
these organic and/or inorganic solids include:
The base fluid itself
Impurities in dry salts
Particulate matter from surface pits and well tubular
Iron oxides precipitated from solutions containing dissolved
oxygen that are circulated downhole
6. BRINE FILTRATION
Reference
6.1. The prime filtration system is the Diatomaceous Earth filter press with
a bag filter system for use as a downstream guard filter. Sometimes,
on standby is a low pressure, Cartridge Filter unit.
Both the DE and the cartridge units are capable of filtering down to 2
microns.
P-1-M-7120 4.8
6.2. Solid content in brine shall be minimised by a good cleaning of
surface equipment and well tubular and by the use of 2m filtering
unit.
6.3. Diatomaceous earth shall be used when filtering is a need. DE
filtering can remove 90% of particles above 2m. Care must be taken
to prevent DE going downhole.
6.4. Absolute cartridge filters must be placed downstream of press filter to
act as guard filters.
6.5. The fluids shall be treated to prevent iron oxide precipitation with
scavenging oxygen or sequestering oxygen products.
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
7. FLUID LOSSES
Reference
7.1. In depleted reservoir where high fluid loss may occur the following
problems shall be also considered:
7.1.1. Lack of supply water.
7.1.2. Souring (BHT<100 C).
7.1.3. Well clean up trouble due to the high invasion.
7.2. Temporary plugging
7.2.1. Whenever the high fluid loss may occur, the benefit to temporary plug
the perforation shall be considered.
7.2.2. Calcium carbonate can be used as a drilling fluid and for LCM pills to
control fluid losses. In completion operations it is now the most
commonly used fluid for controlling fluid losses within Eni-Agip
operations.
P-1-M-7120 4.9.3
8. OIL BASE MUD
Reference
8.1. In place of brines when high fluid losses or severe corrosion problem
can occur the use of oil based and inverted emulsion mud should be
used. They are formulated in the range from 0.86 up to 2.5kg/l and
are particularly useful where high density are required.
8.2. Inverted emulsion muds for completion and packer fluid purposes
must be well sheared to assure stable characteristic. The main
parameters to control are:
8.2.1. Oil / water ratio
P-1-M-6160 10.1.6
8.2.2. Plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength
P-1-M-6160 10.1.3
8.2.3. Electric stability
P-1-M-6160 10.3.1
Reference List:
Drilling Fluids Operations Manual STAP-P-1-M-6160
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Guidelines for Utilization of Non Kill Weight Packer Fluid STAP-M-1-M-5015
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SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.10. PACKERS
1. DEFINITIONS
Reference
1.1. High corrosive wells:
The fluids have high corrosive problems.
P-1-M-7100 8.1.3
1.2. Highly critical wells:
Deep depths >4500m.
High temperatures, SBHT >130C.
High pressures, SBHP >700 atm.
Subsea well-head well.
Platform well having the risk of failure due to the potential
collision from a vessel with the structure.
Gas injection well with pressures, ITHP above 3,000psi.
P-1-M-7100 8.1.3
1.3. Critical Well
Temperatures between 100 and 130C
Depths between 3,000 and 4,500m.
P-1-M-7100 8.1.3
1.4. Non-critical well
Depth of less than 3,000m.
Temperatures below 100 C.
P-1-M-7100 8.1.3
2. SINGLE COMPLETION PACKER
Reference
2.1. Packer selection
2.1.1. The choice is mainly linked to the type of well:
1. In the case of a highly critical well, select a permanent packer.
2. If the well has high corrosive, select a permanent/retrievable or
permanent packer, with priority be given to the former.
3. If the well is critical or non-critical, (Refer to Figure PL 3.5)
P-1-M-7100 8.1.4
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A High frequency of tubing pullout.
B High frequency of tubing-packer pullout.
C Use of TCP drilling techniques
D Measured well depth 3000 m.
E The workover fluid damages the formation.
F The packer fluid is a high density mud (>1.6 kg/l) with probable solid
deposits on the packer.
G Gas injection well with injection pressure >3,000psi.
Figure PL 3.5 - Type of Packer for Critical and Non-Critical Wells
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2.2. Setting method
2.2.1. Permanent and Permanent Retrievable Packers
2.2.1.1.
The selection is dependent mainly on the well characteristics:
1. If the well is corrosive or very critical, choose hydraulic setting.
2. If the well is critical or not critical, (Refer to Figure PL 3.6).
3. Reference (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are
relevant:
SBHT >150 C (=270 F).
Is a deviated well, with a maximum deviation angle >50.
The completion fluid =mud with density >1.6 kg/l.
Gas a production liner with inclination >30.
P-1-M 7100 8.1.4
Figure PL 3.6 - Packer Setting Method for Critical and Non-Critical Wells
For a mechanical type permanent packer, the setting is defined by the conditions detailed in
(A). The same procedure will also be used later for packers of the type used in a selective
type completion.
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2.2.2. Retrievable Setting Method
2.2.2.1.
The method of setting used for retrievable packers is made, following
the diagram in Figure PL 3.7:
P-1-M 7100 8.1.4
Figure PL 3.7- Retrievable Packer Setting Method
1) Check (A) is only true if one of the following conditions are relevant:
The well is deviated with a maximum deviation angle of >20.
The bottom-hole temperature (SBHT) is >60C.
The vertical depth of the packer setting is >2,000m (this is true to definitive
and not test completions).
Stimulations are planned.
2) Check (B)
Using TCP shooting techniques.
3) Check (C)
There is high frequency of tubing pullout (life of the completion <5 years).
4) Check (E)
Completion fluid and damage to the formation
5) Check (F)
The packer fluid is a high density mud (>1.6kg/l) with the probability that it
leaves solid deposits on the packer.
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2.3. Packer Tubing Connection
2.3.1. Retainer or Permanent Retrievable Packer Tubing Connection
2.3.1.1.
The packer tubing connection selection is in according to the stress
analysis and the displacement method.
2.3.2. Retrievable Packer Tubing Connection
2.3.2.1.
The choice of the tubing-packer connection for retrievable packers
(hydraulic and set down weight) is made on the basis of that in
Figure PL 3.8.
Particular conditions raise questions over which type of retrievable
packer to use. In these cases, a permanent/retrievable packer is the
priority or a permanent should be used and consequently the
associated setting procedure and seal assembly selected.
P-1-M 7100 8.1.4
Figure PL 3.8 - Tubing-Packer Connections for Retrievable Packers
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3. SINGLE SELECTIVE COMPLETION PACKER
Reference
3.1. Packer selection
3.1.1. The first case classifies the well on the basis of depth characteristics
( 4,000m) but more on the basis of its complexity.
P-1-M 7100 8.1.5
Figure PL 3.9 - Single Selective Packer For Complex Wells
if several different configurations are available, as for example in Figure PL 3.9, the engineer
has a certain degree of freedom of choice but is, however, governed by the order of priority
specified along with the choices.
If the conditions as of Figure PL 3.9, are not applicable, these cases are classified by well
depth:
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Figure PL 3.10 - Selective Single Well with Depths Between 3,000 and 4,000m
Figure PL 3.11 - Selective Single Well with Depths Between 1,500 and 3,000m
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Figure PL 3.12 - Selective Single Well with Depths Less Than 1,500m
In the case of depths less than 1,500m in a well not considered complex, it is strongly
recommend that a retrievable type packer be used.
Application of the criteria illustrated in Figure PL 3.9 through Figure PL 3.12 is common with
the only exception, in the case of multiple choices, being that the order of priority for the lower
zone can be changed by applying the following rules:
If workovers are planned with removal of the tubing and packer, and a
retrievable packer is one in the list of possible choices, then it should be
selected.
If the completion fluid is a mud with deposition problems, and a permanent
or permanent/retrievable packer are in the list of possible choices, then the
permanent/retrievable should be selected over of the retrievable.
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3.2. Setting method
3.2.1. The type of setting method proposed depends on the following
factors:
Type of packer
Setting distance between the packers.
The setting criteria of a mechanical permanent packer (on a
workstring, or wireline) are those already defined for the single
completion
P-1-M 7100 8.1.5
3.3. Packer Tubing Connection
3.3.1. By classifying the packers by type and setting with the zones treated
separately. In some cases, three zones are assumed (upper,
intermediate, and lower). In cases where there is no specific mention
of an Intermediate zone, it is treated with the same criteria used for
the upper zone.
Generally, the result of the stress analysis specifically identifies the
packers with releasing problems. Due to this, the zones are be
treated separately; i.e. modifications are be made only to those
packers which have the problems. It is recommended in any case to
re-check the completion after having made the modifications.
P-1-M 7100 8.1.5
4. DUAL COMPLETION PACKER
Reference
4.1. Packer Characteristics
4.1.1. Dual string packer selected, shall be qualified following ARPO/STAP
procedures, to verify that the features requested are present and fully
operating.
M-1-SS-5705
4.1.2. Dual string packer shall be hydraulic set
M-1-SS-5705 4.1.2.1
4.1.3. Mandrel shall have at least same strength of the tubing string.
M-1-SS-5705 4.1.2.7
4.1.4. Mandrel shall have the ability to rotate
4.1.5. Bi-directional slips below packing element are preferred.
M-1-SS-5705 4.1.2.12
4.2. Setting Method
4.2.1. Setting method shall be hydraulic , with pressure applied to one of the
two strings. Generally on short string.
M-1-SS-5705 4.1.2.1
4.2.2. Maximum setting pressure should be 3.500 psi.
M-1-SS-5705 4.1.2.13
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.3. Retrieving Method
4.3.1. Retrieving shall be by pulling on either or both the tubing strings.
M-1-SS-5705-4.1.2.2
4.3.2. Shear ring/screws, of the releasing mechanism shall be in
accordance with tubing characteristics and completion design.
5. DUAL SELECTIVE COMPLETION PACKER
Reference
5.1. When run in the Dual Selective Completion, packer shall have no
relative setting motion of either string during setting sequence.
M-1-SS-5705
5.2. In addition to rotate, stroke capability of the mandrel are preferred.
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Specification for Standard Retrievable Packers STAP-M-1-SS-5705
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.11. TUBING JOINT
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. The tubing joint selection depends primarily from the material
selection.
A-1-M-1003
1.2. According to the specification STAP M-1-M 5006 Connection
Procedure Evaluation, there are two service classes, I and II, termed
Application Levels (AL). Application Level I applies to the most severe
service conditions.
M-1-M-5006
P-1-M-7100 7.9.2
2. JOINT SELECTION
Reference
2.1. Incoloy 825, Duplex (25%, 22%, Cr Cold Worked), 28% Cr
2.1.1. The tubing joint connections suggested are in order AMS 28, Vam
ACE
2.2. Carbon steel - Martensitic 13% Cr - Low alloy steel
2.2.1. To date three tubing connections have been qualified for the most
severe conditions ALI. They are:
Coupled Connections
AMS 28 ( manufacturer Dalmine)
Vam ACE ( manufacturer Vallourec and Sumitomo)
Integral Connections
Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates A-DMS (Dual Metal Seal)
Other connections like Hydril CS, PJ D Dalmine and Antares MS have
not yet been subjected to the complete qualification programme as
per STAP M-1-M- 5006 or API 5C5. They have however been used
successfully for years with good results. They may be used for all
service condition where an Application Level II connection is required.
P-1-M-7100 7.9.2
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Test Procedure for Connection Evaluation STAP-M-1-M-5006
Tubing Handling & Running Procedures STAP-A-1-M-1003
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Well testing strings:
A.L. I integral joint
Horizontal wells with build up> 20 / 100 ft:
A.L. I integral joint
Wells with TVD > 4,500m:
A.L. I integral joint
Gas Injection Wells:
Differential working Pressure ( psi)
0 - 4,000 A.L. II
4,000 - 8,000 A.L. I
Water Injection Wells:
Differential working Pressure ( psi)
0 - 8,000 A.L. II
Gas / Oil Production Wells (TVD < << < 4,500 MT. ):
NACE ? NO NO YES YES
Close proximity? YES NO YES NO
Differential working Pressure ( psi)
0 - 4,000 A.L. II A.L. II A.L. II A.L. II
4,000 - 8,000 A.L. I A.L. II
(*)
A.L. I A.L. I
over 8,000 A.L. I A.L. I A.L. I A.L. I
* A.L. I for Gas Producing Wells.
NACE: defines the condition of the partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide (H
2
S) in the production
fluid to select the tubing connection. (NACE Standard. MR 01-75 - Sulfide Stess Cracking Resistant
Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment).
CLOSE PROXIMITY: This proximity assessment should consider the potential impact of an
uncontrolled condition on life and environment near the wellhead (API S 6A ).
Table PL 3.1 - Application Table For Carbon Steel, Martensitic 13% Cr, Low Alloy Steel
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.12. TUBING SAFETY VALVE
1. GENERAL NOTES
Reference
1.1. All Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates completions shall incorporate a
SSSV in the completion string to provide safety in the event of an
uncontrolled well flow.
P-1-M-7100 8.2.1
1.2. Definitions
1.2.1. Surface controlled sub-surface safety valves (SCSSVs) shall be used
accordingly to the criteria listed below in Table PL 3.2
These are designed for tubing retrievable, wireline retrievable or
annulus safety valve systems. They are controlled normally by
surface applied hydraulic pressure through a control line clamped to
the outside of the tubing string. Hydraulic pressure opens and then
retains the valve open. Removal of the pressure allows the valves to
close. These valve systems are fail safe and are preferred to
SSCSSVs.
P-1-M-7100 8.2.1
1.2.2. Working pressure (WP) is defined as the pressure that the whole
body can withstand
M-1-SS-5706E
1.2.3. Test pressure is the pressure at which all the pressure containing
parts are tested, with the closing mechanism left open; usually Test
Pressure =1.5 Working Pressure.
M-1-SS-5706E
1.2.4. Control Chamber Pressure is the control fluid pressure acting into the
piston chamber.
M-1-SS-5706E
1.3. Valve Type/Closure Mechanism Selection
P-1-M-7100 8.2.5
1.3.1. This section gives recommendations on the choice of valve with the
corresponding type of closure mechanism. (Refer to Table PL 3.3)
P-1-M-7100 8.2.5
1.4. Working Pressure
1.4.1. The working pressure can be calculate as WP=Static Bottom Hole
Pressure (SBHP) or as WP=Maximum Static Tubing Head Pressure
x Safety Factor (STHP x SF)
M-1-SS-5706E
1.4.2. The Safety Factor is determined as SF=1.1 for Gas Wells SF=1.3 for
Oil Well
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Well Type Criteria
Oil Producer
All new offshore development.
All wells onshore which can sustain
natural flow.
All old wells in above categories which
are to be recompleted.
All isolated wells.
Gas producer
All new offshore development.
All old wells being recompleted.
Gas storage
All wells.
Gas injection
All wells.
Water injection
All wells.
Artificial lift
All wells on gas lift, tubing and annulus.
Electrical submersible pump, tubing and
only annulus if used for gas venting.
H
2
S in produced fluids
All wells.
Table PL 3.2 - Criteria for Use of SCSSV's
Type of Valve Applications
Tubing Retrievable Flapper Valve
Offshore platform wells.
Subsea wells.
Wells with the presence of H
2
S or CO
2
.
Wells with surface flowing temperature
greater than 130C.
Wells with shut-in surface.
Wireline Retrievable Surface Controlled
Flapper Valve
As on insert valve for tubing retrievable
SCSSVs.
Storm Chokes
As a backup to the WRSV above when
there is a control line failure. Set in the
next lowest wireline nipple.
Annular Safety Systems
Gas lift wells.
ESP wells with gas venting.
J et pump wells, under the pump.
Wireline Retrievable Injection Valves
All waste wells.
Table PL 3.3 - SSSV Closure Mechanism Applications
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2. SEALING SYSTEM
Reference
2.1. Standard Condition (no H
2
S, no CO
2
)
M-1-SS-5706E
2.1.1. Working pressure < 5,000psi
2.1.1.1.
Piston (dynamic seal) shall be No-Elastomer.
2.1.1.2.
Flapper seal shall be No-Elastomer.
2.1.1.3.
Static seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.1.1.4.
Metal to Metal stop seals are not required.
2.1.2. Working pressure > 5,000psi and < 10,000psi
2.1.2.1.
Piston (dynamic seal) shall be No-Elastomer.
2.1.2.2.
Flapper seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.1.2.3.
Static seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.1.2.4.
Metal to Metal stop seals are required.
2.1.3. Working Pressure > 10,000psi
2.1.3.1.
Piston (dynamic seal) shall be Metal seal
2.1.3.2.
Flapper seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.1.3.3.
Static seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.1.3.4.
Metal to Metal stop seals are required.
2.2. Corrosive Condition (H
2
S/CO
2
)
M-1-SS-5706E
2.2.1. Working pressure < 5,000psi
2.2.1.1.
Piston (dynamic seal) shall be No-Elastomer.
2.2.1.2.
Flapper seal shall be No-Elastomer.
2.2.1.3.
Static seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.2.1.4.
Metal to Metal stop seals are required.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.2.2. Working pressure > 5,000psi
2.2.2.1.
Piston (dynamic seal) shall be Metal seal.
2.2.2.2.
Flapper seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.2.2.3.
Static seal shall be Metal to Metal.
2.2.2.4.
Metal to Metal stop seals are required.
2.3. Equalizing system
2.3.1. The equalizing system is not a standard requirement.
M-1-SS-5706E
2.4. Actuation system
2.4.1. Rod piston design is recommended.
M-1-SS-5706E
2.5. Valve types
2.5.1. General
2.5.1.1.
Flapper Valve type is the recommended design.
2.5.2. Tubing Retrievable (Flapper Type)
2.5.2.1.
A tubing retrievable design shall be applied in the following cases:
Offshore wells (platform or subsea)
Wells with corrosive fluid (H
2
S/CO
2
)
Wells with flowing tubing head temperature greater than 130C
Wells with Shut In Head Pressure greater than 350 bar
Wells with asphaltene, scales or hydrate deposition
Wells with sand production, storage wells.
2.5.3. Wireline Retrievable (Flapper Type)
2.5.3.1.
As back up to 2.5.2.1.
P-1-M-7100 8.2
2.5.4. Storm Choke
2.5.4.1.
As back up to 2.5.2.1. or 2.5.3.1.
2.5.5. Injection Valve
2.5.5.1.
Disposal wells
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3. APPLICATION
Reference
3.1. Production Oil Wells
3.1.1. The safety valve shall be always foreseen in the completion string in
oil producer wells
P-1-M-7100 8.2
3.2. Production Gas Wells
3.2.1. The safety valve shall be always foreseen in the completion string in
gas producer wells
P-1-M-7100 8.2
3.3. Gas Storage and Gas Injection Wells
3.3.1. The safety valve shall be always foreseen in the completion string in
gas storage and gas injection wells
P-1-M-7100 8.2
3.4. Water Injection Wells
3.4.1. The safety valve shall be always foreseen in the completion string in
all offshore application
P-1-M-7100 8.2
3.4.2. The safety valve shall be always foreseen in the completion string in
wells where the water injection is placed in the oil or gas zone
P-1-M-7100 8.2
3.5. Artificial lift wells
3.5.1. The safety valve shall be always foreseen in the production string in
gas lift application and in Electric Submersible Pump application.
P-1-M-7100 8.2
4. SELECTION CRITERIA
Reference
4.1. General
4.1.1. Radius of exposure ROE (for 100ppm or for 500ppm) is defined in the
Standard
M-1-SS-5706E
4.1.2. Close Proximity should consider the potential impact of an
uncontrolled condition on life and environment near the wellhead
4.2. Working Pressure Selection
4.2.1. The use of SBHP or STHP x SF as WP ids defined by the Tab 1 in
the Standard
M-1-SS-5706E
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Engineering Criteria for SCSSV STAP-M-1-SS-5706E
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.13. ANNULUS SAFETY VALVE
1. GENERAL NOTES
Reference
1.1. Definitions
1.1.1. Working pressure (WP) is defined as the maximum pressure that the
closing mechanism can withstand
M-1-SS-5706E
1.1.2. Test pressure is the pressure at which all the pressure containing
parts are tested, with the closing mechanism left open; usually Test
Pressure =1.5 Working Pressure
M-1-SS-5706E
1.1.3. Control Chamber Pressure is the control fluid pressure acting into the
piston chamber
M-1-SS-5706E
1.2. Working Pressure
1.2.1. The working pressure can be calculate as WP=Static Bottom Hole
Pressure (SBHP) or as WP=Maximum Static Tubing Head Pressure
x Safety Factor (STHP x SF)
M-1-SS-5706E
1.2.2. The Safety Factor is determined as SF=1.1 for Gas Wells SF=1.3 for
Oil Well
2. VALVE TYPES
Reference
2.1. An annular safety system design shall be applied in the following
cases: Gas lift wells, ESP wells where the gas venting is foreseen,
J et Pump application with the safety valve located below the pump
and operate by the jet pump power fluid.
P-1-M-7100 8.2
3. APPLICATION
Reference
3.1. Artificial lift wells
3.1.1. The safety system shall be always foreseen in the annulus in gas lift
application and, in Electric Submersible Pump application where the
gas venting is foreseen.
P-1-M-7100 8.2
4. SELECTION CRITERIA
Reference
4.1. General
4.1.1. NACE defines the condition of the partial pressure of hydrogen
sulphide (H
2
S) in the production fluid to select the downhole safety
valve.
NACE Std MR01-75
M-1-SS-5706E
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
4.1.2. Radius of exposure ROE (for 100ppm or for 500ppm) is defined in the
AGIP STAP M-1-SS-5706.
M-1-SS-5706E
4.1.3. Close Proximity should consider the potential impact of an
uncontrolled condition on life and environment near the wellhead
M-1-SS-5706E
4.2. Working Pressure Selection
4.2.1. The use of SBHP or STHP x SF as WP ids defined by the Tab 1 and
Fig 1 of AGIP STAP M-1-SS-5706
M-1-SS-5706E
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-M-1-M-5001
Engineering Criteria for SCSSV STAP-M-1-SS-5706E
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.14. LANDING NIPPLES AND SLIDING VALVE
1. TUBING HANGER NIPPLE
Reference
1.1. The maximum diameter nipple which is compatible with the rated
pressure of the Christmas tree is selected.
P-1-M-7100 8.4.2
2. INTERMEDIATE DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT
Reference
2.1. The intermediate nipples, installed between the SCSSV and the first
packer, are used to install a back-up DHSV or to re-establish the
safety barrier or to test the tubing string
2.2. A Sliding Sleeve Door (SSD) shall be installed above the packer
when a circulation or the installation of a jet pump is foreseen.
2.3. For Selective Completion a SSD is foreseen always in every layer
except for the deepest
3. TAIL PIPE
Reference
3.1. A Nipple below the packer shall be always present
3.2. A Perforated Pipe can be foreseen on the tail pipe
3.3. In case a perforated pipe is foreseen an addition nipple and a
production tube shall be present below.
3.4. A Wire Line Entry Guide shall be always present and positioned (if
possible) at least 15m from top of perforation.
3.5. In dual completion, Wire Line Entry Guide on short string, should be
positioned (if possible) at least 10 m below bottom perforations.
4. NIPPLES SELECTION
Reference
4.1. It is a rule that if the spacing between two successive nipples is <
30m, a tapered nipple will be used.
P-1-M-7100 8.4.2
5. GENERAL
Reference
5.1. Small diameter tubes for control or injection line applications are
manufactured either as seamless or seam-welded and sunk. They
are usually available in a full range of materials and sizes.
P-1-M-7100 8.3.3
5.1.1. The standard size for both applications, control and injection line, is
1
/
4
OD and the wall thickness chosen from among the following sizes
according to the pressure requirements:

