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PROTEINS

TY Biology

Ms. Hennessey

Compounds of Life - Proteins

Proteins are large, complex molecules composed of many smaller units called Amino acids.

Proteins vary in structure as well as function. They

are constructed from a set

of 20 Amino Acids which have distinct three-

dimensional shapes.

Compounds of Life - Proteins • Proteins are large, complex molecules composed of many smaller units

Role of Proteins

Proteins are very important molecules in our cells and are involved in virtually all cell functions.

Some proteins are involved in structural

support, while others are involved in bodily

movement, or in defense against germs. Antibodies defend the body from germs.

Contractile proteins are responsible for

movement. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions.

Collagen is the most abundant protein found in connective tissue bone, cartilage.

Protein - Collagen

Collagen makes up approximately 30% of the proteins within the body.

These are tough and

strong structures found all over the body: in bones, tendons and

ligaments.

Protein - Collagen • Collagen makes up approximately 30% of the proteins within the body. •

Protein - Keratin

MEDULLA – Core of hair
MEDULLA – Core of hair

CORTEX Contains natural pigment (melanin and moisture)

Protein - Keratin MEDULLA – Core of hair CORTEX – Contains natural pigment (melanin and moisture)
CUTICLE– Outer layer of hair shaft containing overlapping layers of keratin cells
CUTICLE–
Outer layer of
hair shaft
containing
overlapping
layers of
keratin cells

Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions in living organisms. Enzymes may help build macromolecules or they may break them down.

Certain fruits have an enzyme called bromelin.

Bromelin breaks down another substance called gelatine.

Gelatine • Gelatine is a soluble mixture of polypeptides (protein) it is used throughout the food

Gelatine

Gelatine • Gelatine is a soluble mixture of polypeptides (protein) it is used throughout the food
Gelatine • Gelatine is a soluble mixture of polypeptides (protein) it is used throughout the food

Gelatine is a soluble mixture of polypeptides (protein) it is used throughout the food and manufacturing industry.

Gelatine

Gelatine • Gelatine is produced by boiling collagen extracted from the hide, bones, hoofs, tendons, and

Gelatine is produced by boiling collagen extracted

from the hide, bones, hoofs, tendons, and other connective tissue of horses and cows.

Class Activity The Perfect Fruit Trifle

To determine what fruits contain the enzyme Bromelin which acts on the

protein substance Gelatine.

Class Activity – The Perfect Fruit Trifle To determine what fruits contain the enzyme Bromelin which

• • Jelly is made up of long thin protein molecules. The reason that jelly sets

Jelly is made up of long thin protein molecules.

The reason that jelly sets is that as the gelatin molecules tangle up as they cool creating a huge

intertwined tangle which traps the water and makes

a flexible solid.

Bromelain and Actinidin

The pineapple contains an enzyme called

means that they will chop up protein

bromelain and Kiwi another enzyme called actinidin. Both of these enzymes are proteases, which

molecules. In the same way that the digestive enzymes in your intestines break up proteins to allow you to digest them.

When they are mixed with gelatin, the

proteases chop the gelatin protein up into pieces which are far too short to tangle, so the jelly doesn't set.

Protease Action

Protease Action The proteases in pineapple and kiwi fruit chop up the gelatin molecules ... The
Protease Action The proteases in pineapple and kiwi fruit chop up the gelatin molecules ... The

The proteases in pineapple and

kiwi fruit chop up the gelatin molecules ...

The pieces are too short to tangle so the jelly doesn't set.

What about tinned fruit?

In the canning process the pineapple is heated up to kill all

the bacteria. This heat causes the enzymes to 'denature', meaning they lose their structure and cease to act as a protease, so jelly mixed with tinned pinnapple will set.

Why do pineapple and kiwifruit have proteases?

All fruits will have some proteases but pineapple and kiwi

fruit have far more. Exactly why is not known but it is

probably to repel pests. Animals and bacteria are made up of proteins so the proteases will essentially digest any

pests that attempt to feed on the fruit.

This is also the reason why your mouth tingles if you eat too much of them. The proteases start to digest the skin of your mouth. But don't worry - in small quantities it is

quite harmless!

Why do fruit have proteases?

All fruits will have some proteases but

pineapple and kiwi fruit have far more.

Exactly why is not known but it is probably to

repel pests. A

Animals and bacteria are made up of proteins so the proteases will essentially digest any

pests that attempt to feed on the fruit.

This is also the reason why your mouth tingles if you eat too much of them. The proteases

start to digest the skin of your mouth…

  • ...- in

small quantities it is quite harmless!

Essay - Creatine

What is Creatine? Uses of Creatine

- Sport Performance - treating medical conditions

How it works in the body Side Effects / Interactions with internal organs

Opinion should it remain as a generally available substance?