1
/
4
OD x 0,035 wall thickness

1
/
4
OD x 0,049 wall thickness

1
/
4
OD x 0,065 wall thickness.
P-1-M-7100 8.3.3
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6. WORKING PRESSURE
Reference
6.1. The working pressure (WP) is defined as follows:
WP =Safety Valve WP +Valve Opening Pressure
Safety Valve WP is as specified by the manufacturer.
Valve Opening Pressure, provided by the manufacturer, is the
pressure required to overcome the closing force of the spring plus
resistance due to friction effects. Usually it ranges between 1,500 to
2,000psi depending on the manufacturer.
M-1-SS-5706E
P-1-M-7100 8.3.3
6.2. Working pressure is defined as follows:
hd fr
P P BHSP WP +
where:
WP = BHSP +Pfr - Phd
BHSP = Bottom hole static pressure.
P
fr
= Friction losses.
P
hd
= Hydrostatic pressure of injection fluid.
P-1-M-7100 8.3.3
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Engineering Criteria for SCSSV STAP-M-1-SS-5706E
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.15. CHRISTMAS TREE
1. GENERAL GUIDELINES
Reference
1.1. Eni-Agip divide wellhead equipment into two classifications:
Class A Equipment designed to operate up to 5,000psi WP
Class B Equipment designed to operate up to 10,000psi WP
The selection of the wellhead system pressure rating will be based
upon the max-anticipated surface pressure.
M-1-SS-5701-E
P-1-M-6100 8
1.2. Crossover components/equipment shall be designed to operate to the
higher WP.
1.3. All equipment shall be designed to operate under the service
condition as defined in API 6A 4.2 17th edition.
2. PRESSURE RATING
Reference
2.1. Definition of Working Pressure for Christmas-Tree equipment is
based on following criteria: WP = Static Bottom Hole Pressure (
SBHP ) or WP =Max Static Tubing Head Pressure x S.F. (STHP x
Safety Factor) For gas-well S.F. =1,1
For OIL-WELLS.F.=1.3 ( as indication )
M-1-SS-5701E
2.2. Max Working Pressure (WP.) is defined the maximum operating
pressure that the equipment can withstand.
2.3. Test Pressure is the pressure at which the equipment are tested:
Usually Test Pressure =1,5 Working Pressure.
3. CONFIGURATION
Reference
3.1. Single Completion:
Typical Christmas tree Configuration:
3.1.1. Land: Conventional (Individual Valve) - CLASS -A, -B , -C
Components:
Tubing Head Spool
Tubing Head Adapter (T.H.A.) With Manual Master Valve.
Actuated Master Valve.
Studded Cross
Swab Valve
Wing Valves.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
3.1.2. Off-Shore , Solid Block, Class -A , -B
Components:
1. Tubing Head Spool
2. Solid block with:
Manual master valve.
Actuated master valve.
Swab valve.
Studded outlet for wing valves.
3. Marine protection for all components.
3.2. Dual Completion
Typical ChristmasTree configuration.
3.2.1. Land And Off-Shore, Solid Block Splitted:
Components:
Tubing Head Spool
Tubing Head Adapter with two manual master valves.
Solid block incorporating two actuated master valves and two
swab valves and two studded outlets for wing valves.
For off-shore application equipment should have marine
protection
4. ACTUATORS
Reference
4.1. Second master valve shall be equipped with a hydraulic gate valve
actuator (SSV - Surface Safety Valve).
4.2. In hydraulically operated actuators, Back seat seal shall be provided.
4.3. Actuator shall be designed to be disconnected from the valve on
line.
4.4. Heat sensitive lock open device shall be installed during wire-line
operations.
4.5. Materials wetted by well fluid shall be conform to the valve materials.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
5. MATERIALS
Reference
5.1. Material selection shall withstand the operating conditions. (WP,
WT.and corrosive environment.
5.2. For corrosive environment, detailed material selection shall comply
with wellcome user Manual 2.3
5.3. General service conditions are defined as:
Operating Temperature Range: -29
o
C to 82
o
C as per API 6A
The steels which meet with this criteria are material standard (no sour
service), class Dd as per API 6A as defined by NACE MR-01-75
P-1-M-6100 8.2.1
6. SEALS
Reference
6.1. Seals selection is based on following criteria:
6.2. Metal-to-metal seals shall be used in the applications outlined in the
following sections.
P-1-M-7100 5.4.3
6.3. Metal-to-metal seals shall be used in the applications outlined in the
following sections.
The following criteria is applicable to the various conditions listed in
the following tables:
a) Between producing strings/casing/tubing hanger and tubing
hanger seal flange.
b) Between tubing hanger and tubing spool.
c) On production casing or production liner.
d) On control line connections.
These designations A, B, C and D will be used in the tables below.
P-1-M-7100 5.4.3
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
Oil and Gas Producers
These tables apply equally to onshore and offshore wells.
Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature less than 100C) [ ! =YES " =NO ]
Sealing WP, psi A B C D
5,000 ! " " !
10,000 ! ! " !
>10,000 ! ! " !
Sweet Service Wells (with top hole temperature exceeding 100C)
Sealing WP, psi A B C D
5,000 ! ! " !
10,000 ! ! " !
>10,000 ! ! ! !
H2S Service Wells
Sealing WP, psi A B C D
5,000 ! " " !
10,000 ! ! " !
Gas Injectors
Sealing WP, psi A B C D
5,000 ! " " !
10,000 ! ! " !
Water Injectors
Sealing WP, psi A B C D
5,000 ! " " !
10,000 ! ! " !
Artificial Lift Wells (both onshore and offshore wells)
Sealing WP, psi A B C D
5,000 ! "(1) " !
10,000 ! ! " !
(1) If H
2
S is present it will be a YES.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
6.4. Tubing Head Spool, Casing Pack off:
Metal-seal for christmas tree W.P. 15,000psi.
Elastomer seal with metal anti-extrusion ring for christmas tree
W.P. =10,000psi.
Elastomer seal for all other applications.
6.5. Control line transfers:
Metal to Metal seals in all application.
6.6. Anchor screws and alignment screws ( if present ):
Elastomer for class A.
Thermoplastic seal with Metal back-up ring is requested for
class-B and C.
7. TUBING HANGER
Reference
7.1. Tubing Hanger for dual completion shall be solid block type.
7.2. Tubing Hanger shall have a preparation to accommodate a metal seal
on the well bore.
7.3. Tubing Hanger shall have a preparation for one or more control lines
metal seal.
7.4. All metal seal shall be made to guarantee the sealing even in
presence of small misalignment between the connected components.
8. TUBING HEAD ADAPTER SEAL FLANGE
Reference
8.1. T.H.A. shall have on bottom an integral counter bore to accommodate
the metal seals of Tubing Hanger and Control lines.
8.2. T.H.A. shall have a lateral outlet for Control Line connection.
8.3. Outlet connections for WP. 15,000 psi shall be Autoclave type.
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Specification For Surface Wellhead and
Christmas Tree Standard Equipment STAP-M-1-SS-5701E
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
PL. 3.16. WORKOVER AND COMPLETION PROGRAMME
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. The Completion programme will provide details of the operation and
take the form of a step by step instruction schedule.
1.2. This should be used in conjunction with the relevant AGIP manuals,
API RP and specialist service company instructions.
2. PROGRAMME CONTENT
Reference
2.1. Well history summary
2.1.1. For a new well this should include a description of the well, type of
well and the purpose for which it will be used.
2.1.2. For a suspended well this should include description and date of last
operation, details of any problem encountered, depths and
description of barrier plugs and well fluids.
2.1.3. For a workover operation this should include well history since initial
completion and detailed reasons for present workover operation.
2.2. Reservoir parameters
2.2.1. Fluid type
2.2.2. Bottom hole pressure
2.2.3. Bottom hole temperature
2.3. Well schematic
2.3.1.1.
Casing data
2.3.1.2.
Cement depth
2.3.1.3.
DV, liner, tie-back data
2.3.1.4.
Well path data
2.4. Production casing data
2.4.1. Size
2.4.2. Grade
2.4.3. Weight
2.4.4. Thread
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.5. Annulus details
2.5.1. Actual pressure
2.5.2. Fluids
2.5.3. Maximum allowable pressure
2.6. Completion and Packer fluids
2.6.1. Type
2.6.2. Density
2.6.3. Storage volume
2.6.4. Filtration requirement
2.6.5. Corrosivity control
2.6.6. Displacement procedure
2.6.7. Spacer composition
2.6.8. Recovery / disposal
2.7. Bop stack
2.7.1. Size and pressure
2.7.2. Type of closure
2.7.3. Distance RT- closing rams
2.7.4. Kill and choke line data
2.8. Rig data
2.8.1. Dynamic load
2.8.2. Set back capacity
2.8.3. Mud pit capacity
2.8.4. Mud pumps pressure and rate
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.9. Well Killing
2.9.1. Main steps of killing procedures following bulheading, circulating, Etu
or lubrication method.
2.10. Packer unsetting and completion pull out
2.10.1. Details on Packer unsetting operations
2.10.2. Max overpull allowable
2.10.2.1.
Steps of operations and safety precautions to be followed when
pulling string out of hole.
2.10.2.2.
Equipment end procedures to be followed in case of special alloy tbg,
to avoid damage.
2.11. Pipe tool recovery
2.11.1. Packer milling tool characteristics
2.11.2. Details of BHA forecasted for milling operations
2.11.3. Steps and suggestions for milling operations
2.11.4. Planning of expected fishing operations.
2.12. Level abandoning
2.12.1. Purpose of level abandoning
2.12.2. Method of abandoning
2.12.3. Detailed steps, sequence of operations and equipment required
2.13. Well preparations
2.13.1.
Casing cleaning, sequence of operations
2.13.2.
Completion and/or packer fluid, general information handling and
filtration instructions.
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.14. Well bore completion
2.14.1. Perforating:
Instruction related to general operating procedures and safety
Reference logs for correlation
Gun size
Charge type
Shot density and phase
2.14.2. Sand control:
Operating procedures
Gravel packing equipment and accessory
Contractor detailed step procedure
2.15. Well completion
2.15.1. Completion schematics:
Well head component assembly
Down hole completion tools
2.15.2. Detailed descriptions of all components(tbg, safety valve, landing
nipples injection valves, packers, christmas tree etc.) including the
main following data:
Manufacturer
Description
Sketches
Minimum I.D.
Maximum O.D.
Materials
Running setting and testing procedures
2.16. Well clean up
2.16.1. Surface facilities lay out
2.16.2. Surface facilities pressure testing programme
2.16.3. Sampling instructions
2.16.4. Clean up procedures
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 1 OF BP&MR - PLANNING (PL)
2.17. Special operation detail
2.17.1. Hydraulic frac, job procedures
2.17.2. Stimulation job procedures
2.17.3. Coiled tubing job procedures
2.17.4. Wire line job procedures
2.17.5. Well testing job procedures
2.18. Safety instructions
2.18.1. General safety instructions
2.18.2. Barrier policy:
Locations plugs
Plugs type
Testing procedures
2.19. Cost prevision
2.19.1. Budget split in class of cost
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
SECTION 2
OPERATIONS (OP)
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
INDEX
OP1. MOVING AND POSITIONING 6
OP2. DRILLING OPERATIONS 7
OP. 2.1. CONDUCTOR PIPE 7
1. CONDUCTOR PIPE INSTALLATION 7
2. FLOATING RIGS 9
OP. 2.2. DIRECTIONAL DRILLING 12
1. SURVEYING POLICY 12
2. GENERAL SURVEYING REQUIREMENTS 12
3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR SURVEY TOOLS SELECTION 13
4. QUALITY CONTROL (QC) 14
5. ANTICOLLISION 16
6. WELL SITE PROCEDURES 19
OP. 2.3. TRIPPING AND STRING COMPOSITION 25
1. BEFORE TRIPPING 25
2. WHILE TRIPPING 26
3. STRING COMPOSITION 28
OP. 2.4. MUD SERVICES 31
1. OPERATIONS & MUD CHARACTERISTICS 31
OP. 2.5. OPEN HOLE LOGGING 33
1. GENERAL NOTES 33
2. WELL PREPARATION 33
3. LOG FISHING 34
4. SAFETY 34
OP. 2.6. CASING/LINER RUN 35
1. CASING 35
2. CORROSION RESISTANT ALLOY (CRA) CASING OPERATIONS 38
3. LINERS 43
OP. 2.7. CEMENTING 46
1. CASING CEMENTING 46
2. LINER 49
3. POST-CEMENTING OPERATIONS 50
4. SQUEEZING 50
OP. 2.8. WELLHEAD 52
1. BASE FLANGE 52
2. CASING SPOOL 53
3. MISCELLANEOUS 54
4. UNDERWATER WELL HEAD. 55
5. COMPACT WELLHEAD 57
6. MUDLINE SUSPENSION 57
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.9. WELL CONTROL 59
1. PERSONNEL 59
2. RECORDING 59
3. PRIMARY CONTROL 60
4. SECONDARY CONTROL 61
5. KILLING PROCEDURE 62
6. STRIPPING PROCEDURES 62
7. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS (LAND RIGS, J ACK-UPS AND FIXED
PLATFORMS) 63
8. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS (FLOATERS) 64
9. BOP CONTROL SYSTEM (LAND, J ACK-UPS AND FIXED PLATFORMS) 65
10. BOP CONTROL SYSTEM (FLOATERS) 66
11. CHOKE MANIFOLD (ALL) 67
12. INSIDE PIPE SHUT-OFF DEVICES 67
13. AUXILIARY CONTROL EQUIPMENT 68
14. DIVERTER EQUIPMENT 69
15. MISCELLANEOUS 70
16. BOP AND RISER RUNNING (FLOATERS) 71
17. BOP AND CASING TESTS 71
18. BOP AND CASING TESTS (FLOATERS) 74
19. DIVERTER TEST (BEFORE START OF OPERATIONS) 76
20. FREQUENCY OF BOP TESTS 76
21. DRILLS 77
22. TIMING 80
23. HORIZONTAL WELLS 80
OP. 2.10. LOT 82
1. GENERAL 82
2. STANDARD PROCEDURE 82
OP. 2.11. CORING 85
1. GENERAL GUIDELINES 85
OP. 2.12. DRILLING PROBLEMS (STUCK PIPE, FISHING, MUD LOSSES, SHALLOW
GAS, HANG OFF, H
2
S) 87
1. STUCK PIPE 87
2. OIL PILLS 90
3. ACID PILLS 91
4. FREE POINT LOCATION 92
5. BACK-OFF PROCEDURE 93
6. FISHING 95
7. MILLING PROCEDURE 98
8. J ARRING PROCEDURE 98
9. LOST CIRCULATION 99
10. SHALLOW GAS 104
11. HANG-OFF 108
12. H
2
S DRILLING PROCEDURES 110
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.13. WELL ABANDONMENT 113
1. GENERAL INFORMATION 113
2. TEMPORARY ABANDONMENT 114
3. SAND PLUG 115
4. CASING PATCH 116
5. PERMANENT ABANDONMENT 116
OP3. COMPLETION AND WORKOVER OPERATIONS 122
OP. 3.1. GENERAL 122
1. BOP STACK AND TESTING 122
2. WELL CONTROL 123
3. FLUID LOSS CONTROL 124
OP. 3.2. WELL PREPARATION 126
1. CASING CLEANING 126
2. COMPLETION AND PACKER FLUIDS 126
3. BRINE 127
4. CMT LOGGING 128
OP. 3.3. WELLBORE COMPLETION 129
1. PERFORATING 129
2. SAND CONTROL 131
3. CASING MILLING 132
OP. 3.4. COMPLETION PULL OUT 134
1. WELL KILLING 134
2. PACKER UNSEATING AND COMPLETION PULLING 136
OP. 3.5. PIPE/TOOL RECOVERY 138
1. PACKER MILLING 138
2. FREE POINT 139
3. BACK OFF 139
4. TUBING PUNCHER 140
5. TUBING CUTTER 141
6. WASHING OVER 141
7. FISHING 142
OP. 3.6. WELL COMPLETION 144
1. TUBING/PACKER INSTALLATION PROCEDURE 144
2. HYDRAULIC LINE INSTALLATION 146
3. ELECTRIC LINE INSTALLATION 147
4. SUCKER ROD PUMP INSTALLATION 147
5. ESP SYSTEM INSTALLATION 148
6. WELL HEAD INSTALLATION AND TESTING 149
7. PACKER(S) SETTING 150
OP. 3.7. STIMULATION 151
1. MATRIX TREATMENT 151
2. HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 152
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.8. COILED TUBING OPERATIONS 154
1. RIG UP, TESTING AND DEPLOYMENT 154
2. GAS LIFTING 155
3. WELL CLEANING 156
4. CEMENTING 157
5. ACIDISATION 158
OP. 3.9. WELL TESTING 159
1. GENERAL 159
2. TESTING WITH DOWNHOLE TEST TOOLS 160
3. WELL TESTING THROUGH A COMPLETION STRING 160
4. SURFACE DATA ACQUISITION 160
OP. 3.10. WIRELINE OPERATIONS 162
1. GENERAL 162
2. SURFACE EQUIPMENT 166
3. WIRE SELECTION 170
4. TOOLSTRING SELECTION 170
5. RIG UP/DOWN OPERATIONS 173
6. NDT PROCEDURES 183
7. SCSSV TEST PROCEDURES 189
OP4. MATERIALS AND TRANSPORT 190
OP. 4.1. WAREHOUSE MATERIALS 190
1. GENERAL 190
2. TUBULARS 190
3. OTHER MATERIALS 190
OP. 4.2. RIGSITE MATERIALS 192
1. MINIMUM STOCKS 192
2. TUBULARS 192
3. MATERIAL CARE 195
4. EXPLOSIVES 195
5. RADIOACTIVE SOURCES 196
OP. 4.3. TRANSPORTATION 199
1. PERSONNEL 199
2. MATERIALS 200
OP. 4.4. CORROSION PREVENTION & INSPECTION 202
1. CORROSION PREVENTION 202
2. NDT 202
OP5. WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL 205
OP. 5.1. GUIDELINE 205
1. GENERAL 205
2. ONSHORE 206
3. OFFSHORE 206
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP1. MOVING AND POSITIONING
This section is no longer deemed applicable to Eni-Agips operations in todays oil and gas
industry as it not a core activity but is now provided by contractors specialised in rig moving
and positioning.
This particular section, however, remains in the index so as not to disrupt the numbering of
the remaining sections as this is familiar to users of the manual and the audit checklist. This
section may be removed at a later date when an opportunity arises.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP2. DRILLING OPERATIONS
OP. 2.1. CONDUCTOR PIPE
1. CONDUCTOR PIPE INSTALLATION
Reference
1.1. The outside diameter and the wall thickness of conductor pipe
should be chosen according to previous experiences in the area
and the selected casing profile.
P-1-M-6140 4.1
1.2. 30 OD x 1 wall thickness Fe42C has been selected as the Eni-
Agip Division and Affiliates standard for world-wide exploration
and development drilling activities, only if this CP is unsatisfactory
should alternatives be considered.
P-1-M-6140 4.1
1.3. CP can be installed either by driving with a pile hammer or by pre-
drilling a hole and cementing.
P-1-M-6140 4.1
1.4. Using Pile Hammers
1.4.1. The most common used system is the Delmag - D44 or D46
which has a hammer weight of 18t with a variable delivery fuel
pump, refer to table in P-1-M-6140 for the specifications of other
types of Delmag Hammers.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.1
1.4.2. Conductor pipe joints installed on land rigs, are usually connected
by welding bevelled prepared ends of the pipes together.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.3
1.4.3. On a J ack-up, to reduce the time of the operations and when it is
practicable, driveable threaded quick connectors (i.e. the RL-4)
and driveable squnch joint connectors such as the Fast Releasing
J oint (i.e. the ALT-2) should be used.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.3
1.4.4. When the driving depth of the conductor pipe is not specified in the
Drilling Programme, the final depth of the driving is the refusal
depth.
Local experience could dictate a different refusal value. The driving
depth can be pre-determined by conducting soil-boring analysis.
The refusal value generally used is 1,000-1,100 blows/metre.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.3
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.4.5. The driving depth of the conductor pipe which is specified in the
Drilling Programme is established with the following formula:
Hi =[df x (E+H) - 103 x H]/[1.03 - df +0.67 x (GOVhi - 1.03)]
where:
Hi = Minimum driving depth (m) from seabed
E = Elevation (m) distance from bell nipple and sea
level
H = Water depth (m)
df = Maximum mud weight (kg/l) to be used
GOVhi = integrated density of sediments (kg/dm
3
/10m)
If the refusal depth does not meet this value, internal washing may
be required. CP internal washing might be necessary several times
before reaching the planned depth.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.3
1.5. Drilling and Cementing CP
1.5.1. Run a 26" bit +float valve +36" Hole Opener +1 x 9" Monel DC +
1 x 9" Spiral DC +5" HWDP +5" DPs down to the seabed and
measure the water depth.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
1.5.2. Space out in order to avoid pulling the bit above the mud line at the
first connection and drill to the depth of the first two joints using
high viscosity mud (80-120 seconds Funnel viscosity) and at a very
slow pump rate.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
1.5.3. Drill the remaining 36" hole down to the planned depth (with min
WOB and at a higher pump rate) pumping seawater and a high
viscosity mud cushion (at least 20-30 bbls every connection).
Pump mud at a low flow rate if the well does not take fluid.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
1.5.4. At TD circulate the hole clean, displace the hole with gel mud (50%
excess over open hole volume) and make a wiper trip to the sea
bed. Do not pull the bit above the mud line.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
1.5.5. Run back to bottom. If any fill is found, repeat the previous step
otherwise displace the hole with gel mud (100% excess over
theoretical hole volume). Take a directional survey and pull the 26"
bit +36" HO.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
1.5.6. Run the 30" x 1" thick CP and cement it in the hole using an inner
string and sealing adapter (refer to the Casing Running and
Cementing section).
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.5.7. Install two pad eyes on the CP just above the spider deck level
and anchor the conductor pipe with four slings to the rig
substructure, if required.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
1.5.8. Cut the 30" CP at the specified depth below rotary table according
to the Drilling Programme and make up the diverter assembly.
P-1-M-6140 4.1.5
2. FLOATING RIGS
Reference
2.1. Use of TGB
2.1.1. The following procedure is including TGB, but the most useful
procedure for setting the CP is with PGB only.
2.1.2. To overcome problems encountered when installing the TGB in
very soft seabed conditions, standard TGB should be modified with
extended skirt and additional side plates.
2.2. Operational Sequence
2.2.1. Set TGB over moonpool, make up running tool on DP and engage
TGB; make up guidelines and run TGB to seabed, checking
penetration with ROV.
2.2.2. Put PGB (equipped with 2 slope indicators) in moonpool on skid
beams.
2.2.3. Make up drilling BHA; paint bit and HO white.
2.2.4. Make up Utility Guide Frame above HO and attach to guidelines.
RIH with BHA to above TGB; space out before entering TGB such
that bit will remain in hole when making the first connection.
2.2.5. Run TV camera/ROV to observe entry into TGB; record the
distance between RKB and seabed, air gap and water depth on
Daily Drilling Report.
2.2.6. Drill hole to the planned depth, according to the CP length and
planning an adequate rat hole.
2.2.7. Use very low pump rate to minimise washouts and cratering.
2.2.8. Pump water and high viscosity mud pills at each connection.
2.2.9. At TD, circulate hole clean with water and fill with gel mud
pumping, at least, 50% excess on theoretical volume.
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.2.10. Check for hole verticality.
2.2.11. POOH (dont pull above TGB) and wait, at least, 1hr; meanwhile
retrieve survey tool and check for result: if inclination exceeds 1.5
move off the Unit, at least 10m, and restart drilling.
2.2.12. Run back to bottom. If any fill is found, ream or wash with water,
displace hole with gel mud and go back to previous step, otherwise
POOH.
2.2.13. Skid PGB on spider beams under Rotary Table.
2.2.14. Run CP through PGB. Make up housing to the last joint.
2.2.15. Run 5 DP cement stinger inside CP to within 15m from the float
shoe.
2.2.16. Pick up the Running Tool from the derrick and make up to cement
stinger and to the housing.
2.2.17. Lower the housing to moonpool and connect to PGB Pick up the
entire assembly and skid back the spider beams. Lower the
assembly to waterline. Fill the casing with water and close the
valve (or plug) on Running Tool.
2.2.18. Run CP on H.W., filling on each stand.
Lower and land the PGB on the TGB.
If the TGB was run in a soft seabed, do not land PGB on TGB but
hold the PGB approximately 1m above the TGB (with motion
compensator).
2.2.19. Check with TV/ROV the angle of PGB before cementing. If it
exceeds 1.5, POOH CP on the moonpool and move off the Unit at
least 10m and restart drilling.
2.2.20. Break circulation gradually using seawater and circulate minimum
amount to avoid washing out at seabed.
2.2.21. Cement CP as per cementing program, observing returns at
seabed.
2.2.22. Displace cement with seawater, living approximately 5m of cement
inside CP.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.2.23. Observe by TV the position of PGB; if PGB is stable, check for
back flow and back off the running tool. If PGB is not stable or has
not been landed on the TGB, support the casing with the running
string and wait on cement before releasing the running tool.
2.2.24. POOH cement stinger up to the Housing and wash the same with
seawater, then POOH completely.
2.2.25. Run with jetting head and wash guideposts.
2.3. Pilot Hole
2.3.1. When drilling a pilot hole use the universal guide frame (UGF) on
top of the TGB to provide guidance and centralisation of the bit
over the first 10-20m.
Additional centralises lugs may have to be welded on the
circumference of the guidance section of the UGF for this purpose.
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.2. DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
1. SURVEYING POLICY
Reference
1.1. All development wells will be surveyed from the wellhead to, at
least, the lowest hydrocarbon bearing zone.
P-1-M-6120 4.1
1.2. All exploration wells will be surveyed from the surface conductor
shoe to TD.
P-1-M-6120 4.1
1.3. Surveying tool selection will be based on the anti-collision
requirements, surveying equipment accuracy, target size and
depth.
P-1-M-6120 4.1
1.4. The basic surveying AGIP minimum requirements for vertical and
deviated wells are listed in Table OP 2.3 and Table OP 2.4
2. GENERAL SURVEYING REQUIREMENTS
Reference
2.1. All magnetic surveys will have to be reported after being corrected
for magnetic declination. Magnetic declination must be specified
P-1-M-6120 4.4
2.2. For other surveys, ensure that magnetic declination is considered
while aligning.
P-1-M-6120 4.4
2.3. Gyro survey output does not need to be corrected for magnetic
declination.
P-1-M-6120 4.4
2.4. The depth of a survey is the survey instrument depth not the bit
depth. This applies to MWD and survey tools.
P-1-M-6120 4.4
2.5. Azimuth will be referenced to true North.
P-1-M-6120 4.4
2.6. Bottom hole location will be extrapolated from the last survey. This
will normally not be more than 30m. To confirm the bottom hole
location the dipmeter can be used as it can survey down to around
5m from TD if hole conditions allow.
P-1-M-6120 4.4
2.7. For drilling purposes depth will always be quoted as drilled depth
and not confused with wireline depth.
P-1-M-6120 4.4
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.8. Approved Surveying Tools
2.8.1. Magnetic Survey Tool List
MSS Magnetic single shot (film)
MMS Magnetic multishot
EMS Electronic magnetic multishot
MWD Measurement while drilling
HD High resolution dipmeter
P-1-M-6120 4.2.9
2.8.2. Gyroscopic Survey Tool List
GSS Gyro single shot (film)
GMS Gyro multishot
SRG Surface reading gyro
NSG North seeking gyro (FINDER)
GCT Guidance continuous tool
FINDS Ferranti Inertial Navigation System
P-1-M-6120 4.2.10
2.9. Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates standard survey calculation method
will be Minimum Radius of Curvature.
This method is considered the most accurate representation of
well bore position, provided surveys are taken with the frequency
detailed in the surveying policy.
P-1-M-6120 4.4.3
2.10. The horizontal and vertical error of survey tools will be documented
for future reference.
The specification is given in terms of a coefficient in m/1,000m.
The current values are given in Table OP 2.3 for horizontal and
Table OP 2.4 for vertical wells
P-1-M-6120 4.4.4
3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR SURVEY TOOLS SELECTION
Reference
3.1. Survey programme for vertical holes
3.1.1. TOTCO will be acceptable only on surface holes if inclination is
less then 1.5.
P-1-M-6120 4.7
3.1.2. MSS is the standard. MWD will be run as the survey tool of choice,
if economically and technically justified.
P-1-M-6120 4.7
3.1.3. If MWD is used at the recommended frequency and the wellpath is
clear of other wells, cased hole surveys may be omitted (if it is not
dictated by local condition, legislation or third parties).
P-1-M-6120 4.7
PAGE 14 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.2. Survey Programme For Deviated Holes
3.2.1. TOTCO will be acceptable only on surface holes if inclination is
less then 1.5.
P-1-M-6120 4.8
3.2.2. MWD is the standard. MSS will be run as the survey tool of choice,
if economically and technically justified.
P-1-M-6120 4.8
3.2.3. In cased holes GMS is the standard. The FINDS tool is the most
accurate survey tool available. Platform planning is greatly
improved by its use. If anti-collision is a critical concern the
NSG/GCT or the FINDS will be used.
P-1-M-6120 4.8
3.2.4. GSS will not be run below 400m.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.2
3.2.5. Magnetic based surveying instruments will not be used as the
prime source of CW location calculation within 8m of any TW
(centre to centre distance). A gyro based surveying tool will be
used as the primary survey instrument until magnetically calculated
azimuths agree with the gyro tool.
P-1-M-6120 5.3.4
3.2.6. The accuracy of the surveying tool used on a well will be such that
the total horizontal uncertainty at target depth is reasonable,
compared to the target size. The smaller and the deeper the
target, the more stringent the survey requirements.
P-1-M-6120 4.5.3
4. QUALITY CONTROL (QC)
Reference
4.1. Magnetic Survey Tools (at Rig-site)
4.1.1. All magnetic tools will be run in non-magnetic BHA environments.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
4.1.2. Magnetic azimuth values will be considered invalid when the
survey instrument is within 8m of an adjacent casing shoe.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
4.1.3. Magnetic instruments must be run inside a sufficient length of
NMDC.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
4.1.4. Non-magnetic stabilisers will be the only type permitted for use
between NMDC's. Ferrous steel stabilisers are unacceptable.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
4.1.5. When magnetic influence is expected from adjacent casing (or
when the well is separated less than 8m horizontally from an
adjacent casing string), provision will be made to run a gyro based
survey tool on top of the MWD.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
4.1.6. Magnetic Single Shot shall be checked and tested, at surface,
before running.
PAGE 15 OF 206
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.1.7. Under particular operative conditions (high inclination angles, high
MW, low tolerance), sinker bars should be used and the survey
barrel may need pumping down.
4.1.8. During tool running, reciprocate (if wire line) and rotate (if dropped)
the string until a minute before shooting.
4.1.9. While running wire line survey, keep on top of string a Kelly Cock
in open position (with thread protector on) and keep available a
remote controlled hydraulic wire cutter on rig floor.
4.2. Gyroscopic Survey Tools (at Rig-site)
4.2.1. The landing slug will be checked to confirm seating on each run
P-1-M-6120 4.6.2
4.2.2. Survey repeatability should be within 0.5 inclination and 2
azimuth (above 10 inclination).
P-1-M- 6120 4.6.1
4.2.3. Gyroscopic tools require accurate alignment of the instrument on
the foresight/reference azimuth.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.2
4.2.4. GSS will not be run below 400m.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.2
4.2.5. GMS drift rate will not exceed 10/hr.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.2
4.3. MWD
4.3.1. A shallow depth functional test of the tool in the string will be
performed on each trip into the hole.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
4.3.2. A check survey will be taken immediately off bottom before starting
a new bit run for comparison with the previous run.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.1
4.3.3. Repeat surveys at the same point and orientation must agree
within 0.5 for inclination and 5.0 for azimuth.
P-1-M-6120 4.6.2
4.3.4. If MWD has been used at the recommended frequency as in Table
OP 2.1 and Table OP 2.2, the Gyro survey after casing set, may
be omitted (if not dictated by local condition, legislation or third
party).
PAGE 16 OF 206
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5. ANTICOLLISION
Reference
5.1. Policy
5.1.1. All development wells will be surveyed from the wellhead to, at
least, the lowest hydrocarbon-bearing zone using the minimum
guidelines specified in this section.
Anti-collision procedures will be implemented, in all cases where is
a potential collision risk according to the policies outlined in this
manual.
P-1-M-6120 5.1
5.1.2. The prime reasons for specifying an anti-collision policy are to:
Ensure a consistent method is used to evaluate and reduce
collision risks between wells.
Establish a common procedure for developing multi-well sites,
which takes into account actual well trajectory and trajectories
of already existing wells.
Establish a common procedure that discriminates between
interference from completed/producing wells and
plugged/abandoned/uncompleted wells.
P-1-M-6120 5.1
5.1.3. The contractors software must be verified and then accepted by
Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates prior to the work commencing.
P-1-M-6120 3.4.1
5.1.4. The Anti-Collision Model currently used by Eni-Agip Division and
Affiliates is based on an Ellipsoid of Uncertainty concept which
describes the location of the well bore at any depth in terms of a
probability volume determined from the errors in the equipment
used to survey the well.
P-1-M-6120 5.2.1
5.1.5. The ROU is the radius of a sphere, at a specific vertical depth,
which has the probability of containing the well path. It is a
cumulative calculation based on the product of the Horizontal
Uncertainty Factor of the survey instrument used to that point and
the surveyed depth to that point.
In field site calculations, the ROU will be increased by an amount
depending on the Dogleg Potential along a projection from the
last survey point to a lower depth of interest (e.g. TD of the section
or the expected closest approach to another well).
P-1-M-6120 5.2.2
PAGE 17 OF 206
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.2. Anti-Collision Requirements
5.2.1. Software Capabilities
5.2.1.1.
The software package should be available on rigsite to allow 'real
time' control by the rig personnel.
P-1-M-6120 5.3.1
5.2.2. Projection Technique (with Rotary Assemblies)
P-1-M-6120 5.3.2
5.2.2.1.
The projection will be made on CW accounting for the expected
closest approach to the TWs. The trend observed in the final
surveys of a rotary assembly will be used to establish the expected
trajectories.
P-1-M-6120 5.3.2
5.2.3. Projection Technique (with Steerable Assemblies).
P-1-M-6120 5.3.3
5.2.3.1.
The projection will be made on CW accounting for the expected
closest approach of the TWs. With Steerable assemblies, it will be
possible to assume a trend based on a maximum Dogleg Potential
of the assembly in a desired direction.
P-1-M-6120 5.3.3
5.3. Worst Case Projection Technique
P-1-M-6120 5.3.4
5.3.1. In the worst case condition (e.g. when the projected dogleg is
unknown or cannot be extrapolated for certain) an additional
uncertainty factor, due to the maximum Dogleg Potential of the
assembly, will be added to the applicable ROU.
P-1-M-6120 5.3.4
5.4. Considerations In Planning A New Multi-Well Site
5.4.1. Well to slot allocation should avoid crossing of well trajectories
whenever possible.
P-1-M-6120 5.4
5.4.2. Spacing of wells for the surface vertical phases will not be
subjected to SR < 1 limit, in case drilling is planned/performed
from a multiwell site where all the surface phases have to be
drilled subsequently at one time.
P-1-M-6120 5.4
5.4.3. Anti-collision procedures will apply, for the surface vertical phase,
in case drilling is planned/performed from a multiwell site where
production from adjacent wells is ongoing or during any production
while there is drilling activity.
P-1-M-6120 5.4
5.5. Interference with completed/producing wells and new wells
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1
5.5.1. Proximity calculation and projection are done regularly at the
wellsite while drilling the CW in order to confirm the CW position
within the zone X.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-c
5.5.2. While drilling within zone X to assure adequate quality and
frequency of the surveys, MWD will be used.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-c
PAGE 18 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.5.3. When the distance between TW and CW is projected to fall within
the zone X, the Drilling Supervisor (rigsite) will be responsible to
ensure appropriate action is taken to shut-in TWs, before drilling
operations proceed.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-i
5.5.4. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliate's SDE will confirm anti-collision
calculations made at the rig-site on a survey by survey basis when
the separation is inferior to the threshold of danger (i.e. be within
zone X).
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-j
5.5.5. If the separation is projected to fall within zone Y during drilling
operations, drilling operations will be stopped.
Documented approval will be required from the DM for corrective
procedures before drilling is allowed to proceed.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-k
5.5.6. Planning and drilling with separation falling in the zone Z is
unacceptable under any circumstance.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.1-n
5.6. Interference between existing, non-completed/P&A wells and
new wells
5.6.1. Planning and drilling with separation falling in the zone Z is
unacceptable under any circumstance.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.2-c
5.6.2. Proximity calculation and projection are conducted regularly at the
wellsite while drilling the CW in order to confirm the CW position
within the zone Y.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.2-d
5.6.3. While drilling within zone Y to assure adequate quality and
frequency of the surveys, MWD will be used.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.2-d
5.6.4. The Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates SDE will confirm anti-collision
calculations made at the rig-site on a survey by survey basis when
the separation is inferior to the threshold of alert (i.e. within zone
Y).
P-1-M-6120 5.5.2-f
5.6.5. If the separation is projected to fall within zone Z during drilling
operations, drilling will be stopped. Documented approval is
required from the DM for corrective procedures before drilling is
allowed to proceed.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.2-g
5.6.6. The DSR (rig-site) will be responsible for suspending drilling
operations immediately when the separation is projected to fall
within zone Z.
P-1-M-6120 5.5.2-h
PAGE 19 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.7. Plugging of completed target wells
5.7.1. Any TW which separation is projected to be less than the
threshold of danger (i.e. within zone X) above the sub-surface
safety valve (SSSV) depth less 30m, must have the SSSV closed
and the well de-pressurised.
P-1-M-6120 5.6-a
5.7.2. Any TW which separation is projected to be less than the
threshold of danger (i.e. within zone X) below the SSSV depth
less 30m compared to the planned CW, is to be plugged at least
150m below the lowest depth in zone X for the TW.
P-1-M-6120 5.6-b
5.7.3. After installation of the plug, all TW pressures will be bled down to
zero, or circulated to the appropriate kill weight fluid before drilling
commences on the CW.
P-1-M-6120 5.6-c
5.7.4. Target wells will be only brought on line when the separation is
greater than the threshold of danger (i.e. outside zone X) and
increasing steadily.
P-1-M-6120 5.6-d
5.8. Suspension of Current Well
5.8.1. When the separation to any TW is projected to be less than the
applicable threshold, the Drilling Supervisor will be advised and
drilling of the CW will be stopped.
P-1-M-6120 5.7-a
5.8.2. Operations will only resume after the proposed corrective actions
have been approved by the DM.
P-1-M-6120 5.7-c
5.8.3. A well planned or drilled with separations less than the threshold
of separation (i.e. within zone Z) is unacceptable under any
circumstance.
P-1-M-6120 5.7-d
6. WELL SITE PROCEDURES
Reference
6.1. Magnetic based surveying instruments will not be used as prime
source of CW location calculation within 8m of any TW (centre to
centre distance).
P-1-M-6120 5.8
6.2. When magnetic influence is suspected, gyro surveys will be run to
check the magnetic surveys until such time as the magnetic and
gyro survey tool azimuths agree within 2 azimuth for at least two
or more consecutive surveys.
P-1-M-6120 5.8
6.3. When proximity is critical with a steerable assembly, the MWD will
be placed on top of mud motor to ensure the survey is as close as
possible to the bit.
P-1-M-6120 5.8
6.4. When there is any doubt about the accuracy of a magnetic based
survey it will be double-checked with a gyro-based tool before
drilling ahead.
P-1-M-6120 5.8
PAGE 20 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.5. Proximity calculations will be done at regular intervals depending
on the risk of collision, but in any case, at least twice daily while
drilling.
P-1-M-6120 5.8
6.6. Only the most experienced Directional Contractor personnel will be
utilised when proximity situations are expected to be of concern
during drilling operations. If drilling conditions call for additional
personnel to cover 24hrs basis service, actions will be
implemented accordingly, agreed with the Contractor
P-1-M-6120 5.8.6
6.7. The following precautions will be observed when CWs are within
zone X or zone Y depending on the type of TW
(producing/completed well or not completed/plugged & abandoned
well):
a) Proximity calculations and projections are to be performed on
each survey.
b) Mud returns, will be monitored regularly for the presence of
cement or gas.
c) A ditch magnet will be installed on the flowline and monitored
regularly for abnormal presence of metal tailings.
d) Wherever practicable the annuli on TW's will be pressured up
and monitored regularly for sudden changes in pressure.
e) The drilling operation will proceed at controlled ROP to reduce
the potential for damage should a collision occur.
f) The drilling operation will proceed with due caution and
particular attention being paid to sudden changes in ROP,
drilling torque or other irregularities.
g) The directional driller will be on the drill floor at all times to
monitor drilling parameters.
h) Unless required for directional control, the use of drilling
motors will be avoided while drilling in this situation. If motor
use is unavoidable then a low torque motor will be the
preferred option.
i) Whenever possible use PDC bits instead of tricone bits.
j) The DS will ensure that the most experienced personnel will be
assigned for the tasks outlined above (as recommended by the
Drilling Contractor Supervisor). The DS will be notified
immediately when any indications of collision are suspected or
observed.
k) A stock of 100m
3
of drilling mud should be available for
emergency filling up.
l) Well control drills to be intensified.
P-1-M-6120 5.8
Reference List:
Directional Control & Surveying Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6120
P
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(
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)
FREQUENCY AND TYPE OF SURVEYS Vertical Wells
Platform/Cluster Template Wells Individual Wells
While Drilling After Casing set While Drilling After Casing set
Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency
30 C.P. Tocto
(template)
Bottom
GMS/SRG 30m
MSS
Tocto
At shoe
20 -13 3/8
Surface CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
13 3/8
intermediate
CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
9 5/8 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
7 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
5 Liner MSS/MWD
HDT/MMS
As required GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
Note:
1. Records after casing set may be omitted if it is not dictated by local condition, legislation, the well is clear of other
wells and good survey have been taken in open hole.
2. If SDD ( Straight Drilling Device) is in use to keep the well in vertical condition, we can suppose the well vertical
and the others survey records should be omitted.
T
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(
O
P
)
FREQUENCY AND TYPE OF SURVEYS Deviated wells
Platform/Cluster Template Wells Individual Wells
While Drilling After Casing set While Drilling After Casing set
Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency Type of
instrument
Frequency
30 C.P. Tocto Bottom
GMS/SRG 30m
MSS
Tocto
At shoe GMS/SRG 30m
20 -13 3/8
Surface CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
13 3/8
intermediate
CSG
MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
9 5/8 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
7 CSG MWD
MSS
30
150
GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
GMS/SRG 30m
5 Liner MSS/MWD
HDT/MMS
As required GMS/SRG
NSG/GCT
30m
MWD
MSS
150M
(and each trip)
Note:
1. Records after casing set may be omitted if it is not dictated by local condition, legislation, the well is clear of other
wells and good survey have been taken in open hole.
2. Records after casing set may be omitted if a cross-check with a second MWD tool or equivalent
T
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PAGE 23 OF 206
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
Tool Type Inclination Range
Error
(M / 1,000M)
0/10 4
10/20 7
GSS/SRG/MS 20/30 11
30/45 18
45/60 30
0/20 2
20/30 3.5
NSG/GCT 30/45 7.5
40/60 15.6
FINDS 0/90 0.5
0/10 9
10/20 13
MSS/MMS 20/30 20
30/45 45
45/60 55
60/80 60
0/10 2
10/20 2.2
EMS 20/30 2.6
30/45 3.5
45/60 4.4
60/90 5.2
0/10 2.6
10/20 3.3
MWD 20/30 4.3
30/45 6.3
45/60 8.5
60/90 10.5
Table OP 2.3 - Survey Tool Horizontal Uncertainty Factor
PAGE 24 OF 206
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
Tool Type Inclination Range
Error
(M / 1,000M)
Finds 0/90 0.5
0/10 2.5
10/20 3.7
Magnetic 20/30 5.5
30/45 10
45/60 15.3
60/80 17.3
0/10 2.2
10/20 2.7
Gyro 20/30 3.5
30/45 5.7
45/60 7.8
Table OP 2.4 - Survey Tools Vertical Uncertainty Factor
PAGE 25 OF 206
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.3. TRIPPING AND STRING COMPOSITION
1. BEFORE TRIPPING
Reference
1.1. The Company Drilling and Completion Supervisor shall be present
on the rig floor at the beginning of every trip to check for fill-up.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-1
1.2. Before the start of tripping out of the hole with drill pipe, the
following criteria must be followed, unless authorised by Company
Drilling and Completion Manager/Drilling Superintendent:
Bottoms up must be circulated.
No loss of circulation must be recorded.
No indication of on influx.
The mud density going into and coming out of the hole shall
not differ more than 24g/l (0.2ppg).
P-1-M-6140 7.1-2
1.3. A flow check shall be taken at the following points:
Immediately above off bottom.
At the lowest casing shoe (regardless of the fill-up status).
P-1-M-6140 7.1-3
1.4. Prior to the start of tripping out, make sure that mud is conditioned
in order to have the minimum gel strength value within the desired
values.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-4
1.5. A short trip shall be performed before tripping out of
overpressurised zones, unless advised otherwise by the Company
Drilling Manager and/or Superintendent.
The following procedure shall be carried out for a short trip:
Pull 5 to 10 stands at normal speed, making sure the hole is
taking the proper amount of mud (no swabbing). Use the trip
tank accurately.
Run back to bottom.
Perform a flow check on the bottom.
Circulate and check bottoms up.
If an influx is detected, increase the mud weight as
necessary.
A second short trip may be required.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-25
1.6. Prior to pulling out of hole, the drill pipe should be slugged with a
heavy pill. The volume and density of the pill should be determined
by Company Drilling and Completion Supervisor based on the
following factors:
Density of mud in the hole.
Mud rheology.
Capacity of the drill pipe.
Hole depth
P-1-M06140 7.1-6
PAGE 26 OF 206
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.7. As a general rule, it is preferable to pump a small volume pill of
high density than a large volume pill of low density.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-6
1.8. Under the following circumstances, the use of slug pill should be
avoided:
Shallow hole.
Possibility of damaging the reservoir with weighting agent.
When an increase in mud weight should be avoided in order to
prevent mud losses and/or fracturing the formation.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-6
1.9. As a general rule, if the hole fails to take enough mud, run the drill
string to bottom and circulate bottoms up.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-10
1.10. A suitable safety valve, threaded (or with proper connections) to fit
each pipe connection included in the string, must be on the rig
floor, in the open position ready for use with proper fittings and
handling devices. The closing/opening wrench must be readily
available for immediate use.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-14
1.11. Before each trip, the rotary slips shall be inspected for worn or
broken inserts and any replacements made. Replacement inserts
should be available on the rig at all times.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-5
1.12. Fill and make test on trip tank.
Always use the trip tank (in and out) and accurately record
volumes to make sure the hole is taking/giving the proper amount
of fluid. If any discrepancy is observed, the Driller shall
immediately inform the Tool Pusher and Company Drilling and
Completion Supervisor.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-9
2. WHILE TRIPPING
Reference
2.1. A flow check shall be taken at the following points:
Immediately above off bottom.
At the lowest casing shoe (regardless of the fill-up status).
P-1-M-6140 7.1-3
2.2. The Wiper rubber should be used when pulling or running the drill
pipe to prevent any objects falling into the hole. Do not install the
wiper rubber while tripping out the first 10 stands in order to
observe the fluid level
P-1-M-6140 7.1-7
2.3. Always use the trip tank (in and out) and accurately record
volumes to make sure the hole is taking/giving the proper amount
of fluid. If any discrepancy is observed, the Driller shall
immediately inform the Tool Pusher and Company Drilling and
Completion Supervisor.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-9
PAGE 27 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.4. The trip (or fill-up) sheet shall be filled in on the rig floor while
tripping. The Driller shall submit the trip sheet to the Company
Drilling and Completion Supervisor at the end of the trip or when
requested.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-12
2.5. Any time a trip is interrupted, the hand tight installation of a safety
valve is recommended.
P-1-M-6140 7.1.15
2.6. If possible, and if required by hole conditions, rotate the string
when tripping to prevent sticking while standing back pipe.
P-1-M-6140 7.1.17
2.7. Use pipe spinner or chain under the following(circumstances:
Tripping out core barrel
Caving problems are encountered
Tripping out from thief zones
Tripping out from kick off zones (deviated holes, sidetrack,
etc.).
Handling BHA
Pulling string with an expected washout.
Pulling a broken string or fish.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-18
2.8. The standard break out technique should be adopted in order to
have all the tool joints in the drill string broken out and doped
alternatively.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-19
2.9. In case of drag when tripping out, do not exceed a reasonable
value of overpull usually
1
/
3
of string weight. This value should be
adjusted to hole conditions, drill string design and stabilisation and
hole profile (vertical, side track, directional). If necessary, work the
pipe (i.e. rotate) and/or install a Kelly and circulate to pass through
the tight spot.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-21
2.10. If drag is encountered when tripping in, install the Kelly and
wash/ream the free zone. Never attempt to push the bit through a
ledge. No weight should be placed on the bit during reaming.
Torque, and sometimes pressure, are the only guide parameters
to perform this operation. While reaming pay attention in order to
avoid making a new hole
P-1-M-6140 7.1-22
2.11. Report, in details, depths and over pulls of troublesome zones on
IADC and Company Daily Drilling Report.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-23
2.12. Torque all joints to the API recommended value.
P-1-m-6140 7.1-24
PAGE 28 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.13. Gauge accurately the residual diameter of the bit and stabilisers in
order to plan a subsequent reaming operation or change the
drilling string design if a PDC or diamond bit is scheduled. It is
recommended to use a three-point gauge ring if available.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-26
2.14. The blind or shear rams must be closed every time tools are out of
the hole.
P-1-M-6140 7.1-27
3. STRING COMPOSITION
Reference
3.1. Preliminary
3.1.1. Each string component run in hole for the first time shall be
appropriately drifted.
3.1.2. The string shall be drifted every time the use of a dart or a setting
ball is programmed.
3.1.3. A detailed sketch of every tool running in hole shall be prepared.
3.1.4. A BHA scheme, including the following data, shall be prepared and
available on rig floor (see example in Table OP 2.5):
Outside diameters
Inside diameters
Partial length
Progressive length
Serial numbers
Partial weight
Progressive weight
Bit total flow area
Position of TOTCO ring
3.1.5. BHA components without serial number and/or NDT report shall
not be run in hole.
3.1.6. As general rule, the number of drill collars must be calculated in
order to have neutral point at about
2
/
3
of the total drill collars
length.
Anyway drill pipes must never work in compression.
3.1.7. Verify that specific dope types are used for DC and DP threads.
3.1.8. Verify that correct make up torque for each connection is applied.
3.1.9. Verify that correct type of tongs are used for each DC diameter.
3.1.10. Periodically verify the exact calibration of the tong dynamometer.
PAGE 29 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.2. Stabilisers
3.2.1. Even new, stabilisers OD shall be verified with a three point
calliper.
3.2.2. Check for fishing neck proper length.
3.3. Drilling Jar
3.3.1. Drilling jar shall be positioned either in tension or in compression (if
allowed by tool specifications).
Avoid running the drilling jar in correspondence of the neutral
point.
When calculating the forces on the jar, pump extension force will
be considered.
M-1-M-5003 4.6.5
M-1-M-5003 4.6.6
3.3.2. Every trip look for hydraulic oil leakage and replace jar if any.
3.3.3. J ar pre-setting value must be checked prior to run in hole, to verify
if the margin of overpull is sufficient to operate the jar.
3.3.4. After a certain amount of rotating hours drilling jar will be replaced.
Never exceed the maximum rotating hours value (as tool
specification) before service the jar.
M-1-M-5003 4.3.6
3.3.5. Replace the jar as soon as possible after jarring or bumping has
been carried out.
M-1-M-5003 4.5.8
3.4. Shock absorber
3.4.1. Shock absorber (if used) must be positioned nearest the bit
without interfere with packed hole assembly (above the third
stabiliser).
Bit +NB +SHDC +STAB +1 DC +STAB +Shock Tool +1 DC
+STAB+.
3.4.2. With shock tool on surface apply torque with two tongs to verify the
tool torque transmission efficiency.
3.4.3. At every trip look for hydraulic oil leakage and/or excessive axial
clearance and replace tool if any.
3.4.4. After a certain amount of rotating hours shock absorber will be
replaced. Never exceed the maximum rotating hours value (as tool
specification) before service the shock absorber.
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling J ar acceptance and Utilisation Procedures STAP-M-1-M-5003
PAGE 30 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
Type
Serial
number
OD
Inc
ID
Inc
Partial
length
mts
Total
length
mts
Partial
weight
Ton
Total
weight
Ton
Make-up
torque
Kgm
Notes
DP "S135"
DP"E75"
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
HWDP
X/O
DC
DC
J AR
DC
X/O
DC
DC
DC
DC
DC
DC
STAB
DC
SHOCK T.
STAB
MONEL
STAB
SHDC
NB
BIT TFA:
Table OP 2.5 - BHA Scheme Example
PAGE 31 OF 206
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.4. MUD SERVICES
1. OPERATIONS & MUD CHARACTERISTICS
Reference
1.1. Mud characteristics
1.1.1. No variation from the mud programme is permitted without
previous discussion with and approval of the Company Shore Base
Drilling office.
P-1-M-6140 6.1-d
1.1.2. Mud weight and funnel viscosity shall be recorded at least every
30mins at the flow line and suction pit.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.1.3. When circulating gas cut mud and/or bottoms up, the following
data shall be recorded:
Mud weight
Salinity
Maximum gas
Pit level
Interested volume
Depth and time.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.1.4. The Mud Engineer shall check mud weight at the shakers and
downstream of the degasser continuously when circulating gas cut
mud and/or bottoms up.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.1.5. Rheology shall be checked three times a day or more frequently if
requested by Company Drilling and Completion Supervisor.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.1.6. Any addition of oil to the water base mud system shall be
previously approved by Company Drilling Office.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.2. Safety Actions
1.2.1. The active mud pit level shall be monitored by the mud engineer or
by the derrick man at least every 30 minutes.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.2.2. An automatic pit level device shall be installed and operational, at
all times, on all mud pits and on the trip tank. A pit volume recorder
shall be continuously working on the rig floor and on the Mud
Logging Unit.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.2.3. Gas detectors shall be operational at all times.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.2.4. The degasser shall be used whenever gas presence in the mud is
indicated by the gas detector.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
PAGE 32 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.2.5. If H
2
S is present safety precautions will be adopted as specified in
(STAP-P-1-M-6150).
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.2.6. On offshore rig a ventilation room that provides at least one
complete air change cycle every two minutes will be installed in the
mud pit room.
P-1-M-6140 6.2
1.3. Oil-Base Mud
1.3.1. To avoid pollution, precautions shall be in place (drains from the
rig floor and shale shakers, cuttings treatment, etc.) in order to
avoid environmental spillage.
P-1-M-6140 6.3-a
1.3.2. Well control is affected by the use of oil based mud as it can
create hazards while handling drilling gas and gas kicks. Since a
gas influx may dissolve completely into the drilling fluid, small
influxes of gas are more difficult to detect. Gas expansion and pit
gain do not occur as the influx is circulated toward the surface.
Detection may be delayed until the influx is only a few hundred feet
from the surface when the well suddenly starts to flow. Usually
there is little time for the rig crew to react to divert the flow.
P-1-M-6140 6.3-g
1.3.3. The basic guidelines when drilling with oil based muds are the
following:
When drilling or coring known gas formations, be aware of
potential for gas break out and sudden unloading.
When back on bottom after tripping with gas formations
exposed to the open hole, be alert to sudden unloading of the
hole as bottoms up near surface.
A suspected but not detected influx shall be circulated to a
predetermined distance below the BOP stack (e.g., 500ft), the
annular or upper pipe rams will then be closed and bottoms
up circulated out through the choke, under control to the
mud/gas separator.
P-1-M-6140 6.3-j
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
PAGE 33 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.5. OPEN HOLE LOGGING
1. GENERAL NOTES
Reference
1.1. The Company Well site Geologist is responsible for log quality.
The Company Drilling and Completion Supervisor still retain overall
responsibility particularly related to operating efficiency and safety
and shall support the Company Well Site Geologist to ensure
overall log quality.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-6
1.2. The Company Drilling and Completion Supervisors must be sure
the Logging Engineer has dimensional drawings of all tools run in
hole, has appropriate overshot for all tools and appropriate
crossovers are available on the rig floor for a possible fishing
operation of logging tools.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-10
1.3. The Logging Engineer shall immediately inform the Company
Drilling and Completion Supervisor of any obstacle or difficulty
encountered while running or pulling out of the hole.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-7
1.4. The weak point in the logging string shall be checked and changed
regularly to avoid its premature breaking when running tools under
normal hole conditions.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-9
1.5. During wireline operations, the mud level shall be continuously
monitored with the trip tank, particularly, while pulling out logging
tools.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-4
2. WELL PREPARATION
Reference
2.1. Prior to logging, the hole shall be circulated clean and the mud
conditioned.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-1
2.2. Check that the mud samples have been collected, properly
labelled and given to the Logging Engineer for resistivity
measurements.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.2-3
2.3. After logging and prior to running casing, a wiper trip shall be
carried out to condition the hole.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-2
2.4. If there is a long logging period or before a RFT, an intermediate
wiper trip shall be run if deemed necessary by the Company
Drilling and Completion Supervisor.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1-3
PAGE 34 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3. LOG FISHING
Reference
3.1. The weak point in the logging string shall be checked and changed
regularly.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.9
3.2. The normal procedure to attempt to free a stuck tool is to pull
tension on the wire up to just below the breaking strain of the weak
point, or as advised by the Logging Engineer
P-1-M-6140 13.1.6
3.3. The Company Drilling and Completion Supervisors must be sure
the Logging Engineer has dimensional drawings of all tools run in
hole, has appropriate overshot for all tools and appropriate
crossovers are available on the rig floor for a possible fishing
operation of logging tools.
P-1-M-6140 13.1.1.10
4. SAFETY
Reference
4.1. Explosives sources
P-1-M-6140 13.1.4
4.2. Radioactive sources
P-1-M-6140 13.1.5
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
PAGE 35 OF 206
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.6. CASING/LINER RUN
1. CASING
Reference
1.1. General Notes
1.1.1. The Company Drilling Engineer should be present on the rig,
whenever possible, for the intermediate casing operations and to
assist the Drilling Supervisor during critical phases, providing
technical assistance.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2
1.1.2. Whatever the diameter, all production casing connections must
have metal-to-metal seals.
1.2. Preparation
1.2.1. Casing shall be accurately measured and drifted. Each joint shall
be drifted with on API drift or a specially built drift in case of non-
standard casing.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-2
1.2.2. The joints will be counted and each joint numbered.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-3
1.2.3. The joints to be excluded from the string will be clearly marked. A
special mark for defective joints will be used and specified in the
manifest for back loading.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-4
1.2.4. Crossover joint thread connections should be drifted and checked
for thickness and correct thread type.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-5
1.2.5. Threads should be cleaned with a high-pressure stream of water
or an evaporating solvent such as Varsol, otherwise manually
cleaned on API connections.. Diesel left in the thread roots can
prevent the thread compound from forming an effective seal.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-6
1.2.6. Casing shall be visually inspected to check hooks used in the box
and pin ends while handling did not damage it.
A-1-M-1000 3.5.2
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-7
1.2.7. Casing shall be accurately measured and drifted. Each joint shall
be drifted with on API drift or a specially built drift in case of non-
standard casing.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-2
1.2.8. Ensure that the cement plugs are compatible with the inside
diameter of the casing string.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-15
1.2.9. The float equipment and casing accessories will be inspected.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-9
1.2.10. The joints between shoe and collar couplings should be loose
otherwise spare couplings should be ordered to provide a means
of thread locking both sides of the couplings.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-12
PAGE 36 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.2.11. Ensure that the cement plugs are compatible with the inside
diameter of the casing string.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-15
1.2.12. Casing power tongs and associated equipment shall be visually
inspected to ensure it is of proper size and condition.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-16
1.2.13. The drill line shall be cut and/or slipped prior to running casing,
regardless of its condition.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-17
1.2.14. Links, elevators, hook assembly and draw work brakes shall be
inspected by Magnaflux prior to running heavy strings.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2-18
1.3. Preliminary Operations
1.3.1. After open hole log, a trip to bottom is recommended to condition
the hole and mud. The Mud Engineer shall check and, if
necessary, adjust the mud properties. Plastic viscosity, yield
strength and weight shall be kept as low as possible.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-1
1.3.2. Retrieve the wear bushing.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-5
1.3.3. Replace the upper pipe rams with the correct size of rams for the
casing to be run. A pressure test of the bonnet and rams seals
shall be performed when the pipe rams are changed
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-4
1.3.4. Do not lay down the BHA unless unavoidable. Before running 7"
casing, breakout BHA and 5" DP. While waiting on cement lay
down the BHA and 5" DP.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-6
1.3.5. Calculate the maximum allowable overpull while running casing.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-10
1.3.6. Check the length of elevator links several days in advance for
fitness with equipment i.e. spider, circulating/cementing heads,
circulating casing packer.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-13
1.3.7. Test the sealing adapter 30"-20" shoe for perfect fit.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-17
1.3.8. Landing joints are to be inspected and selected to avoid
interference with wellhead. The coupling must be minimum a 2m
from casing hanging point.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-11
1.3.9. Check casing clamp inside diameters to assure free passage of
positive centralisers.
A-1-M-1000 6.6.1
1.3.10. Install centralisers as per the Drilling Programme when the casing
is on the pipe rack, in order to avoid time wasting during casing
running
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-15
PAGE 37 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.3.11. Check shoe and collar integrity.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-16
1.3.12. Check subs, crossovers, stage collar, ECIP for correct threads,
dimensions, etc.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-21
1.3.13. Visually inspect the casing internal surface on the pipe rack to
ensure that all joints are free from foreign matter.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.4-22
1.4. Running Procedures
1.4.1. A tested circulating sub, fitting the casing thread, equipped with a
WECO connection, shall be readily available on rig floor at all
times in open position and without thread protector.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-1
1.4.2. Use thread lock compound in all the connections on and below the
float collar (or landing collar).
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-4
1.4.3. Make-up torque must be in accordance with manufacturers
specification and corrected with the relative friction indices of the
thread compound in use.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-8
1.4.4. After running 6 joints, make up the circulating head and test the
float equipment pumping at the maximum displacement rate.
Record pressure losses due to collar and shoe at various flow
rates.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-6
1.4.5. Back-up tongs and make up joint analysers, including a torque
limitor, shall always be used when running metal-to-metal seals.
1.4.6. Rotary slips with safety clamp and side door elevator may be run
to a weight equal to 60% of the rating for the elevators. Beyond
such value, use slip power elevator and spider. Anyway slip power
elevator and spider shall always be used when running casing in
open hole.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-9
1.4.7. The maximum casing running speed should be calculated for the
well specific mud properties and formation integrity. As a rule of
thumb, running speed should never exceed 0.6m/sec. (20sec/joint)
inside casing and 0.3m/sec. (40sec/joint) in open hole
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-11
1.4.8. While running the casing compare the actual string weight and pit
level, with theoretical values previously plotted, in order to detect
any possible abnormal condition.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-12
PAGE 38 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.4.9. Intermediate circulation is generally not necessary, however it may
be advisable under the following circumstances:
When the weight indicator shows excessive dragging or a
tendency to stick.
When an excessive amount of mud cake, cuttings or shale is
expected.
When it is anticipated that returns will be lost if excessively
high pump pressure is required to break circulation at bottom.
At the previous casing shoe.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-14
1.4.10. At the previous casing shoe depth fill up the string completely and
circulate the volume inside the casing. Check levels and start
circulation at a very low pump rate increasing gradually up to the
maximum allowable displacement rate. Record the circulating
pressures at the various flow rates.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-19
1.4.11. With the casing at TD circulate the total hole volume, following the
procedure in step 1.4.10.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.5-17
2. CORROSION RESISTANT ALLOY (CRA) CASING OPERATIONS
Reference
2.1. Preliminary Operations
2.1.1. Pre-job meetings for running CRA (Corrosion Resistant Alloys)
must be held between the Eni-Agip Drilling Representative, the
Thread Inspector and the Casing Make up Supervisor to discuss
the procedures and responsibilities of the operations and the make
up criteria
P-1-M-6140 12.2
2.1.2. Chrome tubulars are extremely susceptible to galling and to local
cold working if improperly stressed or impacted during shipping
and handling.
Excessive bending during lifting of single joints, or bundles of
joints, can also cause unacceptable levels of stress to be imparted.
Improper handling can lead to an increase in hardness or change
in mechanical properties which may result in detrimental forms of
corrosion such as sulphide stress corrosion cracking and uneven
corrosion
P-1-M-7120 8.2
2.1.3. CRA casing should be set on racks to allow enough space for a
360 revolution for cleaning and inspection.
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-2
2.1.4. Ensure drift mandrels conform to API requirements or the
manufacturers specification (Teflon drifts are recommended).
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-3
PAGE 39 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.1.5. Always have clean thread protectors on the connections when
moving or handling pipe
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-4
2.1.6. Ensure the accuracy of the torque/time/turn recorder when running
CRA casing
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-6
2.1.7. Always use a stabbing guide to assure the connection is stabbed
with no thread or seal damage.
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-7
2.1.8. Ensure that the correct sized and serviceable tubular safety clamp
is available for first few joints.
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-8
2.1.9. Protect the areas CRA casing when is moved with wooden cover
(V door, ramps, rack, etc.).
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-9
2.1.10. Special CRC stop collars (without nails) are imperative for CRA
casing as well as non marking jaws on the power tongs.
P-1-M-6140 12.2.1-11
2.2. Transportation
2.2.1. Chrome tubulars will be dispatched from the mill in special
transport frames. These will be loaded into wooden crates for
shipment. The tubulars will be covered by nylon sheets, and
wrapped with Drilltec Econorap. The transport boxes are designed
to prevent movement of, and contact between individual joints
during transportation. The wrapping will also minimise the risk of
the tubing coming into contact with seawater during transportation.
The transport frames will be removed from the wooden crates prior
to shipment offshore.
A-1-M-1002 3.1.1
P-1-M-7120 8.2.2
2.2.2. Proper thread protectors shall be in place during the transportation
A-1-M-1002 3.1.3
2.3. Marine Transport
P-1-M-7120 8.2.4
2.3.1. The transport frames will be arranged on deck in order to
prevent longitudinal movement.
Protection, such as tyres or heavy rope, will be used to
protect the transport frames from other cargo.
The transport frames will not be stacked more than three
high.
No other cargo will be placed on top of the transport frames.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.4
PAGE 40 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.4. Road Transport
2.4.1. The transport boxes will be properly loaded, and supported
along their entire length.
Chrome tubulars will not be removed from their transport
frames until arrival on the installation.
Security of the bolts on the transport frames will be checked
by a Company representative, or an approved designate,
before lifting to ensure that the tubulars are secured, and so
prevent movement of the tubulars within the transport frames.
The transport frames will be secured using nylon straps.
Any loose tubing should also be secured by nylon straps
P-1-M-7120 8.2.3
2.5. Handling at the well site
2.5.1. Chrome tubulars must not be allowed to contact other metallic
material, including supports and tubulars of the same material.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-1
2.5.2. Where metal impact or handling devices have inadvertently been
used the tubing joint will be set aside for further checking.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-3
2.5.3. Plastic supports will be used to support chrome tubulars and
prevent rolling. Wood and rope are not recommended, as they
tend to retain moisture, and may become contaminated with
chlorine or other chemicals harmful to chrome tubulars.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-5
2.5.4. The recommended stacking heights for various sizes of tubing are:
7 29lbs/ft 6 rows
5
1
/
2
17lbs/ft 8 rows
4
1
/
2
12.6lbs/ft 9 rows.
A-1-M-1002 3.3.7
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-6
2.5.5. Chrome tubulars will have sufficient supports to accommodate the
weight and number of pipe, and will be laid out with enough space
for a full 360 revolution for cleaning and inspection purposes.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-7
2.5.6. The supports will be properly spaced to prevent bellying of the
pipe, and so prevent water accumulation
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-8
2.5.7. Plastic or Teflon drift must be used. Drifting cable must be coated
as well.
A-1-M-1002 3.4.1
2.5.8. If driftable open-ended protectors are provided then they will be
installed (after cleaning as above), and the tubing drifted with the
appropriate size drift.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-10
PAGE 41 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.5.9. If closed end protectors are provided then they will be installed
after drifting the tubing
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-11
2.5.10. The tubing will be drifted from end to end using a nylock drift to
API spec. The drift dimensions will be as per (API RP 5A5):
7" 29lbs/ft 6.059" (153.9 mm)

5
1
/
2

" 17lbs/ft 4.767" (121.1 mm)
4
1
/
2
" 12.6lbs/ft 3.833" (97.3 mm).
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-12
2.5.11. The use of water steam cleaner is recommended for thread
cleaning.
A-1-M-1002 3.4.2
2.5.12. As each row is laid out the thread protectors will be removed and
cleaned and the threads cleaned and inspected by an approved
thread inspector, i.e.:
Clean the threads using a steam jet.
Do not use oil-based solvents and wire brushes.
Dry the threads with compressed air.
Apply a thin coating of Molycote to the clean threads.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-9
A-1-M-1002 3.4.2
2.5.13. If a joint is rejected for any reason, i.e. fails to drift, or if the
threads are damaged, the joint will identified with red paint. It will
then be repackaged and sent back onshore. A report detailing the
reason for rejection will be sent to the Workover Superintendent in
the Company office.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-15
2.5.14. The tubing will be measured from the end of the coupling to the pin
threads by the designated Company Representative and the entire
length corrected for make up loss. For shouldered connections
measure the length from box end to the shoulder on the pin.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-16
2.5.15. Record the joint number as per stencilled description. The
measurements will be recorded on the tubing tally form.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5-17
2.6. Running
2.6.1. Before running any chrome tubulars, a pre-job meeting will be held
with all relevant personnel, i.e. drill crew, tong operators, deck
crew, crane operator, etc. to ensure that they are aware of their
responsibilities.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7
2.6.2. Padding material will be fitted to the V door and catwalk areas to
prevent damage to the tubulars.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-1
PAGE 42 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.6.3. The power tongs will be fitted with the correct size non-marking
dies.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-2
2.6.4. Single joint and side door elevators will be fitted with non-metallic
inserts.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-3
2.6.5. Confirm that the torque turn analyser has been correctly set-up.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-4
2.6.6. Pick up lines to the single joint elevators will be arranged to allow
the joint to be stabbed to hang vertically over the hole, so that no
undue pull will be exerted on one side during make up
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-5
2.6.7. The tubulars will be transferred to the catwalk with thread
protectors installed. Nylon slings wrapped around the joints will be
used for lifting purposes.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-6
2.6.8. Use single joint pick up elevators for handling tubulars onto the drill
floor.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-7
2.6.9. Tubing slips will be dressed with low stress dies.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-8
2.6.10. Care will be taken when setting pipe in the slips to prevent shock
loading and impact damage.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-9
2.6.11. After removing the thread protector the threads will be cleaned and
inspected (if not already done on the pipe deck).
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-10
2.6.12. Any joints with damaged threads will be laid out, and clearly
identified
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-11
2.6.13. The elevator must be placed on the pipe only after the joint is
made-up.
P-1-M-6140 12.2.2-2
2.6.14. A safety clamp will be securely placed around the joint located in
the slips to prevent slippage (X line or flush coupling).
P-1-M-6140 12.2.2-3
2.6.15. A non-metallic (i.e. plastic) stabbing guide will be used to guide the
pin correctly into the box.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-13
2.6.16. The joint will be lowered slowly into the stabbing guide to allow the
man on the stabbing board, and the man on the rig floor to guide
the pin into the stabbing guide. Throughout the stabbing operation
the pipe should be kept as vertical as possible.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-14
2.6.17. If the stabbing operation was unsuccessful both pin and box
threads will be inspected for damage. If the box was damaged
consideration will be given to replacing it. If the pin was damaged
the joint will be laid out.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-15
PAGE 43 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.6.18. After successfully stabbing the pipe the first four or five turns of the
make up will be done by hand using a nylon strap wrench.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-16
2.6.19. The last turns will be made using a torque turn unit with a graphical
torque turn analyser to confirm the correct make up value.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-17
2.6.20. The make up speed should be between 3 to 10rpm. Final make up
should be at 5RPM.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-18
2.6.21. The running speed will be limited to a maximum of 14 joints per
hour.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7-19
2.6.22. Handle one joint at a time with a crane for racking. If it is possible
a pick-up machine must be used to lift the pipe into the V door.
The travelling basket shall be internally coated.
A-1-M-1002 4.1.1
2.6.23. Protect CRA casing moving areas with wooden cover.
A-1-M-1002 4.1.2
2.6.24. Do not use lift hooks to pick-up CRA pipe. The joints should be
lifted to the V door by nylon slings.
P-1-M-6140 12.2.2-1
A-1-M-1002 4.1.3
2.6.25. Keep thread protectors on the Pin and Box until stabbing to avoid
loose scale or debris interfering with the make-up.
P-1-M-6140 12.2.2-4
A-1-M-1002 4.2.1
2.6.26. Stabbing guide must be used
A-1-M-1002 4.2.2
2.6.27. The use of single joint compensator is recommended as an
additional aid to stabbing.
A-1-M-1002 4.2.3
2.6.28. The make-up equipment shall consist of:
Power tong with back-up
A-Q torque
J AM
A-1-M-1002 4.3.1
2.6.29. It is suggestible to start by hand the make up for CRA tubings or
small size casing (5-7)
A-1-M-1002 4.3.4
2.6.30. All unused joint must be returned to the Base Shore properly
cleaned, doped and with protector fully made-up.
A-1-M-1002 3.5.1
3. LINERS
Reference
3.1. Preliminary
3.1.1. Check aluminium ball seat receptacle is compatible with dropping
ball.
A-1-M-1000 6.4.1.4
PAGE 44 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.1.2. Check that the liner hanger slips operate properly and are
undamaged prior to running in the hole (mechanical type).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-2
3.1.3. Make sure that the distance between casing plug top receptacle
and running tool stinger is less then the length of drill pipe pump
down plug.
A-1-M-1000 6.4.1.6
3.1.4. According to the liner hanger design being used, check the proper
distance between setting tool stinger and casing plug receptacle
for the correct latch-in plugs
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-3
3.1.5. Use long running tool polished stinger (3 m) for inclined or deep
liners
For heavy liner or high angle wells, use a long stinger and packing
(>3m) and packer extension sleeve (>6m).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-12
A-1-M-1000 6.4.1.8
3.1.6. Under normal conditions, the liner will be hung with a 100 to 150m
overlap into the previous casing. If a smaller overlap is necessary
due to a particular situation, it shall never be less than 50m
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-3
3.1.7. If the rat hole exceeds the overlap, set a cement/sand plug at a
distance from the liner shoe setting depth shorter than the overlap
itself.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-4
3.1.8. Drift the drill pipe and check the ID of all tools, subs, crossovers,
pup joints of the running string to ensure passage of the drill pipe
pump down plug and for dropping ball for hydraulic liner hanger.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-6
3.1.9. Visually inspect all tools and equipment for damaged components,
dents etc. Record the shear pressure of all shear pins.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-7
3.1.10. The liner hanger OD and packer extension sleeve shall be
checked and the length measured.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-8
3.1.11. With a liner hanger assembly with a double plug cementing
system, ensure the appropriate cementing head with dual drill pipe
darts is used.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.1-10
3.2. Running & setting
3.2.1. Perform a circulating test at the liner hanger top to assure sealing
of the packing elements (O ring or V chevron).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-4
3.2.2. Under no circumstance shall rotation be allowed to the
running string; use a back-up tong for connection make-up, and
lock the rotary table (mechanical type).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-5
PAGE 45 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.2.3. At every circulation before hanger setting keep circulating pressure
at max. 80% of hanger slips setting value (hydraulic type).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-6
3.2.4. Record the exact liner and DP string weights including drag (hook
load down and up) to calculate the exact neutral point for the
setting tool release (10-15t bearing).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-7
3.2.5. When the liner setting depth is reached, start reciprocating slowly.
Break circulation pumping very slowly (100-300lpm), then increase
the flow rate to the desired value (observe for pressure surges to
avoid formation fracture) and condition the mud as per the
programme.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-8
3.2.6. Remove the Kelly, drop the setting ball, install the cementing head
with the swivel (drill pipe dart plug inserted) and indicating flag.
Prepare the rig floor by-pass manifold with double lines and valves
for direct and reverse circulations.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-9
3.2.7. After mud and hole conditioning, set the hanger following the
procedures provided by the manufacturer. If circulation time is
greater than 60min, set the hydraulic hanger before completing the
circulation and with bottoms up above the liner head (minimum
circulating volume before dropping setting ball is the DP plus
casing capacity).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-10
3.2.8. Release the setting tool and pick up circa 3ft (1m) to ensure that it
has released (never pull the stinger out of the packing or dogs
above the packer's extension sleeve).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-11
3.2.9. For heavy liner or high angle wells, use a long stinger and packing
(>3m) and packer extension sleeve (>6m).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.2-12
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Casing Handling & Running Procedures STAP-A-1-M-1000
Best Practices for Handling & Running of CRA Casing STAP-A-1-M-1002
PAGE 46 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.7. CEMENTING
1. CASING CEMENTING
Reference
1.1. General notes
1.1.1. Verify the mud pumps volumetric efficiency to ascertain the
practical value of litres/stroke during displacement.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.2
1.1.2. Cementing head shall have a minimum of two inlets with ball
valves. The pressure testing of the valves shall be performed
before the installation of the cementing head on top of casing
string.
1.1.3. Check the cementing lines and connect the cementing manifold to
the rig mud pumps. All lines of the cementing manifold shall be
flushed with water and pressure tested to 5,000psi prior to
cementing.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1
1.1.4. Record all operations on pressure recorder.
Record all mixing, displacing and bumping operations on a
pressure recorder.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-29
1.1.5. Production casing:
The slurry must be homogeneous
A batch-mixer will be used
1.1.6. Thickening time must be known before starting with a cement job.
1.1.7. A mixing tank must be used when chemicals are employed.
1.1.8. Carefully check the quantity of chemicals mixed in water.
1.1.9. The use of non-rotating PDC drillable plugs are recommended to
enable further drilling phases.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-8
1.1.10. In advance to cement job, collect water and cement samples to
assure that the chemical characteristic are the same of the
samples used for pilot test.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-9
1.1.11. Mix the cement to the required slurry weight and have the weight
checked regularly. A pressurised mud balance is recommended in
order to reduce any air entering the system to a negligible volume.
The use of this tool provides advantages:
A fluid density value that is virtually the same as that under
actual downhole conditions.
The correct water/cement ratio. It must be noted that
changing the W/C ratio, means the amount of additives in the
slurry also change.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-10
PAGE 47 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.1.12. When mixing cement, samples of slurry shall be collected in
numbered containers, taken at the start, middle and end of each
type of slurry.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-11
1.1.13. Also take water, mixing water samples and one sample of dry
cement from each tank used.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1.11
1.1.14. Circa three minutes of contact time. The use of other particular
spacers, related to mud weight and system in use, will be
specified, in the drilling programme (contact time, compatibility with
cement slurry, etc.).
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-6
1.1.15. Displace the cement with mud at the maximum permissible rate
and surface pressure, unless otherwise stated in the Cementing
Programme.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-17
1.1.16. Stop displacement in the event the pressure exceeds 70% of
casing burst pressure or 5,000 psi
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-20
1.1.17. Reduce the flow rate at the end of operation to avoid any sudden
pressure surge when bumping the plug.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-21
1.1.18. Bump the plug, pressure up to conduct the casing pressure test.
Release the pressure gradually as soon as possible to avoid the
micro annulus effect.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-22
1.1.19. The bumping pressure values are always given in the Drilling
Programme.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-23
1.1.20. Should the plug not bump, never over displace more than half the
shoe truck volume (between collar and shoe).
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-24
1.1.21. Check for back flow to ascertain if the float equipment is holding.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-25
1.1.22. If the float equipment fails, shut-in the well by closing standpipe
manifold a period at least long enough for thickening. Monitor the
pressure gauge so that required pressure can be maintained by
bleeding excessive pressure periodically.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-26
1.1.23. In this case, the pressure remaining must not exceed the observed
differential pressure between the mud and cement.
P-1-M-6140 12.3.1-27
1.2. Mudline Suspension
1.2.1. Cementing surface casing with inner string
1.2.1.1. Run all the 20" casing in the hole and stab on the landing ring.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.1-1
1.2.1.2. Run the inner string into the casing down to the shoe.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.1-2
PAGE 48 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.2.1.3. Run the two 2
3
/
8
" tubing strings into the 20-30 annulus. Tag the
landing ring and wash out with seawater. At the same time, make
up the cementing line and fill-up the 20" casing 5" DPs annulus
with seawater. Break circulation and check if the stinger O rings
are sealed.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.1-3
1.2.1.4. Pressure test the cementing line and cement the 20" casing as per
the Cementing Programme.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.1-4
1.2.1.5. When contaminated mud is being circulated out, start washing with
sea water through the 2
3
/
8
" tubing and continue the cementing job
or the displacing through the inner string
P-1-M-6140 12.4.1-5
1.2.1.6. Once the cementing job is complete, check for back-flow from the
inner string and pull out of hole.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.1-6
1.2.1.7. Pull the 2
3
/
8
" tubing strings and rig-up the 20" circulating head.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.1-7
1.2.1.8. At the end of the cement job start washing with seawater through
tubing strings.
1.2.2. Cementing casing with plugs
1.2.2.1. Disconnect the cementing line at the rig floor, keeping the
cementing head connected to the running string.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.2-2
1.2.2.2. To assure that there is no cement in the annulus above the
running tool, follow the procedure listed below for hangers
equipped with wash ports.
Record the hook load to support the weight of the running
string. Adjust the tension to the free point (neutral at the
hanger threads).
Rotate the running string to open the wash ports in the
hanger.
Reconnect the cementing line to the cementing head and
circulate out all excess slurry. Continue until the annulus is
clean.
Disconnect the cementing line.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.2-3
1.2.2.3. Rotate the running string, in the opposite direction, measuring the
downward movement of the running string.
P-1-M-6140 12.4.2-4
1.2.2.4. Energise the seal. Reconnect the cementing line and pressure test
the casing and running tool
P-1-M-6140 12.4.2-5
PAGE 49 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2. LINER
Reference
2.1. Excess cement slurry will be 20% of the dual caliper data volume
in open hole based on slurry return at the top of the liner.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-1
2.2. The slurry must be batch-mixed.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-1
2.3. Design a proper and compatible spacer to separate the drilling
mud from the cement slurry (for 150m of annulus with balanced
weight spacer possibly with 8-10 minutes contact's time).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-2
2.4. Displace cement with cementing unit (shallow liners). Use rig
pumps for deep liners.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-3
2.5. If no shear of wiper plug is observed, do not bump the plug: use
theoretical displacement volume only.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-4
2.6. Reduce the pump rate to 300-400l/min, 1-2 m
3
before the
expected bump plug. Once the theoretical volume has been
displaced, if the plug does not bump, overdisplace a maximum
2
/
3
of the shoe track volume (between the landing collar and the float
shoe).
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-5
2.7. Bump the plug with 500-1,000psi above the final displacement
pressure. However, the bumping plug value will be stated in the
Drilling Programme.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-5
2.8. Bleed off the pressure very slowly and check for back flow.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-7
2.9. Pressurise approx. 300psi in order to check the correct sting out.
Pick up the setting tool and circulate at least twice the annulus
capacity while moving the string.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-8
2.10. Pull the setting tool.
P-1-M-6140 12.7.3-9
2.11. Once theoretical volume has been displaced, if plug does not
bump, overdisplace maximum
2
/
3
of the shoe truck volume.
PAGE 50 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3. POST-CEMENTING OPERATIONS
Reference
3.1. If mechanical problems (lost circulation, etc.) are experienced
during the cementing job, or any doubt arises about cementing
results a temperature survey or CBL/CET shall be run in order to
verify the cement job quality.
P-1-M-6140 12.5.1
3.2. After WOC proceed as follows:
Disconnect the kill and choke lines.
Disconnect the flange required to set the slips.
Raise and hang off the BOP stack.
Set the casing on the slips with the desired tension (Refer to
the Drilling Programme), making sure that the slips are
properly set.
Cut and retrieve the casing.
Nipple up the new casing spool.
P-1-M-6140 12.5.2
3.3. Perform WOC applying 200psi pressure in the annulus (when
applicable).
3.4. If after WOC the annulus level is not visible fill up and make a flow
check before to resume operations.
3.5. When drilling out a liner hanger, cement and floating equipment,
with a stage tool, the following precautions shall be taken:
While drilling cement inside the casing, do not exceed 50rpm
and 2-5t WOB.
While drilling the underlying formation and until the stabilisers
are out of the casing shoe, do not exceed 50-70rpm and keep
low weight and torque on bit.
P-1-M-6140 12.5.4
3.6. Drill out DV collar, run bit down to shut-off plug and perform DV
casing test at previous casing test pressure.
P-1-M-6140 12.5.5
4. SQUEEZING
Reference
4.1. Set a Cement Retainer (CR) using wireline whenever possible at 5
to 10m above the perforations. Correlate the CCL and GR to avoid
setting the CR across a collar or perforations.
P-1-M-6140 12.6.1
4.2. Run the setting tool on drill pipe, apply 10 ton weight on the CR
and try to circulate testing the CR and the rubber seals (O rings)
by pressurising up on the annulus
P-1-M-6140 12.6.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.3. Pick-up the stinger and test the surface lines from cementing unit
to cementing head at 5,000psi.
P-1-M-6140 12.6.2
4.4. Pick-up the stinger and mix and pump the slurry. The slurry design
depends on the feeding test results. In front and after the slurry,
pump a cushion of treated water or spacer.
P-1-M-6140 12.6.4
4.5. During squeeze do not exceed fracture pressure.
4.6. Apply a moderate squeeze pressure taking into consideration the
increased hydrostatic effect of the cement column.
P-1-M-6140 12.6.8
4.7. Gradually increase downhole pressure to 500-1,000psi above the
pressure required to initiate the flow calculated with a residual
cement column.
P-1-M-6140 12.6.9
4.8. The pressure reaches a high value, help the stinger seals by
applying pressure on the annulus.
Pick-up the stinger and reverse circulate out the excess
cement. Record the volume fluid taken back.
P-1-M-6140 12.6.11
4.9. During squeeze do not exceed casing collapse pressure.
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
PAGE 52 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.8. WELLHEAD
1. BASE FLANGE
Reference
1.1. Welding Procedure
P-1-M-6140 15.2.1
1.1.1. Cut the casing at about 200-400mm from cellar deck using a guide
frame to ensure the cut is horizontal.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.1-5
1.1.2. Install the base flange, checking it is horizontal and that the lateral
outlets are aligned according to the Company Drilling and
Completion Supervisor s requirements.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.1-7
1.1.3. Perform internal welding first, then external.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.1-11
1.1.4. Once started, welding should be finished without interruption. Slow
cooling should be carried out by using appropriate insulating
systems.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.1-14
1.1.5. Pressure test the welding after complete cooling of the base
flange.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.1-15
1.2. Safety
1.3. During the time of operation to prepare and carry out the welding
of the base flange, it is absolutely forbidden to work on the drilling
floor or in proximity of the wellhead.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.2-a
1.4. Make sure that the welder has efficient ground and safety switches
conforming to CEI standards or other international/local
regulations.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.2-b
1.5. The welder and his assistant must wear protective clothing.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.2-c
1.6. The welder must never be left by himself.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.2-d
1.7. The work area must be protected from any falling objects. For this
reason a protective system with scaffolding must be built in order
to guarantee safety during the base flange welding operations.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.2-e
1.8. Pressure Testing
1.8.1. Pressure testing must be carried out using hydraulic oil after
cooling of the braden head. Temperature must be less than 50C.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.3-a
1.8.2. For pressure value of the test welding follow the drilling
programme. In any case never exceed 70% of casing collapse
pressure.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.3-a
1.8.3. Re-install test port
3
/
4
NPT plug.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.3-c
PAGE 53 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2. CASING SPOOL
Reference
2.1. Slip Installation
P-1-M-6140 15.2.4
2.1.1. All slips, packing elements and ring joints and their seats should
be thoroughly cleaned and lubricated.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.4-1
2.1.2. Clean and inspect the ID of the base flange, polishing out any
burrs or scratches.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.4-5
2.1.3. Lower the slips into the base flange bowl until they shoulder on the
casing spool, checking the correct alignment of the slip segments
and the correct position.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.4-8
2.1.4. Be sure that the correct tension is applied to the casing string
(hang off load).
P-1-M-6140 15.2.4-4
P-1-M-6100 4.15.5
2.1.5. The casing tension shall be slowly released.
Slippage between slip and casing must not be allowed.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.4-9
2.1.6. One spare set of casing slips shall be available on rig site.
2.2. Primary And Secondary Packing Installation
P-1-M-6140 15.2.6
2.2.1. Install the first primary support. Place the primary support over the
casing with the bevelled side up. Lower the packing support until it
shoulders on the body counterbore.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.6-2
2.2.2. Install the primary packing by:
Clean and oil the casing and packing thoroughly.
Fit one side of the packing lip over the casing.
Insert a clean welding rod (with the flux removed) or screw
driver between the ID of the base flange and the OD of the
packing. This will facilitate installation of the primary packing.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.6-3
2.2.3. Install the secondary packing by:
Thoroughly grease the packing and fit one side of the packing
lip over the casing.
Install the packing with a hammer as in step (4).
Drive the packing down until it contacts the first secondary
support.
Install the second secondary support by placing the
secondary support over the casing with bevel facing down.
Lower support until it contacts the secondary packing.
P-1-M-6140 15.2.6-8
2.2.4. Use new slips, packing and ring joints every time.
PAGE 54 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.2.5. The flange stud bolts must be tightened with the requested torque
using a torque wrench.
Use of a hydraulic stud tensioning system is preferable to reduce
make-up time of flanges.
2.2.6. One spare set of rubber elements shall be available on rig site.
2.2.7. A check of the tightening torque of the stud bolts must be done
during drilling and after each BOP test.
2.3. Primary And Secondary Packing Group Test
2.3.1. Test packing group with hydraulic oil as follows
2.3.1.1.
Install the test equipment.
P-1-M-6140 15.3.5-2
2.3.1.2.
During the seal test the annulus space valve of the previous casing
must be kept open with the 2 LP plug disassembled, as a leak in
the primary packing group could put the annulus space under
pressure.
P-1-M-6140 15.3.5.4
2.3.1.3.
Upon completion of the test, bleed off all pressure and unscrew
the relief needle valve so as to avoid it breaking during the BOP
stack movement.
P-1-M-6140 15.3.5-5
2.3.1.4.
Test the BOP with a cup tester. The needle valve must be
replaced in its relative test port with the needle completely open.
The annulus space valve of the previous casing must be also kept
open.
P-1-M-6140 15.3.5-6
2.3.2. For test pressure value, see drilling program. In any case do not
exceed 70% of casing collapse pressure.
P-1-M-6140 15.3.5-3
2.3.3. For all test pressure shall be kept for at least 15 minutes.
P-1-M-6140 15.3.5-3
3. MISCELLANEOUS
Reference
3.1. Lateral outlets of base flange and casing spools should be
oriented according to Company requirements (interference with
other wellheads, etc.).
3.2. Annulus pressure must be checked weekly and recorded on the
drilling report. Keep a record of the fluids pumped into or
discharged from the well.
3.3. In offshore installations use stainless ring joints, cadmium-plated
studs and bolts and sea fog protected spools.
PAGE 55 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4. UNDERWATER WELL HEAD.
Reference
4.1. Wellhead datum
4.1.1. Water depth and seabed consistency must be checked running a
metallic plate (90mm x 90mm) with HW and DP.
4.1.2. Record water depth, air gap, wellhead datum and RKB/seabed
distance on the drilling report.
4.1.3. Water depth is the distance between the seabed and Lowest
Astronomical Tide (LAT)
Calculate the drill floor to seabed distance and LAT after tagging
the seabed with the TGB, taking into account the drilling draught
and tidal variation.
4.1.4. On installation of the BOP on the subsea wellhead, a BOP
spaceout scheme shall be filled up, giving depths and dimensional
references.
4.2. Temporary Guide Base
4.2.1. Using the result of the soil test, determine the condition of the
seabed and whether the TGB should be run.
Use of a TGB is inadvisable in presence of seabed inconsistency
or excessive slope.
4.2.2. Install a slope indicator on the TGB. If the angle exceeds 5, reset
the TGB or avoid use.
4.2.3. Insert a bumper sub in the TGB running string.
4.2.4. Tension up and mark the guidelines at spider deck level before
drilling out commences. This ensures that any sinking or tilting,
during later drilling operation may be detected.
4.2.5. Observe setting the TGB on the seabed with SSTV or ROV.
4.3. Permanent Guide Base
4.3.1. Install two slope indicators on the PGB.
Check parallel alignment and verticality of posts.
4.3.2. Before cementing, check angle of PGB. If it shows more than 1.5,
pull the PGB at the moonpool and move rig.
4.3.3. During cementing job keep PGB at least 2m from seabed.
PAGE 56 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.3.4. Ensure that a spare O ring for each type of housing running tool
in use is kept onboard.
4.4. 18
3
/
4
housing
4.4.1. Before running, check the gasket sealing areas.
4.4.2. Run the 183/4 housing with the seat protector installed.
4.4.3. Spare O rings must be available on board for :
Squnch joint
Seat protector
Housing running tool
BOP testing tool.
4.5. Hangers
4.5.1. One spare hanger for each diameter in use must be available
onboard.
4.5.2. When not otherwise specified, remove the lock down rings (wildcat
wells).
4.5.3. Have a spare hanger running tool O ring onboard.
4.6. Pack Off
4.6.1. One spare pack-off for each diameter in use must be available on
board.
4.6.2. Pack-off shall be pressure tested, step by step, with water,
checking accurately the pressuring volume, to 70% of BOP
working pressure.
4.6.3. Spare O rings must be available on board for :
Pack-off running/testing tool
Retrieving/reinstallation pack-off tool
Wear bushing
Connector ring gasket.
PAGE 57 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5. COMPACT WELLHEAD
Reference
5.1. Cut all conductor pipes of the platform at the same level in order to
use the same landing string.
P-1-M-6140 15.4.1
5.2. Prior to running the wellhead, remove all lateral studs (if present)
avoiding damage during handling operations.
P-1-M-6140 15.4.3
5.3. Before running casing, wash the hanger seat (use the appropriate
washing tool if available).
P-1-M-6140 15.4.6
5.4. Wash inside the wellhead after each cementing job.
P-1-M-6140 15.4.7
5.5. An emergency slip suspension system (as back up) must be
onboard.
P-1-M-6140 15.4.8
5.6. Spare O rings and seals must be held onboard.
P-1-M-6140 15.4.8
6. MUDLINE SUSPENSION
Reference
6.1. A driveable Remote Releasable Connection may be installed on
the landing joint, which avoids sending divers to the sea floor to
release the connector for abandonment.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-1
6.2. The 30 landing ring depth will be checked, after running the 30
CP, using a special 26 skirted bit. Ensure tools are adjusted to the
ID of the mudline landing ring.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-2
6.3. Check part numbers, condition, dimensions, general compatibility
with of the tools and equipment the casing and well requirements,
tested and in good serviceable condition.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-3
6.4. A complete back-up set of seals and O rings, adequate casing
pup joints are needed to space-out the running tools and must be
available onboard.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-3
6.5. All running tools or tieback tools should be assembled to the
respective hangers to confirm that there is no damage due to
previous use or improper handling.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-4
6.6. Ensure all seals and O rings are removed from the
running/tieback tools before making them up. Running tools should
then be removed and new seals fitted.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-4
6.7. The threads should then be lubricated and protected by storing in
the proper handling case.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-4
PAGE 58 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.8. Before running the casing it is recommended that the mudline
casing hanger and the running tool be made up to the casing joints
or casing pup joint, and laid out on the pipe rack. Alternatively they
may be joined together and racked back in the derrick.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-5
6.9. Before making up the running tool to the mudline casing hanger,
reconfirm that both seal and O rings are intact and undamaged.
Thread and seal areas should be greased following the
manufacturers requirements (avoid the use of pipe or thread
compound).
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-5
6.10. Ensure that the hanger is correctly and fully made up to the
running tool.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-5
6.11. The casing landing string should be spaced with the wellhead to
ensure that any couplings are to be a min of 2m away from the
casing hanging point. Casing pup joints will be used, if necessary.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-6
6.12. Pull the bit to the mudline suspension point and wash with the
maximum flow rate possible at the casing hanger suspension
point.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-8
6.13. If available, the proper hanger landing profile clean-out tool should
be used. This tool ensures the full cleaning of the landing profile.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-8
6.14. Operation of mudline equipment must be strictly conducted as per
manufacturers instructions.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-10
6.15. Flushing the annulus through the mudline washing ports is
essential.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-11
6.16. Close attention should be paid to casing string rotation, torque and
vertical movement of the casing string to ensure that the correct
measurements are achieved, and the operations are performed
properly.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-12
6.17. Measurement of the mudline position (hanger land-off point and
top of casing hanger) must be recorded on the well report for
landing subsequent casing strings and for future corrosion
cap/tieback operations.
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-14
6.18. Verify the integrity of the casing by pressure testing after the
closure of washout ports
P-1-M-6140 15.5.1-15
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
PAGE 59 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.9. WELL CONTROL
1. PERSONNEL
Reference
1.1. It is required that each member of crew should be familiar with
every item of equipment used in well control. The minimum
personal knowledge and capabilities required for a crew member
to be considered competent is:
To have sufficient knowledge of all the equipment in order to
be able to determine when operating functions are not
working properly, and consequently, take all necessary
remedial actions to re-instate full functionality.
To have sufficient knowledge of operating procedures in
order to be able to react in due time, understanding
completely what is occurring.
To be able to correctly interpret the various abnormal
situations and take the appropriate remedial steps of action.
Carry out basic calculations, and use the results in order to
safely manage any occurrences.
P-1-M-6150 1.3
1.2. Key personnel
1
such shall have the fundamental theoretical
knowledge on kick and blow-out control techniques and also hold a
current Well Control Certificate issued by an accredited industry
training institute recognised by Governmental bodies and the
Company.
P-1-M-6150 1.3
1.3. Any underbalance drilling operation, which is normally not
authorised on wildcat, shall be approved by the Company Drilling
and Completion Manager through a well-detailed drilling
programme or by written instruction.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.1
2. RECORDING
Reference
2.1. All BOP tests, drills, function tests, any malfunctions, repair or
maintenance to the mud system and well control equipment shall
be recorded in the IADC daily reports and shall be signed by both
the Drilling Contractor's Tool pusher and Company's Drilling and
Completion Supervisor on the well site. They shall also be
recorded in the Eni-Agip Daily Drilling Report.
P-1-M-6150 7.1.1-a

1 As Key personnel is intended: Rig Manager Tool Pusher, Tour Pusher, Driller, Assistant Driller, Company Supervisor, Mud Logger
PAGE 60 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3. PRIMARY CONTROL
Reference
3.1. Primary well control is at first achieved by the implementation of a
properly prepared drilling programme, based on pore pressure
predictions, (refer to the Overpressure Evaluation Manual). This
information should allow the proposed well targets to be reached,
protecting personnel, rig equipment and Company assets.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.1
3.2. It is the responsibility of the Drilling Contractor to keep the hole full
at all times by using all the available equipment. The Drilling and
Completion Supervisor shall monitor that the correct preventive
practices are being implemented and/or conducted at all times.
Extreme care shall be taken to monitor mud volume, drilling breaks
and gas cut mud.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.3
3.3. For each phase of drilling, the MAASP value depends on the
following factors:
Mud weight.
Minimum formation fracture gradient below the shoe.
Minimum casing burst resistance of the last casing string.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.4
3.4. The MAASP shall be defined by the Company's Wellsite Drilling
and Completion Supervisor, either after setting each new casing
string or, whenever the density of the drilling mud changes.
3.5. The MAASP shall be clearly written on a Kick Control sheet that
will be posted near the choke control panel.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.4
3.6. The predetermined distance at which the Kelly is to be pulled
above the rotary should be posted on rig floor near the BOP
control panel.
P-1-M-6150 3
3.7. The Driller is responsible for carefully measuring and recording the
RPSP. The normal circulation flowrate shall be reduced
approximately to
1
/
3
in 12
1
/
4
" and larger hole sections and
1
/
2
in 8
1
/
2
"
hole sections. Awareness of these values is an important element
in killing operations, in order to avoid formation breakdown.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
3.8. Is a best practice measure and record the RPSP at three different
flow rates, with all pumps.
3.9. RPSP must be taken at the following times as a minimum:
Once per tour, or every 300m (1,000ft) intervals.
Whenever changes occur in the mud density/rheology.
Whenever changes occur in the dimension and
characteristics of the string, i.e. change in BHA, jet size, jet
plugged or jet lost, etc.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.10. On floating rigs, the RPSP shall be measured by circulating, first
through the riser and then through the choke/kill line.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
3.11. If circulating through the choke manifold, the adjustable choke
must be completely open.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
3.12. On wells in deep water, at least two or more reduced circulating
rates, pressures and corresponding choke line pressure losses
should be recorded plus the pressure losses through both lines
used in parallel.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
3.13. The RPSP pressures must be measured on the choke control
panel gauge or on the gauge, which would be used during well
control operations and recorded on the IADC report.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.5
4. SECONDARY CONTROL
Reference
4.1. Any time a drilling break is noticed, drilling shall stop (ensure no
more than 1.5m or 5ft is applied into the break) and a static
monitoring of the well shall be carried out.
P-1-M-6150 2.1.3
4.2. Space-out must be known to the Driller at all times to keep tool
joints clear of bag preventer and rams.
P-1-M-6150 4.2.2
4.3. If while tripping out a swabbing is noticed but the well is not
flowing:
Stop tripping
Run back to bottom
Circulate bottoms up
Resume tripping with extreme care.
P-1-M-6150 2.2.3
4.4. If while tripping out, a swabbing is noticed and the well is flowing:
Stop tripping.
Install on drill pipe the lower Kelly cock available on rig floor
and close the same.
Close in the well with bag type preventer.
Install the inside blow-out preventer (i.e. Gray valve) and
open the lower Kelly cock.
Strip down in hole as much pipe as safely possible following
the stripping procedures as per P1M071-7.3.2.4 / P1M6033
13.3.2.4.
Install Kelly and go through the killing procedure.
P-1-M-6150 2.2.3
PAGE 62 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.5. Top Drive operations
4.5.1. In case of kick during a trip with flow from drill pipe (in 9
5
/
8
casing
or greater):
Bring the tool joint near rotary table.
Connect TDS.
Close the lower inside BOP (standard equipment on TDS).
Break down connection between lower and upper IBOP.
Install a 6
5
/
8
Reg box 4
1
/
2
IF box crossover on top of lower
IBOP.
Install Gray valve.
Open lower IBOP.
Proceed with normal stripping procedures.
P-1-M-6150 3.1.2
4.5.2. During tripping with 3
1
/
2
DP in 7 casing, the normally installed
7
3
/
8
OD lower BOP and the 7
3
/
4
- 8 OD crossover do not allow
stripping operations, due to their large ODs. In this case avoid
making-up the top drive at first.
P-1-M-6150 3.1.2
5. KILLING PROCEDURE
Reference
5.1. Eni-Agip always require the use of the soft close-in procedure
instead of hard/fast close-in procedures.
P-1-M-6150 3
5.2. The proper method for treating the kick shall be selected by the
Company representative (Wellsite Drilling and Completion
Supervisor and/or Company Drilling and Completion Manager).
5.3. All methods to be used to bring the well under control are based
on the Constant Bottom Hole Pressure concept, as recommended
by API-RP 59 Recommended Practices for Well Control
Operations.
P-1-M-6150 5.1
5.3.1. Other permitted well control methods, depending on particular
situations, are the Wait and Weight, Drillers Method and the
Volumetric Method.
P-1-M-6150 5.1
5.3.2. Bullheading may also be considered when the other preferred
killing methods are not applicable.
P-1-M-6150 5.1
6. STRIPPING PROCEDURES
Reference
6.1. Off bottom kicks
P-1-M-6150 4.1
6.1.1. Whenever practicable and safe, the bit should be stripped back to
bottom to allow implementation of the most effective and practical
killing method.
P-1-M-6150 4.1
6.1.2. If the well is flowing, under no circumstances will the pipe be run in
the hole unless stripping-in is implemented.
P-1-M-6150 4.1
PAGE 63 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.2. If conditions require stripping using ram preventers, the lower rams
shall not be used but kept in reserve.
P-1-M-6150 4.2
6.3. Stripping through annular preventers
P-1-M-6150 4.2.1
6.3.1. To prevent premature damage to the rubber element while
stripping, the closing hydraulic pressure should be reduced to the
minimum possible.
P-1-M-6150 4.2.2
6.3.2. Stripping through ram preventers should only be considered when;
the surface pressure is greater than the stripping pressure of the
annular preventer, or if this pressure cannot be reduced to within
safe annular working limits.
P-1-M-6150 4.2.2
6.4. Bag-to-Ram stripping is preferred to Ram-to-Ram, unless surface
pressures are such that the annular cannot operate safely.
P-1-M-6150 4.2.2
6.5. Taking the above into consideration, Ram-to-Ram stripping is only
allowed with a three pipe ram BOP configuration. A two-pipe ram
BOP configuration can only allow Bag-to-Ram stripping.
P-1-M-6150 4.2.2
6.6. Stripping through bag preventer should be avoided if the pressure
exceeds 70 kg/cm2.
P-1-M-6150 4.2.
7. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS (LAND RIGS, JACK-UPS AND FIXED
PLATFORMS)
Reference
7.1. Equipment must be as specified in Guidelines for inspection or
acceptance tests of Drilling Units.
7.2. Where H
2
S is expected and when on wildcat wells, equipment
must be for H
2
S service.
7.3. On land rigs the installation of shear rams instead of the blind
rams must be evaluated with reference to local laws or to a 'Risk
analysis' performed by Eni-Agip headquarters.
M-1-M-5005 1.1
7.4. Up to 5,000 psi WP BOP stacks should have at least 2 ram
type preventers (1 pipe ram +1 blind/shear ram) and 1 bag
type preventer.
10,000 psi stacks should have at least 3 ram type preventers
(2 pipe rams +1 blind/shear ram) and 1 bag type preventer.
15,000 psi stacks should have at least 4 ram type preventers
(3 pipe rams +1 blind/shear ram) and 1 bag type preventer
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1
7.5. The minimum distance between the shear rams and hang-off pipe
rams shall be 80cm (30).
M-1-M-5005 2.1
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-c
7.6. All preventers shall be equipped with lock system device.
PAGE 64 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
7.7. A set of pipe rams must be always installed below the hang-off
pipe rams.
M-1-M-5005 2.1
7.8. The choke line configuration must allow circulating through the
sheared drill pipe.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-j
7.9. Each choke and kill line BOP outlet shall be equipped with two full
bore valves, the outer valve of which will be hydraulically operated
(preferably fail-safe closed).
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-f
7.10. Minimum diameter of choke line should be 3 ID.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-g
7.11. Minimum diameter of kill line should be 2 ID.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-g
7.12. For onshore rigs with 10,000 psi or more pressure equipment,
flexible choke and kill lines are not acceptable.
M-1-SS-5703 9.14
7.13. In any case articulated choke lines (chiksan) are not acceptable.
M-1-SS-5703 9.15
7.14. Spare parts for BOP and valves must be available on rig site.
8. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS (FLOATERS)
Reference
8.1. 10,000psi WP stack systems should have 4 ram type preventers
(3 pipe rams +1 blind/shear ram) and 1 or preferably 2 x 5,000psi
bag type preventers.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.2-a
8.2. 15,000psi WP stack systems should have 4 ram type preventers
(3 pipe rams +1 blind/shear ram) and 2 x 10,000psi bag type
preventers.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.2-a
8.3. The upper hydraulic connector, located between the BOP stack
and the Lower Marine Riser Package, shall have a pressure rating
equal or exceeding the WP of the bag preventers.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.2-b
8.4. All ram preventers shall be equipped with ram locks.
8.5. At least one ram preventer below the blind/shear rams shall be
equipped with pipe rams to fit the drill pipe in use.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.2-d
8.6. Each choke and kill BOP outlet should be equipped with two fail-
safe remotely controlled gate valves.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.2-e
8.7. Avoid choke and kill line outlets below the lower pipe rams, which
act as the 'master valve' of the BOP stack.
8.8. Spare parts for BOP's and valves must be available on rig site.
PAGE 65 OF 206
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
9. BOP CONTROL SYSTEM (LAND, JACK-UPS AND FIXED
PLATFORMS)
Reference
9.1. The accumulator system should be capable of closing each ram
BOP within 30secs.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-a
9.2. The closing time should not exceed 30secs for annular preventers
smaller than 18
3
/
4
nominal bore.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-a
9.3. The closing time should not exceed 45secs for annular preventers
of 18
3
/
4
and larger sizes.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-a
9.4. Hydraulic operating equipment shall have at least a 3,000psi
accumulator unit equipped with two regulator valves, one to reduce
the operating fluid pressure to 1,500psi and the other for further
reduction of pressure for bag type preventer operations.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-b
9.5. The capacity of the accumulators should be at least equal to the
volume (V1), necessary to close and open all BOP functions
installed on stack once, plus 25% of V1. The liquid reserve
remaining on accumulators should still be the minimum operating
pressure of 1,200psi (200psi above the precharge pressure).
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-c
9.6. The control panel shall be fitted with acoustic and visual alarms for
low accumulator pressure as well as low level in the control fluid
reservoir.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-d
9.7. A minimum of two air-driven pumps and one electrically driven
triplex pump is required for charging the accumulators. The
combination of air and electric pumps shall be capable of charging
the entire accumulator system from the precharge to full charge
pressure within 15min or less.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-e
9.8. In addition to the hydraulic master control panel, the BOP control
system shall include at least one graphic remote control panel
located on the rig floor near the Drillers console.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-f
9.9. Offshore units shall have an additional graphic remote control
panel located at a safe distance from the rig floor, usually in
Toolpushers office or adjacent to the escape route from drilling
unit.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-f
9.10. Each remote control panel shall be connected to the control
manifold in such a way that all functions can be operated
independently from each panel.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-f
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
9.11. A safety device shall be installed on the BOP control manifold and
remote panels to prevent accidental operation of BOP controls
such as the closure of the rams (pipe or shear) on the drilling
string while drilling or tripping.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-g
9.12. The BOP end of the control hoses must be flexible and fire
proofed.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-h
9.13. The BOP accumulator electric-driven pump shall be connected to
an emergency source of power.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.1-I
9.14. From the control panel on the rig floor, it must be possible to
operate the shear rams and the hydraulic by-pass (1500-3000psi).
M-1-M-5005 2.3
9.15. The pipe ram preventers shall be equipped, at all times, with the
correct sized rams to match the string in use.
P-1-M-071 7.4.3-d
P-1-M-6033 13.4.3-d
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-b
9.16. The combination of air and electric pumps shall be capable of
charging the entire accumulator system from the precharge to full
charge pressure in 15mins.
P-1-M-6150 6.1.1-e
10. BOP CONTROL SYSTEM (FLOATERS)
Reference
10.1. Two complete independent control systems (yellow pod and blue
pod) are required to ensure redundant control of all stack
functions.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-b
10.2. With charging pumps inactive, the accumulator system shall be
able to close, open and close all ram type preventers, and one bag
preventer with a resulting system pressure of 200psi or more
above the initial pre-charge.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-e
10.3. The accumulator system should be capable of closing each ram
preventer in less than 45secs and each bag-type preventer in less
than 60secs.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-a
10.4. The rig should be equipped preferably with an emergency and fully
independent acoustic control system.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-c
10.5. The associated subsea accumulator shall be mounted on the BOP
stack, not attached to the LMRP, and should have a capacity
adequate for closure of: one ram type preventer, shear rams, and
for releasing the LMRP connector.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-c
10.6. The control panel shall be fitted with visual and acoustic alarms for
low signalling accumulator pressure, as well as control fluid
reservoir low level.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-f
10.7. A minimum of two air-driven pumps and one electrically driven
triplex pump is required for charging the accumulators.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-g
PAGE 67 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
10.8. The combination of air and electric pumps shall be capable of
charging the entire accumulator system from the precharge to full
charge pressure in 15mins or less.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-g
10.9. In addition to the hydraulic master control panel, the BOP control
system shall include at least two graphic remote control panels,
one on rig floor and the other in the Rig Managers office.
P-1-M-6150 6.2.2-h
11. CHOKE MANIFOLD (ALL)
Reference
11.1. All choke and kill lines and choke manifold components which may
be exposed to well pressure shall have a working pressure rating
equal or greater than that of the preventers in use.
P-1-M-6150 6.3-a
11.2. The minimum recommended size for all choke lines and valves is
3 (76.2mm). All valves shall be of full-opening gate valve types.
P-1-M-6150 6.3-b
11.3. At least four flow wings shall be provided:
One wing to transmitting well returns directly to the discharge
manifold and shall be equipped with two gate valves.
Three wings equipped with adjustable chokes with two gate
valves upstream of each choke and one erosion nipple
immediately downstream of each choke.
P-1-M-6150 6.3-c
11.4. A graphic scheme of the choke manifold shall be posted on the rig
floor.
P-1-M-6150 6.3-d
11.5. At least one choke shall be remote hydraulically operated.
P-1-M-6150 6.3-c
11.6. During drilling operations, the remote choke shall be left in half-
open position
P-1-M-6150 3
12. INSIDE PIPE SHUT-OFF DEVICES
Reference
12.1. In shallow holes a back flow valve must be installed in the string.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-e
12.2. The Kelly or Top Drive shall be equipped with an upper and a
lower Kelly cock in functioning condition. The Kelly cocks WP shall
be equal to or greater than the rating of the preventer stack in use.
The upper Kelly cock of the top drive shall be hydraulically
operated.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-a
12.3. A spare full opening safety valve (lower Kelly cock) that is
compatible with drill pipe in use shall be stationed on the rig floor
at all times, in the open position and complete with removable
handles for ease of stabbing.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-b
12.4. A crossover for connecting the full opening safety valve to the drill
collars or tubing in use shall be also stationed on the rig floor.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-c
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
12.5. Wrench for cock should be kept handy.
12.6. With a TDS, one spare inside BOP and saver sub shall be
available on the rig site
12.7. A Gray type inside BOP, with the appropriate connection for the
drill string in use, shall be on the rig floor at all times and must be
in the open position.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-d
12.8. One drop-in type backpressure valve, complete with seating subs
to fit the drill string in use, shall be available.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-e
12.9. A wireline retrievable drop-in type backpressure valve is the
preferred type.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-e
12.10. All string tools installed above the sub shall have an ID greater
than the drop-in valve OD.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-f
12.11. A set of float valves, one for each size of drill collar, and one for
drill pipes in use, shall be kept available.
P-1-M-6150 6.4-g
13. AUXILIARY CONTROL EQUIPMENT
Reference
13.1. The trip tank system shall include centrifuge pumps, fill up the line,
recirculating circuit and a mechanical mud level device equipped
with reading indicator, easily visible to the Driller. The minimum
capacity of the trip tank should be 5m
3
(30bbls).
P-1-M-6150 7.6-a
13.2. A mud pit level volume indicator shall be installed on each tank of
the active mud system. A continuous recording pit level indicator
and totaliser, with audible alarm, is required to monitor the volume
of all active pits.
P-1-M-6150 7.6-b
13.3. The rated working pressure of the cementing lines shall be the
same as the BOP, which will not be less than 10,000psi. A
cementing line should be connected to the kill line.
P-1-M-6150 6.7-i
13.4. A mud pit level volume indicator shall be installed on each tank of
the active mud system. A continuous recording pit level indicator
and totaliser, with audible alarm, is required to monitor the volume
of all active pits.
P-1-M-6150 6.7-b
13.5. The rig shall be equipped with an adequate degasser, to condition
gas-cut mud, installed on the mud active system.
P-1-M-6150 6.7-e
13.6. On 5 OD x 5,000psi surface lines the connections must be
welded. No threads are allowed except for 2 size.
P-1-M-6150 7.6-f
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
13.7. The standpipe manifold shall be equipped with a connection, which
can be fully isolated to fit a 10,000psi cementing line and fully
isolated.
P-1-M-6150 6.7-g
13.8. The flare must be securely anchored, at least at 30m from the
centre well.
13.9. The flare line must be as straight as possible and bends must be
of the flanged type.
13.10. The ends of the BOPs hoses must be flexible and fire proof type.
13.11. Two 5 OD x 19mm wall thick standpipes and 3
1
/
2
ID x 5,000psi
WP rotary hoses with welded connections are required.
P-1-M-6150 7.6-h
13.12. The rated working pressure of the cementing lines shall be the
same as the BOP, which will not be less than 10,000psi. A
cementing line should be connected to the kill line.
P-1-M-6150 7.6-i
13.13. The burner booms/flare will be connected to the choke manifold.
They will be tied in according to the safety regulations in force for
the operating zone.
P-1-M-6150 7.6-j
13.14. An air-operated, skid mounted, high pressure, low-volume testing
unit is required for hydraulic testing of the BOP and manifolds.
P-1-M-6150 7.6-k
14. DIVERTER EQUIPMENT
Reference
14.1. Whenever possible, there must be at least two discharge lines with
the ends laterally positioned at opposite points of the rig to always
enable blowing to the leeward side.
P-1-M-6150 6.6-a
14.2. Diverter outlets and lines shall have a minimum internal diameter
of 12 for offshore rigs and 10 for land rigs. Welded flanges or
clamped connections are mandatory.
P-1-M-6150 6.6-b
14.3. Diverter valves shall be full-opening valves, preferably ball type
valves, and pneumatically or hydraulically actuated. The use of
butterfly valves is forbidden.
P-1-M-6150 6.6-d
14.4. The automated system shall be set to allow for immediate
automatic opening of the discharge lines followed by closure of the
shale shaker line before closing of the diverter packing.
P-1-M-6150 6.6-e
14.5. Each diverter system should incorporate a kill line facility (including
a check valve) in order to be able to pressure test and function test
the system and to pump water through the diverter system.
P-1-M-6150 6.6-g
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
14.6. The control system for the diverter should be capable of closing
any diverter smaller than 20 within 30secs and any
diverter/annular of 20 or larger within 45secs. Diverter valves
should be opened before the diverter element is completely
closed.
P-1-M-6150 6.6-I
15. MISCELLANEOUS
Reference
15.1. Five Walky-Talkies shall be available with charged batteries ready
to use.
15.2. The emergency system must be placed far from the normal power
system and it must have its own fuel tank able to ensure at least
24 continuous running hours.
15.3. Power emergency sources shall be connected to the following
services:
Radio communication system
Fire fighting system (offshore)
Gas monitoring and alarm system (offshore)
Navigation lights (offshore)
Divers safety apparatus (offshore)
Emergency lights in the most important place for safety.
15.4. In addition to the normal electric system and to the emergency
system, the drilling unit must be provided with a set of emergency
batteries, having enough capacity to ensure a six-hour continuous
supply of current to:
Telecommunication system
Navigation lights (off-shore)
Emergency lights placed along the ways of escape, in the
heliport, in the gathering stations for ship abandonment.
The output of the batteries set must automatically switch-on
whenever the emergency electric system as per 13.2 stops
running and the main electric system is not operating.
15.5. Emergency source of compressed air shall be connected with BOP
accumulator air-driven pump.
15.6. Cellar must always be empty and clean.
15.7. The escape ways must always be kept free and clean.
PAGE 71 OF 206
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
15.8. A minimum volume of 70m
3
of kill mud at 1.4kg/l (or at least three
times the inside drill pipe volume) shall be stocked while drilling
surface hole without a BOP stack.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-d
15.9. The pop-off valves on the mud pumps shall be set at the maximum
pressure for the liners in use.
15.10. The pump discharge must be securely fixed to the mud tank and
pump body.
15.11. The mud mixing system must be efficient enough to ensure the
maximum mixing rate while weighting up and simultaneously mud
conditioning.
16. BOP AND RISER RUNNING (FLOATERS)
Reference
16.1. Before running the BOP stack, check the weather forecast and
refer to 'Rig Operations Manual' for maximum vessel motions for
BOP running.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.2
16.2. Move the rig approximately 20m away from the hole when running
the riser and BOP stack. When the telescopic joint is picked up,
reposition the rig over the hole centre again.
16.3. When landing the stack, observe the underwater operations with
SSTW or ROV. Blind landing should only be used in emergency
situations.
16.4. Bulls-eye angle indicators must be installed above and below the
ball/flex joint and must be visible by the subsea TV.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.2
16.5. When running the riser with the choke and kill lines, it must be
tested every third joint.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.2
16.6. Upon latching the BOP stack on the wellhead housing, make a
pick up test of 15ton (30,000lbs) to verify the connector is locked
down.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.3
16.7. By pumping down choke or kill line, test the wellhead connector
and the casing against blind/shear rams to the pressure indicated
on drilling programme.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.3
17. BOP AND CASING TESTS
Reference
17.1. General Procedures
17.1.1. Contract obligations require that all Drilling Contractor's and
Company pressure control equipment must be appropriately and
regularly tested according to legislative requirements.
P-1-M-6150 7.1-a
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
17.1.2. Rig operations should not continue in the event that there is a
failure to the primary or back-up systems.
P-1-M-6150 7.1-c
17.1.3. Derogations of this rule are not allowed on exploration wells or
when there are failures on essential equipment.
P-1-M-6150 7.1-c
17.1.4. If malfunctions occur during development drilling or on marginal
equipment, the Company Wellsite Drilling & Completion Supervisor
and Drilling Contractor Toolpusher/OIM, may unanimously decide
to continue operations after being properly informed and
documented on the actual well situation.
P-1-M-6150 7.1-c
17.1.5. All pressure tests shall be performed using water.
P-1-M-6150 7.1-e
17.1.6. BOP stack, choke and kill lines shall be flushed with water prior to
testing.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.3
17.1.7. Remove the wear bushing prior to starting BOP tests.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.3
17.1.8. In all cases the maximum test pressure for each BOP test will not
exceed 70% of the rated WP of the lowest rated item of equipment
in the wellhead assembly, casing or preventer stack assembly,
whichever is the lower
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2
17.1.9. If the BOP stack test is done with the cup tester, be sure that the
casing spool valve is open and the check valve in the casing spool
also kept open by the appropriate needle valve.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.3
17.1.10. All BOP tests, drills, function tests, any malfunctions, repair or
maintenance to the mud system and well control equipment shall
be recorded in the IADC daily reports and shall be signed by both
the Drilling Contractor's Toolpusher and Company's Drilling and
Completion Supervisor on the well site.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.3
17.1.11. They shall also be recorded in the Eni-Agip Daily Drilling Report.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.3
17.2. Ram And Annular Type Preventer Tests
17.2.1. Pipe rams and annular BOPs shall be tested with open-ended cup
testers to a low pressure of 300psi (21kg/cm
2
) and to a high
pressure at least equal to the maximum anticipated wellhead
pressure.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2-1
17.2.2. If an over-sized BOP-stack is installed, the high pressure test shall
be equal to maximum wellhead 'estimated' pressure plus 30%
(anyway not less than 2,000 psi).
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
17.3. Blind/Shear Ram Type Preventer Tests
17.3.1. Blind/shear rams shall be tested using blind plug testers to the
same pressure as stated above for pipe rams.
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2-2
17.3.2. Where a plug tester is not available, the blind/shear rams will be
tested against the casing each time a new casing string has been
set, prior to drilling out the cement. In this case the testing
pressure will not be exceed 1,500psi (105kg/cm
2
).
P-1-M-6150 7.2.2-2
17.4. Kill/Choke Lines & Manifold Tests
17.4.1. Any time tests are carried out on a BOP stack, the kill and choke
lines shall be tested.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.4
17.4.2. Kill and choke lines will be tested from the choke manifold to the
hydraulic operated valve on BOP stack.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.4-a
17.4.3. Each valve of the choke manifold shall be tested individually.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.4-b
17.5. Rig Floor & Cementing Manifold Tests
17.5.1. This equipment shall be tested with water every time tests are
carried out on the BOP stack, according to the following
procedure:
P-1-M-6150 7.4.5
17.5.2. Top drive, BOPs or lower and upper Kelly cocks, standpipe and all
individual standpipe manifold valves, up to the relief valve on the
mud pumps shall be tested through a special test sub, made up on
the lower Kelly cock and installed on the Kelly/top drive
P-1-M-6150 7.4.5-a
17.5.3. After the first BOP installation, the equipment shall be tested to
their rated working pressures. On routine tests they will be tested
at least to the same pressure applied for the BOP test.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.5
17.6. Casing Tests
17.6.1. Casing pressure tests will be carried out according to the pressure
stated in the drilling programme.
P-1-M-6150 7.5
17.6.2. In all cases the test pressure will be no higher than 70% of API
minimum internal yield pressure of the weakest casing in the string
or to 70% of the BOP WP.
P-1-M-6150 7.5
17.7. The test pressure shall be held and remain stable for at least 10-
15mins.
P-1-M-6150 7.5
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
17.8. Function Tests
17.8.1. All preventers and BOP valves, with the exception of the annular
preventer and blind/shear rams preventers, should be operated at
least once every shift.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.2
17.8.2. All preventers and BOP valves should be operated every trip
(choke manifold included).
P-1-M-6150 7.4.2
18. BOP AND CASING TESTS (FLOATERS)
Reference
18.1. General Procedures
18.1.1. Prior to the BOP test, retrieve the 18
3
/
4
nominal seat protector.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.4-1
18.1.2. Fill the BOP Test Plug running string to the top with water. The
string must remain open to atmosphere during the entire test.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.4-3
18.1.3. The test must be performed using both the pods. If the yellow pod
is used for pressure test, the blue pod will be used for the function
test.
P-1-M-6140 5.4.4-4
18.1.4. Pressure test must not exceed the previous pack-off pressure test.
18.1.5. Record all pressure tests on pressure recorder charts and also
record the volumes displaced to reach the test pressures and the
volumes returned when bleeding off.
P-1-M-6150 7.1.1-b
18.2. BOP Tests at Surface
18.2.1. The complete BOP stack shall be stump tested at surface. All BOP
components shall be pressure tested to a low pressure of 300psi
and to their rated working pressure.
P-1-M-6150 7.3
18.3. BOP Tests After Landing on Wellhead
18.3.1. After the BOP stack is latched to the wellhead, a full function test
on both pods shall be carried out.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1-2
18.3.2. Choke and kill lines (from surface to the fail-safe) shall be pressure
tested to their rated WP.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1-1
18.3.3. All the BOP components shall be pressure tested with a test plug
to a low pressure (300psi).
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1-3
18.3.4. The lower connector shall be tested against one set of pipe rams
to the rated working pressure of the wellhead or the ram preventer,
whichever is lower.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1-3
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
18.3.5. All other components, with the exception of shear rams, will be
tested to a minimum pressure of 70% internal yield pressure of the
weakest joint of casing in the string.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1-3
18.3.6. Shear rams shall be tested against the casing to a low pressure of
300psi and to a maximum pressure equal to 70% internal yield
pressure of the weakest joint of casing in the string.
18.4. BOP Tests After Setting of Casing
18.4.1. The seal assembly shall be pressure tested to a maximum
pressure equal to the maximum anticipated wellhead pressure, or
70% of the internal yield pressure of the weakest item of
equipment, whichever is the lower.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.2-1
18.4.2. The test shall be performed at 500psi (35kg/cm
2
) increments until
the test pressure is reached.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.2-2
18.4.3. All BOP components shall be pressure tested to a low pressure of
300psi (21kg/cm
2
) and to a minimum pressure equal to the
maximum anticipated wellhead pressure, or 70% of the internal
yield pressure of the weakest item of equipment, whichever is the
lower.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.2-3
18.4.4. Shear rams shall be pressure tested against the casing prior to
drill out of the shoe as per the drilling programme.
18.5. BOP Tests While Drilling
18.5.1. All BOP components with the exception of shear rams, shall be
tested to a low pressure of 300psi (21kg/cm
2
) and to an high
pressure at least equal to the maximum anticipated wellhead
pressure.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.3-1
18.5.2. In all cases the maximum test pressure for each BOP test will not
exceed 70% of the rated working pressure of the lowest rated item
of equipment in the casing or BOP preventer stack, whichever is
the lower.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.3-1
18.5.3. Shear Ram Tests While Drilling:
Function test only.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.3-2
18.6. Choke Manifold Test
18.6.1. The choke manifold will tested every time tests are carried out on
BOP.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.5
PAGE 76 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
19. DIVERTER TEST (BEFORE START OF OPERATIONS)
Reference
19.1. Before start of drilling operations, perform a diverter function test
by pumping water through the open lines.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.2
19.2. Closing time on 5 DP.
Check the closing time, this time depends on the diverter type,
usually:
for type smaller than 20 should be within 30 seconds
for type sizing 20 or larger should be within 45 seconds
P-1-M-6150 9.4.3-1
20. FREQUENCY OF BOP TESTS
Reference
20.1. Routine BOP test while drilling:
Once every 14 days.
Prior to running a DST or production test assembly.
Any time requested by the Company or to meet wich local
regulations.
P-1-M-6150 7.4
20.2. Rig floor manifold and choke manifold should be tested at the
same frequency as in the routine BOP test while drilling.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.4
20.3. Each casing shall be pressured tested:
When cement plug bumps on bottom.
After have milled out a DV collar.
When blind ram are tested.
P-1-M-6150 7.5
20.4. Function Test:
Blind/shear rams shall be operated every round trip in the
hole.
The annular preventer shall be operated when the scheduled
routine BOP tests are performed.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.2
20.5. Any time the BOP stack is nippled up and after repairing
operations, all BOP operating equipment hoses, control panels,
regulator connections shall be checked and tested to the maximum
manufacturer's recommended pressure for closing and opening
the BOP's.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.3
20.6. BOP Test Durations
P-1-M-6150 7.4.1
20.6.1. The BOP 300psi low pressure test will be performed first. They are
to be held for a min period of 5mins. If the BOP does not pass the
low pressure test, do not carry out the high pressure test.
P-1-M-6150 7.4.1
PAGE 77 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
20.6.2. It is recommended that high pressure tests are held for a minimum
of 10mins.
M-1-SS 5703
App.A-B4
P-1-M-6150 7.4.1
20.6.3. The maximum acceptable pressure drop over this 10mins period is
100psi.
M-1-SS 5703
App.A-B4
P-1-M-6150 7.4.1
20.6.4. All pressure tests should be recorded on pressure charts and shall
be made available upon request by the Company representative.
P-1-M-6150 7.1.1
21. DRILLS
Reference
21.1. Familiarity Drills
21.1.1. The purpose of these drills is to familiarise rig personnel with the
various equipment and with the techniques that will be employed in
the event of a kick.
P-1-M-6150 8.1
21.1.2. Shut-In Drills
21.1.2.1.
The Drilling Contractor's personnel shall conduct drills to close-in
the well in the shortest possible time, fully comprehending the
process.
P-1-M-6150 8.1.1
21.1.2.2.
While on bottom:
Pick up the Kelly or top drive to the correct height, shut down the
pumps and then carry out a simulated well shut-in.
P-1-M-6150 8.1.1-2
21.1.2.3.
While tripping:
Lower the stand into the hole to the correct height and set the pipe
in the slips, stab-in a full opening safety valve (lower Kelly cock) in
the open position, close the safety valve, then carry out a
simulated well shut-in.
P-1-M-6150 8.1.1-2
21.1.2.4.
To train the rig crews, shut-in drills should be planned to also cover
the following associated operations:
Pull the BHA out of the hole.
Running casing.
Wire line surveying.
Logging (as well for TLC logging, if any).
Running tubing (single as well as dual completion running).
P-1-M-6150 8.1.1-2
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
21.1.3. Choke Manipulation Drill
21.1.3.1.
The choke manipulation drill should be carried out before drilling
out shoe tracks. Drilling Contractors crew should:
Run the bit to above the shoe track.
Break the circulation and record the RPSP.
Close the BOP.
Apply pressure to the well, and simulate a circulation under
kick condition using the automatic power choke and manual
adjustable choke.
Record the circulating drill pipe pressure and casing pressure.
P-1-M-6150 8.1.2
21.2. Emergency On-The-Rig Drills
21.2.1. Potential Fire On Well And Rig Abandonment Simulation
21.2.1.1.
The bit should be inside the casing shoe and not in a troublesome
zone.
P-1-M-6150 8.2.1
21.2.1.2.
The Drilling Contractors crew on duty will shut-in the well and
hang-off the pipe without opening the hydraulic valve on the choke
and kill lines.
P-1-M-6150 8.2.1
21.2.2. H
2
S Drill
21.2.2.1.
The H
2
S drill can be operated at two levels:
Alarm drills simulating the presence of H
2
S in the mud.
Emergency drill simulating the presence of H
2
S in the air, i.e.
in the shale shakers area, on the rig floor, at the mud tanks
etc.
P-1-M-6150 8.2.2
21.2.2.2.
All personnel must wear breathing apparatus and, with the
exception of the crews on duty, they must proceed to the windward
emergency safe breathing area, while the emergency crew secure
the well and simulate the delimitation of the polluted area.
P-1-M-6150 8.2.2
21.2.2.3.
H
2
S drills shall be recorded on the IADC Daily Drilling Report and
appropriate company form.
P-1-M-6150 8.2.2
21.2.3. Abandon Rig
21.2.3.1.
All personnel, except the crews on duty, must get ready to
abandon the rig. Operations must be suspended for the time the
drill is carried out.
P-1-M-6150 8.2.3
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
21.3. Well Control Drills
21.3.1. All drills and responses shall be recorded on the Company Daily
Drilling Report and IADC Report. Pit drills shall be recorded on the
Companys appropriate form.
P-1-M-6150 8.3
21.3.2. Pit Drills
21.3.2.1.
If the drill string is in open hole, the well will not be shut-in.
P-1-M-6150 8.3.1
21.3.3. Trip Drills
21.3.3.1.
The drill shall be performed with bit inside the casing shoe and
when not in a troublesome zone.
P-1-M-6150 8.3.2
21.3.3.2.
Trip drill with drill pipe in the BOP stack.
P-1-M-6150 8.3.3
21.3.3.3.
Trip drill with drill collars or tubing in the BOP stack.
P-1-M-6150 8.3.4
21.3.4. Accumulator Drills
21.3.4.1.
This drill should be conducted after each casing setting before the
BOP pressure tests.
P-1-M-6150 8.4
21.3.4.2.
The final accumulator pressure shall not be less than 1,200psi
(84kg/cm
2
).
P-1-M-6150 8.4-5
21.3.5. Diverter Drills
P-1-M-6150 8.5
21.4. Drill Frequency And Response Times
21.4.1. Shut-in drills and H
2
S drills shall be carried out on an each shift
basis at the beginning of any new activity or any time experienced
personnel are replaced with new recruits, especially when key
position personnel are involved such as the Toolpusher, Driller and
Assistant Driller. Drills shall be repeated until every crew member
gains the correct experience and training.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
21.4.2. Choke manipulation drills should be carried out prior to drilling out
surface or intermediate casings string.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
21.4.3. Potential fire on wellsite and/or abandon rig drills shall be executed
every week.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
21.4.4. Emergency drills have to be performed weekly and repeated
before entering the zone where the presence of H
2
S is suspected,
before coring, and before making DST or a production test when
the presence of H
2
S is, either, predicted or ascertained.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
PAGE 80 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
21.4.5. Pit/trip drills shall be carried out on a shift basis every fortnight.
These drills shall be conducted also when the well is nearing or
entering high pressure zones.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
21.4.6. Diverter drills shall be performed prior to drilling out the conductor
string.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.1
22. TIMING
Reference
22.1. Time is the most important aspect in shut-in drills and pit drills, and
the times required to accomplish the given task shall be recorded.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
22.2. The reaction times that can be considered as satisfactory to
accomplish different drill requirements are detailed below:
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
22.2.1. Shut-in drills. One minute from activation of the alarm signal to
being ready to close the bag type preventer.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
22.2.2. Pit drills. Not more than 2.5min from an observable change in
drilling fluid volume to the time the well is closed-in, implementing
the soft shut-in procedure.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
22.3. The correct timing for all other tests will be defined in the Drilling
Contractor's Procedures according to the equipment
characteristics.
P-1-M-6150 8.6.2
23. HORIZONTAL WELLS
Reference
23.1. The standard Well Control Procedures should be followed at all
times, however, the drill crew must take into consideration some
particular aspects of a horizontal well:
23.1.1. Assuming that the fluid pressure and type in a horizontal well are
well known, the most likely cause of a kick is due to swabbing,
losses, or crossing a fault.
23.1.2. When a long section of reservoir is exposed there is the potential
for large and rapid kicks.
23.1.3. The practice of hole cleaning must minimise cutting beds which
can increase the likelihood of swabbing.
23.1.4. Always pump out of a horizontal section; this will enhance the
cleaning and reduce the possibility of swabbing.
23.1.5. Large quantities of influx can exist in the horizontal section with
minimum effect on the bottom hole pressure.
PAGE 81 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
23.1.6. A flow check does not provide a reliable indicator that an influx has
not entered the horizontal section.
23.1.7. In case of swabbed fluid in the horizontal section, both the shut in
drill pipe pressure and shut in casing pressure would be zero until
the influx is in the horizontal section.
23.1.8. Volumetric increases are the most reliable indicator of a kick. (Pit
levels and flow rate changes will be the same as in a vertical
section.)
23.1.9. Until the influx is circulated out of the horizontal section there is no
increase in the pressure casing. When swabbed fluid is in the hole
and the Driller Method has been implemented, the casing pressure
should be zero until the influx is in the horizontal section.
23.1.10. If a kick occurs due to a fault or insufficient mud weight it is
unlikely that there is any difference between the shut in drill pipe
and shut in casing pressure when the influx is in the horizontal
section.
23.1.11. Migration may not occur in the horizontal section.
23.1.12. When killing the well using the 'Wait and Weight' method, the final
circulating pressure should be reached when kill mud arrives at the
start of the horizontal section not at the bit.
23.1.13. The unevenness of the horizontal section may trap a pocket of gas
on the high side; this should be removed with more than one
circulation.
Reference List:
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P1M-6150
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P1M-6140
Acceptance Minimum Requirements for BOP and
Well Control Equipment STAP-M-1-SS-5703
Well Control Training Manual J anuary 1991
PAGE 82 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.10. LOT
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. These tests are carried out to:
a) Investigate the cement seal around the casing shoe which
should be at least as high as the predicted fracture pressure
for the area.
b) Investigate the wellbore capability to withstand pressures
below the casing shoe in order to allow proper well planning
with regard to the setting depth of the next casing, mud
weights and alternatives during well control operations.
c) Collect regional information on formation strengths and stress
magnitude for different applications including optimisation of
future well planning, hole stability analysis and modelling,
reservoir application
P-1-M-6140 11
1.2. A Leak-Off Test (LOT) will be performed On Wild-Cat wells at
each casing shoe after setting the surface casing. LOTs are also
recommended to be carried out on both appraisal and
development wells.
P-1-M-6140 11
1.3. The test at point 1.1.a) shall be carried out before resuming drilling
of the new phase, while tests at points 1.1.b) and 1.1.c) could be
performed at any depth while drilling the hole, as a porous level is
encountered, to ascertain the maximum pressure that it can hold.
P-1-M-6140 11
2. STANDARD PROCEDURE
Reference
2.1. Drill out float equipment, clean rat hole and drill 5 meters of new
hole.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.1
2.2. Circulate a mud quantity equal to the internal string volume plus
the new hole plus 50m internal casing volumes.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.2
2.3. This mud shall be cleaned and conditioned to the density and
filtrate as indicated in the Mud Programme to be used for the next
drilling phase.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.2
2.4. Pull the bit back into the casing shoe.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.3
2.5. Rig up cementing unit to drill pipes
P-1-M-6140 11.1.4
2.6. The unit shall be equipped with high precision low pressure
gauges
P-1-M-6140 11.1.4
2.7. The range of the pressure gauge shall be selected based on the
actualmud weight and the estimated (LOT) or predeterminated
(FIT) pressure.
PAGE 83 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.8. A pressure recorder should be used during the test.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.4
2.9. The use of the rig pumps for making these tests is unsuitable.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.4
2.10. Fill up and test the lines with mud
2.11. Break circulation with the cementing unit to make sure that the bit
nozzles are clear.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.6
2.12. Close BOP and open the previous casing annulus and Pump
slowly until pressure builds up
P-1-M-6140 11.1-7-9
2.13. Once pressure is established, pump uniform volumes of mud and
wait for the pressure to stabilise. Flow rates range from
1
/
8
bbl/min
(20l/min) up to a maximum of 1bbl/min (160 l/min), however values
of 0.25bbl (12
1
/
4
and smaller holes) or 0.50bbl (17
1
/
2
hole) are
commonly used, and wait for two minutes, or the time required for
the pressure to stabilise.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.10
2.14. Note the cumulative mud volume pumped, the final pumping and
final static pressure.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.11
2.15. Repeat steps (12) and (13) above and plot pressure versus
cumulative mud volume for each increment of pumped volume.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.12
2.16. Continue this procedure until:
Two or three points on the plot are reached where the
pressure deviates and falls below the approximate straight
line (or if the pressure does not increase with the injected
volume). The point on the plot where the curve begins to
bend away from the straight line is called Leak Off Point
Or the predetermined test pressure is reached.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.13
2.17. Stop pumping, shut in the well, record and plot pressure versus
time until stabilisation (usually it takes 15-20min). In the early
stage (2-3min) one value every 15-30sec should be collected while
for the remaining a value of pressure every 30-60sec may be
sufficient. The use of PACR or an equivalent device, if available, is
preferred.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.14
2.18. Bleed off the pressure and record the quantity of fluid returned into
the cementing unit. Compare it to the volume used for the test to
obtain the amount of fluid lost to the formation.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.15
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.19. Open the BOP and calculate the formation strength in terms of
Equivalent Mud Weight using the lowest between leak off point
pressure and stabilised pressure.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.16
2.20. Collect the data recorded during the test in a data sheet together
with the following information: borehole diameter, depth of test,
depth and type of the last casing, mud density, plastic viscosity,
filtrate and gels.
P-1-M-6140 11.1.17
Reference List:
Drilling Procedure Manual STAP-P1M-6140
PAGE 85 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.11. CORING
1. GENERAL GUIDELINES
Reference
1.1. Drift the string to ensure there are no restrictions that can stop
passage of the pressure relief plug ball.
P-1-M-6140 10.3.2-2
1.2. Ensure that the necessary fishing equipment is available before
running the core barrel.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.4
1.3. The core barrel shall be stabilised on bottom and top with special
stabilisers in order to reduce the wear on the gauge of the bit with,
consequently, crooked and under gauged holes.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.6
1.4. The core barrel shall be run on a stabilised BHA. The stabilisation
of the BHA shall be, when possible, the same as used for drilling.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.7
1.5. DC excess will be eliminated if not necessary for WOB, in order to
reduce pipe sticking risks
1.6. If required, it is possible to use MWD and the core barrel in
tandem, placing the steel ball on the pressure relief plug before
running in hole. In this case circulation through the core shoe is
impossible.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.8
1.7. Do not install a MWD tool on a core barrel in a deviated well with a
fractured formation.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.9
1.8. If a drilling jar is run in the string, the inside diameter of this tool
must be compatible with the ball diameter of the core barrel.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.10
1.9. Use proper size core barrels
1.9.1. Coring in 8
1
/
2
" holes shall be carried out by using a conventional
core barrel (6
3
/
4
x 4) or Marine Core Barrel (6
1
/
4
" x 3" or 7
1
/
4
" x
4") with a 8
1
/
2
" diamond or PDC core head.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.1
1.9.2. Coring in 12
1
/
4
" holes can be carried out by using a standard core
barrel (6
3
/
4
x 4, 6
1
/
4
x 3, 7
1
/
4
x 4), Marine Core Barrel (6
1
/
4
" x 3"
or 7
1
/
4
" x 4") or a full size core barrel (8" x 5
1
/
4
") with a 12
1
/
4
" core
head.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.1
1.9.3. Coring in a 6 hole can be carried out using the conventional core
barrel (4
3
/
4
x 2
5
/
8
).
P-1-M-6140 10.2.1
1.10. The full size core barrel is preferable when a long section of hole
must be cored.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.1
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.11. In case of continuous coring, ream with a drill bit at least every
100ft (27m) but only if a 8
15
/
32
" core head is used. With the use of a
8
1
/
2
" core bit this operation is not necessary.
P-1-M-6140 10.3.6-11
1.12. If necessary, space out with pup joint in order to avoid, or
minimise, pipe connections while coring.
P-1-M-6140 10.3.2-6
1.13. Take and record the Reduced Pump Stroke Pressure (RPSP) with
the core barrel in the hole, after dropping the ball and with it in
place.
P-1-M-6140 10.2.13
1.14. While pulling out of hole, avoid jarring the core barrel and use
spinner or chain out, to prevent core loss.
P-1-M-6140 10.3.6-1
1.15. Core shall be recovered under the company Well Site Geologys
supervision.
P-1-M-6140 10.3.6-4
1.16. After coring an H
2
S bearing formation, it is necessary to wear the
Cascade System Mask (if available) or the 30-45 minutes
breathing apparatus during the whole core recovery operation
P-1-M-6150 10.3.3
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P1M-6140
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P1M-6150
PAGE 87 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.12. DRILLING PROBLEMS (STUCK PIPE, FISHING, MUD LOSSES, SHALLOW GAS,
HANG OFF, H
2
S)
1. STUCK PIPE
Reference
1.1. Differential Sticking
1.1.1. Preventive measures
1.1.1.1.
Reduce the mud weight as much as possible, maintaining the
minimum differential pressure necessary for a safe trip margin.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-1
1.1.1.2.
Reduce the contact surface by using spiral type drill collars also
called NWS (No Wall Stick).
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-2
1.1.1.3.
Use a properly stabilised bottom hole assembly. A shorter BHA
with a greater number of HWDP could be considered.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-2
1.1.1.4.
Use mud with minimum solids content and low filtrate in order to
obtain a thinner wall cake.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-3
1.1.1.5.
Reduce the friction factor adding lubricants to the mud.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-4
1.1.1.6.
Keep pipe moving and possibly in rotation as much as possible
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-5
1.1.1.7.
Consider the use of a drilling jar/bumper.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1-6
1.1.2. Methods of freeing pipe
1.1.2.1.
Work the pipe applying cyclic slack-off and overpull combined with
torque. Always check the reduction in the pipe yield stress due to
the application of the torque.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1
1.1.2.2.
Use a drilling jar/bumper.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1
1.1.2.3.
Spot oil-base mud or oil containing a surfactant around the BHA.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1
1.1.2.4.
The pill volume shall be at least 20% over the volume of BHA-
Open hole annulus plus a volume so that at the end of the
displacement the pill height is the same inside and outside the
string.
1.1.2.5.
Reduce the mud weight, if possible.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1
1.1.2.6.
Conduct a DST procedure.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1
1.1.3. Quick actions are fundamental in freeing wall stuck.
P-1-M-6140 16.1.1
PAGE 88 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.2. Sticking Due To Caving Hole
1.2.1. Preventive measures
1.2.1.1.
Reduce water losses.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.2.
Lower pH value to 8.5 to 9 (if needed).
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.3.
Use inhibited mud.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.4.
Add mud stabilising compounds (mainly sodium asphalt sulphate).
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.5.
Increase the mud weight.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.6.
Increase the Y/PV ratio to create laminar flow on the wall after
pipe.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.7.
Increase the gel value to obtain a good cutting suspension when
circulation is stopped.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.8.
Use bits without nozzles, particularly when reaming, to avoid
scouring the well.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.9.
Use the minimum acceptable number of stabilisers.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.10.
Reduce rotary speed, if possible, to 80rpm or less.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.11.
Reduce the mud flow rate to obtain laminar flow in the annulus
between hole and drill collars.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.12.
Avoid long circulation times across unstable sections.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.13.
Do not rotate pipe when tripping. Use a spinner or chain out.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.14.
Trip out with care to avoid swabbing. If any swabbing occurs, pull
out with the Kelly on.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.15.
Spot high viscosity pills from time to time.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.16.
Start and stop mud pumps gradually.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.1.17.
If circulating pressure increases suddenly, decrease pump strokes.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.2. Methods of freeing pipe
1.2.2.1.
If circulation is possible, continue circulating trying to expel the
caving.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
PAGE 89 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.2.2.2.
If the string becomes stuck across a carbonate formation, spot an
acid pill.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.2.3.
If circulation is blocked, try to regain it by applying pressure shocks
and working the pipe at the same time. Special care is required to
avoid breaking the formation i.e. overcoming fracture gradient
below the stuck point.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.2.4.
Use a drilling jar/bumper.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.2.2.5.
It is good practice to spot high viscosity pills from time to time to
keep the hole clean.
P-1-M-6140 16.3
1.3. Sticking Due To Hole Restriction
1.3.1. Preventive measures
1.3.1.1.
Reduce filtrate, cake and solids content.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.1.2.
Use inhibited mud.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.1.3.
Increase mud-clearing capacity.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.1.4.
Increase flow rate.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.1.5.
Follow accurately the Sigma log development and if required
increase mud weight.
1.3.1.6.
Increase mud weight, if possible.
1.3.1.7.
In all situations, frequent wiper trips can reduce the problem and
provide information on the severity.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.2. Methods of freeing pipe
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.2.1.
Work the pipe applying cyclic slack-off and overpull combined with
torque. Always check the reduction in the pipe yield stress due to
the application of the torque.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.2.2.
Spot a cushion to break and remove the mud cake around the drill
collars.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.2.3.
Increase the mud weight, if possible.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
1.3.2.4.
Use a drilling jar/bumper.
P-1-M-6140 16.2
PAGE 90 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.4. Sticking Due To Hole Irregularities and / or Change In BHA
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.1. Preventive measures
1.4.1.1.
The formation of doglegs can be prevented by the use of packed
bottom hole assemblies.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.1.2.
Trip out with care and note the depths at which overpull occurs.
1.4.1.3.
Using very stiff BHA's and reamers can eliminate doglegs.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.1.4.
A key seat can be eliminated by reaming it with a key seat wiper or
an under-gauge stabiliser installed on the top of the drill collars.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.1.5.
Always ream a whole interval drilled with the previous bit.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.1.6.
Always ream the cored section, even if a full gauge core bit was
used.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.1.7.
Foresee use of three or six point roller reamer.
1.4.2. Methods of freeing pipe
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.2.1.
Work the pipe applying slack-off if dog leg or key seat (the string
becomes stuck pulling out) and overpull if running a new BHA (the
string becomes stuck while running in the hole).
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.2.2.
Spot oil-base mud or oil containing a surfactant around BHA.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
1.4.2.3.
If the stuck point is in a calcareous section, spot an acid pill.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
2. OIL PILLS
Reference
2.1. Light Oil Pills
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
2.1.1. To be used for mud specific gravity up to 1,350g/l (11.3 PPG).
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
2.1.2. The pill volume shall be at least twice the volume of DC-open hole
annulus (take into account excess for compensating hole
enlargement).
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
2.1.3. Pump at the maximum practical rate.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
2.1.4. In order to have a pill volume in the annulus displace 1.3 times the
volume of the DC-open hole.
P-1-M-6140 16.3.1
2.1.5. At 30 to 60mins intervals, circulate out of the string batches, as a
balanced plug. Work the string at the same time.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
PAGE 91 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.1.6. Repeat the procedure if the pill does not succeed (the pill may be
active for 4 to 16 hours).
P-1-M-6140 16.4.1
2.1.7. Record pump pressure at each step and notate anomalous
increasing of pressure.
2.1.8. Check for drilling balance when pill is in the annulus.
2.2. Heavy oil pills
2.2.1. To be used for specific gravity greater than 1,350 g/l (11.3ppg).
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
2.2.2. The pill volume will be at least twice the volume between the drill
collars and the open hole (take into account excess for
compensating hole enlargement).
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
2.2.3. Pump a spacer of diesel oil with 5% Free Pipe, or similar, in front
and behind.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
2.2.4. Pump at maximum practical rate.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
2.2.5. Displace in order to have a pill volume in the annulus 1,3 times the
volume of DC-open hole.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
2.2.6. At 2 to 3 hr intervals, circulate batches of 300 to 600 out of the
string. Work the string at the same time.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
2.2.7. Repeat the procedure if the pill results are ineffective (the pill may
be active for 20 to 48 hours).
P-1-M-6140 16.4.2
2.2.8. Record pump pressure at each step and notate anomalous
increasing of pressure.
3. ACID PILLS
Reference
3.1. The use of acid pills can be successful if the string gets stuck
across a carbonate formation.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
3.2. Considering the risks related to this operation, this should be
carried out only if other methods prove to be ineffective.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
3.2.1. The proper amount of corrosion inhibitor shall be used and the
acid pill will be spaced with oil or water ahead and behind.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
3.2.2. Due to the acid reaction gaseous products develop in the well and,
hence, special care is required when circulating out the pill. It may
be necessary to circulate through the choke and line up the
surface equipment to safely dispose of the gas.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
PAGE 92 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.2.3. Check for drilling balance assuming that all pills are in the annulus.
3.2.4. During all operations never stop the pump, but pump at minimum
flow rate.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
3.2.5. While displacing acid across the formation, the gaseous product
will cool off the drill string. To avoid breaking, do not work the
string but only apply overpull or slack off.
Resume jarring only when acid is in place.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
3.2.6. Appropriate safety measures shall be adopted:
Wear gloves and protective clothing.
Use eye protection.
Have water sprays ready to wash spilled acid.
Ensure proper ventilation if the pill is mixed in a closed area.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.3
4. FREE POINT LOCATION
Reference
4.1. The equipment required for free point indicator and back-off is to
be kept onboard during all drilling activity. (Offshore rigs).
4.2. If the free point is performed without a Kelly or top drive install a
lower Kelly cock on top of the DP.
The thread will be protected with an appropriate device.
4.3. Leave in place an eventual previous oil pill.
4.4. Check the minimum ID of drill string and verify that no restrictions
or obstructions are present.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
4.5. If possible, perform the free point with a Kelly or top drive installed
(if necessary, space out).
4.6. Avoid swabbing when coming out with tool.
4.7. A remote operated wireline hydraulic cutter shall be on the rig floor
during the entire operation.
4.8. Record torque and tension at the value the string begins to stretch
(string free).
4.9. There are two methods for estimating the depth at which a string is
stuck:
Applying tension and measuring the pipe stretch.
Locating the tow point with a free-point indicating tool.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.4
PAGE 93 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.10. Measuring The Pipe Stretch
P-1-M-6140 16.4.5
4.10.1.
Calculating the differential stretch (E =S
2
- S
1
), differential pull (P
=T
2
- T
1
) and applying Hookes Law, it is possible to determine
the depth of free point (L) using the following formula:
SI Units
P
E x Wdp x
L
374 . 26
=
API Units
P
E x Wdp x 294 , 735
L =
The value obtained is less reliable as deviation increases due to
downhole friction.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.5
4.11. Location By Free Point Indicating Tool
4.11.1. A Free Point survey shall be run to select the back-off point.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.6
4.11.2. Pipe which appears to be free in tension does not always react to
applied torque. There is a greater chance of succeeding with the
back-off if the pipe is free under both tension and torque.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.6
4.11.3. Interpretation of free point data is very subjective and susceptible
to operator skill, hole condition, etc.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.6
5. BACK-OFF PROCEDURE
Reference
5.1. As a general rule, the first attempt to back-off should be made at
the first connection above the Free Point.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.2. If there is a failure, the second attempt should be performed on the
first stand above the Free Point. Subsequent attempts should be
made moving upward one stand at a time.
5.3. Check the minimum ID of drill string.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.4. Use an appropriate number of primacord strands for string shot.
(Refer to
Table OP 2.6)
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.5. Check tongs, slips and jerk lines are in working condition.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7-b
5.6. Ensure that slip handles are tied together with strong line.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7-a
5.7. Ensure that no torque remains in the string when it is picked up
from the slips.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7-e
PAGE 94 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.8. If the back-off is performed without Kelly or top drive, install a
lower Kelly cock on top of the DP.
5.8.1. A remote operated wireline hydraulic cutter shall be on the rig floor
during the entire operation.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.9. A detailed standard back-off procedure cannot be used as there
are too many variables.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10. The following is a typical generic procedure
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.1. Keep non-essential people away from the rig floor.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.2. Tighten up all string connections, applying right hand torque (max
80% of nominal value). Work the torque down the string. This
procedure should be repeated 4 to 5 times especially in crooked or
deviated holes.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.3. Install the back-off tool in the string and run in the hole to around
150-300ft (50-100m) below the rotary table.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.4. Pick up the string in order to have a hook load equal to the weight
in air of the pipe above the selected back-off point increased by 10
to 15%.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.5. Apply left hand torque in steps. Work the pipe at each step to
transfer the torque downhole.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.6. The maximum amount of left hand torque should be 80% of the
maximum value used for the right hand torque.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.7. Once the right amount of left hand torque is applied, run the Back-
off tool to the Back-off point.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.8. If the operation is unsuccessful, release the left hand torque,
circulate to clean the string from back-off debris and start again.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.9. The Backing-off of drill collar connections should be performed by
following the same procedure. Problems may arise due to the
difficulty in identifying the Free Point and with higher left hand
torque required
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
5.10.10. Prior to running another back-off tool, circulate to clean the inside
of the DP from debris.
5.10.11. Perform mechanical back-off only as extreme solution.
5.10.12. In case of unexpected back-off at an unprogrammed depth, pull
out the string and check connections.
PAGE 95 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6. FISHING
Reference
6.1. Inventory Of Fishing Tools
The following tools shall be always available on the rig for the
various hole sizes drilled:
Fishing jars to match the drill collars in use.
Bumper subs to match the drill collars in use.
Overshot and oversize guides with grapples, baskets and
extension subs, to catch all diameters of tools in hole.
Taper taps for drill pipe body and tool joints (this is a poor
class of tool: overshots are preferable if available).
J unk baskets or Globe-type baskets.
Reverse circulation junk baskets.
J unk subs.
Fishing magnets.
Milling tools.
Re-dressing tools for 5" and 3
1
/
2
" sheared DP.
Impression blocks.
Fishing tools to catch electrical log tools (supplied by
electrical log contractor) and relevant crossover.
Safety joints.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.1
6.2. Preparation
6.2.1. Draw a complete sketch of the equipment run.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.2
6.2.2. Apply the utmost accuracy in all measurements.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.2
6.2.3. Make sure that the Contractor's personnel directly involved in
operations are fully familiar with equipment to be used and have
knowledge of limitations.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.2
6.2.4. Annotate any existing marks/signs on the fishing tool for future
interpretation.
6.3. Fishing assembly
P-1-M-6140 16.5.3
6.3.1. Fishing tool +J ar and Bumper Sub +Drill Collars +Heavy Weight
Drill Pipe +Drill Pipe.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.3
6.3.2. Use as many drill collars as is contained in the fish. If the required
number of drill collars is not available on the rig, use a jar
accelerator.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.3
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.3.3. A Safety J oint should not be run. However, a Safety J oint could be
run between the catching tool and the jar when a non-releasing
tool such as taper tap is being employed.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.3
6.3.4. Where losses are expected, the use of a Circulation Sub in the
fishing assembly should be considered.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.3
6.3.5. Avoid restrictions in the bore of any tools run above the catching
tool, which would prevent the use of a cutting tool or the back-off
shot within the fish.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.3
6.4. Fishing procedures
6.4.1. Overshot.
6.4.1.1. Be sure that the overshot OD is compatible with the hole diameter
and the grapple with the fishing neck.
6.4.1.2. Whenever possible install a lock ring.
6.4.1.3. When fishing on a tool joint, use a basket grapple with long catch
stop.
6.4.1.4. In case of re-run check the overshot shape.
6.4.1.5. J arring is only possible using type SFS, FS and XFS overshots.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.1-1
6.4.1.6. With the overshot just above the fish circulate a few minutes and
record:
Pump stroke and pressure.
String weight up and down.
Torque.
Do not prolong circulation excessively.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.1-5
6.4.1.7. If possible, circulating bottoms up through the fish before pulling
out of hole should be considered, particularly if potential reservoirs
are exposed or penetration rates are high.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.1-7
6.4.1.8. When tripping out of hole with fish, the string shall not be rotated,
a chain or Kelly Spinner should be used.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.1-8
6.4.1.9. If pulling out of hole wet, flow checks shall be carried out
frequently.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.1-9
PAGE 97 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.4.2. Releasing spear
6.4.2.1. Choose the catching size according to casing nominal weight.
6.4.2.2. Install a pack-off on the tool, if circulation is required after latching
the fish.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.2
6.4.2.3. To allow the unlatching of the spear (if there is not enough weight
above the releasing spear), a bumper sub is recommended.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.2
6.4.2.4.
Use the fishing jar if jarring is required. In this case the use of a
Spear Stop is required. Check the Spear Stop OD when it is used
in open hole and use the stop only if hole condition permits.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.2
6.4.2.5.
Perform the fishing job as per overshot procedure.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.2
6.4.3. Taper taps
6.4.3.1.
The size of the taper tool should be selected in order to engage
the fish with the middle of the tapered point.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.3
6.4.3.2.
It is nigh impossible to release the tool once engaged. For this
reason its use has to be considered the last resort and only after
consultation with the Eni-Agip Shore Base (Drilling
Manager/Superintendent).
P-1-M-6140 16.6.3
6.4.3.3.
Lower the catching tool to just above the fish and circulate a few
minutes to clean the top of the fish. Do not circulate excessively as
this may enlarge the hole.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.3
6.4.3.4.
Chain or spin out of the hole with the fish.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.3
6.4.4. Junk Basket
6.4.4.1.
This procedure is more successful in soft formations.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.4
6.4.4.2.
Use the following parameters:
WOB =2 to 4t
Rotary =45rpm
Low Pump Rate (
1
/
2
pump rate while drilling).
P-1-M-6140 16.6.4
6.4.5. Fishing Magnet
P-1-M-6140 16.6.5
6.4.5.1.
Magnets can be successfully used but only in hard formations to
retrieve small steel objects such as bit cones, bearings, slips, tong
pins and milling cuttings.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.5
PAGE 98 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
7. MILLING PROCEDURE
Reference
7.1. Avoid the use of redressed mills. Only new mills must be used.
7.2. Mud viscosity should be increased or high viscosity pills should be
pumped to help in carrying the steel cuttings out of the hole.
P-1-M-6140 16.7
7.3. Oil based mud has poor carrying capabilities and should be
avoided whenever possible. Polymer muds are most suitable for
milling.
P-1-M-6028 11.2.5
P-1-M-6140 16.7
7.4. Never mill faster than it is possible to remove the cuttings.
P-1-M-6140 16.7
7.5. Place junk sub(s) above the mill.
P-1-M-6140 16.7
7.6. Generally the most efficient milling rates are obtained by running
the rotary at 80 to 100rpm. Milling with washover shoes is an
exception and they are usually more efficient at speeds of 60 to
80rpm. Continuously monitor the torque indicator during milling
operations.
P-1-M-6140 16.7
7.7. 'Reading the cuttings is essential to evaluate the performance of
the mill. The ideal cuttings are usually
1
/
32
" to
1
/
16
" thick and 1" to 2"
long.
P-1-M-6140 16.7
7.8. Weigh steel cuttings and compare with theoretical calculation.
7.9. Always insert a jar in the string.
7.10. Whenever possible, use the same BHA as in drilling.
8. JARRING PROCEDURE
Reference
8.1. The pre-set value of mechanical jars must be checked prior to
running in the hole, to verify if the margin of overpull is sufficient to
operate the jar.
M-1-M-5003 4.6.2
8.2. When a drilling jar is used, do not drill to Kelly down but leave
enough room to cock the jar in case of stuck pipe.
M-1-M-5003 4.5.9
8.3. J arring should be done with a Kelly or Top Drive. If the use of a
Kelly is not possible, secure the elevator latch by using a piece of
rope or chain.
P-1-M-6140 16.8
8.4. Prior to jarring, check the drill line sensor. Ensure the weight
indicator readings are accurate and that the Dead Line Anchor is
secure and free of debris. Check the derrick and all equipment for
any loose items.
P-1-M-6140 16.8
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
8.5. When jarring, the drill floor must be cleared of all non-essential
personnel.
P-1-M-6140 16.8
8.6. Mark the string at the rotary table prior to starting jarring.
P-1-M-6140 16.8
8.7. Always allow the jars to trip within their safe working load. Wait
until the jars have tripped before pulling the string further.
P-1-M-6140 16.8
8.8. Never exceed the safe working limit without confirmation that the
jars have tripped.
8.9. When sustained jarring is carried out, the drill line should be
slipped at regular intervals, depending on the particular situation.
P-1-M-6140 16.8
8.10. Also check the derrick, lifting equipment and travelling block
attachment bolts.
8.11. If a top drive system is used after jarring, check the TDS as per
the maintenance and operating specification.
P-1-M-6140 16.8
9. LOST CIRCULATION
Reference
9.1. Lost circulation control techniques
9.1.1. Definitions:
Seepage Loss is that which is less than 50%
Almost Total Loss is that which is more than 50%
Total
P-1-M-6160 6.1
9.2. Losses in various formation types
9.2.1. Unconsolidated Formations
9.2.1.1. Gradual increase in loss which may develop and increase with
penetration.
If permeability is less than 4/5 darcy, the loss is maybe due to
formation fracture.
P-1-M-6160 6.2
9.2.2. Natural Fractures
9.2.2.1.
Gradual increase in losses which may develop and increase with
penetration.
P-1-M-6160 6.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
9.2.3. Cavernous Or Macrovugular Formations.
9.2.3.1. Sudden and severe, to complete loss, of returns.
The bit may fall from a few centimetres to some metres at the
moment of loss. Perforations may be 'disturbed' before the losses.
P-1-M-6160 6.2
9.2.4. Induced Fractures
9.2.4.1. Sudden and severe to complete losses.
Fluids with density more than 1.3 SG may help create fractures.
Fracture may occur during, or subsequent, to rough drilling.
If it occurs in one single well and does not occur to the nearby
wells, fracture may be the cause.
P-1-M-6160 6.2
9.3. Loss of circulation with water based fluids
9.3.1. Stand-By/Set Time: Allow 4-8 hours set time. Plan further action
to be taken.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.2. High Viscosity Fluids: Viscosity at +/- 100sec.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.3. LCM In Circulation: Shale shakers max., 10-12 mesh.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.4. High Filtration Fluids: Do not use with unstable formations
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.5. Spot Pills With LCM: Squeeze slowly with a low pressure (50psi).
Displace by means of bit with no nozzle or with nozzles >1
4
/
32
.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.6. High Filtration Mixtures (200-400cc API): RIH or EDP on top
loss, squeeze with low pressure (starting with +/- 50psi @
150ltr/min). Do not exceed fracture pressure and maintain for 6-
8hrs.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.7. Very High Filtration Slurries (>600cc API): Same application
procedure as high filtration slurries with temperature >60C. It may
develop mechanical resistance.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.8. Diaseal M (Filtrate >1,000cc API): Same application procedure
as high filtration slurries.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.9. GEL Cement (Prehydrated Bentonite): Formation of slurries with
higher percentages of Bentonite may improve LCM characteristics
while decreasing mechanical resistance.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
9.3.10. Cement Gilsonite: As for cement plugs, it is advisable to drill the
loss zone and carry out the remedial procedure when finished.
WOC for at least 8hrs.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.11. DOBC Squeeze (Diesel Oil Bentonite: Apply DOBC/DOB
squeeze procedure. RIH or EDP on top of loss zone. Plastic plug
volume to equal, or be greater than, the hole below the loss zone
first and second plug, both about 1m
3
diesel.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.3.12. DOB Squeeze: Drillpipe/ annulus ratio is 2:1, about 600 l/min from
drillpie and 300 l/min from annulus. After displacing half the plug,
reduce pump rate by half. After displacing

of the plug, attempt a


hesitation squeeze pressure with 100-500psi. Underdisplace plug
by one barrel, POOH, allow 8-10hrs set time.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.1
9.4. Loss Of Circulation With Oil Based Fluids
9.4.1. Additions Of Colloid: Seepage loss is commonly due to low
colloid contents of oil based.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.2
9.4.2. Spot Pills With LCM: squeeze slowly with low pressure (50psi).
Displace by means of bit with no nozzles or with nozzles >1
4
/
32
.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.2
9.4.3. Diesel M (Filtrate >1,000 cc API: Spot pill volume is double the
hole volume and at least 1.5m
3
. To avoid contamination 3-4m
3
,
separating pills are advisable after and before.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.2
9.4.4. Plastic Plug With Organophil Clay: Spot pill volume should be
double the hole volume or at least 1.5m
3
. To avoid contamination,
3-4m
3
separating pills in front and behind is advisable.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.2
9.4.5. Fresh Water Barite Plug
The height of the plug, commonly 130-150m is sufficient.
Mix with cement unit.
Use bit with nozzles.
P-1-M-6160 6.4.2
9.5. Loss preventive measures
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.1. Keep the mud weight as low as possible but providing for
adequate overbalance.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.2. Control the ROP to prevent overloading the annulus with cuttings
which could result in increased mud densities and/or constrict the
annulus.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.3. Maintain a low yield point and gel strength of mud.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.4. Avoid excessive circulation rates.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
9.5.5. Run pipe slowly to minimise pressure surge.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.6. To break circulation, rotate and reciprocate the pipe first, then start
pumping slowly.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.7. Avoid pump surge.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.8. Use bit nozzles larger than 1
4
/
32
.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.5.9. Have an adequate stock of LCM.
P-1-M-6140 17.1
9.6. Remedial actions
P-1-M-6140 17.1.1
9.6.1. Remedial actions while drilling
9.6.1.1.
If still losing mud, stop pumping and observe the well.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.1
9.6.1.2.
If the level remains static, the mud weight or viscosity may need to
be reduced slightly and/or slight treatment with lost circulation
material if required.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.1
9.6.1.3.
If the level drops, the well must be kept full with mud or water,
depending on the severity of the losses. An estimate can be made
of the maximum weight the formation can withstand, measuring
the volume of water required and calculating the new mud
gradient.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.1
9.6.1.4.
Circulation may be restarted by any or combination of the following
means:
Reduce flow rate (if possible).
Reduce mud weight (if possible).
Add LCM to the mud (the shale shaker must be by-passed).
Wait for the formation to heal.
Spot a plug of thick mud and LCM at the thief zone.
Spot a plug of dehydratable material containing LCM into the
mud losses zone.
Squeeze diesel oil bentonite (DOB) or diesel oil bentonite
cement (DOBC) pills.
Plug the thief zone with a gelled slurry.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.1
9.6.1.5.
See annex table OP 2.7 to choose the method to be followed to
regain circulation.
P-1-M-6160 6.1
9.6.2. Rimedial actions While tripping
9.6.2.1.
As soon as any irregularity is noticed in filling the hole, the
following general procedure should be carried out:
P-1-M-6140 17.3
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
9.6.2.2.
Check the trip tank system for leakage.
P-1-M-6140 17.3.-1
9.6.2.3.
Run a subsea TV or ROV down the length of the marine riser, flex
joint and BOP stack on both sides. When there is doubt or visibility
is poor, close the BOP rams and check if the level still drops when
the hole is isolated from the riser system.
P-1-M-6140 17.3-2
9.6.2.4.
If there is still mud losses, the cause of the lost circulation may be
pressure surges due to running in the pipe too fast or the
bit/stabilisers have balled up. Stop tripping and circulate the well.
P-1-M-6140 17.3-3
9.6.2.5.
If full returns are observed, resume tripping to bottom.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.3
9.6.2.6.
If full returns are not established, the well must be kept full with
mud or water, depending on the severity of the losses. Circulation
may be restarted by one of the methods listed previously.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.3
9.6.3. Use of LCM pills
P-1-M-6140 17.1.4
9.6.3.1.
If tripping is considered safe (i.e. the hole stands full of mud), run
open ended drill pipe to immediately above the thief zone.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.4
9.6.3.2.
Pump the LCM pill and displace half of it in the hole (minimum pill
volume: 10m
3
for a 8
1
/
2
hole; 20m
3
for a 12
1
/
4
hole) and pull the
pipe above the pill.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.4
9.6.3.3.
Continue pumping the rest of the pill using the Hesitation
Technique and visually check the fluid level all the time.
P-1-M-6140 17.1.4
9.6.4. High filtration pills
P-1-M-6160 17.1.4
9.6.4.1.
Once pumped the pill must be squeezed in formation to increase
filtration effect.
9.6.4.2.4
When running in hole after a high filtration pill extreme caution
must be adopted to avoid stuck pipe.
9.6.4.3.
Use open end drill pipes to pump high filtration pill.
9.6.5. Cement plug
9.6.5.1.
Refer to OP.2.7.3.1
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
10. SHALLOW GAS
Reference
10.1. Where there is a risk of shallow gas, the use of a floating vessel or
a jack-up in floating mode which can move efficiently off location,
is recommended.
P-1-M-6150 9
10.2. Primary well control is the only means to protect wells from blowing
out, because secondary well control techniques are not normally
applicable in top hole drilling operations.
P-1-M-6150 9.2
10.3. Prevention
10.3.1. Review existing documentation for the area in question.
10.3.2. Ensure that all personnel involved in drilling operations are trained
on the subject.
10.4. Recommended Drilling Practices
10.4.1. General Practices
10.4.1.1.
Before spudding the well, a meeting should be held in order to
alert key personnel (Drilling Contractor personnel, mud engineer,
mud logging operator included)
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-h
10.4.1.2.
Drilling control (parameters, levels, gas detectors, tripping, etc.)
should be strengthened for this phase.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-h
10.4.1.3.
A stock of kill mud based on hole size, and for off-shore rigs, water
depth and riser size shall be prepared before commencement of
drilling.
The correct mud weight must be determined for the particular area
is being drilling.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-g
10.4.1.4.
A 12
1
/
4
or smaller pilot hole shall be drilled in areas with possible
shallow gas.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-a
10.4.1.5.
Restrict the penetration rate (recommended ROP =one joint/hr).
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-b
10.4.1.6.
The drill string disconnecting and releasing procedure should be
available and known to all relevant personnel in order that they are
carried out efficiently without causing any delays in moving off
location.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
10.4.1.7.
All efforts shall be made to minimise the possibility of swabbing.
Pumping at the optimum circulating rate is recommended for all
upward pipe movements (e.g. making connections and tripping). In
larger hole sizes especially (i.e. larger than 12
1
/
4
) it is important to
check that the circulation rate is sufficiently high and the pulling
speed sufficiently low to ensure that no swabbing will occur.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-c
10.4.1.8.
The minimum required number of stabilisers should be used.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-c
10.4.1.9.
Flow checks are to be made :
Before tripping.
At any time a sharp penetration rate increase or tank level
anomaly is observed, when any anomaly appears on LWD
log (if used).
At any specific depth referred to in the drilling programme.
At each connection while trip in and out.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-d
10.4.1.10.
A float valve must be installed in all bottom hole assemblies which
are used in top hole drilling.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-e
10.4.1.11.
Use largest mud pump liners and no nozzles.
10.4.1.12.
Shallow kick-offs should be avoided in areas with probable shallow
gas. Top hole drilling operations in these areas should be simple
and quick, to minimise possible hole problems.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-f
10.4.1.13.
Accurate measurement and control of drilling fluid is important in
order to detect gas as early as possible.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.1-d
10.4.1.14.
In the event that significant gas readings are obtained from mud
returns, the gas should be circulated out.
If the background gas level cannot be reduced by circulation, the
mud weight should be increased and the hole circulated until the
background gas subsides.
10.4.2. Logging
P-1-M-6150 9.3.2
10.4.2.1.
Information about the presence and depth of possible
hydrocarbons can be obtained from electric wireline logs or LWD,
the latter being the preferred method since early detection
obviously enhances the safety of the operation.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.2
10.4.2.2.
LWD is the only currently downhole tool capable of shallow gas
detection by means of resistivity and gamma ray recording.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
10.4.2.3.
In development drilling the use of a diverter system is still
recommended if there is a chance of colliding with another well or
if there is a possibility of penetrating charged sands from leaking
or poorly cemented casing strings.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.2
10.4.2.4.
Shallow gas detection, with electrical wireline logging or LWD, is
not always reliable or conclusive. Excessive hole size and the
presence of fresh formation water may mask the shallow gas
effect during recording.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.2
10.4.3. Losses
P-1-M-6150 9.3.3
10.4.3.1.
Losses should be avoided during drilling with a diverter system
installed.
If losses are encountered, they are to be cured using lost
circulation material or cement. Full returns are to be regained
before proceeding to drill ahead.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.3
10.4.3.2.
If the losses cannot be cured, possible courses of action include
plugging back with cement, either to anticipate casing setting
depth.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.3
10.4.4. Cementing Operations
P-1-M-6150 9.3.4
10.4.4.1.
In addition, and where applicable, it is recommended that the BOP
stack remains nippled up with a small annular pressure maintained
during WOC time.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.4
10.5. Drilling Procedures
P-1-M-6150 9.3.5
10.5.1. Running and cementing the 30 casing in a pre-drilled hole, after
having drilled a pilot hole, is the recommended technique in areas
where shallow gas might be encountered.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.5
10.5.2. In floating top hole drilling operation if the formation strength at the
30 shoe is considered insufficient the use of the marine riser and
diverter system has to be ruled out and riser less drilling should be
employed.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.5
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
10.5.3. 20 Casing:
There are three main methods used to drill 26 hole in shallow gas
area:
Drill pilot hole and open the hole without riser.
Drill pilot hole and open the hole through the riser with
underreamer.
Drill pilot hole, pull the riser and open the hole.
Drill pilot hole through a marine riser with return to seabed via a
sub sea exhaust valve (or dump valve) or subsea diverter.
P-1-M-6150 9.3.5
10.5.4. Operation Without The Riser:
Riser less drilling is considered to be the safest way to cope with
the shallow gas problem since the vessel can quickly move away
from a subsea blow-out. The risk of riser less drilling increases
with decreased water depth
P-1-M-6150 9.3.5
10.6. Diverter assembly
10.6.1. See OP.02.09.
10.6.2. Diverter System Operating Procedures
10.6.2.1.
The diverter system shall be used for all wells unless there is clear
information of the absence of potential shallow gas.
P-1-M-6150 9.4
10.6.2.2.
The diverter system should never be completely closed-in and
used as a BOP in an attempt to control the well as they are not
designed to hold pressure but only to direct flow overboard.
P-1-M-6150 9.4
10.6.2.3.
The blow out contingency plan should be implemented as soon as
it becomes apparent that the well cannot be dynamically killed.
P-1-M-6150 9.4
10.7. Diverter procedures
10.7.1. At the first sign of flow, the following actions are required
P-1-M-6150 9.4.3
10.7.2. Pump the original mud or water immediately at maximum pump
rate.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.3. Stop drilling.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.4. Activate the diverter function (start to evacuate the non-essential
personnel).
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
10.7.5. If the well is still flowing, pump heavier mud at maximum pump
rate.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.6. If the well continues to flow after the heavier mud has been
pumped, carry on pumping other mud or water at the maximum
rate.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.7. Further dynamic kill attempts may be as follows
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.7.1.1.
Mix heavier mud whilst pumping mud or water at maximum rate.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.7.1.2.
Pump heavy mud at maximum rate.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.7.2.
Repeat sequence if dynamic killing is still unsuccessful, but do not
use excessive mud weight which could result in formation
breakdown.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
10.7.7.3.
Shutting down the pumps to check for flow may result in an even
greater influx flow rates. Continuous pumping is recommended
especially if there is a suspicion of flow.
P-1-M-6150 9.4.4
11. HANG-OFF
Reference
11.1. Procedure for hanging off with hang off tool
11.1.1. The preferred method to hang off the string is to use a hang off
tool which supports the pipe in the casing in the wellhead.
If the seat protector is installed, the hang-off on pipe rams has to
be considered (an appropriate top sup to disconnect the drill string
has to be available).
11.1.2. Stop drilling and circulate bottoms up, if time permits.
Consider increasing mud weight below the mud line to balance the
well with the riser disconnected.
11.1.3. Pull out enough drill pipe to keep the bit inside casing shoe when
the hang-off tool is landed on its seat.
11.1.4. If tripping, run or pull as much pipe as possible to get the bit to the
point which is the same distance above the casing shoe as the
rotary table is above the seabed
11.1.5. Install a Gray inside BOP one stand below the hang off tool if
hanging off inside casing.
11.1.6. If hanging-off in open hole, do not install a Gray inside BOP, but
use a retrievable drop-in back-pressure valve.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
11.1.7. The hang-off assembly must be made up and standing in derrick
at all times while BOP stack is on bottom.
11.1.8. Hang-off procedure
Close and lock the pipe rams.
Back off right hand release sub on hang off tool.
Pull the landing string above shear rams.
Close and lock blind/shear rams.
Displace riser with seawater.
Prepare to disconnect LMRP.
11.1.9. A mark should be painted on the anchor lines and guidelines as a
reference for later repositioning of the rig.
11.2. Procedure for re-connecting with hang off tool
11.2.1. Re-connecting procedure:
Install new ring gasket on connector.
Upon latched the connector test choke and kill lines against
failsafes.
Run running string approximately 10m (30ft) above the
blind/shear rams and displace riser with mud via running
string or booster line.
Check for pressure between shear and pipe rams and in the
annulus through kill/choke line
If no pressure open blind/shear rams, stab and make up
running string.
If any pressure is detected, follow well control policy.
Open pipe rams and circulate bottoms up.
Pull out and remove hang off tool assembly and Gray inside
BOP.
11.3. Emergency Procedure for hanging off on pipe rams
11.3.1. If there is not enough time to run the hang-off tool, the drill string
can be sheared and hung off on the pipe rams.
11.3.2. Procedure:
Close hang off pipe rams (below shear rams) with
manufacturers reduced operating pressure
Lower and land pipe on tool joint
Increase closing pressure to 1,500psi and lock the rams
Be prepared to shear pipe if LMRP disconnect is required
PAGE 110 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
11.4. Hanging off with casing
11.4.1. Casing running shall not be commenced if adverse weather is
forecast.
11.4.2. If casing running is taking place and there is not enough time to
run casing to TD, the hang off procedure must be considered:
Pull back or run into previous casing shoe.
Make up the casing hanger.
Remove casing hanger lock ring and land in the wellhead.
Release running tool pull above shear rams.
Close shear rams.
12. H
2
S DRILLING PROCEDURES
Reference
12.1. In presence of H
2
S an adequate quantity of H
2
S scavenger must
be added to the mud.
12.2. A copy of the specific handbook reporting testing and checking
procedures must be available on the rig.
12.3. When back on bottom after tripping with H
2
S formations exposed
to the open hole, be alert as bottoms up nears the surface and use
personal protective means to take sample at the shale shakers.
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
Drilling Fluids Operations Manual STAP-P-1-M-6160
Drilling J ar Acceptance and Utilisation Procedures STAP-M-1-M-5003
PAGE 111 OF 206
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
Depth From Surface in feet
Pipe OD ins 0 to 3,000
3,000 to
6,000
6,000 to
9,000
9,000 to
12,000
Over
12,000
2
3
/
8
1 1 1 2 2
2
7
/
8
1 1 2 2 3
Tubing 3
1
/
2
1 1 2 2 2
4 to 4
1
/
2
2 2 2 3 3
2
3
/
8
to
7
/
8
1 2 2-3 3-4 4-6
3
1
/
2
to 4 2 3 3-4 4-6 5-8
Drillpipe 4
1
/
2
to 6
9
/
16
2 3-4 4-6 5-9 6-12
6
5
/
8
3 4-5 5-7 6-10 7-14
3
1
/
2
to 4 2-4 2-5 3-7 3-8 4-9
4
1
/
8
to 5
1
/
5
2-4 3-6 4-8 4-10 5-12
Drill Collar 5
3
/
4
to 7 3-6 4-8 5-10 6-12 7-15
7
1
/
4
to 8
1
/
2
4-6 5-9 6-12 7-15 8-18
7
1
/
4
to 9
3
/
4
6-12 8-12 8-15 8-18
4
1
/
2
to 5
1
/
2
3 3 3 3 3
6 to 7 3 3 3 4 4
Casing 7
5
/
8
4 4 4 4 5
7
5
/
8
5 5 5 5 5
9
5
/
8
5 5 5 6 6
10
3
/
4
6 6 6 7 7
Table OP 2.6 - Recommended Strands of 80gr/ft RDX Primacord for String-Shot
PAGE 112 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
Table OP 2.7 - Lost Circulation Control Techniques
A
L
M
O
S
T

T
O
T
A
L
m
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

5
0
%
S
P
O
T

P
I
L
L
S

W
I
T
H

L
C
M
H
I
G
H

F
I
L
T
R
A
T
I
O
N

M
I
X
T
U
R
E
G
E
L

C
E
M
E
N
T

D
O
B
C
A
E
R
E
T
E
D

F
L
U
I
D
S

S
T
I
F
F
-
F
O
A
M
S
E
E
P
A
G
E

L
O
S
S
l
e
s
s

t
h
a
n

5
0
%
S
U
R
F
A
C
E

A
R
E
A
S
H
I
G
H
L
Y

P
E
R
M
E
A
B
L
E
F
R
A
C
T
U
R
E
S
H
I
G
H

V
I
S
C
O
S
I
T
Y

F
L
U
I
D

A
N
D

H
I
G
H

G
E
L
S
H
I
G
H

V
I
S
C
O
S
I
T
Y

F
L
U
I
D

-

L
C
M

I
N

C
I
R
C
U
L
A
T
I
O
N
-

H
I
G
H

F
I
L
T
R
A
T
I
O
N

F
L
U
I
D
S
P
O
T

P
I
L
L

W
I
T
H

L
C
M
H
I
G
H
/
V
E
R
Y

H
I
G
H

F
I
L
T
R
A
T
I
O
N

M
I
X
T
U
R
E

T
O
T
A
L
F
R
A
C
T
U
R
E
S
H
I
G
H

F
I
L
T
R
A
T
I
O
N

M
I
X
T
U
R
E
C
E
M
E
N
T
/
G
E
L

C
E
M
E
N
T

S
L
U
R
R
I
E
S
D
O
B
C
C
A
V
E
R
N
S
G
E
L
-
C
E
M
E
N
T

S
L
U
R
R
I
E
S

C
E
M
E
N
T

+

G
E
L
S
O
N
I
T
E

D
O
B
C
H
Y
D
R
A
U
L
I
C
A
L
L
Y
-
I
N
D
U
C
E
D

F
R
A
C
T
U
R
E
S
L
O
W

D
E
N
S
I
T
Y

F
L
U
I
D
S
S
E
T

T
I
M
E

L
O
W

L
O
A
D
I
N
G
H
I
G
H

F
I
L
T
R
A
T
I
O
N

M
I
X
T
U
R
E

D
O
B
D
O
B
C
A
E
R
E
T
E
D

F
L
U
I
D
S

S
T
I
F
F
-
F
O
A
M
H
I
G
H

D
E
N
S
I
T
Y

F
L
U
I
D
S
F
L
U
I
D

T
H
I
N
N
I
N
G

A
N
D
/
O
R

U
N
W
E
I
G
H
T
I
N
G

H
I
G
H

F
I
L
T
R
A
T
I
O
N

M
I
X
T
U
R
E
F
R
A
C
T
U
R
E
S
A
E
R
E
T
E
D

F
L
U
I
D
S

S
T
I
F
F
-
F
O
A
M
PAGE 113 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 2.13. WELL ABANDONMENT
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
Reference
1.1. Cement plugs, set when abandoning wells, should be made from
neat slurries whenever possible.
When static bottom hole temperature exceeds 110C, use
Geoterm type cement.
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-1
1.2.
Spacers should be used ahead and behind the slurry.
Special consideration should be given to the composition and
volume of the spacers when the mud is oil based, calcium chloride
or lignosulphonate treated.
The spacers should be normally 100 m long.
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-2
1.3.
The slurry volume should be calculated using a calliper log, if
available. When a calliper log is not available, use a slurry volume
excess based on local experience.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-3
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-3
1.4.
If the hole is badly washed out or when potential losses are
expected, it is preferable to set two short plugs instead of one long
one.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-4
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-4
1.5.
Plug exceeding 200m should not be set in one stage.
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-3
1.6.
As soon as the plug is set, pull out slowly 30-50 meters above
theoretical top and circulate.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-8
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-8
1.7.
Using drilling or workover rig, all cement plugs shall be set using a
tubing stinger, each cement plug shall be located and verified,
(WOB: 20,000-40,000 lbs, depending on hole size).
P-1-M-6100 14.2.3-11
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-11
1.8.
Slurry volume calculations in squeeze cement jobs assume
roughly, 100 litres slurry per meter of perforated zone into the
formation.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
1.9.
A small amount of back pressure, choking the return, should be
applied on the annulus to prevent the slurry level to fall caused by
U tubing.
1.10.
Displacement should be calculated in order to spot a balanced
cement plug (hydrostatic heads inside the string and outside in the
annulus shall be the same).
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-6
PAGE 114 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.11.
An under displacement of 1 or 2 bbl is suggested to help draining
the slurry off the pipe when pulling out of hole
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-7
1.12.
All cement plug shall be set using a tubing stinger
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-5
1.13.
3
1
/
2
OD internal and external flush tubing is recommended as a
tailpipe, particularly when long plugs has to be set, otherwise do
not use less than 2
7
/
8
.
1.14.
Once the calculated volume of cement slurry has been placed
behind the casing, pull the stinger out without equalising pressure.
1.15.
The tubing tailpipe has to be retrieved from the cement very slowly
to avoid contamination
1.16.
Records shall be kept of all plugs set and the results of tests shall
be available for inspection.
P-1-M-6140 14.2.3-12
1.17.
Before starting with any casing cutting, verify the annulus pressure
1.18.
After casing cutting, a complete annulus circulation shall be made
to reduce friction and balance the mud.
P-1-M-6140 14.3
1.19.
A cement plug, at least 150 meters long, shall be placed with its
top 50 meters below the seabed (off-shore), or ground level (on-
shore).
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
1.20.
After setting the surface plug, each surface casing and conductor
pipe shall be cut at least 5m below seabed, using mechanical
cutters.
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
2. TEMPORARY ABANDONMENT
Reference
2.1. During Drilling Operations
2.1.1. Any drilled well which is to be temporarily abandoned shall be
cemented with Drilling Kill Weight mud below the plug.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.1
2.1.2. All hydrocarbon zones shall be isolated with a cement plug
extending at least 50m above and below the zone.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
PAGE 115 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.1.3. Where there is an open hole below the deepest string of casing, a
cement plug shall be placed in such manner that extends at least
50m above and below the casing shoe.
The top of the cement plug shall be located and verified by
mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.1.4. If the condition of the formation makes cementing difficult, a bridge
plug may be positioned in the lower part of the casing but not more
than 50m above the shoe
A cement plug at least 20m in length shall be placed on top of the
mechanical plug.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-1
2.1.5. Uninteresting perforated zones:
These intervals shall be isolated by means of a mechanical plug
and shall be squeeze cemented. If the condition of the formation
makes cementing difficult a cement plug 50m high will be set on
top of the mechanical plug.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
2.1.6. Interesting perforated zones:
These intervals shall be isolated by means of a mechanical plug.
Then a cement plug shall be set at least 50 - 100m in length into
the casing, depending on casing diameter, from 5 - 50m below the
sea bottom.
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2-2
3. SAND PLUG
Reference
3.1. If not available, the bottom hole temperature must be recorded.
3.2. Analyse the water pH.
3.3. Internal and external flush tubing should be used, 3
1
/
2
OD when
possible in any case never less than 2
7
/
8
.
3.4. The gelling agent must be added very slowly to avoid lumps and
fish eyes.
3.5. The use of a blender is recommended.
3.6. Sand slurry must be separated from the completion fluid by
cushions.
3.7. If the plug to be set is more than 300ft high, the operation has to
be performed in stages.
3.8. Keep the string rotating during the sand slurry displacement.
PAGE 116 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.9. Like a cement plug, do not reach the balanced plug condition
during displacement, under-displace a little to have a hydrostatic
head higher than in the annulus to compensate displacement
when the pulling the tubing.
3.10. The consistency of the sand plug must be tested by running a bit
and slacking off weight.
4. CASING PATCH
Reference
4.1. Prior to running a casing patch in the hole, run a taper mill and/or
string mill of the same ID as the casing to properly gauge the hole
and clean the area where the casing patch is to be set.
4.2. The string configuration and rigidity has to be similar to the string
for running the casing patch.
4.3. Condition the mud to prevent solids from settling out of the well
fluid during the patch setting operations.
4.4. Check and record any and all abnormal weight readings while
running in and pulling out.
4.5. Watch the M/D carefully when running the hole patch and stop as
soon as a loss in weight is noticed.
4.6. Do not force a casing patch string when there is unexpected drag.
4.7. When an accurate setting depth is required, correlation with a
neutron log must be conducted.
4.8. A taper mill of correct OD has to be run to gauge the casing patch
after it has been set.
5. PERMANENT ABANDONMENT
Reference
5.1.
Explorative wells
5.1.1.
Open hole
5.1.1.1. All permeable zones shall be plugged individually to avoid any
cross flow.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
5.1.1.2. Cement plugs shall be set with top and bottom at least 50 meters
above and below each zone.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
5.1.1.3. The top of the cement plugs shall be located and verified by
mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
PAGE 117 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.1.2.
Casing shoe
5.1.2.1. Last casing string above open hole shall be sealed with a cement
plug, it shall extend at least 50meters above and below the shoe
depth.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
5.1.2.2. Plug shall be tested by mechanical loading.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
5.1.3.
Liner head
5.1.3.1. At the hanging point of the liner a cement plug shall be set, it is
extending at least 50meters above and below the top of liner.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
5.1.4.
Casing cutting
5.1.4.1. The casing shall be cut at least 100meters above the shoe of the
previous casing string and a cement plug shall be placed in such
manner that extends at least 50 mertres above and below the
casing cut point.
P-1-M-6100 14.3
P-1-M-6140 14.3
5.2.
Completed wells
5.2.1.
Onshore Wells with pressure in the annulus casing/casing
Check and record the wellhead pressure
Pressure the test BOP and lubricator to 500psi above static
wellhead pressure
Condition the packer fluid versius completion fluid
Have two circulating heads ready to speed up the tubing tail
retrievement from cement slurry after the cement plug has
been set.
PAGE 118 OF 206
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.2.1.1. Case I (Casing with top of cement below the surface) Phase one:
5.2.1.1.1.
Open hole:
By pulling unit to retrive both packer and completion string
By coiled tubing to seal the last casing string above open hole
with a cement plug: it shall extend at least 50 meters above
and below the shoe depth.
If it is impossible to retrieve the packer, a cement squeeze will
be performed in the formation below the packer.
Proceed with cutting and retrieving of the completion string
above the packer.
If the squeeze is not allowed, in HPHT wells, a bridge plug will
be set in the completion string below the packer, the
completion string above the packer will be retrieved and a
cement plug on the packer wil be performed.
In the other wells, if the squeeze is not allowed, to retrive the
completion string above the packer and to perform a cement
plug on the packer.
PAGE 119 OF 206
ARPO
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.2.1.1.2.
Perforated casing zones:
Perforated zones shall be isolated with mechanical plug and
shall be squeeze cemented.
Before setting either both cement or mechanical plugs, to clear
the internal of the casing using taper mill.
Prior to running a CR in deep holes, make sure to have
enough rig pulling force capacity to release the CR setting tool.
Run a cement retainer below the perforation to spot a water
cushion across the perforation prior to setting a CR above the
level to be abandoned.
A cement retainer will be set maximum 10-15 meters above
the perforations.
When an accurate setting depth is required, a CR should be
run and set on electric wireline.
After the CR has been set, perform a hydraulic test by
pressurising the annulus to 500-1,000psi and mechanically by
slacking 5-10 ton weight on it.
An injection test has to be performed beginning with water
across the perforations and using different rates.
Consider the bottom hole pressure to avoid reaching the
fracture gradient when displacing slurry to bottom.
During squeeze operations with a CR, monitor the annulus
returns.
A 50 meters long cement plug shall be placed above the
cement retainer, the length of this plug may be reduced to
avoid any interference with any upper perforated intervals.
Do not reach the balanced plug condition when displacing,
underdisplace to obtain a hydrostatic head in the string slightly
higher than in the annulus to compensate tubing displacement.
Displacement of cement slurry should be done with the BOP
closed and return under the choke to avoid the U-tube effect.
Instead of point 4.3.1.2.1, a cement plug shall be placed with
upper and lower ends located at least 50meters above and
below the perforated zone. This solution must be considered
as a contingency.
The cement slurry volume will be calculated in order to have
cement from the bottom of the perforations to the cement
retainer and a minimum of 100 litres slurry per metre of
perforated zone.
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 12.6.2
P-1-M-6100 14.1.2
P-1-M-6140 14.1.2
P-1-M-6100 14.2.2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
5.2.1.2. Case I (Casing with top of cement below the surface) Phase two:
5.2.1.2.1.
In both cases Open hole and Cased hole, 20/30 day later, return
on the well with a workover rig and verify the hydraulic seal of the
plugging previously performed.
5.2.1.2.2.
All casing will be retrieved as much as possible
PAGE 120 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.2.1.2.3.
The casing shall be cut at least 100 m above the shoe of the
previous casing string and a cement plug shall be placed in such a
way to cover the casing at least 50 metres above and below the
casing cut point.
P-1-M-6100 14.2.2
P-1-M-6140 14.2.2
5.2.1.2.4.
To set cement plug use a tailpipe at least as long as the height of
the cement plus the cushion in front in the annulus.
5.2.1.3. Case II (Casing with top of cement at the surface) Phase one:
5.2.1.3.1.
Same as per case I phase one
5.2.1.4. Case II (Casing with top of cement at the surface) Phase two:
5.2.1.4.1.
If the annulus casing/casing is cemented, will be made windows in
a adequate zones.
5.2.1.4.2.
A water cushion should be left across the areas to be treated
5.2.1.4.3.
Position in the window an inflettable packer to insulate the
pressures.
5.2.1.4.4.
After a 50 m long cement plug shall be placed above the inlettable
bridge plug.
5.2.2.
Onshore Wells without pressure in the annulus casing/casing
5.2.2.1. The cement plug test will be performed by pressurising the top of
the plug with a 1500 psi differential pressure.
5.2.2.2. If the top of cement is under the shoe of the previous casing, it will
be mandatory to carry out a cement plug 100 m long in the
annulus casing/casing by circulating through the casing
perforations.
5.2.2.3. Several levels with the same hydraulic regime (homogeneous
formations, pressure and production fluid) can be plugged by
means of two cement plugs, provided the lower extends at least
50 m below the bottom of the deeper level and the upper extends
at least 50 m above the top of the higher level
5.2.2.4. Between such two plugs it will be placed a fluid with the same
characteristics of that one used during the running of the
production casing
PAGE 121 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.2.2.5. If SBHP is lower than hydrostatic pressure of the production fluid,
all annuli will be cemented to surface and the completion string will
be totaly abandoned in the well.
5.2.2.6. In the other situations, the completion string will be rercovered up
to 50 m under the shoe of the surface casing or in any cases not
deeper than 250 m from surface.
5.2.3.
Offshore Wells with pressure in the annulus casing/casing
5.2.3.1. The use of workover rig is mandatory
5.2.3.2. Both for explorative and completed offshore wells the well
abandonment will be carried out following the procedure (above
specified) for onshore well, making distintion between the two
cases (pressure or not in the annulus), but performing the
operation in one unique phase.
5.2.3.3. After setting the surface plug, each surface casing and conductor
pipe shall be cut at least 5m below seabed, using mechanical
cutters.
5.2.4.
Offshore Wells without pressure in the annulus casing/casing
5.2.4.1. The use of workover rig is mandatory
5.2.4.2. Both for explorative and completed offshore wells the well
abandonment will be carried out following the procedure (above
specified) for onshore well, making distintion between the two
cases (pressure or not in the annulus), but performing the
operation in one unique phase.
5.2.4.3.
After setting the surface plug, each surface casing and conductor
pipe shall be cut at least 5m below seabed, using mechanical
cutters.
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP3. COMPLETION AND WORKOVER OPERATIONS
OP. 3.1. GENERAL
1. BOP STACK AND TESTING
Reference
1.1. The BOP stack configuration including ram sizes should be in
accordance with the Well Programme.
1.2. After the BOP stack has been installed, the DS shall produce a
sketch of the BOP including the size and location of the rams and
the depths referred to RKB and send it with the BOP Test Report.
P-1-M-6140 3.1.2
1.3. The function and pressure tests will be recorded on a chart
recorder and the charts held in file.
P-1-M-7120 4.3f
1.4. The test schedule will be according to local regulations but will be
at least every 14 days. If operational constraints prevent a
scheduled pressure test, a dispensation will be requested and
issued by the authorities and held on file
P-1-M-7120 4.3e
1.5. In workover operations prior to pulling the tubing, the BOP stack
will be tested against plugs set in the tubing hanger.
P-1-M-7120 4.3g
1.6. BOP test after the completion has been pulled
1.6.1. Use a test tool when pressures are lower than the internal casing
yield pressure.
1.6.2. Use a tubing hanger and plugs installed in the tubing spool when
test pressures are higher than the internal casing yield pressure.
1.6.3. Depending on the type of completion to be pulled the appropriate
rams will be installed into BOP:
On single completion install concentric rams
On dual completion single pulling string use off set rams
On dual completion when simultaneously pulling both strings use
dual rams plus centralisers rams.
1.6.4. Any time the BOP stack is nippled up and after repairing
operations, all BOP operating equipment hoses, control panels,
regulator connections, shall be checked and tested to the
maximum manufacturer's recommended pressure for closing and
opening the BOP's .
P-1-M-6150 7.4.3
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.6.5. All BOP components shall be pressure tested with a test plug to a
low pressure of 300psi (21kg/cm
2
) and then to the following
pressures:
The lower connector, against one set of pipe rams, to the rated
WP of the wellhead or the ram type preventer, whichever is
lower.
All the other components, to a minimum pressure equal to, the
maximum anticipated wellhead pressure, or 70% of the
internal yield pressure of the weakest item of equipment,
whichever is the lower.
P-1-M-6150 6.3.1
1.6.6. The BOP 300psi low pressure tests will be performed first. They
are to be held for a min period of 5min. If the BOP does not pass
the low pressure test, do not carry out the high pressure test.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1
1.6.7. It is recommended that high pressure tests are held for a minimum
of 10min. The maximum acceptable pressure drop over this 10min
period is 100psi.
P-1-M-6150 7.3.1
1.6.8. Hold pressure for 10min. The acceptable pressure drop is 100psi
of the initial pressure before stabilisation, unless local legislation
dictates otherwise.
M-1-S-S-5703
P-1-M-7120 4.3c
2. WELL CONTROL
Reference
2.1. Well Control Drills
P-1-M-6150 8.3
2.1.1. Pit Drills:
The purpose of this drill is to ensure that the drill crews are familiar
with the Soft Shut-In procedure implemented in the event of taking
a kick while drilling.
2.1.2. Particular care has to be taken during the crew change, make sure
all information is handed over.
2.1.3. The Company Drilling and Completion Supervisor shall be present
on the rig floor at the beginning of every trip to check for fill-up.
P-1-M-6140 7.1
2.1.4. Always use the trip tank (tripping in and out) and accurately record
volumes to make sure the hole is taking/giving the proper amount
of fluid.
P-1-M-6140 7.1
2.1.5. After nippling up a BOP stack, minimum requirements for kill mud
cannot be specified. The volume and density of kill mud shall be
adjusted to the well pressure prognosis and pit volumes available
on the rig.
P-1-M-6140 6.5
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STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.1.6. Properties of reserve and kill mud should be checked and
maintained daily and recorded the mud report.
P-1-M-6140 6.5
2.1.7. Safety valves have been tested and are available already made up
and in open position with the crossovers to the workstring and
Weco connections to suit the kill line connection.
P-1-M-7120 4.1f
3. FLUID LOSS CONTROL
Reference
3.1. When lost circulation is encountered, some specific information
regarding the situation is required prior to initiating corrective
procedures.
P-1-M-6140 17.0
P-1-M-6160 6.2
3.2. An automatic pit level device shall be installed and operational, at
all times, on all mud pits and on the trip tank. A pit volume recorder
shall be continuously working on the rig floor and on the Mud
Logging Unit.
P-1-M-6150 6.2
3.3. Always use the trip tank (in and out) and accurately record
volumes to make sure the hole is taking/giving the proper amount
of fluid. If any discrepancy is observed, the Driller shall
immediately inform the Tool Pusher and Company Drilling and
Completion Supervisor.
P-1-M-6150 6.2
3.4. Prior to using a LCM pill, consideration will be given to reducing
the hydrostatic head by reducing the brine weight (with drill water)
and so reduce the level of losses. This will only be attempted if the
reduction in weight does not compromise the safety of the well.
P-1-M-7120 4.9
3.5. LCM pills used in completion operations should be selected in
order minimise potential damage to producing formations.
P-1-M-7120 4.9
3.6. If fluid loss control is needed and no results are obtained with a
viscous pill, calcium carbonate or others specific bridging agents
should be used.
P-1-M-6160 6.4
3.7. Viscous Pills
These can be built, either, using drill water, completion brine or a
higher weight brine as a base and adding a predispersed liquid
viscosifier to increase the funnel viscosity according to the well
programme.
P-1-M-7120 4.9.1
3.8. Sized Salt Pills
The actual composition of the sized salt pill will be determined
primarily by the porosity, permeability and temperature of the
formation to be bridged.
Sized salt pills must be formulated in a saturated brine base to
prevent solution of the bridging material.
P-1-M-7120 4.9.1
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.9. Calcium Carbonate Pills:
Calcium carbonate can be used as a drilling fluid and for LCM pills
to control fluid losses. In completion operations it is now the most
commonly used fluid for controlling fluid losses within Eni-Agip
operations.
P-1-M-7120 4.9.1
3.10. Avoid reverse circulate whenever possible.
3.11. Do not close blind rams after a trip and keep hole under control if
necessary with the trip tank on.
3.12. Minimum stock requirements for mud weighting materials,
chemicals, pipe freeing agent, dispersant, lost circulation material,
cement, kill and reserve mud on the rig, depends on the well
pressure prognosis, severity of potential drilling problems and rig
load capacity.
P-1-M-6140 4.7.2
3.13. During well completion and workover operations, all steps must be
taken to ensure that, if any fluid is in contact with the formation, it
is both clean and filtered. A fluid in any other condition will, for the
reasons stated above, result in some degree of formation
impairment.
P-1-M-7120 4.1f
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
Drilling Fluids Operation Manual STAP-P-1-M-6160
Acceptance Minumum Requirements for BOP and Well Contrl
Equipment STAP M1SS-5703
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.2. WELL PREPARATION
1. CASING CLEANING
Reference
1.1. A suitably sized bit, or junk mill, and tandem scraper assembly will
be run to clean out the casing or liner of any excess cement, and
to scrape the intended perforated interval(s).
P-1-M-7120 4.2
1.2. Solids control shall be performed using the appropriate equipment,
whenever needed. Maintain the right pressure on the desander
and desilter manifold for maximum performance.
P-1-M-6150 6.2
1.3. Prior to displace fluid in hole, empty all surface lines and pits and
wash with proper solution or solvent.
1.4. Cushions have to be used to separate mud from the completion
fluid.
1.5. When pressure allows displacement should be done in reverse
circulation.
1.6. A second series of washing cushions can be circulated once the
hole is completely filled with completion fluid.
1.7. Use of acid cushion to remove casing scales to be considered.
2. COMPLETION AND PACKER FLUIDS
Reference
2.1. Definitions
2.1.1. Completion fluid:
It is the fluid in the well during the installation (or the removal) of
the completion.
2.1.2. Packer fluid:
It is the fluid in the casing/tubing annulus above the upper packer
after the packer has been set. Packer fluid can be either the same
fluid used while running the completion (completion fluid) or any
other fluid displaced in the annulus above the upper packer after
the completion operation. Packer fluid may sometimes be non kill
weight fluid.
2.2. Completion fluid
P-1-M-7120 4.7
2.2.1. Hydrostatic pressure has to control formation pressure (300psi
minimum overbalance).
P-1-M-7100 7.3.6
2.2.2. Completion fluid, if not solids free, has to be conditioned in order to
avoid solid settling.
P-1-M-6160 4
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.2.3. Rheology shall be checked three times a day or more frequently if
requested by Company Drilling and Completion Supervisor.
P-1-M-6150 6.2
2.3. Packer fluid
2.3.1. Characteristics have to be stable over time.
2.3.2. Fluids have to be treated with anticorrosive additives.
P-1-M-7100 7.3.6
3. BRINE
Reference
3.1. Brine handling
3.1.1. Rig personnel involved must be aware of brine properties.
3.1.2. Proper safety equipment as plastic hand gloves, goggles and
rubber boots should be wear when handling and mixing heavy
brine.
3.1.3. A breathing mask have to be used to avoid breathing salt dust.
3.1.4. Do not expose skin to salt dust or liquid.
3.1.5. As heavy brine solution is hygroscopic, density must be checked
frequently in dump weather condition.
3.1.6. Check mud system butterfly isolating valves when changing from
mud to brine.
3.2. Brine filtration
3.2.1. A pit of brine will not be filtered by circulation on itself.
P-1-M-7120 4.8.1
3.2.2. All filtered brine will be checked to ensure that it meets the
required level of cleanliness.
P-1-M-7120 4.8.1
3.2.3. Filter brine from the dirty pit to a dedicated clean tank, or pump
directly into the well.
P-1-M-7120 4.8.1
3.2.4. Monitor P across the two filter units to control system efficiency.
3.2.5. The prime filtration system is the Diatomaceous Earth filter press
with a bag filter system for use as a downstream guard filter
P-1-M-7120 4.8.1
3.2.6. First filtering stage has to be performed with a DE filter unit.
P-1-M-7120 4.8
3.2.7. Cleanliness must be checked at the casing return and downstream
the filter unit.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4. CMT LOGGING
Reference
4.1. After a cement job is completed, 72 hours is the minimum WOC
time before a cement evaluation log is to be run.
4.2. A shooting nipple with stuffing box has to be installed if the well is
open to the reservoir.
4.3. The contractor has to specify the emergency cable cutting
procedure.
Reference List:
Completion Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-7100
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
Drilling Fluids Operation Manual STAP-P-1-M-6160
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.3. WELLBORE COMPLETION
1. PERFORATING
Reference
1.1. Preliminary
1.1.1. The Contractor shall specify all the equipment and accessory that
shall be utilised to perform the service (appendix 3 of technical
specifications) and the crew composition (appendix 2 of technical
specifications )
1.1.2. A copy of the Perforating Contractors Safety Procedure on Gun
Handling and Running shall be made available on site.
1.2. General Notes
1.2.1. A safety meeting must be held with all the personnel involved in
the operations.
P-1-M-7120 5.1
1.2.2. Verify with the service personnel the shot density, phasing and
perforation intervals as per Eni-Agip programme.
1.2.3. The first casing perforation shall be performed in daylight.
Subsequent series of shots can be carried out at any time.
P-1-M-7120 5.3j
1.2.4. Company Geologist should be present on rig site for correlation
(whenever possible)
1.3. Safety
1.3.1. Perforating operations should be carried out strictly according to
the safety policies of Eni-Agip and the perforating Contractor. In
the event of any inconsistency between policies, the most
conservative policy will apply.
P-1-M-7120 5.3.b
1.3.2. During the arming and connecting operation, all non-operating
personnel shall be at a safe distance.
P-1-M-7120 5.1
1.3.3. While arming and connecting the guns no electrical change are to
be made on the rig that would cause the gun to fire.
P-1-M-7120 5.1
1.3.4. Electrical welding operations must be stopped before any work
with explosive start.
P-1-M-7120 5.1
1.3.5. All radio transmitters must be turned off prior to shooting
operations; when the guns are 30m below ground level the radio
can be turned on (when required).
P-1-M-7120 5.1
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.3.6. All radio transmitters, radio beacons included, within a radius of
500ft from the well, shall be turned off, (since they may detonate
blasting caps), starting from gun arming until perforating guns are
500ft below the sea bottom (similarly, when pulling guns out of
hole and guns above 500ft).
P-1-M-7120 5.3g
1.3.7. After the guns has been removed from the well, it shall be
inspected to see that all the charge are fired.
1.4. Wireline perforators
1.4.1. Inside casing
1.4.1.1.
Rig up and pressure test the Shooting Nipple.
P-1-M-7120 5.4
1.4.1.2.
Check the distance between the CCL or GR and the top shot. In
case of selective gun, the distance from the CCL to the top of each
section.
P-1-M-7120 5.4.1.5
1.4.1.3.
Do not run a perforating string longer than the distance between
the blind rams and the stuffing box.
P-1-M-7120 5.4.1.4
1.4.1.4.
After perforations perform a 15min static control monitoring the
fluid level.
1.4.1.5.
After perforations pull out of the hole slowly without swab the well
(less than 5,000 ft/hour).
P-1-M-7120 5.4.1.4
1.4.2. Through tubing
1.4.2.1.
The BOP and Lubricator should always be pressure tested.
P-1-M-7120 5.4.2.1
1.4.2.2.
Rig up wireline for a full bore drift run. Run in the hole and drift the
tubing.
P-1-M-7120 5.4.2.3
1.4.2.3.
Correlate the GR/CCL to the original GR log. Record a short
section of film across the interval to be perforated showing at least
five casing collars and the pup joint at the top of the reservoir
zone. Do not run down into the perforations on subsequent runs.
P-1-M-7120 5.4.2.7
1.4.2.4.
Position the string at the desired perforating interval and fire the
guns.
P-1-M-7120 5.4.2.8
1.4.2.5.
Observe and record WHSIP to confirm the guns have fired.
P-1-M-7120 5.4.2.9
1.4.2.6.
Do not flow the well with the toolstring inside the tubing string.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.5. Tubing Conveyed Perforating
1.5.1. Run a bit and scraper to clean the casing before running the TCP
system.
P-1-M-7120 5.6.1
1.5.2. Radio silence must be in force before connecting the firing head
until the guns are 100 metres below ground level. On recovery of
the guns, regardless of any indications that they have past 100m
below ground level until the firing head is removed.
P-1-M-7120 5.6.4
1.5.3. Install the radioactive tag, if needed, as near as possible to the
gun assembly. The service Specialist will have the planned Hook-
Up diagram with OD, ID and length.
1.5.4. Rig up the main logging cable and run a gamma ray logging tool
down to the correlation depth. Tie-in on depth to the reference log
and record on sufficient film to show both radioactive pip markers
and any zones of gamma ray character on the log.
P-1-M-7120 5.6.4.9
1.5.5. Rig up the main logging cable and run a gamma ray logging tool
down to the correlation depth. Tie on depth to the reference log
and record sufficient film to show both radioactive pip markers and
any zones of gamma ray character on the log.
P-1-M-7120 5.6.4.11
1.5.6. Space out the tubing string to place the shots exactly on depth,
making proper allowance for the desired tubing compression or
tension.
1.5.7. If case of TCP with a permanent completion, use the resonding
firing system.
1.5.8. If the guns have to be dropped down, verify the sufficient rat hole.
P-1-M-7120 5.6
1.5.9. To prevent corkscrewed tubing between the top guns and packer,
a shock absorber shall be used.
2. SAND CONTROL
Reference
2.1. Gravel pack
2.1.1. Under-reaming should be performed using a non damaging fluid
2.1.2. Well fluids and sand carrying fluids must be filtered.
P-1-M-7120 6.4.2
2.1.3. All mud system involved in the gravel operations must be cleaned
(including wellhead and BOP cavity).
P-1-M-7120 6.4.1
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.1.4. Verify screen gauge and gravel delivered is correct according to
the well programme.
P-1-M-7120 6.4.6
2.1.5. Gauge wash pipes and BHA. Verify centralisers are of the correct
dimensions and properly spaced out.
P-1-M-7120 6.5.7
2.1.6. Verify gravel size.
2.1.7. The wire spacing of the screens should be checked for the proper
gauge and uniformity.
P-1-M-7120 6.2
2.1.8. Working string used to place GP should be plastic coated. Check
for coating integrity at the DP ends.
2.1.9. Have pup joints available to space out the work string.
2.1.10. Run the BHA in the hole slowly to prevent damage of the screen.
2.1.11. Apply pipe dope sparingly on the pin end only when making up the
work string.
P-1-M-7120 6.5.10
2.1.12. Perform a circulation test using different rates prior to start GP
operations.
2.1.13. Always measure the quantity or evaluate the gravel reversed out.
3. CASING MILLING
Reference
3.1. Mud or viscosified brine is needed.
3.2. Install ditch magnets in the mud circuit.
3.3. Test the knives are opening by pumping through the tool prior to
running in hole.
3.4. If an accurate depth is required a correlation log is needed.
3.5. Once on depth, rotation has to start prior to the mud pump.
3.6. Use low weights in section milling. A normal range can be
considered to be between 4000 and 8000lbs.
3.7. Watch the cuttings over the shale shaker to monitor the tool and
mud system efficiency.
3.8. The section of casing milled must be re-passed prior to pull out
tool.
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REVISION
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.9. Continue to circulate returns clean prior to starting pulling out of
the hole.
3.10. Pay attention when re-entering the casing as the knives could be
stuck in the open position.
Reference List:
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.4. COMPLETION PULL OUT
1. WELL KILLING
Reference
1.1. General
1.1.1. Check and record well head pressure.
1.1.2. Pressure test line at least 500psi over max. foreseeable pressure.
1.1.3. Pressurise kill line 200-300psi above the well head pressure before
opening the Xmas tree valve.
1.1.4. Be careful not to exceed the fracture pressure given in the
programme with the bottom hole pressure.
1.1.5. Bleed off any eventual residual pressure and perform a flow check
for at least 30mins.
1.2. Bullheading
1.2.1. Bullheading should be performed with an aim of not fracturing the
formation. The surface squeeze pressure applied should not
exceed the pre-calculated MAASP.
P-1-M-6150 5.1.5
1.2.2. Be careful not to exceed the fracturing pressure given in the
programme with the bottom hole pressure.
1.2.3. Unless particular problems arise such as overpressure or
mechanical problems, perform bullheading at a high pump rate
and never cease pumping once the operation has begun, until the
calculated volume of kill fluid has been pumped.
1.2.4. Monitor casing pressure during operation. If pumping in a string of
a dual completion, during killing monitor also second string. In
special circumstances there might be a requirement for
maintaining a back pressure on the annulus (e.g., short seal
assembly in the packer, low tension snap latch, etc.)
1.2.5. Once the calculated volume has been pumped if an increment in
pressure is noticed, immediately stop the mud pump.
1.2.6. Hold any final pressure until it drops to zero or it stabilises.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.3. Killing by circulation
1.3.1. Perform killing by reverse circulation is the normal procedure.
1.3.2. Balance pressure at the circulating depth between the tubing and
the casing before establishing communication.
1.3.3. In dual completions establish circulation L/S-S/S by opening the
ports between the two packers.
1.3.4. Reverse circulate through choke manifold until weight of fluid is the
same in and out. During the reverse circulation, the backpressure
maintained at the choke shall be calculated in order to keep the
bottom hole pressure between the formation and the fracturing
pressure.
1.3.5. Flow check every 30mins.
1.4. Killing by CTU
1.4.1. Nipple up the equipment and pressure test the coiled tubing and
BOP stack.
1.4.2. Pressurise the coiled tubing to 200-300psi above wellhead
pressure before opening the Xmas tree valves.
1.4.3. Run the coiled tubing to bottom hole checking overpull at
predetermined depths. Monitor the STHP and ensure that it is not
building up.
1.4.4. Once at the bottom circulate with adequate kill fluid having return
through choke manifold.
1.4.5. Stop circulation when kill fluid weight in and out is both the same.
1.4.6. Flow check every 30mins
1.5. Lubricate and bleed killing method
1.5.1. This method can be used to completely kill the well or to reduce
the shut-in pressure in high pressure wells.
1.5.2. To get the maximum advantage from this method start the
operations flowing the well to reduce shut-in pressure then close,
stop flowing and start pumping killing fluid.
1.5.3. Do not allow a large volume of killing fluid to be discharged during
the bleeding phase.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2. PACKER UNSEATING AND COMPLETION PULLING
Reference
2.1. General
2.1.1. Consult the final completion report to check the packer(s) shear
ring(s) value and decide the max. pull to apply.
2.1.2. Use the same type of tubing joint used for the completion with the
proper crossover to make up the landing joint(s).
2.1.3. Install the circulating head in the open position on the landing
joint(s).
2.1.4. When unsetting the packer do not exceed the max. tension
applicable for the tubing joint.
2.1.5. If overpull is required and is excessive, stop pulling and work the
pipe up and down.
2.1.6. If the max. tension is reached and no progress is made, the tubing
has to be cut above the packer so as to be able to be engaged
with a fishing string.
2.1.7. Once the packers are unset, work the string slowly allowing the
packer elements time to relax fully then pull the tubing hanger to
surface.
2.1.8. After the tubing hanger has been removed from its seat, circulate
one full hole volume of conditioning fluid since gas may be trapped
below the packer, be ready to circulate through choke manifold.
2.1.9. Make an accurate list of all the joints and all the special tools in
hole to be broken out
2.2. Pulling carbon steel tubing
2.2.1. For breaking-out, the back-up tong has to be positioned on the
lower part of the coupling (if applicable).
M-2-SS-722 5.2.h
2.2.2. A low gear will be selected in the power tong for break-out.
2.2.3. Be certain the power tong can move with the pipe, and that the
pipe is not supporting the weight of the power tong. To ensure this,
stop spinning after five turns, disengage the tong from the pipe
body, then re-engage the tong and complete break-out.
2.2.4. Apply thread storage compound and install protectors.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.3. Pulling alloy tubing
2.3.1. Padding material will be fitted to the V-door and cat walk areas to
prevent damaging the tubulars as they are laid out.
2.3.2. Ensure that the power tongs are fitted with the correct size non-
marking dies.
2.3.3. Tubing slips and elevator will be dressed with low stress dies.
M-2-SS-701 4.1.d
2.3.4. The use of a pick-up/lay-down machine is recommended.
M-2-SS-701 4.3.1
2.3.5. Care must be taken setting pipe in the slips to prevent shock
loading and impact damage.
2.3.6. The connection will be broken using a power tong at a low speed
of 2rpm.
M-2-SS-701 5.2
2.3.7. Once the thread has been broken, the connection will be backed
off by using a strap wrench.
M-2-SS-701 5.3
2.3.8. Storage compound will be applied and clean thread protectors
installed.
2.3.9. Never pull out alloy tubing in stands.
M-2-SS-722 5.2.h
Reference list:
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
Running Procedures for Corrosion Resistant Alloy OCTG TEPR-M-2-SS-701
Tubing Power Tong TEPR-M-2-SS-722
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.5. PIPE/TOOL RECOVERY
1. PACKER MILLING
Reference
1.1. Install a wear bushing during this operation.
1.2. If a packer milling tool (Baker or similar ) is used, have more shoes
of the same size (OD-ID) on location as one might not be enough
to mill a packer.
1.3. While preparing the tool make sure the ID of the extension is
bigger than the ID of the milling shoe.
1.4. The use of a junk basket (or junk sub) positioned just above the
milling tool is recommended.
1.5. With a milling tool, the use of a rotary jar is recommended.
1.6. Install ditch magnets in the mud system.
1.7. Consider the use of a centraliser, especially in a deviated hole.
1.8. If not working in mud, a viscosified brine must be used.
1.9. Using a packer milling tool with catch sleeve, the packer must be
reached with the Kelly while circulating.
1.10. At least 3 metres of Kelly have to be above the rotary table when
engaging the packer.
1.11. When approaching the packer, watch M/D and pump pressure
gauge carefully to observe that the milling tool is entering the
packer.
1.12. Check and record the up, down and rotating weights, also check
and record the torque before entering with the catch sleeve in the
packer.
1.13. Once the packer has been located, pick up the milling tool, start
rotation and then lower the milling tool to start milling. Never start a
mill when on the fish.
1.14. During milling, pick up the milling tool from time to time to change
the working position.
1.15. To have a high annular velocity, the pump flow rate should be the
highest allowed by the pump and the hole conditions.
1.16. If rubber is reducing milling rate try shutting off the mud pump for
short periods and spud the mill frequently.
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REVISION
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2. FREE POINT
Reference
2.1. A Free Point survey shall be run to select the back-off point.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.6a
2.2. Pipe which appears to be free in tension does not always react to
applied torque. There is a greater chance of succeeding with the
back-off if the pipe is free under both tension and torque.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.6f
2.3. If an accurate free point depth is required an electric free point log
must be carried out.
2.4. A pressure holding device, as an hydrolex or stuffing box, has to
be installed on the string with the possibility to pump in hole if
needed.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
2.5. The most common procedure to locate the free point is to perform
it in steps always splitting the string by half.
2.6. The tension applied to the string with the free point tool on depth,
has to be higher than the weight of the string itself pulling out of
hole.
2.7. Do not apply the same tension all times but vary.
2.8. If the tool used allows, check for pipe free under stretch and
torque.
3. BACK OFF
Reference
3.1. Only a mechanical back off has to be attempted on tubing joints
and it has to be used as last resort.
3.2. A circulating head has to be installed on the string.
3.3. Set the weight in neutral at the desired depth.
3.4. If a top drive is available, start turning the string counter-clockwise
a predetermined number of turns depending on the type of thread
and the depth of back off.
3.5. Apply left hand torque in a series of steps. Work the pipe at each
step to transfer the torque downhole.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7.7
3.6. The maximum amount of left hand torque should be 80% of the
maximum value used for the right hand torque.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7.8
3.7. Once the right amount of left hand torque is applied, run the Back-
off tool to the back- off point
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7.9
3.8. Hold the torque and reciprocate sting to transmit torque to the
bottom.
.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.9. Set the string in the same position with the same pull and give few
more turns.
3.10. Repeat the operation until the pipe is free.
3.11. If a top drive is not available, after the string has been turned with
the slips in the rotary table, torque should be released and the
back turns has to be recorded to see the effective turns taken by
the string.
3.12.
Left hand threaded drill pipe, or reversing tool, can be considered
for performing a mechanical back off.
3.13. Pull the drill string out of the hole. Fire the charge when across the
selected joint connection and retrieve the tool.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7.10
3.14. If the operation is unsuccessful, release the left hand torque,
circulate to clean the string from back-off debris and start again.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7.13
3.15. The backing-off of drill collar connections should be performed by
following the same procedure. Problems may arise due to the
difficulty in identifying the Free Point and with higher left hand
torque required.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
3.16. As general rule, the first attempt to back off should be made at the
first connection above the free point. Subsequent attempt should
be made moving upward one stand at a time.
P-1-M-6140 16.4.7
4. TUBING PUNCHER
Reference
4.1. All the safety procedures for explosive running must be followed.
4.2. This operation is normally done before removing the Xmas tree
and pressure testing equipment is mandatory.
4.3. Identify the type of charges and check if they match with the type
and material of tubing in the hole.
4.4. Make sure the engineer in charge of the job has measured the
distance between the CCL and the top of the charges.
4.5. Depth correlation will be done with a CCL compared with the
tubing tally in the completion report.
4.6. Pressure at punching depth has to be equalised or kept higher
inside tubing by pressurising with rig pump to get an overbalance
from tubing to the annulus.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.7. Keep tubing and annulus pressure under observation during the
operation.
4.8. It is good practice after the puncher has been fired to pull the
puncher about 50m upwards and try to establish circulation.
4.9. Check the gun when out of hole and pay attention to any charges
which may not have fired.
5. TUBING CUTTER
Reference
5.1. Safety procedures for explosive running have to be followed
5.2. Depth correlation has to be done with a CCL compared against the
completion tubing tally.
5.3. Make sure the tubing cutter, chemical or explosive, has the proper
size and is adequate for the type and material of tubing in hole.
5.4. At all times use pressure control equipment.
5.5. The string should be in tension when cutting. The pull at surface
will be decided according to the depth, the hole characteristics and
the OD of tubing.
5.6. Observe the M/D when firing the tubing cutter.
5.7. Pull the tubing cutter out of the hole taking particular care when
pulling through restrictions in the tubing string such as landing
nipples, sliding sleeves, etc.
5.8. If a chemical cutter is used, once out of hole, wash the rig floor
with abundant amount of water to avoid direct contact with skin or
residual acid.
5.9. A chemical cutter is preferred if the next trip in the hole is with an
overshot.
6. WASHING OVER
Reference
6.1. Hole characteristics such as deviation, dog legs, restriction etc.
have to be considered when planning to run wash over pipe.
6.2. Run the minimum wash pipe joints necessary considering the well
situation at all times.
6.3. Select the proper milling shoe depending on the type of job to be
done and measure the ID and OD of the dressed end and the ID
and OD of the body.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.4. The ID of the washover shoe has to be smaller than the washover
pipe ID and the OD larger than the wash pipe OD.
6.5. Check all parameters before entering the fish with washover pipe,
string weight up, down and rotating, torque, pump pressure and
rate.
6.6. Due to the fragility of washover pipe keep the torque carefully
monitored when working on the fish.
6.7. Because of the small clearance between casing ID and wash pipe
OD, frequently pick up the string to avoid getting stuck.
6.8. After the washpipe has been pulled out, before re-running the
same joints, an accurate check of the threads and the body must
be done.
6.9. The pump flow rate should be high enough to keep the milling
shoe free from cuttings and to have an annular velocity high
enough to carry the cuttings to surface.
7. FISHING
Reference
7.1. A detailed and accurate sketch of the equipment in the hole is
necessary to make a proper fishing tool selection.
P-1-M-6140 16.5.2.2
7.2. If the hole or fish condition is not known, more information can be
obtained by running an impression block on drill pipe, or cable, to
get a picture of the top of the fish.
7.3. If a parted string has been retrieved, information can be obtained
from the end condition of the parted string.
7.4. With any type of fishing tool used, the fish should be approached
with the pumps on.
7.5. When the top of fish is in good condition, an overshot can be run
to attempt recovery. If not in good shape it must be redressed with
a mill first.
7.6. Check the grapple and mill control for proper size when running an
overshot. Also check the guide and top connection ID compared to
the OD of fish.
7.7. Unless for particular situations, an overshot will be run all times
with a jar and DCs.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
7.8. If the fish is plugged, and no circulation is expected, once engaged
with the overshot, it is good practice to remove the mill control seal
prior to running. In any case the possibility of being able to
circulate with the fishing tool engaged has to be considered.
7.9. To engage a fish, the fishing string is lowered and rotated to the
right very slowly, pumping at minimum rate. During the engaging
operation, continuously monitor the weight indicator and stand pipe
pressure.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.1.5
7.10. Prior to engaging the fish, record the weight of fishing string (up,
down and rotating) with and without circulation.
P-1-M-6140 16.6.1.4
7.11. When running overshot, space out string before engaging the fish,
in order to have the tool joint at the rotary table, or before to install
the Kelly.
7.12. Using the Kelly, a fish can be reached and engaged by slowly
rotating the string (e.g. 10 RPM)
7.13. If an electric line run is planned, do not engage a fish with the
Kelly.
7.14. Slack off weight before trying to unset an overshot by rotating
clockwise.
7.15. It is nigh impossible to release the tool once engaged. For this
reason its use has to be considered the last resort and only used
after consultation with Eni-Agip Shore Base (Drilling
Manager/Superintendent).
P-1-M-6140 16.6.3.1
7.16. To engage the fish, apply right hand torque. A gradual increase of
back torque is an indication of successful operation
P-1-M-6140 16.6.3.4
7.17. Running a jar with a taper tap or die collar should be evaluated in
every single situation. A jar could negate the fishing tool action.
Reference List:
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.6. WELL COMPLETION
1. TUBING/PACKER INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
Reference
1.1. Single string
1.1.1. Always handle the tubing with thread protectors fully screwed on.
1.1.2. Drift the tubing with the correct OD drift mandrel 42 or 1067mm
long.
1.1.3. Ensure the wear bushing has been removed from the tubing spool
prior to starting running the completion or, in case of a metal seal
tubing spool, prior to landing the tubing hanger. In cases where the
retrieving tool is equipped with a bottom thread and no control
lines or electric lines are being run, the wear bushing can be
retrieved prior to installing the SCSSV.
1.1.4. Use safety clamps while running the BHA.
1.1.5. A circulating head with a proper crossover must be available on
the rig floor.
1.1.6. Thorough cleaning of threads with proper solvent and air should be
done immediately before use.
1.1.7. Visually inspect both the male and female thread conditions.
1.1.8. Do not try any repair job on the sealing areas of premium tubing.
1.1.9. Check the tong alignment.
1.1.10. Use a stabbing guide.
1.1.11. Keep the tubing aligned during make-up. The use of a stabber is
recommended for premium tubing.
1.1.12. Make-up the tubing by hand for at least the first two or three turns.
1.1.13. Apply the correct make-up torque value according to the friction
factor for the type of grease being used.
1.1.14. Avoid contamination of the thread compound by water, rain, drilling
fluid, etc. A new bucket of compound should be opened at the
beginning of the installation.
1.1.15. A dope applicator is recommended for use on every type of
connection.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.1.16. Use a make-up joint analyser when running premium tubing.
1.1.17. Check for slip marks, depth of damage must be less than 5% of
the wall thickness.
1.1.18. Run in the hole slowly to avoid the piston effect and continuously
watching the M/D. If an overflow of fluid occurs, pumping of a
heavy pill can be considered.
P-1-M-7120 7.3.2.10
1.1.19. Check the displacement continuously.
1.1.20. Check the anchor screws are completely open before landing the
tubing hanger.
1.1.21. Check and record the weight of the string both up and down.
These data have to record in the final completion report.
P-1-M-7120 7.3.2.14
1.1.22. Tighten anchor screws to energise the hanger seal and pressure
test before nippling down the BOP. A two way BPV shall also be
installed and tested prior to nippling down the BOP.
1.1.23. Calibrate the string with wireline.
1.1.24. A correlation log must be conducted if accurate packer positioning
is required.
1.2. Dual string (simultaneous)
1.2.1. Have two circulating heads available on the rig floor with the
correct tubing thread.
1.2.2. During running in the hole, keep the long string/short string gap as
per the programme.
1.2.3. The tubing hanger guide in the tubing spool has to be positioned
prior to lower the tubing hanger.
1.2.4. Calibrate the short string and long string with wireline before
installing the Xmas tree.
1.3. Special alloy tubing
1.3.1. Always use extremely clean plastic thread protectors fully screwed
on.
1.3.2. The thread protectors will be removed and cleaned and the
threads cleaned and inspected by an approved thread inspector.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5.9
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.3.3. Always handle the tubing with nylon slings.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5.4
1.3.4. The tubing will be drifted from end to end using a nylock drift to
API spec. The drift dimensions will be as per (API RP 5A5):
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5.12
1.3.5. The use of a device such as a pick-up/lay-down system is
recommended to carry the tubing to the V-door. Padding material
will be fitted to the V-door and catwalk areas to prevent damage to
the tubulars.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7.1
1.3.6. Before running, check the travelling block-to rotary table
alignment.
1.3.7. Use a dope applicator, or similar, to apply the right amount of
thread compound.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.6.4
1.3.8. If no pipe dope applicator is available, apply thread compound
sparingly to the entire pin end and to only the shoulder seal and
first three threads of the box using a new, clean, 1 fibre brush,
ensuring that it fills the thread roots and covers the seal faces and
torque shoulder adequately.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.6.5
1.3.9. A thread inspector must inspect all threads.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.6.9
1.3.10. Tubing slips will be dressed with low stress dies.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7.8
1.3.11. The power tongs will be fitted with the correct size non-marking
dies.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7.2
1.3.12. Make-up joints hand tight with a strap wrench before using power
tongs.
1.3.13. The last turns will be made using a torque turn unit with a graphical
torque turn analyser to confirm the correct make up value.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7.17
1.3.14. Care will be taken setting pipe in the slips to prevent shock loading
and impact damage.
1.3.15. The make up speed should be between 3 to 10rpm. Final make up
should be at 5 RPM.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.7.18
2. HYDRAULIC LINE INSTALLATION
Reference
2.1. Attach an across-coupling protector at the first connection and
ensure the control line is flat against the tubing and is in tension.
P-1-M-7120 8.5.3.7
2.2. Run in the hole on tubing applying the protectors at every
connection and mid joint, keeping tension on the control line.
P-1-M-7120 8.5.3.8
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.3. When the spacing out procedure has been completed, wrap the
control line around the pup joint below the hanger to provide
contingency if the line is damaged during make up and landing.
P-1-M-7120 8.5.3.9
2.4. Never rotate the string when running in the hole with a control line.
P-1-M-7120 8.5.3.8
2.5. Never allow any hole fluid to enter the control line.
2.6. Attach the remaining control line from the reel to the exit port in the
hanger and pressure test the line according to the completion
programme.
P-1-M-7120 8.5.3.11
2.7. Lock and monitor the pressure in on the reel keeping the valve
open as it is run in the hole preventing pressure locking, allowing
the string to self fill and checking for control line leaks.
P-1-M-7120 8.5.3.6
3. ELECTRIC LINE INSTALLATION
Reference
3.1. Install protector/centralisers and ensure the string is properly
centralised to prevent stripping off the electric line or protectors.
3.2. Check the electrical continuity and isolation every 200-300m run in
hole.
3.3. Do not rotate string during running to avoid cable damage.
3.4. Do not suddenly stop the string with the brake to avoid cable
stretching.
4. SUCKER ROD PUMP INSTALLATION
Reference
4.1. Ensure that the rods and pump assemblies have been properly
checked and tested.
P-1-M-7120 10.2.3.2
4.2. Pull back to space out the rods so that the polished rod will be
positioned correctly through the stuffing box.
P-1-M-7120 10.2.3.7
4.3. Make up the stuffing box to the wellhead and pressure test through
the flowline against the standing valve.
P-1-M-7120 10.2.3.9
4.4. Pressure test according to the programme.
P-1-M-7120 10.2.3.17
4.5. Begin the pump commissioning process bringing the well
onstream.
P-1-M-7120 10.2.3.18
4.6. Optimise the pump speed to maximise stable production flowing
conditions.
P-1-M-7120 10.2.3.21
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.7. When a tubing pump is used, in deep wells it should be run
complete with standing valve and plunger to avoid damaging the
precision machined surfaces during tripping. On a second trip the
rod string will be connected.
4.8. Rods must be handled with care and stored to ensure they are not
trampled on.
4.9. The use of a hydraulic tong is recommended to obtain uniform
makeup results.
4.10. Once on bottom, establish the pump stroke, space out and install
the polished rod.
5. ESP SYSTEM INSTALLATION
Reference
5.1. Gauge the hole prior to running the pump to make sure there is no
clearance problem.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.2. The ESP manufacturers field representative must thoroughly
check all equipment before installation.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.3. The manufacturers field representative must direct the assembly
procedure and check the equipment as it is being run-in.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.4. Mechanically check the free rotation of downhole components.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.5. Check the electrical connection and test the motor, power cable,
and flat cable pothead
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.6. Check the connecting coupling size is correct.
5.7. When running the BHA in the hole, check if the shaft rotates freely
after every single component has been flanged up.
5.8. Check cable insulation and continuity before to connecting it to the
motor.
5.9. Make sure the motor and protector are full of oil. Displace the
shipping oil with insulation oil in the seal section.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.10. The check valve, if required, should be installed 5-6 joints above
the pump.
5.11. The bleeder valve should be installed 1 or 2 joints above the check
valve.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.12. Do not make sudden stops with brake during running to avoid
cable damage.
5.13. Do not rotate the string during running to avoid cable damage.
5.14. Once the run-in procedures are completed and final electrical tests
completed, the manufacturers representative will complete the
electrical connections.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.15. Phase rotation should be checked carefully to ensure that the
pump will rotate in the correct direction. Start the pump. Fluid
pump-up time, load and no-load voltage and amperage on each
phase must be recorded.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.16. Monitor the wellhead pressure while the string is still full of
completion fluid to verify correct pump operation
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
5.17. Check the cable for any short circuits and insulation every 200-
300m while running and after the eventual splicing.
P-1-M-7120 10.1.2
6. WELL HEAD INSTALLATION AND TESTING
Reference
6.1. Make sure all the protective paint in the sealing seats has been
removed.
6.2. Remove all plugs from test and vent ports in the seal flange prior
to install the Xmas tree and blow air through to make sure all are
free. In the same way test eventual control line ports.
6.3. Use a lifting flange to hang the Xmas tree.
P-1-M-7120 8.6.1.2
6.4. Use a travelling block to hang and lower the Xmas tree onto the
seat to maintain better control.
P-1-M-7120 8.6.1.9
6.5. Make sure all Xmas tree valves are open before installation.
P-1-M-7120 8.6.1.10
6.6. Lower the Xmas tree very slowly on the tubing spool with all bolts
inserted in the base flange so that it is guided to the right position.
6.7. Short strings and long strings have to be easily identified in an
evidently clear and permanent manner
6.8. The bolt nuts must be tightened, with a torque wrench, gradually in
a progressive 90 phased makeup sequence until the final torque
is reached, continuously checking the gap between the two
flanges.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.9. All pressure testing of energised seals should be carried out
according to the procedures stipulated in the manufacturers
manual or well programme procedures. When testing is complete,
bleed off pressure from the test port, remove test apparatus,
replace the check valves and plugs.
P-1-M-7120 8.6.1.12
6.10. All pressure testing of energised seals has to be carried out.
6.11. Pressure test the tubing hanger upper seal by pressurising the
Xmas tree. The test port on the opposite side of the seal has to be
open during this test.
P-1-M-7120 8.6.1.14
6.12. Pressure test the tubing hanger seals and ring joint via the port on
the seal flange. Keep the casing valve on the tubing spool and test
port open during this test.
P-1-M-7120 8.6.1.13
6.13. Always have one set of spare seals and ring joint available.
6.13.1. Test the control line ports, if any.
6.14. Record all operations on a pressure recorder.
P-1-M-7120 8.6.1.15
7. PACKER(S) SETTING
Reference
7.1. Install a plug by wireline in the packer tailpipe landing nipple, fill up
the assembly with brine
P-1-M-7120 7.3.1.6
7.2. Keep the casing valve on the tubing spool open
7.3. Set the packer applying pressure according to the manufacturers
setting procedure.
P-1-M-7120 7.3.1.14
7.4. Hold setting pressure for about 10 min. monitoring any returns
from the casing.
7.5. Bleed off pressure slowly.
7.6. Pressurise the casing to 500psi to test above the packer.
7.7. Record all operations on a pressure recorder.
Reference List:
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.7. STIMULATION
1. MATRIX TREATMENT
Reference
1.1. Preliminary
1.1.1. A copy of the Company Safety Procedures on corrosive and
poisonous fluid shall be available on site.
1.2. General Notes
1.2.1. Hold a safety meeting with all the personnel involved in the
operations.
P-1-M-7120 15.2
1.2.2. All the surface lines must be pressure tested and recorded on a
Martin Decker type chart recorder.
P-1-M-7120 15.4.3
1.2.3. Begin acid pumping operation only in day light.
1.2.4. Plan the operation in order to open the well for clean up in day
light.
1.2.5. Iron content in the chloridric acid shall be not more than 1000 ppm.
1.2.6. The acid tanks should be internally coated with acid resistant paint
and equipped with a level indicator.
1.2.7. The pump/squeeze manifold should have outlets for pressure
monitoring and a connection for the pump unit and Xmas tree/test
string. Between all connection an interception valve shall be fitted.
1.2.8. On the pumping line install a hydraulically actuated valve with
remote control (as near as possible to the wellhead).
1.2.9. Use a computerised control module with continuous recording of
working parameters on tape or floppy disk.
1.2.10. The amounts and volumes of chemical products should be
checked when they arrive at the well site.
1.3. Safety
1.3.1. During the acid mix operation and pumping operations, all non-
operating personnel shall be kept at a safe distance.
P-1-M-7120 15.2
1.3.2. All work areas will be chained or roped off, and warning signs
placed at all access routes. The exact requirements will be
specified on the work permits.
P-1-M-7120 15.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.3.3. Fire hoses will be available in the areas where acid is to be used.
The hoses will be fully charged, so that they can be used
immediately should a spill occur.
P-1-M-7120 15.2
1.3.4. Sacks of soda ash or calcium carbonate shall be available for
absorbing small spills of acid.
P-1-M-7120 15.2
1.3.5. Acid showers and eye baths will be available should any personnel
come into contact with acid.
P-1-M-7120 15.2
1.3.6. The first aid safety kit for personnel coming in contact with
corrosive and poisonous fluids should be positioned at the rig side.
2. HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
Reference
2.1. General
2.1.1. All equipment shall be positioned at least 15m away from the
wellhead
2.1.2. Lines connecting blenders and pumps shall be flexible with at least
10 Bar (150 psi) WP.
2.1.3. All lines shall be anchored and pressure tested.
2.1.4. During all the treatment operation the annulus pressure shall be
monitored.
2.1.5. A safety check valve shall be positioned as near as possible to the
wellhead on the pumping line.
2.2. Preliminary Tests
2.2.1. Prior to starting the treatment, it shall be necessary to perform the
following tests:
Fracture extension pressure.
Leak-off test.
Fracture closure pressure.
Friction loss.
PAGE 153 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.3. Equipment
2.3.1. The equipment required to perform the fracturing job is as follows:
Water/brine stock tanks.
Frac fluid stock tanks.
Pumps equipped with an over pressure shut down system.
Blender with tub, centrifugal pumps, screw pump,
densitometer, flowmeters.
Pressure gauges, flowmeters, relief valve, pop-off/bleed
valves, viscometer.
Surface lines.
Computerised control module.
Sand trap, API sieves (if required).
Proppant tanks (if required).
Reference List:
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
PAGE 154 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.8. COILED TUBING OPERATIONS
1. RIG UP, TESTING AND DEPLOYMENT
Reference
1.1. The tubing string should be drifted by wireline prior to the first run
of the coiled tubing.
1.2. A coiled tubing specification chart must always be available on the
CT unit.
This chart will contain at least the following data:
P-1-M-7120 13.2.1
1.2.1. Tubing specification:
Serial Number
OD
Max. working pressure
Max. tensile load.
1.2.2. Updated history logs:
Cycle history log
Treatment history log
Last NDT test.
1.3. The CT BOP must be connected directly to the Xmas tree (or to
the flowhead)
P-1-M-7120 13.4.2
1.4. Once the injector and the BOP stack have been positioned, the CT
should be filled and flushed with water to make sure there is no
obstruction.
P-1-M-7120 13.4.2.1
1.5. All rams and the stripper will be function and pressure tested with
water to at least 500psi over the static wellhead pressure prior to
running in the hole.
P-1-M-7120 13.4.2.6
1.6. The back pressure valves will also be pressure tested.
P-1-M-7120 13.4.3.5
1.7. The weight indicator must be tested before running coiled tubing in
to a well.
P-1-M-7120 13.5.3
1.8. Ensure the mechanical and electronic depth counters are set to
zero depth at the swab valve or at the rotary table prior to running
in the hole.
P-1-M-7120 13.5.4
1.9. A schematic of the completion string (including string restrictions,
inclinations and string profile) will be given to the CT operator for
guidance when running.
P-1-M-7120 13.1.1
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.10. Standard running speed should be 50ft/min, running or pulling
through unobstructed tubing, slowing to 15ft/min within 50ft either
side of obstructions.
P-1-M-7120 13.5.5
1.11. Ensure that the tubing internal pressure is maintained at all time by
pumping.
Ensure that tubing pressure does not increase while running by
venting when necessary.
P-1-M-7120 13.5.7
1.12. The C/T contractor will provide plots of pipe weight, pipe loading
and buckling stress against depth for the particular job to be
performed. Any significant deviation from these plots during the
operation must be investigated.
P-1-M-7120 13.5.10
1.13. Pulling weight tests/checks should be performed every 1,000ft
regularly during running in.
P-1-M-7120 13.5.11
1.14. A tapered coil tubing string has to be used in deep deviated wells
and always where excessive drag is encountered.
2. GAS LIFTING
Reference
2.1. Run in the well carefully, stopping to establish nitrogen injection at
a low rate, increasing the rate slowly as the coiled tubing is further
run in.
P-1-M-7120 13.6.1.7
2.2. Once the tubing has reached the predetermined depth, stop
running in and continue pumping nitrogen until nearly all the
nitrogen is pumped, or the well is flowing strongly.
P-1-M-7120 13.6.1.8
2.3. Temperature of nitrogen pumped should be kept under control.
Avoid pumping too cold or too hot nitrogen compared to the well
temperature.
2.4. Pull the tubing out of the well before the nitrogen supply is
completely exhausted. This is to ensure that the pressure
differential across the tubing wall does not exceed 1,000psi.
P-1-M-7120 13.6.1
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.5. The following data will be recorded throughout the nitrogen lift
operation:
Wellhead flowing pressure
Nitrogen injection pressure
Nitrogen injection rate
Wellhead flowing temperature
Separator level
Separator pressure
Separator temperature
P-1-M-7120 13.6.1.2
2.6. The returns from tubing should be through a choke manifold and
separator.
3. WELL CLEANING
Reference
3.1. 1
1
/
4
is the minimum size CT OD which should be used to carry out
clean up jobs.
3.2. A jet nozzle, with radial and coaxial holes of the proper ID will be
installed in the CT BHA.
3.3. The returns from tubing string should be through a choke manifold
and a separator.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3.1
3.4. A sampling point will be installed in the return line.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3.2
3.5. Begin running in carefully with the well producing at a reduced
rate. Keep the tubing string filled full of treated sea water by
circulating at the minimum rate. Carry out regular pull tests/checks
at 1,000ft intervals.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3.7
3.6. Monitor the pump pressure, wellhead pressure and coiled tubing
string weight continuously throughout the operation. If there are
any indications of problems pull back above the last hold up depth
immediately and evaluate the situation.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3
3.7. Sand can be washed using viscosified brine or brine cushions
alternated with nitrogen cushions. Apply the later solution when
working inside casing.
3.8. Before entering open casing always circulate the tubing string
capacity twice.
3.9. Penetration, when working inside casing, has to be performed in
steps depending on the casing ID. After each step, it is good
practice to pull the CT back up to the previous starting point.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.10. Run in slowly to the top of the fill, stopping to note the hanging
weight. Slow down when the weight begins to drop off the tubing
and flag pipe at surface as a reference. The tubing must be kept in
tension at all times.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3.1
3.11. After penetrating 20ft, pick-up to the tubing shoe then run back in
to repeat the process in stages of 20ft, pumping continuously.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3.2
3.12. Break circulation when well above the last recorded hold up depth
and establish a minimum circulation rate while pumping gel.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3.9
3.13. When the target depth is reached continue pumping washing
fluid(s) reciprocating the CT and tag bottom several times to
ensure all that the sand has been removed.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3
3.14. Lift and flow the well when pulling out to ensure all moving sand
upwards is removed.
P-1-M-7120 1.1.3.5
3.15. Collect samples at the sampling point and monitor the sand
coming out.
4. CEMENTING
Reference
4.1. 1
1
/
4
is the minimum size CT OD which should be used to carry out
this type of operation.
4.2. An accurate formulation and mixing procedure for the cement is
essential to obtain a successful job, a batch mixer must be used.
4.3. Measure the volume of the CT, do not rely on calculated volumes.
4.4. The string should be filled with a formation compatible fluid.
4.5. Back pressure valves and a nozzle head should be installed in the
CT BHA.
4.6. Depth correlation can be carried out comparing wireline depths (at
bottom and at the tubing shoe).
4.7. Start pulling the CT when the top of cement displaced into the
casing is about 20/30m above the nozzle.
4.8. Stop pulling the CT when the nozzle is about level with the
theoretical top of cement.
4.9. Continue pumping to clean the hole of excess cement.
4.10. If the job is carried out in an under balance condition, the return
has to be done through a choke manifold, measuring accurately
the volumes in and out.
PAGE 158 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5. ACIDISATION
Reference
5.1. Prior to rigging up the acid equipment a safety meeting will be held
with all relevant personnel. The meeting will address the hazards
inherent with handling acids, particularly under pressure. The
meeting will also address the actions to be taken in the event of an
emergency.
P-1-M-7120 13.6.2
5.2. Suggested BHA is, from the bottom up:
J etting nozzle
2 dart type check valves
6ft straight bar
Tubing connector
P-1-M-7120 13.6.2-2
5.3. Run in the well carefully, circulating at minimum rate. Perform
regular pull tests/checks at 1,000ft intervals.
P-1-M-7120 13.6.2-6
5.4. If an acid wash or solvent treatment is to be performed then:
Circulate the coiled tubing to treatment fluid.
J et the area to be treated while reciprocating the coiled tubing
slowly.
Circulate the tubing to injection quality seawater.
Pull out of the hole.
P-1-M-7120 13.6.2-8
5.5. Check the internal condition of the CT and, if necessary, flush the
coiled tubing with an acid cushion prior to start the operation.
Reference List:
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
PAGE 159 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.9. WELL TESTING
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. An emergency safety hydraulic wing valve normally closed will be
installed at the wellhead and operated by a remote control panel.
P-1-M-7130 7.1.1
1.2. A test pressure programme for the surface layout must be
prepared by the contractor.
P-1-M-7130 7.1.1
1.3. All surface lines from the wellhead to the choke manifold will
consist of rigid pipe sections or coflexip, no chiksan loops are
allowed.
P-1-M-7130 7.1.1
1.4. All surface lines from the wellhead to the flare manifold and
vessels, will be pressure tested using water. All pressures will be
recorded on a Martin Decker type chart recorder.
1.5. All surface lines will be anchored to the platform deck or to the
ground.
P-1-M-7130 7.1.1
1.6. Fluid samples to evaluate BS&W during well clean up will be
collected at the choke manifold on the choke cover hammer union.
1.7. Verify the positive choke ID with a vernier caliper. Do not rely on
the printed numbers.
1.8. When sand is produced, the choke ID will be checked at
predetermined intervals.
1.9. The test separator is used to:
Separate the well flow into three phases; oil, gas and water
Meter the flow rate of each phase, at known conditions
Measure the shrinkage factor to correct to standard
conditions
Sample each phase at known temperature and pressure
P-1-M-7130 7.1.6
1.10. Separator pressure has to be kept as low as the well performance
allows and lower than 50% of the upstream pressure (to maintain
critical conditions).
1.11. Downstream choke manifold lines will preferably not be less than
3 OD.
1.12. In oil well test, the oil level in the separator should be kept as low
as possible.
1.13. Flowing and static well head pressures will be measured using a
DWT
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.14. A high pressure injection pump with hydrate inhibitor will be
available at all times on gas well tests.
P-1-M-7130 7.3.1
1.15. Bottom hole pressures will be recorded using a down hole
pressure and temperature sensor positioned as close to the
perforations as possible.
1.16. Surface oil and gas samples will be collected at the end of the test
when stabilised parameters are obtained.
1.17. Bottom hole samples in oil or condensate wells, if required, will be
collected at the end of the build up period with the well flowing
slightly and the bottom hole sampler positioned at the top of the
perforations.
2. TESTING WITH DOWNHOLE TEST TOOLS
Reference
2.1. In gas well tests, the completion string will have the capability to
shut-in the well downhole (this is recommended even in oil well
tests).
2.2. An emergency single shot circulating valve will be used in the test
string.
P-1-M-7130 6.2.6
2.3. The distance between the completion string shoe and the top of
the perforations will be not less than 15m to allow PLT recording.
P-1-M-7130 6.1
3. WELL TESTING THROUGH A COMPLETION STRING
Reference
3.1. Prior to flowing, the annulus will be pressurised to 500psi and this
pressure will be held, monitored and recorded throughout all the
test.
4. SURFACE DATA ACQUISITION
Reference
4.1. Wellhead pressure
4.2. Casing pressure
4.3. Wellhead temperature
4.4. Separator pressure
P-1-M-7130 13.1.2
4.5. Separator temperature
P-1-M-7130 13.1.2
4.6. Oil flow rate
4.7. Gas flow rate
4.8. Water flow rate
PAGE 161 OF 206
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.9. Oil gravity
P-1-M-7130 13.1.7
4.10. Gas gravity
P-1-M-7130 13.1.7
4.11. Water salinity
P-1-M-7130 13.1.10
4.12. CO
2
content
P-1-M-7130 13.1.14
4.13. H
2
S content
P-1-M-7130 13.1.14
4.14. BSW
P-1-M-7130 13.1.6
Reference List:
Well Testing Manual STAP-P-1-M-7130
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 3.10. WIRELINE OPERATIONS
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. Wireline Unit
1.1.1. Offshore operations
1.1.1.1.
Heavy duty skid: it shall be enclosed in a container with the engine
area separated from the reel area, explosion proof electric
equipment, internal and external lightening, soundproof engine
zone, engine exhaust shall have an extinction device, operator
cabin insulated and air-conditioned, electric engine starter,
arranged to be moved by crane, structure and covering shall be of
stainless steel.
P-1-M-7110 6.3
1.1.1.2.
Light duty skid: it is permitted for particular applications only under
authorisation of the Well Area Manager and on structures
inadequate to accommodate heavy-duty skid. It has reel and
engine separated, engine starting can be manual, engine exhaust
pipe with extinction device, frames arranged to be moved by
crane.
P-1-M-7110 6.4
1.1.1.3.
Equipment: skids shall be equipped with surface facilities and with
down-hole equipment suitable for operations on all wells of the
platform it will be installed, besides it shall be equipped with fishing
equipment suitable for working string recovery. If all equipment or
part of it is not installed in the container, it shall be contained in a
water proof stainless steel box.
1.1.2. Onshore operations
1.1.2.1.
Heavy duty truck: it shall be enclosed in a container with the reel
area separated from the operator area, the truck engine shall be
used as power unit for reel; it shall be equipped with power unit
and compressor explosion proof electric equipment, internal and
external lightening, soundproof engine case, engine exhaust pipe
with extinction device, operator cabin insulated and air-
conditioned, electric engine starter, arranged to be moved by
crane, structure and covering shall be of stainless steel
The loading truck capacity shall be higher than the reel weight and
all the equipment overall dimensions shall comply to regulations in
force in the country it is to be used.
P-1-M-7110 6.1
1.1.2.2.
Equipment: trucks shall be equipped with surface facilities and with
down-hole equipment suitable for all the operations on the wells of
the field where they have to be carried out; in addition it shall be
equipped with fishing equipment suitable for the W/L toolstring
recovery; if the required surface equipment has a working
pressure greater than 5,000psi, it shall be moved separately.
P-1-M-7110 6.1.3
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.1.3. Reel unit
1.1.3.1.
General Characteristics: reel capacity not lower than 25,000ft of
OD 0.092 or 20,000ft of OD 0.108 wire, surface velocity not lower
than 1,800ft/min, maximum pulling capacity not lower than
2,100lbs @ 20,000ft.
P-1-M-7110 6.1.2
1.1.3.2.
Power transmission between engine and reel shall be hydraulic.
P-1-M-7110 6.1.2
1.1.3.3.
Engine/pump hydraulic group: able to supply the power requested
by the reel, 40-50 HP approximately.
P-1-M-7110 6.1.2
1.1.3.4.
For light duty applications, reel capacity will be not lower than
15,000ft of OD 0.092 wire and 20-30 HP.
P-1-M-7110 6.2.2
1.1.3.5.
Hydraulic Circuit: it shall have the possibility of continuously
adjusting pull and velocity. The possibility of regulating the reel
maximum pull. The possibility to operate the hydraulic engine as
break when running. It shall have safety valves bleeding from high
pressure circuit to low pressure circuit on the pump and on engine;
it shall have a safety valve bleeding from low pressure circuit to
atmosphere. It shall work with an easy to find common hydraulic
oil.
P-1-M-7110 6.1.2
1.1.3.6.
Equipment: the weight indicator hydraulic load cell type with
indicator gauge range will not be lower than the wireline breaking
strength and with subdivisions not greater than 5lbs. Depth
indicator counter wheel type with 0.5m subdivisions. High pressure
circuit gauge, hydraulic oil thermometer, minimum/maximum
hydraulic oil indicator level, gauge oil engine, thermometer for
cooler liquid (truck unit), air thermometer (skid unit).
P-1-M-7110 6.1.2
1.2. Wireline crew
P-1-M-7110 2.3
1.2.1. Light duty crew: composed of a Chief Operator, an Operator and a
Helper.
P-1-M-7110 2.3.1
1.2.2. Heavy duty crew: composed of a Chief Operator, an Operator and
two Helpers.
P-1-M-7110 2.3.2
1.2.3. Crew composition for work on HP-HT well does not fall within the
above mentioned definitions, but will be decided, depending on the
type of job, by the Wireline Supervisor.
P-1-M-7110 2.3
1.2.3.1.
A Wireline Supervisor shall lead the Wireline Crew; for light duty
jobs the Chief Operator could be the substitute.
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.2.4. Personnel qualification
P-1-M-7110 2.4
1.2.4.1.
Chief operator:
Experience: not less than 8 years in wire line job and not less
than 4 years as Operator, wire line job on gas well, sour gas
well and oil well with WHP up to 10,000psi.
Educational qualification: no lower than a professional
diploma.
Specialisation courses: basic wireline, advanced wireline,
wireline fishing, H
2
S, first aid, fire fighting.
P-1-M-7110 2.4.1
1.2.4.2.
Operator:
Experience: not less than 4 years of wire line job and not less
than 2 years as helper, wireline job on gas well, sour gas well
and oil well with WHP up to 10,000psi.
Educational qualification: not lower than a professional
diploma.
Specialisation courses: basic wireline, H
2
S, first aid, fire
fighting.
P-1-M-7110 2.4.2
1.2.4.3.
Assistant Operator:
Experience: not less than 2 years of activity in oil business
Educational qualification: not lower than a professional
diploma.
Specialisation courses: basic wireline, H
2
S, first aid, fire
fighting.
P-1-M-7110 2.4.3
1.2.4.4.
Chief operator for HP-HT well operations:
Experience: not less than 2 years as Chief Operator and 2
years experience on HP-HT wells.
Educational qualification: not lower than professional diploma.
Specialisation courses: basic wireline, advanced wireline,
wireline fishing, H
2
S, first aid, fire fighting.
P-1-M-7110 2.4.1
1.2.5. Definition of job type
P-1-M-7110 2.2
1.2.5.1.
Light duty: Operations on completions maximum 2
7
/
8
OD and with
surface equipment up to 10,000psi.
P-1-M-7110 2.2.1
1.2.5.2.
Heavy duty: Operations on completion of 3
1
/
2
. OD and over with
surface equipment up to 10,000psi. Operations with surface
equipment equal or greater than 15,000psi.
P-1-M-7110 2.2.2
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.3. Safety during operations
P-1-M-7110 16
1.3.1. Equipment: Spark arresting exhaust silencer, explosion proof
electric circuits, foam extinguisher, explosive mixture and toxic gas
detector, use of no spark-making tools.
P-1-M-7110 16.6
1.3.2. Personnel: overall, helmet, safety boot, gloves, safety glasses,
soundproof headset, self contained breathing apparatus 30-45
minute, first aid kit.
P-1-M-7110 16.5
1.3.3. During Heavy Duty J ob use of crane is compulsory.
P-1-M-7110 8.3
1.3.4. For operations on rig, barriers are necessary and use of safety
belts for work floors higher than 1.5m or more from ground floor.
P-1-M-7110 16
1.4. Documentation
1.4.1. Operations on rig
1.4.1.1.
All information concerning well condition, operation to be carried
out and safety regulations to be followed shall be given by the
Supervisor to the Chief Operator.
1.4.1.2.
The Chief Operator shall consign the Rig Site Report to the
Supervisor at the end of operation.
1.4.2. Operations on producing wells
1.4.2.1.
The Supervisor shall gather information useful and necessary for
operation development:
Work schedule
Wireline last report
Completion schematic
Wellhead schematic
P & T last profile
Well test last report, if any
P-1-M-7110 9
1.4.2.2.
All information concerning the well operation to be performed and
safety regulations to be observed shall be given by the Supervisor
to the Chief Operator.
1.4.2.3.
The Chief Operator shall consign the Well Site Report to the
Supervisor at the end of operation.
1.4.2.4.
The Supervisor will fill in the wireline report at the end of operation
and will consign it to the Wireline Superintendent.
PAGE 166 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2. SURFACE EQUIPMENT
Reference
2.1. Gin pole
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.1.1. The gin pole is a telescopic antenna composed by 3 sections of
pipe approx. 8ft long (for a total of 20ft), OD2
1
/
2
- OD2- OD 1
1
/
2

respectively. The upper part OD1


1
/
2
has a welded slot to allocate
the hook of the crown block. The lifting system higher than 20ft will
be hydraulic.
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.1.2. N80 steel or better.
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.1.3. Gin pole will be anchored to the wellhead in two positions, at least
1m distant, by a chain min. OD
5
/
16
and a chain tightener.
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.1.4. Gin pole components are perforated OD 16mm every 0.25m to
allow its extension.
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.1.5. The pins shall have a OD of 15mm.
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.1.6. The gin pole components have the last hole of the pin series at 1ft
from the ends.
2.1.7. A system of blocks will be used to lift the lubricator.
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.1.8. The system of blocks shall be 3:1 or 4:1 type with OD 18mm Nylon
rope and hooks on the two blocks to be connected to the gin pole
and to the lubricator.
P-1-M-7110 4.1.1
2.2. Adapter flange
P-1-M-7110 4.2
2.2.1. It is the junction between the top flange of the wellhead and the
wireline BOP bottom connection.
P-1-M-7110 4.2
2.2.2. It shall be made from one block of forged and worked steel.
P-1-M-7110 4.2
2.2.3. The type of steel shall be corrosion resistant to all fluids in hole.
P-1-M-7110 4.2
2.2.4. Working pressure shall be equal or greater than the wellhead
pressure.
P-1-M-7110 4.2
2.3. BOPs
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.1. The lubricator assembly shall have at least a BOP with wire rams
or driven wire rams system.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.2. The wireline BOP shall be a ram type.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
PAGE 167 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.3.3. BOP shall be hydraulically and manually operated. This will be
actuated by a skid with accumulators able to perform a full
opening-closing-opening cycle in 90 sec.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.4. Working pressure shall be the same of the wellhead working
pressure.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.5. BOP shall be equipped with an equalising valve.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.6. Rams shall be replaced after closure on wire.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.7. All elastomers will be adequate to the formation fluid type.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.8. Steel type shall be suitable to the fluid present in hole.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.9. Bottom connection shall be equal to the one on the adapter flange.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.10. Hydraulic control pipes connection of shall be pull-push type.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.11. The hydraulic pump shall have the fluid end with the same BOP
working pressure.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.12. Hydraulic hoses connecting BOP to the pump shall have the same
working pressure as BOP.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.3.13. BOP pump shall be positioned 30m from the wellhead.
P-1-M-7110 4.3
2.4. Lubricator
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.1. It shall be composed by sections of pipe 8ft long.
2.4.2. Connections shall be Quick-Union type with hydraulic sealing
assured by an O Ring for a working pressure up to 5000psi and
by a system of O Ring +Seal protector ring +Non extrusion ring
for working pressure greater than 5000psi.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.3. Connection between pipe and Quick Union shall be either integral
type or welded type.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.4. The Lubricator working pressure must be equal or higher than the
well head working pressure.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.5. All elastomers shall be of a compound suitable for type of
formation fluid.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.6. Steel type shall be suitable to the fluid present in hole.
PAGE 168 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.4.7. Lower section shall have ID and length adequate to receive the
W/L tools used.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.8. The lower section shall have a OD
1
/
2
NPT hole for working
pressure up to 10,000psi or metal seal for higher working pressure
to bleed off well pressure
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.9. A wear joint shall be installed on the bleed-off point.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.10. The bleed-off valve shall have the same working pressure as the
lubricator.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.11. The upper section shall have a lifting clamp strong enough to hold
the stuffing box +lubricator +BOP +adapter flange weight.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.4.12. The clamp shall be installed a 2-3ft from the stuffing box.
P-1-M-7110 4.4
2.5. Stuffing box
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.1. The stuffing box connection will be equal to the lubricator upper
connection.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.2. The stuffing box shall be hydraulically operated.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.3. The Stuffing Box must be hydraulically controlled and the hydraulic
control pump positioned in safe position. Hydraulic hose
connections pull-push type are allowed.
The hydraulic control pump must be equipped, downstream the
fluid end, if necessary, with check valve +Tee +bleed off valve of
the proper WP.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.4. Stuffing box WP shall be equal to the wellheads WP.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.5. The hose WP must be at least equal or higher than the Stuffing
Box working pressure.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.6. All elastomers shall be of a compound suitable for type of
formation fluid.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.7. Steel type shall be suitable to the fluid present in hole.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.8. Sheave bracket assay shall have a size suitable to the diameter
and to the wire material.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.5.9. The stuffing box packing shall have a quantity and type suitable for
the type of wire steel and fluid in hole.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
PAGE 169 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.5.10. The stuffing box packing conditions must be compulsory inspected
before starting to run in hole with any tools.
P-1-M-7110 4.5
2.6. Safety check union
P-1-M-7110 4.7
2.6.1. Use of a Safety Check Union between the upper section of
lubricator and injection nipple is compulsory in operations on wells
with sour gas and on oil wells.
P-1-M-7110 4.7
2.6.2. The working pressure shall be equal or greater than the wellhead
WP.
P-1-M-7110 4.7
2.6.3. Connections shall be equal to lubricator upper section and to the
injection nipple connection.
P-1-M-7110 4.7
2.6.4. All elastomers shall be of a compound suitable for type of
formation fluid.
P-1-M-7110 4.7
2.6.5. Steel type shall be suitable to the fluid present in hole.
P-1-M-7110 4.7
2.7. Injection nipple
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.7.1. The use of an injection nipple between the stuffing box and the
safety check union is suggested.
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.7.2. The working pressure shall be equal or greater than the wellhead
WP.
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.7.3. Connections shall be equal to that of the stuffing box and Safety
Check Union.
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.7.4. All elastomers shall be of a compound suitable for type of
formation fluid.
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.7.5. The use of needle valve and/or check valve on the injection line,
connected directly to the Injection Nipple in standing position, is
recommended.
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.7.6. Steel type shall be suitable to the fluid present in hole.
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.7.7. The injection nipple shall have a OD
1
/
2
NPT hole for working
pressure up to 10000psi or metal seal for higher working pressure.
P-1-M-7110 4.6
2.8. Swab valve
P-1-M-7110 4.8
2.8.1. The presence of a manual swab valve with characteristics equal to
the master valve is compulsory.
P-1-M-7110 4.8
PAGE 170 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.8.2. Use of an additional hydraulic swab valve having the same
characteristics as the working valve for operations on wells with
STHP 10,000psi is suggested.
P-1-M-7110 4.8
2.8.3. The hydraulic test on the additional Swab Valve at the Working
Pressure must be recorded before the installation. The flanged
connection between the additional Swab Valve and the Xmas Tree
must be hydraulically tested at Working Pressure before the
Pressure Control Equipment rig up
P-1-M-7110 4.8
2.8.4. Hydraulic swab valve actuator shall be double action.
P-1-M-7110 4.8
2.8.5. The pump to activate the hydraulic swab valve shall be positioned
30m from the wellhead.
P-1-M-7110 4.8
3. WIRE SELECTION
Reference
3.1. Diameter selection
P-1-M-7110 5.1
3.1.1. Light Duty Operations shall be carried out with OD 0.092 wire.
P-1-M-7110 5.1
3.1.2. Heavy Duty Operations shall be carried out with a wireline
diameter allowing a maximum pull load during normal operations
not exceeding the yield strength by 50%.
P-1-M-7110 5.1
3.2. The use of 0.108" or 0.125" slickline to perform heavy-duty
operations is recommended.
P-1-M-7110 5.1
3.3. The Wireline Superintendent may make exceptions to these
regulations by selecting and authorising a wireline for some special
operations (i.e. gradient recording on HP/HT wells).
P-1-M-7110 5.1
3.4. Material selection
P-1-M-7110 5.2
3.4.1. Wire line cable shall be made of material resistant to well fluid
corrosion
M-1-M-4001
P-1-M-7110 5.2
4. TOOLSTRING SELECTION
Reference
4.1. General
P-1-M-7110 3
4.1.1. The wireline toolstring is composed of: rope socket, stem, jars,
knuckle joints.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.1.2. Wireline toolstrings shall have standard diameters of 1
1
/
4
and 1
1
/
2

OD. Diameters of 1, 1
11
/
16
and 1
7
/
8
OD are allowed for particular
operations only by the Wireline Superintendents authorisation.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
PAGE 171 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.1.3. The service tools (running tools, pulling tools etc.) are not
considered an integral part of the wireline toolstring.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.1.4. Connections for standard operations shall be threaded. Operations
on flowing wells, operations on wells where strong jar action is
expected and operations on HP-HT wells shall be carried out with
Quick-lock connections.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.6
4.1.5. Threads of connections of 1
1
/
4
and 1
1
/
2
OD components shall be
15
/
16
- 10 UNF.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.6
4.1.6. Threads of connections of OD 1 components shall be
5
/
8
-11 UNF.
Threads of connections of OD 1
11
/
16
and OD 1
7
/
8
components
shall be 1
1
/
16
- 10 UNF.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.6
4.1.7. The standard material for the wireline string components is AISI
4140.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.1.8. Material for the wireline string components in H
2
S service wells
shall be defined in accordance with the Wireline Supervisor,
Superintendent, STAP and TEAP departments.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.1.9. All wireline toolstring components shall be equipped with external
fishing necks suitable to be latched by standard OTIS or CAMCO
pulling tools.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.2. Assembly selection
P-1-M-7110 3.2
4.2.1. Rope Socket
P-1-M-7110 3.2.1
4.2.1.1.
The Disc-spring Type rope socket shall be used for light duty
operations.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.1
4.2.1.2.
The No-knot Type rope socket shall be used for heavy-duty
operations and with H
2
S service wire.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.1
4.2.2. Stem
P-1-M-7110 3.2.2
4.2.2.1.
They can be 1ft, 2ft or 3ft long.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.2
4.2.2.2.
They shall be manufactured out of a single block of drawn steel.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.2
4.2.2.3.
Filled Type Stem can be used filled with Tungsten alloy.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.2
4.2.3. The Filled Type Stem external barrel must have an equalising
hole and the threads locked by an Allen screw.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.2
PAGE 172 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.2.4. Jars
P-1-M-7110 3.2.3
4.2.4.1.
For light duty the Link Type J ar with a stroke from 20 to 30 is
used in the wireline toolstring.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.3
4.2.4.2.
For heavy duty the Hydraulic J ar or Upstroke J ar is used in the
wireline toolstring set above the Link Type J ar.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.3
4.2.4.3.
Use the Tubular J ar instead of Link Type J ar in the wireline
toolstring for fishing.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.4
4.2.4.4.
Use the Upstroke J ar and the Link Type J ar in the wireline string
for operations on HP-HT wells.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.2
4.2.4.5.
The use of Knuckle J ar is allowed for particular operations on the
Wireline Supervisors authorisation.
4.2.5. Knuckle joints
P-1-M-7110 3.2.5
4.2.5.1.
The number and position of knuckle joints are planned in
accordance with the completion type, well deviation, type of
wireline operation to be performed, and previous experience
P-1-M-7110 3.2.5
4.2.5.2.
The inclusion of knuckle joints in the wireline toolstring for
operations on vertical wells, or in heavy jarring operations is not
recommended due to its design, which represents a weak point in
the wireline toolstring.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.5
4.2.5.3.
The use of Knuckle J oint is allowed only in directional wells and
the number and the position inside the Wireline toolstring will be
defined by the Wireline Superintendent while programming the
operation.
P-1-M-7110 3.2.5
4.3. Toolstring Selection
4.3.1. In 2
3
/
8
OD completion use a wireline toolstring of 1
1
/
4
OD to run in
static conditions. The 1
1
/
2
OD is allowed to retrieve flow control
equipment.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.3.2. In 2
7
/
8
OD completion use a wireline toolstring of 1
1
/
2
OD to run in
static conditions.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.3.3. In 3
1
/
2
OD completion use a wire line string of 1
1
/
2
OD to run in
static conditions.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.3.4. In completions smaller than 2
3
/
8
OD use a wireline toolstring
diameter of 1 OD to run in static conditions.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
PAGE 173 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.3.5. For completions larger than 3
1
/
2
OD a wireline toolstring of 1
1
/
2
or
1
7
/
8
OD can be used, if provided in the planning.
P-1-M-7110 3.1
4.3.6. The wireline toolstring diameter and composition to operate in
directional wells shall be provided by preplanning and agreed upon
by the Wireline Superintendent and Well Area Engineering
Department.
4.3.7. The wireline toolstring diameter and the composition to operate in
flowing wells shall be provided by preplanning and agreed upon by
the Wireline Superintendent and Well Area Engineering
Department.
5. RIG UP/DOWN OPERATIONS
Reference
5.1. Toolstring Weight Determination
P-1-M-7110 8.1.1
5.1.1. The weight of the wireline toolstring is the sum of required weights
as follows:
To balance the force resulting from wellhead pressure acting
on the wire area and to overcome the friction of the wire on
sheaves and stuffing box.
To provide mass for jar action.
P-1-M-7110 8.1.1
5.2. Rig Operations: rig up during well completion
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1a
5.2.1. It is the responsibility of the Eni-Agip Supervisor to provide
instructions and documentation required by the operation, in
particular:
Operation programmes.
Completion design including depths and diameters of
equipment.
Height of rotary table floor from a reference point (base
flange or upper flange of the tubing spool).
Type and characteristics of fluid present in the string.
P-1-M-7110 8.2
5.2.2. Selection of surface facilities:
Sub tubing threaded pin down x quick union box up with
connection for lifting sub.
T member threaded quick union pin x box and 2 Weco
lateral outlet (Fig. 1002 or 1502).
Wireline BOP with quick union pin down x box up.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1
5.2.3. The above components shall have an ID to allow the passage of
the tool with a maximum diameter according to the completion
design.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1a
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.2.4. The unit type shall be selected according to the type of completion
and maximum working depth.
Wire size and metallurgy shall be selected according to the
characteristics of the completion fluid and possible presence of
corrosive fluids (e.g. H
2
S, brine with corrosive components).
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1
5.2.5. The Wireline Crew shall be qualified to conduct all planned
operations without creating interruptions in the activity.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1a
5.2.6. The Wireline unit shall be equipped with at least the following:
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings.
Gauge cutters suitable to the completion design.
Wire suitable to fluids present/expected in hole as well as
mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion design (e.g.
Wireline grabs, wire cutters Go Devil, impression blocks,
etc.), and wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing socket,
etc.).
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1a
5.2.7. The rope socket must be:
For Heavy-Duty J obs use a no knot type.
For Light-Duty J obs the use of a conventional rope socket,
making it with 15 turns, is allowed.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1
5.2.8. After assembling, check that the rope socket is free to rotate
around the wire
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1
5.3. Rig Up During Production
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1b
5.3.1. The surface facilities are composed of a lubricator, stuffing box,
BOP and adapter flange. Such components shall be suitable to the
operation according to the following criteria:
Lubricator ID adequate to the max. tool size of the equipment
be used.
WP greater or equal to the Xmas tree WP.
Compatibility of materials with fluids present in hole.
Additional equipment, i.e. injection nipple and safety check
union can be decided according to the type of operation and
well condition.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1b
5.3.2. Wire size and metallurgy shall be selected according to
characteristics of the completion, formation fluids and reservoir
temperature
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1b
PAGE 175 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.3.3. The Wireline unit shall be equipped with a minimum of equipment
including:
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings.
Gauge cutter of a suitable diameter to the completion design.
Wire suitable to fluids present or expected in the hole as well
as mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion design (e.g.:
Wireline. grabs, Go Devil wire cutters, impression blocks,
etc.), and to the wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing
socket, etc.).
Shifting tools, running and pulling tools of suitable size.
Amerada mechanical and/or memory gauges and all relevant
equipment.
Plugs for possible shut off levels and well securing.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.1b
5.4. Jack-Up/Fixed Platform/Barge-Rig Up During Well Completion
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
5.4.1. Rig up during well completion operations are wireline operations
performed during the well completion phase.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
5.4.2. Selection of the surface facilities:
Sub tubing threaded pin down x quick union box up with
connection for lifting sub.
T member threaded quick union pin x box and 2" Weco
lateral outlet (Fig. 1002 or 1502).
Wireline BOP with quick union pin down x box up.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
5.4.2.1.
The above components shall have an ID to allow the passage of
the tool with a maximum diameter according to the completion
design.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
5.4.3. The unit type shall be selected according to the type of completion
and maximum working depth.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
5.4.4. The wire size and metallurgy shall be selected according to the
characteristics of the completion fluid and the possible presence of
corrosive fluids (e.g. H
2
S, brine with corrosive components).
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.4.5. The Wireline Crew shall be qualified to withstand all planned
operations without creating interruption in the activity.
Light Duty Crew shall be used when dealing with a single
completion of a limited depth.
Heavy Duty Crew shall be used when dealing with single
selective or dual completion with several sliding sleeves,
landing nipples, surface controlled safety valves.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
5.4.6. The Wireline unit shall be equipped with at least the following :
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings.
Gauge cutters suitable for the completion design.
Wire suitable to fluids present/expected in hole as well as for
mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable for the completion design (e.g.,
Wireline grabs, Go Devil wire cutters, Impression blocks, etc.)
and wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing socket, etc.).
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2a
5.5. Jack-Up/Fixed Platform/Barge-Rig Up During Production
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2b
5.5.1. These are wireline operations carried out in a pressured hole.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2b
5.5.2. The surface facilities are composed of a lubricator, stuffing box,
BOP and adapter flange. Such components shall be suitable
according to following criteria:
The Lubricator ID adequate to the max. tool size of the
equipment to be used.
WP is greater or equal to the Xmas tree W P.
Compatibility of materials with fluids present in hole.
Additional equipment, i.e. injection nipple and safety check
union can be decided according to type of operation and well
condition
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2b
5.5.3. The unit type shall be selected according to the completion and
maximum depth of work. Wire size and metallurgy shall be
selected according to the characteristics of the completion,
formation fluids and reservoir temperature
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2b
5.5.4. The composition of the Wireline Crew shall be qualified to
withstand all the planned operations without creating interruptions
in the activity.
The employment of a Heavy Duty Crew or Light Duty Crew
depends on the diameter of completion string, working pressure of
surface equipment, duration and type of operation.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2b
PAGE 177 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.5.5. The wireline unit shall be equipped with a minimum of equipment
including :
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings.
Gauge cutter of a suitable diameter to the completion design.
Wire compatible to the fluids present/expected in hole as well
as mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion design (e.g.,
Wireline grabs, Go-Devil wire cutters, impression blocks,
etc.), and to the wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing
socket, etc.).
Shifting tools, running and pulling tools of suitable size.
Amerada mechanical and/or memory gauges and all relevant
equipment.
Plugs for the possible shut off levels and well securing
P-1-M-7110 8.2.2b
5.6. Drill Ship/Semi-Submersible, Rig Up During Well Completion
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3a
5.6.1. Rig up during well completion operations are wireline operations
performed during the well completion phase.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3a
5.6.2. Selection of surface facilities:
Sub tubing threaded pin down x quick union box up with
connection for lifting sub.
T member threaded quick union pin x box and 2 Weco
lateral outlet (Fig. 1002 or 1502).
Wireline BOP with quick union pin down x box up.
The above components shall have an ID to allow the passage of
the tool with a maximum diameter according to the completion
design
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3a
5.6.3. The unit type shall be selected according to the type of completion
and maximum working depth. Wire size and metallurgy shall be
selected according to the characteristics of the completion fluid
and the possible presence of corrosive fluids (e.g., H
2
S, brine with
corrosive components).
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3a
5.6.4. The Wireline Crew shall be qualified to withstand all planned
operations without creating interruptions in the activity.
A Light Duty Crew shall be used when dealing with a single
completion on wells of a limited depth.
A Heavy Duty Crew shall be used when dealing with single
selective or dual completion with several sliding sleeves,
landing nipples, surface controlled safety valves
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3a
PAGE 178 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.6.5. The wireline unit shall be equipped with at least the following :
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings.
Gauge cutters suitable to the completion design.
Wire suitable to fluids present/expected in hole as well as for
mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable for the completion design (e.g.,
Wireline grabs, Go Devil wire cutters, impression blocks,
etc.), and wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing socket,
etc.).
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3a
5.7. Drill Ship/Semi-Submersible- Rig Up During Production
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3b
5.7.1. These are wireline operations carried out in a pressured hole.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3b
5.7.2. The surface facilities are composed of a lubricator, stuffing box
and BOP. With a temporary Xmas tree available, the connection to
the lubricator normally takes place by means of a crossover
threaded pin down x quick union box up. Furthermore, the Xmas
tree will be already compensated by means of the lifting frame.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3b
5.7.3. Such components shall be suitable to the operation according to
following criteria:
The lubricator ID adequate to the max. tool size of the
equipment to be used.
WP greater or equal to the Xmas tree WP.
Compatibility of materials with fluids present in hole.
Additional equipment, i.e, injection nipple and safety check
union can be decided according to type of operation and well
conditions.
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3b
5.7.4. The unit type shall be selected according to the completion and
maximum depth of work. Wire size and metallurgy shall be
selected according to the characteristics of the completion,
formation fluids and reservoir temperature
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3b
5.7.5. The composition of the Wireline Crew shall be qualified to
withstand all planned operations without creating interruptions in
the activity. The employment of Heavy Duty Crew or Light Duty
Crew depends on the diameter of completion string, working
pressure of surface equipment, duration and type of operation
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3b
PAGE 179 OF 206
ARPO
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.7.6. The wireline unit shall be equipped with a minimum of equipment
including :
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings.
Gauge cutter of a suitable diameter to the completion design.
Wire compatible to the fluids present/expected in hole as well
as mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion design (e.g.
Wireline grabs, Go Devil wire cutters, impression blocks,
etc.), and to the wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing
socket, etc.).
Shifting tools, running and pulling tools of suitable size.
Amerada mechanical and/or memory gauges and all relevant
equipment.
Plugs for the possible shut off levels and well securing
P-1-M-7110 8.2.3b
5.8. Rigless operations
P-1-M-7110 8.3
5.8.1. Rigless Operations are the operations carried out without rigs,
either onshore or offshore by using equipment and Wireline Crews
for HD (Heavy Duty) or LD (Light Duty) J obs, according to the type
of equipment, completion and duration of the operation.
P-1-M-7110 8.3
5.8.2. It is the responsibility of the Eni-Agip Supervisor to give
instructions and documentation required for the operation and in
particular:
Completion Design
Wellhead Tubing Hanger Design
Last Wireline Report (ARPO-11)
Last P&T Gradients Report (ARPO-12)
Type and characteristics of the fluid present in the string.
The Wireline Programme shall report:
Type of wellhead connections.
Wire type and size to be used.
Design of the workstring to be used.
Maximum expected THP.
Type and position of the flow control equipment in the hole.
Type of running/pulling tools.
Type of pressure and temperature recorder.
P-1-M-7110 8.3
5.8.3. The Wireline Crew equipment shall include all equipment of
individual protection and fire fighting required to comply with the
rules issued by the Operations Responsible.
P-1-M-7110 8.3
PAGE 180 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.8.4. Heavy Duty Land Operation
P-1-M-7110 8.3.1
5.8.4.1.
Operations defined as Heavy Duty Land Operation are those
conducted on wells completed with 3
1
/
2
" tubing or higher size, or
with surface equipment rated 15,000psi or higher.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.1
5.8.4.2.
The surface equipment shall be selected according to the following
parameters:
WP and Xmas tree size.
Max. size of the tools to be used according to the nipples
present in the string.
Characteristics of the fluids present in hole.
The composition of the Wireline Crew and the type of unit
shall be required by HD type.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.1
5.8.4.3.
The wireline unit shall be equipped with a minimum of equipment
including:
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings
Gauge cutters suitable to the completion design.
Wire suitable to fluids present/expected in hole as well as
mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion design (e.g.,
Wireline grabs, Go Devil wire cutters, impression block, etc.)
and wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing socket, etc.)
Amerada mechanical and/or memory gauges and relevant
equipment.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.1
5.8.5. Light Duty Land Operation
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2
5.8.5.1.
These are operations conducted on wells completed with a
maximum tubing diameter of 2
7
/
8
" and with surface equipment not
exceeding the 10Kpsi.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2
5.8.5.2.
The surface equipment shall be selected according to the following
parameters:
WP and Xmas tree size.
Max size of the tools to be used according to the nipples
present in the string.
Characteristics of the fluids present in hole
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2
5.8.5.3.
The composition of the Wireline Crew and the type of unit shall be
required by LD type.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2
PAGE 181 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.8.5.4.
The wireline unit shall be equipped with a minimum of equipment
including :
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings.
Gauge cutters suitable to the completion design.
Wire suitable for fluids present/expected in hole as well as
mechanical stress.
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion design (e.g.,
Wireline grabs, Go Devil wire cutters, impression block, etc.)
and wireline string used (pulling tools, fishing socket etc.)
Amerada mechanical and/or memory gauges and relevant
equipment
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2
5.8.6. Heavy Duty Offshore Operation
P-1-M-7110 8.3.3
5.8.6.1.
This is the definition of operations conducted on wells, located on
production fixed platforms, completed with 3
1
/
2
tubing or higher, or
with 15,000psi surface equipment or higher.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.3
5.8.6.2.
The surface equipment shall be selected according to the following
parameters:
WP and size of the Xmas tree.
Max size of the tools to be used according to the nipples
present in the string.
Characteristics of the fluids present in hole
P-1-M-7110 8.3.3
5.8.6.3.
The composition of the Wireline Crew and the type of unit shall be
of type HD
P-1-M-7110 8.3.3
5.8.6.4.
The wireline unit shall be equipped with a minimum equipment
including:
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings
Gauge cutter of a diameter suitable to the completion type
Wireline suitable to the characteristics of the fluid present in
hole as well as mechanical stress
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion type (e.g.,
Wireline grabs, wire cutters, Go Devil, impression block, etc.)
and wireline string used for pulling tools, fishing socket etc.)
Amerada mechanical and/or memory gauges and relevant
equipment
P-1-M-7110 8.3.3
PAGE 182 OF 206
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Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.8.7. Light Duty Offshore Operation
P-1-M-7110 8.3.4
5.8.7.1.
This is the definition of operations conducted on wells, located on
production fixed platforms, completed with 2
7
/
8
tubing or smaller,
or with 10,000psi surface equipment or less.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.4
5.8.7.2.
The selection of the surface equipment shall be done according to
the following parameters:
WP and size of the Xmas tree
Max. size of the tools to be used according to the nipples
present in the string
Characteristics of the fluids present in hole
P-1-M-7110 8.3.4
5.8.7.3.
The composition of the Wireline Crew and the type of unit shall be
of type LD
P-1-M-7110 8.3.4
5.8.7.4.
The wireline unit shall be equipped with a minimum equipment and
including:
Components of the wireline string sufficient to make up two
strings
Gauge cutter of a diameter suitable to the completion type
Wireline suitable to the characteristics of the fluid present in
hole as well as mechanical stress
Fishing equipment suitable to the completion type (e.g.:
wieline grabs, wire cutters go devil, impression block, etc.)
and type of wire string used (pulling tools, fishing socket etc.)
Amerada mechanical and/or memory gauges and relevant
equipment
P-1-M-7110 8.3.4
5.8.8. Other operations
5.8.8.1.
Provide necessary work permits, signed by the Production Unit
Manager or his deputy and by the Safety Manager or his deputy.
5.8.8.2.
Remove from the well head area any object that can be an
obstacle or a risk to the operation.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.1
5.8.8.3.
Verify that the cellar is free from H
2
O and/or inflammable material
and the practicability of walkways and barriers.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.1
5.8.8.4.
Check the wellhead top flanges and verify to have the proper
adapter available.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.2
5.8.8.5.
Inspect the stuffing box, if necessary replace packing, and make
up the rope socket.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.17
PAGE 183 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.8.8.6.
Assemble the lubricator on the ground or on suitable supports.
Assemble the wire line working string according to the program
and put it in the lubricator (operation to be carried out with 2
persons at the least), screw an aluminium plug on the thread of the
lubricator lower section.
Make up the lubricator on the appropriate gantries without
removing the lower thread protector. Install a bleeder valve on the
lower joint of the lubricator.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.15
5.8.8.7.
Connect the wireline toolstring to the rope socket. Connect the
stuffing box to the lubricator.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.22
5.8.8.8.
Lift up the lubricator with the hook of the travelling block, leaning
the wire line string on the aluminium plug; bring the lower
connection just above the BOP top connection.
5.8.8.9.
Control all the weight measure equipment. Install the pressure
transducer (Martin-Decker load cell) and the sheaf to the well
head, in such a way that the wire forms a 90 angle.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.25
5.8.8.10.
Set the wire in the sheave groove. Lift up the wire line working
string with the reel, unscrew the aluminium plug from the lubricator
bottom connection; make sure that the weight showed by the
weight indicator in the operator cabin is equal to theoretical
calculated; otherwise act on the instrumentation as per
manufacturer procedures.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.27
5.8.8.11.
Lower the working string to the work floor The weight indicator
should indicate zero. Lift the string and check that the weight
indicator reading corresponds to the calculated weight. If the check
is negative clean the line and/or manually re-adjust the
instrumentation.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.30
5.8.8.12.
Connect the required tool to the wireline toolstring
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.31
5.8.8.13.
Bring the tool at the height of the reference flanges and set to zero
the depth counter.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.32
5.8.8.14.
Abandon the location and restore conditions.
P-1-M-7110 8.3.2.47
6. NDT PROCEDURES
Reference
6.1. The wireline system is defined as the package required to conduct
wireline operations on a well and includes the winch, power pack,
pressure control equipment and all other relevant auxiliary
equipment.
P-1-M-7110 15.0
PAGE 184 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.2. All surface equipment and the wireline cable must have a series of
periodical non-destructive tests (NDT) carried out.
P-1-M-7110 15.0
6.3. A visual inspection must be conducted periodically on all the
equipment before each pressure test
P-1-M-7110 15.0
6.3.1. All surface equipment components shall be accompanied by a
certificate of the last hydraulic test and non-destructive test they
have been submitted.
P-1-M-7110 15.0
6.3.2. All the surface equipment must be marked with a unique
identification code on a alphanumeric nameplate, from which it
must be possible to identify the equipment number, working
pressure, type of material and type of service.
P-1-M-7110 15.0
6.3.3. The Wireline Supervisor (if applicable) and the Contractors Quality
Assurance Manager, or his appointed delegate, are responsible for
the registration of the tests and for the correct procedures to be
followed.
P-1-M-7110 15.0
6.4. Surface equipment Test schedules
P-1-M-7110 15.1
6.4.1. Stuffing box
P-1-M-7110 15.1.1
6.4.1.1.
A visual inspection every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.1
6.4.1.2.
Pressure test every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.1
6.4.1.3.
Magnaflux on body and thread and , in case, penetrant liquid
control on the thread every 24 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.1
6.4.2. Safety quick unions
P-1-M-7110 15.1.2
6.4.2.1.
Visual inspection every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.2
6.4.2.2.
Pressure test every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.2
6.4.2.3.
Magnaflux on body and thread and, in case, penetrant liquid
control on the thread every 24 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.2
6.4.3. Injection nipple
P-1-M-7110 15.1.3
6.4.3.1.
Visual inspection every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.3
6.4.3.2.
Pressure test every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.3
6.4.3.3.
Magnaflux on body and thread and, in case, penetrant liquid
control on the thread every 24 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.3
PAGE 185 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.4.4. Lubricator
P-1-M-7110 15.1.4
6.4.4.1.
Visual inspection as per point 6.3.1 every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.4
6.4.4.2.
Pressure test every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.4
6.4.4.3.
Magnaflux on body and thread and, in case, penetrant liquid
control on the thread every 24 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.4
6.4.4.4.
X ray examination for lubricator sections with welded connections
every 24 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.4
6.4.5. BOPs
P-1-M-7110 15.1.5
6.4.5.1.
Visual inspection every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.5
6.4.5.2.
Pressure test every 12 months, or each time redressed.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.5
6.4.5.3.
Magnaflux on body and thread and, in case, penetrant liquid
control on the thread 24 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.5
6.4.5.4.
X ray examination for BOP with connections welded every 24
months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.5
6.4.6. Adapter flange
P-1-M-7110 15.1.6
6.4.6.1.
Visual inspection every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.6
6.4.6.2.
Pressure test every 12 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.6
6.4.6.3.
Magnaflux on body and thread and, in case, penetrant liquid
control on the thread every 24 months.
P-1-M-7110 15.1.6
6.5. Specification for control
6.5.1. Visual inspection
P-1-M-7110 15.2.1
6.5.1.1.
Visual inspection inside all assembly for notching detection caused
by wire running, cuttings detection and recognition of thickness
thinning. To be performed before pressure test.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.1.1
6.5.1.2.
Visual inspection of every quick union to look for damage on
thread and in particular on sealing surface and on groves.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.1.2
6.5.1.3.
Visual inspection on BOP with special attention to sealing
surfaces, to elastomers characteristics, to hydraulic connections.
To be performed before pressure test.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.1.3
PAGE 186 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.5.1.4.
Visual inspection of adapter flange with particular attention to ring
joint seats.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.1.4
6.5.1.5.
For every component examined, draw up the Visual inspection
book to be carefully kept by the Wireline Supervisor or by the
contractor Base Manager.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.1.5
6.5.2. Pressure test for lubricator equipment
P-1-M-7110 15.2.2
6.5.2.1.
Pressure the working pressure, hold pressure for 15 min., check
for leaks and bleed off.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.2.1
P-1-M-7110 15.2.2.2
6.5.2.2.
Repeat the procedure twice.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.2.3
6.5.2.3.
Bleed off pressure and control sealing components condition.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.2.4
6.5.2.4.
Tests shall be recorded on paper and/or magnetic support to be
attached to the book.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.2.5
6.5.2.5.
For every component examined, draw up the Visual inspection
Report book to be carefully kept by the Wire Line Supervisor or by
the contractor Base Manager.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.2.6
6.5.3. Pressure test BOP
P-1-M-7110 15.2.3
6.5.3.1.
Pressurise to working pressure with open rams, hold pressure for
15 min, check for leaks and bleed off.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.3.1
P-1-M-7110 15.2.3.2
6.5.3.2.
Repeat the procedure twice.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.3.3
6.5.3.3.
Pressurise to working pressure with closed rams pumping from
well direction, hold pressure for 15 min, and check for leaks and
bleed off.
6.5.3.4.
Repeat the procedure twice.
6.5.3.5.
Tests shall be recorded on paper and/or magnetic support to be
attached to the book.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.3.5
6.5.3.6.
For every component examined, draw up the BOPs Pressure Test
Report Book to be carefully kept by the Wire Line Supervisor or by
the contractor Base Manager.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.3.6
6.5.4. Radiographic Examination (x-ray)
P-1-M-7110 15.2.5
6.5.4.1.
The examination shall be carried out by companies included in
AGIP vendor list.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.5.1
PAGE 187 OF 206
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IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.5.4.2.
The examination shall be carried out in accordance with ASME
Section 5-2 and ASME 8 div. 1 appendix 6-UW 51 regulations.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.5.2
6.5.4.3.
For every component examined, draw up the Radiographic
Examination Report Book with attached all the negative films. It
will be carefully kept by the Wireline Supervisor or by the
contractor Base Manager.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.5.3
6.5.5. Magnetic Examination (Magnaflux)
P-1-M-7110 15.2.4
6.5.5.1.
The examination shall be carried out by companies included in
AGIP vendor list.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.4.1
6.5.5.2.
The examination will be carried out as per the following Eni-Agip
specifications:
TECN-708444-S-0400
TECN-708444-S-0401
TECN-708444-S-0402.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.4.2
6.5.5.3.
Prior to perform Magnaflux, surfaces to be tested shall be
sandblasted.
6.5.5.4.
Sealing surfaces shall be carefully protected before sandblasting.
6.5.5.5.
For every component tested, draw up the Magnetic Examination
Report Book to which the report of company who actually
performed the work will be attached; that Report Book kept by the
Wireline Supervisor or by the contractor Base Manager.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.4.3
6.5.6. Hardness Test
P-1-M-7110 15.2.6
6.5.6.1.
A hardness test of material shall be included in the documentation
of every item.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.6.1
6.5.6.2.
Surface equipment for standard service shall have a minimum
hardness of 200 Brinnell fore material with 80,000psi minimum
yield; a hardness between 290 Brinnell (30 Rockwell C) and 341
Brinnell (36 Rockwell C) for material with 110,000psi minimum
yield.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.6.2
6.5.6.3.
Surface equipment H
2
S service shall have a hardness not
exceeding 22 Rockwell C.
P-1-M-7110 15.2.6.3
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
6.6. Controls on Wireline
6.6.1. Controls with induced currents
6.6.1.1.
An Eddy Current Device apparatus shall be used.
6.6.1.2.
Every wire coil of any material shall be tested at the first spooling.
6.6.1.3.
The frequency of controls shall be determined on the basis of the
severity of operations performed on the field by the District
Wireline Supervisor.
6.6.2. Torque test
6.6.2.1.
Special equipment in accordance with API 9A regulations shall be
used.
6.6.2.2.
Testing procedure shall be as indicated in specification.
6.6.2.3.
Controls frequency shall be determined, on the basis of operations
severity performed while working, by the Wireline Supervisor.
6.6.2.4.
Every Wireline Unit shall have a report book where wire length,
cuts made, maximum overpull made (per operation), torque test
and controls made with induced current shall be reported.
6.7. Definition of H
2
S service
6.7.1. It is necessary to use H
2
S resistant materials when STHP is equal
or greater than 4.5 Kg/cm2 and partial pressure of H
2
S is equal or
greater than 0.0035 Kg/cm2.
6.7.2. Any decision about the material type to be used shall be taken
jointly by the District Wireline Supervisor and ARCO, TEAP and
STAP units.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
7. SCSSV TEST PROCEDURES
Reference
7.1. Surface tests on installed SCSSVs must be performed in order to
identify any problems on their primary function.
M-1-S-5010E
7.1.1. The failures to be checked are:
FTC (fail to close on command)
PCL (premature valve closure)
FSN (fail to set in nipple)
LCP (leakage in closed position)
FTH (fail to hold in nipple)
FTO (fail to open on command)
WCL (well to control line communication)
CLW (control line to well communication)
M-1-S-5010E
7.1.2. The leakage rate shall be less than 25smc/hr (15scf/min) of gas or
400cc/min of fluid.
M-1-S-5010E
7.2. The test sequence shall agree with API RP 14B.
M-1-S-5010E
7.3. The test frequency must be every six months.
M-1-S-5010E
7.3.1. The test frequency can change when a typical MTTF has been
calculated for homogeneous types of valves.
M-1-S-5010E
Reference Lists:
General Wireline Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7110
Definition of Criteria for Routine Tests on SCSSV STAP-M-1-S-5010E
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP4. MATERIALS AND TRANSPORT
OP. 4.1. WAREHOUSE MATERIALS
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. The Materials Supervisor is responsible for receiving, inspecting,
checking documentation and storing materials
1.2. The Materials Supervisor is responsible for updating the materials
inventory
1.3. Materials Supervisor will send to the Well Area Department a
complete list of the materials actually dispatched to the wellsite.
1.4. The Drilling & Completion Superintendent is responsible for the
evaluation of all materials returned from the wellsite.
2. TUBULARS
Reference
2.1. In cases where there are non-conformity of any tubulars, the
Drilling & Completion Manager is responsible for determining if
they shall be acceptable, or whether they need to be inspected or
replaced
A-1-M-1000 2.2.3
2.2. Tubulars should be stored on steel racks with a minimum ground
clearance of 0.5 meters; stringers should be of treated wood or
steel; the pipe at the ends of each layer should be wedged to
prevent rolling.
A-1-M-1000 3.7.2
2.3. Where special storage is required, the Drilling (or Completion)
Superintendent is responsible for providing input to the Materials
Supervisor
A-1-M-1000 2.4.4
2.4. Depending on the storage life and the pipe yard surrounding,
tubulars should be periodically inspected and new protective
coatings applied when necessary to prevent corrosion
A-1-M-1000 3.2.5
2.5. Under no circumstances should tubulars be lifted with hooks in
their ends.
A-1-M-1000 3.5.2
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5
2.6. Ensure that the closed-end thread protectors are kept in place at
all times
A-1-M-1000 3.6.2
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5
3. OTHER MATERIALS
Reference
3.1. Rubber packing elements, wellhead parts, ring joints, pressure
gauges and other particularly delicate materials, must be stored in
a dry area and protected from accidental damage.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3.2. Chemicals must be stocked in a dedicated area and possibly on
pallets stored on a cement slab with drain ditches and protected
from rain with plastic covers.
3.3. All mud and cement chemicals shall have a technical and a
hazardous substance sheet.
3.4. Tanks and bulk handling equipment should be thoroughly cleaned
and aerated before receiving liquid or bulk materials, to prevent
contamination from other materials used previously.
3.5. Different bulk materials shall be loaded through separate
independent lines.
3.6. Explosive and radioactive materials should be handled and
transported by the supplier direct to the wellsite.
Reference List:
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
Casing Handling & Running Procedures STAP-A-1-M-1000
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REVISION
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 4.2. RIGSITE MATERIALS
1. MINIMUM STOCKS
Reference
1.1. The minimum barite stock shall be 100t. When overpressurised
formations are anticipated, barite stock shall be based on expected
formation pressure gradients, on the actual mud weight and on the
volume of the active drilling fluid in the system.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-b
1.2. The minimum cement stock shall be 100t or at least enough to
prepare 200m of cement plug.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-c
1.3. A minimum volume of 70mc of kill mud at 1.4kg/l shall be stocked
while drilling surface hole.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-d
1.4. The minimum bentonite stock shall be 25t or at least enough to
prepare a volume of new mud equal to the well volume.
1.5. The industrial water stock must be enough to prepare a volume of
new mud equal to the well volume.
1.6. A stock of diesel oil, enough to guarantee five days of operation,
must be always kept on rig site.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-g
1.7. Pipe freeing agent. The quantity shall be sufficient to prepare two
pills, the volume for each one shall be two times the capacity of the
annulus open hole/ BHA.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-g
1.8. 20 drums of dispersant.
P-1-M-6140 6.5-g
1.9. Mica (fine, medium, and coarse) 1.5t of each
P-1-M-6140 6.5-g
1.10. 3t of Wall Nut
P-1-M-6140 6.5g
1.11. Viscosifer for salt water (i.e. Biopolymer) the quantity shall be
sufficient to prepare 200 m
3
P-1-M-6140 6.5-g
1.12. The mud in the pits shall be never less then 50% of the hole
volume.
1.13. Should the stocks fall below the minimum requirement, for barite
and diesel oil, drilling operation shall be suspended.
P-1-M-6140 6.5
2. TUBULARS
Reference
2.1. Certifications
2.1.1. The Contractor shall provide evidence on the identification code on
every new and used tool.
All rented tools without an identification code shall be rejected.
M-1-SS-5707 6.3
M-1-SS-5710 5.3.2
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2.1.2. The Contractor shall operate an appropriate management
system which records and updates the following information:
Rotating hours calculations
Sequence of rig sites/drilled wells
Movements record between rig sites
Inspection scheduling
Inspection results
Threads re-cutting
Connection shoulders re-facing
2.1.3. The Contractor must send every tool to the rig site accompanied
with proper documentation/certification
M-1-SS-5707 1.
2.2. BHA/Drill stem components
2.2.1. All stabilisers shall be the integral type and machined from a
single block of material or the integral sleeve type fitted by head
or hydraulic pressure (not threaded).
P-1-M-6100 10.10-3
P-1-M-6140 8.10-c
2.2.2. All stabilisers for hole size up to 12
1
/
4
must be the tight type in
order to assure a complete (360) contact with the borehole.
M-1-SS-5707 5-4.1
P-1-M-6100 10.10-5
P-1-M-6140 8.10-e
2.2.3. All stabilisers for hole size over 12
1
/
4
" must be open type but not
less than 210.
P-1-M-6100 10.10-5
P-1-M-6140 8.10-e
2.2.4. The minimum allowed diameter in correspondence of grooves
shall be >/=OD of the fishing neck.
P-1-M-6140 8.10-f
2.2.5. All stabilisers should have a fishing neck with the same OD as the
drill collars and a length not shorter than 20 for stabilisers up to 6
hole size and 26 for larger hole size stabilisers.
P-1-M-6100 10.10-6
P-1-M-6140 8.10-g
2.2.6. The near bit to be used in shallow holes shall have a back flow
valve seat
M-1-M-5012 3.2
2.2.7. Stabilisers must have a minimum fishing neck length as listed
below:
used
5
3
/
4
to 6 >>>>>>> 20
8
3
/
8
to 28>>>>>>> 26
new
5
3
/
4
to 6 >>>>>>> 24
8
3
/
8
to 28>>>>>>> 36
M-1-SS-5707 5.4.2
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.2.8. The use of hard-banded drill pipe is not allowed inside casing.
P-1-M-6140 9.4.5
2.2.9. All drill collars, drill stem and BHA components connection must
have stress relive/bore features.
8
5
/
8
threads must have low face torque features.
M-1-SS-5710 4.2.1.2
M-1-SS-5710 5.2
2.2.10. The following minimum length for drill stem subs, from shoulder to
shoulder, are required: (Refer to
Figure OP 4.1)
type A API >=30 (762 mm)
type B API >=36 (914,4 mm)
type C API >= 6 (152,4 mm)
M-1-SS-5710 4.2.2.4
2.2.11. All rotary drilling equipment (drill string/BHA) shall be marked with
the Contractors identification/management code.
M-1-SS-5710 9.
2.2.12. Drilling jars shall have both a jarring up action and a bumping
down mechanism.
M-1-SS-5707 5.5.1
2.2.13. Minimum OD of non-magnetic drill collars/sub shall be the same as
the drill collars to be connected.
M-1-SS-5707 5.7.2
2.2.14. PDM motors shall be suitable for use with all water and oil base
drilling mud
M-1-SS-5707 5.10
2.2.15. An appropriate fishing tool/extension, able to engage any
kind/profile of PDM, must be available on the rig site.
M-1-SS-5707 5.10.3
2.2.16. All BHA / drill stem components must be stored on the pipe rack or
on wood with doped thread protectors.
2.2.17. In no circumstances lift tubulars with hooks in their ends.
A-1-M-1000 3.5.2
2.2.18. When rolling pipe along stringers, ensure that connection (even
though fitted with protectors) do not contact adjacent lengths.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.5
2.2.19. The following materials for current hole size shall be available on
rig site while drilling:
One super junk mill
One drilling jar
One complete set of stabilisers.
2.2.20. Whenever possible maintain constant the ID of the string and in
any case never less than:
3
1
/
2
If and bigger 2
1
/
4

less than 3
1
/
2
IF 2
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
3. MATERIAL CARE
Reference
3.1. Rubber packing elements, slips, pressure gauges, ring joints and
other materials particularly delicate must be stored in a dry area
and protected from accidental damaging.
3.2. Wellhead parts, liner and cementing equipment shall be carefully
stored in a dedicated area, protected from accidental damaging.
3.3. Bits, centralises and other materials packed in cartons must
protected from rain with a plastic cover.
3.4. Mud chemicals and cement additive must be stocked in a
dedicated area, possibly on a cement slab (on-shore) with drain
ditches and protected from rain with a plastic cover.
3.5. For each mud and cement chemical on rig site shall be present a
technical and dangerousness sheet.
3.6. Casings and tubings whenever possible shall be placed on rack.
Thread protectors must be in place when moving or handling pipes
and shall be removed just before run.
3.7. Prior to being returned from the rig, tubulars shall be properly
cleaned and prepared for transport with doped thread protectors in
place.
A-1-M-1000 2.8.2
3.8. Barite bulk equipment must be operational at any moment.
Dust filters must be kept clean and working efficiently at all times.
Air blowers must be kept clean and free of obstructions.
3.9. A sample of barite must be take and its pH checked before
discharging in bulk.
Any barite contaminated buy cement shall be rejected.
4. EXPLOSIVES
Reference
4.1. All explosives must be transported by authorised means as
specified by ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation).
Transport by helicopter is forbidden.
4.2. Local legislation may dictate storage and transporting procedures
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-3
4.3. Only authorised personnel shall handle explosives
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-8
4.4. When handling explosives, everybody, if not directly involved in the
operations, shall stay away from the area.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-8
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
4.5. The area should be marked off with barrier tape.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-8
4.6. Explosives are to be transported unarmed and clearly labelled to
the site in secure and protective containers. Extreme care must be
applied during loading and off-loading.
P-1-M-7120 5.3-k
4.7. Explosive and detonators shall always be transported and stored in
separate containers.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-3
P-1-M-7120 5.3-e
4.8. Explosive shall be kept on rig site for the minimum time required
for operations and during such time they shall be stored in a
designated locked container in a security area
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-5
P-1-M-7120 5.3-d
4.9. Explosives should never be stored in the vicinity of other
hazardous materials.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-5
4.10. Any remaining at the end of the operation shall be removed from
the installation.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-d
4.11. The quantity of explosives stored must be kept to a minimum.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-4
4.12. The wellhead, derrick and logging unit must be earthed together
during operations involving explosives.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-6
4.13. If the electric potential between wellhead, derrick and logging unit
exceed 0.25 Volts, operations involving the use of explosive shall
be suspended.
4.14. Any source of electric potential, including radio transmitter and
welding equipment, shall be switched off, while guns are being
primed and down to 30m (100ft) below rotary table.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-11
4.15. A complete record must be kept of all explosives received, stowed
or off-loaded.
4.16. Platform should be equipped with an emergency system to drop
explosives container directly in the sea in case of an
uncontrollable dangerous situation.
5. RADIOACTIVE SOURCES
Reference
5.1. Radioactive sources must be transported by authorised means as
specified by ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation).
Transport by helicopter is forbidden.
5.2. Whenever the radioactive source is not in use, it shall be stored in
a locked shield container clearly marked with standard radioactive
warning signs on all sides.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-3
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
5.3. Offshore
5.3.1. When transported by ship, radioactive sources shall be secured in
a shipping container properly marked with radiation warning signs.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-1
5.3.2. Whenever the radioactive sources is not in use, it shall be stored
in a locked shield container, welded to rig deck and clearly marked
with standard radioactive warning signs on all visible sides.
The container shall be stored far away from crews quarters,
regularly occupied workspace or food stuffs stowage.
The keys of the container shall be kept by the Barge Master.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-3
5.3.3. During transfer of shipping container from supply vessel to the rig
and vice versa, shall be very carefully to prevent loss of container.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-2
5.4. Radiation levels shall be monitored on a regular basis. A log
should be kept of the results of this monitoring.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-4
5.5. Radioactive sources shall be kept on rig site only the time strictly
necessary.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-5
5.6. During transfer of source from the container to the tool, only the
Contractor personnel shall be present.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-7
5.7. If a radioactive tool has been lost in the hole and all the attempts
to fish have proven unsuccessful, the tool must be insulated in the
hole by setting a cement plug of at least 150m (500ft) length above
it, in two separate operations, and at least 50m (150ft) over the
first non permeable zone.
While circulating with the source in hole, the mud shall be
continuously and carefully monitored by the Contractor engineer
using a Gamma-Ray tool immersed in the header tank of the shale
shaker.
P-1-M-6140 13.2.4-9
Reference List:
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Casing Handling & Running Procedures STAP-A-1-M-1000
Specification for Rental of Drilling and
Completion Downhole Equipment STAP-M-1-SS-5707
Specification for Rental and Contractor Owned
Rotary Drilling Equipment STAP-M-1-SS-5710
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REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
Figure OP 4.1 - Drill Stem Sub Types
TYPE A TYPE B TYPE C
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 4.3. TRANSPORTATION
1. PERSONNEL
Reference
1.1. Air transport
1.1.1. The onshore base, before the helicopter departure, shall inform
the offshore rig about:
Passengers list
Departure time
Route
ETA
1.1.2. The helicopter captain is responsible for safety during the flight,
and, before taking off, will organise a briefing with the passengers
to explain them the main safety and emergency instructions during
flight and landing on the rig
1.1.3. During the flight, the offshore rig will activate its radio beacon and
keep in constant connection, through VHF, with the helicopter
1.1.4. Assistance should be given, by the person in charge, to the
passengers during embarking and disembarking operations
1.2. Sea transport
1.2.1. The onshore base shall inform the offshore rig (and vice versa)
about the crew boat travel:
Passengers list
Departure time
Route
ETA
1.2.2. The boat captain is responsible for safety during the trip and,
before leaving, will organise a briefing with the passengers to
inform them about:
Life jacket position
Lifeboats arrangement
Safety instructions
Emergency instructions
1.2.3. During the travel, the offshore rig will keep in constant radio
connection with the boat
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
1.2.4. Assistance should be given, by the personnel in charge, to the
passengers during embarking and disembarking operations.
1.2.5. Passengers shall pass from crew boat to the platform (and vice
versa) by using the boat landings
1.2.6. In case of boat landing not accessible, the crew basket can be
used; in this case:
Passengers will wear the life jacket
Passengers will stand on the outside ring and fasten the
safety belt to the basket
Personal luggage will be placed inside the basket
1.3. Road transport
1.3.1. In particular environmental conditions (desert, snow, long and
hazardous trips) the travelling personnel shall inform the point of
destination regarding:
Departure time
Route
Expected arrival time (ETA)
1.3.2. For trips in particular environmental conditions the following
equipment requirements shall be taken into consideration:
Radio
Fuel, lubricants and water emergency supplies
Desert or snow dotation
First aid kit
1.3.3. Ensure the vehicle is in good condition and has been properly
maintained.
1.3.4. Observe the local traffic regulations on the public roads.
1.3.5. All the vehicles on location shall be parked inside the proper area
and should not impede other normal activity and rig safety.
2. MATERIALS
Reference
2.1. Tubulars
2.2. Handling, transportation, and temporary storage of tubular goods
will comply with Section 3 of API RP 5C1.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.1
2.2.1. In no circumstances lift tubulars by hooks in their ends
A-1-M-1000 3.5.2
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.2.2. Ensure that the closed-end thread protectors are kept in place
during transportation
A-1-M-1000 3.6.2
2.2.3. Chrome tubulars will be dispatched from the mill in special
transport frames. These will be loaded into wooden crates for
shipment. The tubulars will be covered by nylon sheets, and
wrapped with Drilltec Econorap.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.2
2.3. Chemicals
2.3.1. Where possible, mud and cement chemicals will be on pallets and
protected from rain with plastic covers
2.3.2. Tanks and bulk equipment must be thoroughly cleaned and
aerated before receiving liquid or bulk materials, to prevent
contamination from previous materials.
2.4. Other materials
2.4.1. Where possible, small loose items shall be carried in containers or
baskets, to facilitate transport and handling
2.4.2. Baskets shall be periodically inspected; certification, load capacity,
and date of inspection clearly exhibited
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP. 4.4. CORROSION PREVENTION & INSPECTION
1. CORROSION PREVENTION
Reference
1.1. Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production
operations are due to the presence of water.
P-1-M-6110 9.1.3
1.2. Handling, transportation, and temporary storage of tubular goods
will comply with Section 3 of API RP 5C1.
P-1-M-7120 8.2.1
1.3. The existence, if any, of the following conditions alone, or in any
combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and
perpetuation of corrosion: O
2
, H
2
S, CO
2
, Temperature, pressure,
velocity of fluids within the environmental.
P-1-M-6110 9.1.3
1.4. Corrosion can be influenced by dissimilar metals in close proximity
to each other (galvanic corrosion). Therefore it is recommended
that the same or equivalent materials should be assembled in
casing string (i.e.: CRA casing and liner accessories).
A1M1002 2.2.4
1.5. In presence of corrosive environment, the use of inhibitors in the
mud must be considered.
P-1-M-6150 10.3
2. NDT
Reference
2.1. Tubulars
2.1.1. BHA and drill pipe must be inspected by Non Destructive Testing
methods.
All inspection/maintenance operations required for the compliance
of rotary drilling equipment shall be carried out at the beginning of
the Drilling Contract, before the start up of drilling operations,
repeated every six months.
P-1-M-6140 4.9
2.1.2. Copy of the inspection report must be consigned to the Company
representative.
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SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.1.3. For severe or particular difficult drilling conditions refer to the Drill
String/Bottom Hole Assembly Monitoring Procedures For Severe
or Particular Drilling Condition (M-1-M-5008). As a general rule,
the following guidelines should be used:
Before the start of the Drilling Contract and every 1,500
rotating hours thereafter, all Drill Pipe bodies shall be
ultrasonically inspected. They can be replaced by another
previously inspected string to allow the NDT.
Heavy weight drill pipe bodies shall be ultrasonically
inspected every 3,000 rotating hours. They also may be
replaced by previously inspected pipe to allow NDT.
Before the start of the Drilling Contract and every 300 rotating
hours, thereafter, all drill collars, drill-stem-subs and heavy
weight drill pipe thread connections shall be magnetically
inspected. They also may be replaced by previously
inspected pipe to allow NDT.
All stabilisers shall also be inspected every 300 hours as
above.
After 200-300 drilling hours (depending on the severity of
work) remove four stands of 5 DP from the top of the BHA
and replace them with new ones. The removed DP must be
sent to the Contractor s workshop for inspection.
P-1-M-6140 4.9-4
2.1.4. All rotary drilling equipment (drill string/BHA) shall be marked with
a Contractors identification/managing code.
M-1-SS-5710 9.
2.1.5. The Contractor must send the tool on rig site accompanied by
proper documentation/certification.
M-1-SS-5707 1.
2.1.6. The Contractor shall give evidence to have an identification code
on each new and used tool. All rented tools without identification
code shall be rejected.
M-1-SS-5707 6.3
M-1-SS-5710 5.3.2
2.1.7. The Contractor shall use an appropriate management system
which allows the record and the up to dating of the following
informations:
Rotating hours calculations
Sequence of rig sites/drilled wells
Movements record between rig sites
Inspection scheduling
Inspection results
Threads re-cutting
Connection shoulders re-facing.
M-1-SS-5707 6.3
PAGE 204 OF 206
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2.2. Hoisting equipment and pipe handling tools
2.2.1. All hoisting equipment and pipe handling tools shall be marked and
identified.
M-1-SS-524E 7
2.2.2. All inspections/maintenance operations shall be carried out at the
beginning of the Drilling Contract, before the start up drilling
operation and periodically in accordance with Manufacturers
recommendations/suggestions
M-1-SS-524E 5.2
2.2.3. The Contractor shall develop a schedule for inspections, repairs,
remanufacture, etc.
M-1-SS-524E 5.2.3
2.2.4. All repair, rebuilding and re-manufacturing shall be submitted to
the Customer.
2.2.5. The contractor shall provide the inspection certificate relevant to
every kind of inspection/maintenance operations run during the
last inspection operation.
M-1-SS-524E 5.3.2
2.2.6. All inspection certificate must contain the operative identification
code of each hoisting equipment and pipe handling tools.
2.2.7. Critical areas of hooks, elevators, elevators links, bails, etc. shall
be inspected peculiarly using magnetic particles inspection wet
method.
M-1-SS-524E 5.4.1
2.2.8. Any surface defect detected by NDT, shall be removed by grinding
or machining.
2.2.9. Magnaflux inspection of links, elevators, hooks pad eyes and
drawwork brakes shall be carried out prior to running particularly
heavy casing strings.
P-1-M-6140 12.1.1-18
Reference List:
Completion Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
Acceptance Specification for New and Used
Hoisting Equipment and Pipe Handling Tools STAP-M-1-SS-524E
PAGE 205 OF 206
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
OP5. WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
OP. 5.1. GUIDELINE
1. GENERAL
Reference
1.1. All waste treatment and disposal activities, and/or re-utilisation of
the waste produced during the drilling and production operations,
aim at avoiding whichever type of pollution and reducing to the
minimum the environmental impact.
1.2. All waste treatment and disposal activities, and/or re-utilisation of
the waste produced during the drilling and production operations
(debris, dehydrated solids, waters or both oil and water based
mud, special waste, sweepings) must be carried out in compliance
with local laws.
1.3. Where foreseen by the legislation and when the waste
characteristics allow it, reutilization must be preferred to disposal.
1.4. Primary target is to reduce to the minimum the waste production,
compatibly with the operative constraints. Such reduction will be
pursued by endowing the rig with a double circuit suitable for
utilisation of recycled water.
1.5. Technical, economic and logistic evaluations will be performed in
order to define the proper solution when selecting: the type of
treatments on solids, waters, and muds; the place where treatment
is carried out (rig site or authorised platform); the equipment for
treatment on rig site; the sites for the final destination of waste
(reutilization or disposal).
1.6. Even if technical operative constraints and/or environmental
limitations are not expected, the selection of drilling/production
fluids must always be carried out taking into account all the
aspects related to debris and exhausted mud reutilization/disposal.
1.7. It will be duty of the operative base to verify the suitability of the
selected contractors for the waste treatment and recovery/disposal
as regards the law requirements.
1.8. The documentation and both Company and Contractor reports will
be in accordance with requirements of the local legislation and
Company specifications.
PAGE 206 OF 206
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 2 OF BP&MR - OPERATIONS (OP)
2. ONSHORE
Reference
2.1. For the stocking and eventual treatment of waste, on rig site a
waste treatment and disposal area must be provided. Such area
will be equipped with catch basins, a treatment dedicated zone and
sufficient areas for movement of the vehicles employed for the
treatment and transport of solids and liquids.
2.2. Number, capacity and disposition of the catch basins for solids and
liquids will depend on type of treatment and disposal adopted and
on the characteristics of the available area.
2.3. The selection of the catch basins structure will depend on
considerations related to the well typology and/or environmental
regulations.
2.4. When contra-indications are not expected, it will be preferred a
recovery system including a rig site treatment of exhausted mud
and debris (close loop) suitable to recover and recycle the water
phase for washing purposes and mud preparation.
3. OFFSHORE
Reference
3.1. On the basis of the local laws, rig distance from the shore and
shore disposal facilities, it must be considered the opportunity of
discharging to sea or a zero discharge adoption.
3.2. The drilling fluids selection, among WBM, OBM, SBM or esters
based, will be made considering the possibility and the opportunity
of discharging to sea or a waste transport to shore.
3.3. In case of zero discharge, all necessary provisions will be adopted
to avoid sea pouring off; moreover the rig will have to be equipped
in a way suitable for stocking and moving an adequate number of
waste containers taking into account the foreseen ROP times and
transport conditions on shore.
PAGE 1 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
SECTION 3
REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
PAGE 2 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
INDEX
RF1. REPORTING & FEEDBACK 3
RF.1.1. REPORTING AND FEEDBACK FORMS 4
RF.1.2. FINAL DRILLING REPORT 6
1. INTRODUCTION 6
2. PRINT MODEL 6
3. PAGE NUMBERING 6
4. IDENTIFICATION 6
5. GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS 6
6. PREPARATION OF THE WELL FINAL REPORT 6
7. GENERAL FINAL REPORT STRUCTURE 7
PAGE 3 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
RF1. REPORTING & FEEDBACK
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this section is to highlight Eni/Agips standard Reporting and Feedback forms.
The accuracy, rapidity and spreading of information, through the homogeneity of the forms, is
considered to be very important, in order to compare and evaluate performances in real time,
throughout all the different countries and operating contests.
All Eni/Agip supervisory and technical personnel involved in Drilling and Completion activities
are expected to be familiar with both ARPO and FB forms listed in this section.
In addition to the official ARPO and FB forms (RF.01.01) and the Final Drilling Report
(RF.01.02), which are considered to be the companys minimum requirement, additional forms
can be implemented if Affiliates procedures, local legislation or partners requirements dictate
otherwise. However, this even more particularly applies if innovative techniques or tools are
employed, in order to spread information and experience within the Company among
personnel involved in Drilling and Completion activities.
The rules for the correct filling in and issuing of the standard forms and reports are specified
in:
STAP-G-1-F-9057 - Rules for Filling in the ARPO Reporting Forms
STAP-G-1-F-9058 - Rules for Filling in the FB Feedback Forms
STAP-P-1-N-6002 - Well Final Report Procedure
The correct filling in and issuing of the standard forms and reports is considered to be
mandatory, as it is through this system that easy access to information useful for new studies,
analyses or well programmes is gained.
The Corporate Headquarters Drilling & Completion Standards Department (STAP) has an
organised filing systems able to receive all the Reporting & Feedback Forms from the Districts
and Affiliates, both in electronic and paper format.
The filling in of the ARPO and FB forms shall be carried out with a preference to the
electronic format and, when available, to computerised data collection systems. The following
shows (in order of preference) the methods available for filling in the forms:
Using POWER, the corporate electronic data collection system
Using Microsoft Excel files (available in STAP Department at Eni/Agips Headquarters)
In paper format.
The POWER system allows automatic transmission of data to an electronic data base in the
corporate Headquarters.
ARPO forms, prepared on either Excel files or paper formats, shall be forwarded by E-mail,
fax or by conventional mail to the base office and to STAP department at the Eni/Agip
corporate Headquarters. These forms will be filed in SIDAP, the corporate Drilling &
Completion electronic and optical-electronic archive.
The Italian Districts already have an organised system for autonomous filing in SIDAP of their
report forms.
PAGE 4 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
RF.1.1. REPORTING AND FEEDBACK FORMS
Form Title Activity
1
Frequency
2
References
1. IADC IADC - Daily Drilling
Report
D-C-WO D
2. ARPO-01 Initial Activity Report D-C-WO-
WL-WT
E
STAP-P-1-M-6140
STAP-P-1-M-7120
STAP-P-1-M-7110
3. ARPO-02/A Daily Report (Drilling) D D
STAP-P-1-M-6140
4. ARPO-02/B Daily Report Well
Testing, Workover and
Completion
WT-C-WO D
STAP-P-1-M-7120
STAP-P-1-M-7130
STAP-P-1-M-7110
5. ARPO-03/A Casing Running Report
(General Data)
D-C-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-6140
6. ARPO-03/B Casing Running Report
(J ob Data)
D-C-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-6140
7. ARPO-04/A Cementing J ob Report
(General Data)
D-C-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-6140
8. ARPO-04B Cementing J ob Report
(J ob Data)
D-C-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-6140
STAP-P-1-M-7120
9. ARPO-05 Bit Record D-WO EOP
STAP-P-1-M-6140
10. ARPO-06 Waste Disposal
Management Report
D-WO EOW
STAP-P-1-M-6140
STAP-P-1-M-7120
STAP-P-1-M-7130
11. ARPO-07 Perforating Report C-WT-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-7120
12. ARPO-08 Gravel Pack Report C-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-7120
13. ARPO-09 Matrix Stimulation/
Hydraulic Fracturing
Report
C-WO-WT E
STAP-P-1-M-7120

1
Activity: D =Drilling; C =Completion; WL =Wireline; WO =Workover; WT =Well testing
2
Frequency: D =Daily; SM =Six month; EOP =End Of Phase; EOW =End Of Well; E =Event; SB =Shift Basis
PAGE 5 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
Form Title Activity
3
Frequency
4
References
14. ARPO-10/A Well Test Report
(General data)
WT-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-7130
15. ARPO-10/B Well Test Report (DST
Data)
WT-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-7130
16. ARPO-10/C Well Test Report
(Record Data)
WT-WO E
STAP-P-1-M-7130
17. ARPO-11 Wire Line Report WL D
STAP-P-1-M-7110
18. ARPO-12 Pressure and
Temperature Survey
Report
WL E
STAP-P-1-M-7110
19. ARPO-13 Well Problem Report D-C-WL-
WO-WT
E
STAP-P-1-M-6140
STAP-P-1-M-7120
STAP-P-1-M-7130
20. ARPO-20/A Well Situation Report
(Well)
D-C-WO SM-EOW
STAP-P-1-M-6140
21. ARPO-20/B Well Situation Report
(Well Head)
D-C-WO SM-EOW
STAP-P-1-M-6140
22. ARPO-20/C Well Situation
(Completion)
D-C-WO SM-EOW
STAP-P-1-M-7120
23. ARPO-20/D Well Situation
(Completion Schedule)
D-C-WO SM-EOW
STAP-P-1-M-7120
24. ARPO-20/E Well Situation (Tubing
Tally)
D-C-WO SM-EOW
STAP-P-1-M-7120
25. ARPO-FB/01 Contractor Service and
Equipment Evaluation
D-C-WL-
WO-WT
E
STAP-P-1-M-6140
STAP-P-1-M-7120
STAP-P-1-M-7130
STAP-P-1-M-7110
26. ARPO-FB/02 Contractor Performance
Evaluation
D-C-WL-
WO-WT
SM
STAP-P-1-M-6140
STAP-P-1-M-7120
STAP-P-1-M-7130
STAP-P-1-M-7110

3
Activity: D =Drilling; C =Completion; WL =Wireline; WO =Workover; WT =Well testing
4
Frequency: D =Daily; SM =Six month; EOP =End Of Phase; EOW =End Of Well; E =Event; SB =Shift Basis
PAGE 6 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
RF.1.2. FINAL DRILLING REPORT
1. INTRODUCTION
Reference
1.1. Whenever possible and applicable, the well final report shall
include both Drilling and Completion activity. In this case it will be
titled as Well Final Drilling and Completion Report or, in case of
workover, as Workover Well Final Drilling and Completion Report.
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002
2. PRINT MODEL
Reference
2.1. The Well Final Report, will be made using the model built in
Word 6, called:
WFR-ITA.dot; for Italian activities
WFR-ING.dot for foreign activities
P-1-N-6002 1
3. PAGE NUMBERING
Reference
3.1. The page numbering must indicate the actual and the total number
of pages of the document. This function is automatically
accomplished by the Model in print pre-view or print.
P-1-N-6002 3
3.2. In the presence of annexes, the number of pages of the document
will be that of the sole document without annexes, followed by +
ANN.
P-1-N-6002 3
4. IDENTIFICATION
Reference
4.1. The WELL FINAL REPORT specifying if per: Drilling or
Completion or Drilling and Completion whichever applies is
identified by the name of the well, platform or cluster to which it
is referred
P-1-N-6002 4
5. GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS
Reference
5.1. In order to make the document easily manageable also in e mail
or with shared network disks, the graphic representations shall be
in electronic format using Agips standard software Windows tools
(Power Point, Excel, etc.).
P-1-N-6002 6
6. PREPARATION OF THE WELL FINAL REPORT
Reference
6.1. The Well Final Report is prepared by the Engineering Section of
the Drilling and Completion Department in co-operation with the
Operations Section.
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8
PAGE 7 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
7. GENERAL FINAL REPORT STRUCTURE
Reference
7.1. General information
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1. General well data: this chapter includes for a single well the data
reported below
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.1.
Name and acronym of the well
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.2.
District/Affiliated company in charge
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.3.
Agip code
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.4.
Total Vertical Depth
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.5.
Total Measured Depth
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.6.
Ground level (onshore wells)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.7.
Water Depth (offshore wells)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.8.
Reference seismic line
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.9.
Starting latitude (geographic) N/S
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.10.
Starting longitude (geographic) E/W
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.11.
Bottom latitude (geographic) N/S
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.12.
Bottom longitude (geographic) E/W
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.13.
Starting grid co-ordinates (metric) N/S
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.14.
Starting grid co-ordinates (metric) E/W
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.15.
Bottom grid co-ordinates(metric) N/S
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.16.
Bottom grid co-ordinates(metric) E/W
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.17.
Geodetic references
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.18.
Max. hole inclination
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.19.
Well type
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.20.
Spud-in classification
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
PAGE 8 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
7.1.1.21.
Final classification
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.22.
Well status
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.23.
Spud-in date
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.24.
Drilling end date
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.25.
Testing end date
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.26.
Rig release date
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.27.
Permission/concession
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.28.
Operator
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.29.
Partners & Shares
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.30.
Municipality (onshore wells)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.31.
Province (onshore wells)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.32.
Port Authority
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.33.
Zone (offshore wells)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.34.
Distance from the coast (offshore wells)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.1.35.
Distance from the operative base
P-1-N-6002 8.2.1
7.1.2. General rig specification: the rig unit basic data to be reported are
listed hereafter.
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.1.
Contractor name
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.2.
Rig name
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.3.
Rig code
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.4.
Rig type
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.5.
Ground level rotary table elevation (onshore rigs)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.6.
Sea level rotary Table elevation (offshore rigs)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.7.
Cellar bottom (onshore rigs)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.8.
Top of the first flange (onshore rigs)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
PAGE 9 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
7.1.2.9.
Top housing (subsea well head or MLS system)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.10.
Power installed
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.11.
Type of drawworks
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.12.
Rig potential with 5 DPs
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.13.
Max. & min. operating water depth (offshore rigs)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.14.
Clearance under rotary beam (onshore rigs)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.15.
Type of top drive system
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.16.
Diameter of the rotary table
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.17.
Number and type of mud pumps
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.18.
Total mud storage
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.19.
Drinking water storing capacity (offshore rigs)
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.20.
Industrial water storing capacity
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.21.
Gas oil storing capacity
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.22.
Barite storing capacity
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.23.
Bentonite storing capacity
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.2.24.
Cement storing capacity
P-1-N-6002 8.2.2
7.1.3. Bop sketch
P-1-M-6100 17
7.1.3.1.
BOP sketch drawings, showing main components and for off-shore
wells, significant distance from RKB. and sea bottom must be
reported here
P-1-N-6002 8.2.3
7.1.4. List of main contractors
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.2.4
7.1.5. Operations organisation chart
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.2.5
7.1.6. Location map
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.2.6
PAGE 10 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
7.1.7. Cluster/platform well bay lay-out and orientation:
P-1-M-6100 17
7.1.7.1.
In this chapter the cluster/platform well bay lay-out is reported
indicating the following main data:
P-1-N-6002 8.2.7
7.1.7.1.1 Orientation angle (from North) of the cluster/platform well bay
P-1-N-6002 8.2.7
7.1.7.1.2 The distance among wells heads.
P-1-N-6002 8.2.7
7.1.7.1.3 The foot print position of the eventual jack-up that has drilled the
wells
P-1-N-6002 8.2.7
7.1.7.1.4 The top view plan of the wells pat in a radius of 200m from centre
cluster/platform indicating the relative vertical depths
P-1-N-6002 8.2.7
7.1.7.1.5 For existing wells the cluster/platform lay-out indicating the living
module position.
P-1-N-6002 8.2.7
7.2. Well history
P-1-M-6100 17
7.2.1. Final well status
P-1-M-6100 17
7.2.1.1.
Well Sketch
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.1.1
7.2.1.2.
Well Head Sketch
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.1.2
7.2.1.3.
Well Completion Sketch
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.1.3
7.2.1.4.
In case of cluster or platform, a general time Vs depth diagram will
be reported.
P-1-N-6002 8.3.1.4
7.2.2. Detailed operations history
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2
7.2.2.1.
In case of new well:
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2
7.2.2.1.1 Moving
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.2 Conductor Pipe Phase
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.3 Surface Phase
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.4 Intermediate Phases
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.5 Final Phase
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.6 Well Testing
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.7 Completion
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
PAGE 11 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
7.2.2.1.8 Abandoning
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.9 Drilling problems and recommendations
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.1.10 Completion remarks
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.1
7.2.2.2.
In case of workover:
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.1 Moving and anchoring (when applicable)
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.2 Reason for the workover
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.3 Well decompletion (when applicable)
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.4 Well preparation
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.5 Intermediate phases
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.6 Final phases
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.7 Testing
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.8 Completion
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.9 Abandoning
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.10 Well decompletion remarks
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.11 Well preparation remarks
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.12 Drilling problems and recommendations
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.2.2.2.13 Completion remarks
P-1-N-6002 8.3.2.2
7.3. Data analysis
P-1-M-6100 17
7.3.1. Pressure And Temperature Gradients
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.1
7.3.2. Casing Data
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.2
7.3.3. Cementing Data
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.3
7.3.4. Drilling Fluids
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.4
7.3.5. Bit And Hydraulic Data
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.5
PAGE 12 OF 12
ARPO
ENI S.p.A.
Agip Division
IDENTIFICATION CODE
REVISION
STAP-P-1-M-6090
SECTION 3 OF BP&MR - REPORTING & FEEDBACK (RF)
7.3.6. Bottom Hole Assembly
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.6
7.3.7. Directional Drilling
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.7
7.3.8. Well Testing Data
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.8
7.3.9. Completion Details
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.9
7.3.10. Time Analysis
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.4.10
7.4. Attachments
P-1-M-6100 17
7.4.1. Spider plot
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.6.1
7.4.2. Cost analysis
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.6.2
7.4.3. Evaluation of Main Contractors Service
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.6.3
7.4.4. Weather Conditions
P-1-M-6100 17
P-1-N-6002 8.6.4
Reference List:
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
General Wireline Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-7110
Directional Drilling and Survey Manual STAP-P-1-M-7120
Well Testing Manual STAP-P-1-M-7130
Well Final Report Procedure STAP-P-1-N-6002